History of War

GOLIATH AND THE GRID

Rather than relying on standard latitude and longitude positioning for global positioning the Kriegsmarine – like the Luftwaffe and Army – developed their own charts using a grid reference system. The world’s oceans were divided into major areas, generally square though sometimes irregularly shaped near land masses. Each of these large areas was identified by a two-letter code (eg AE, CD, EH etc), and further subdivided into a three by three matrix of nine squares, in turn subdivided twice again by the same method.

“FROM 1943 TO THE WAR’S END THE U-BOAT SERVICE UTILISED THE MOST POWERFUL TRANSMITTER OF ITS TIME”

Further complicating

You're reading a preview, sign up to read more.

More from History of War

History of War7 min read
The Grand Captain
Mounted French knights thundered towards the Spanish position at Cerignola on 21 April 1503, but had to reign in their horses when they reached an unseen ditch bristling with sharpened stakes. As the French gendarmes paused dumbfounded before the dit
History of War1 min read
Heroes Of Bastogne
Two regiments of the 106th Infantry Division, around 6,800 surrendered. Schaffner was one of the lucky ones. His unit managed to escape and fight on. The 90th endured a hard fight out at Longvilly but by 28 December the 1st and 2nd platoons had been
History of War15 min read
“Tough As Hell”
Over 90,000 members of the British Armed Forces served in the Korean War between 1950-53. It was the largest commitment of soldiers in a conflict since WWII and with casualties of 1,078 killed and 2,674 wounded it remains Britain’s deadliest post-war