NPR

The Russia Investigations: What You Need To Know About Russian 'Active Measures'

Russia has been waging a broad, concerted campaign of influence against the U.S. that includes a number of both overt and clandestine elements.
Russian cyberattacks began in 2014, and intelligence officials say they have not stopped. Source: Lee Woodgate

What are "active measures?"

The Russian government launched a broad influence campaign against the United States starting in 2014. Intelligence professionals call it the latest examples of "active measures," secret tools of statecraft that have been used for centuries. They included many interlocking elements:

  • Russian operatives visited the United States to conduct reconnaissance in several states and cities

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