The New York Times

Why Sex Is Not Binary

This article originally appeared in The New York Times.

THE COMPLEXITY IS MORE THAN CULTURAL. IT’S BIOLOGICAL, TOO.

Two sexes have never been enough to describe human variety. Not in biblical times and not now. Before we knew much about biology, we made social rules to administer sexual diversity. The ancient Jewish rabbinical code known as the Tosefta, for example, sometimes treated people who had male and female parts (such as testes and a vagina) as women — they could not inherit property or serve as priests; at other times, as men — forbidding them from shaving or being

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