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Eating Animals

Eating Animals


Eating Animals

ratings:
4.5/5 (110 ratings)
Length:
10 hours
Released:
Jan 1, 2009
ISBN:
9781440763397
Format:
Audiobook

Editor's Note

On the screen…

Through a combination of memoir and investigative journalism, Jonathan Safran Foer asks the hard questions about the morality of eating animals without ever being preachy. A documentary based on the book, narrated and produced by Natalie Portman, is out now.

Description

Jonathan Safran Foer won the National Jewish Book Award and the Guardian First Book Award for his debut novel Everything Is Illuminated (which was also made into a major motion picture). Like many young Americans, Jonathan Safran Foer spent much of his teenage and college years oscillating between enthusiastic carnivore and occasional vegetarian. As he became a husband, and then a father, the moral dimensions of eating became increasingly important to him. Faced with the prospect of being unable to explain why we eat some animals and not others, Foer set out to explore the origins of many eating traditions and the fictions involved with creating them. Traveling to the darkest corners of our dining habits, Foer raises the unspoken question behind every fish we eat, every chicken we fry, and every burger we grill. Part memoir and part investigative report, Eating Animals is a book that, in the words of the Los Angeles Times, places Jonathan Safran Foer "at the table with our greatest philosophers."
Released:
Jan 1, 2009
ISBN:
9781440763397
Format:
Audiobook

About the author

Jonathan Safran Foer is the author of the novels Everything Is Illuminated, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, Here I Am, and the nonfiction book Eating Animals. His work has received numerous awards and been translated into thirty-six languages. He lives in Brooklyn, New York.


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4.3
110 ratings / 83 Reviews
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Critic reviews

  • Through a combination of memoir and investigative journalism, Jonathan Safran Foer asks the hard questions about the morality of eating animals without ever being preachy. An empathetic look inside the meat and dairy industries. A documentary based on the book, and produced by Natalie Portman, comes out June 15.

    Scribd Editors

Reader reviews

  • (5/5)
    If you eat meat, you should read this book. Nuff said?
  • (5/5)
    The best book I read during 2014
  • (3/5)
    Foer's stated aim in this book is to describe the ways that factory farms operate, and to explore the environmental, physical, ethical, economic and social ramifications of consuming factory farmed animals. Spoiler alert: factory farming is horrible for everyone and everything; it is bad for animals (torture, unimaginable cruelty), it is bad for humans (pig/avian flus, 90% of the animals we consume are sick, increasing resistance to antibiotics), it is bad for laborers (low pay, hard hours, desensitization to pain of others), it is bad for traditional farmers (no infrastructure, loss of genetic variability), and it is bad for the environment (methane gas, amount of grain and water used to produce 1 calorie of animal protein).
  • (4/5)
    Backing up the idea of carnism - meat eating is just as much of a choice as not eating it - Foer gives a stark look at how animals are raised for food. Being blind consumers of an industry that deals in living, breathing, feeling creatures is how an industry can go wrong.
  • (4/5)
    This book ruined my life (but I appreciate it for it). TLDR; I read this book in an attempt to decide for myself if I want to become a vegetarian, and had already changed my eating habits by page 25. Don't read this book if you don't want to undergo some soul searching and possibly change the way you eat.Jonathan Safran Foer set out to truly learn everything he can about animal farming and the meat industry, and presents the cold hard facts alongside anecdotes and stories (which he excels at writing). I appreciated that he includes writings from the point of view of all sorts of people involved in this, from factory farmers, to family farmers, to PETA members and vegan slaughterhouse builders. He attempts to share a balanced view of the meat industry, but in the end can't deny the cruelty that takes place at factory farms. The details in this book made me nauseous, made me cry, and made me angry. I had a hard time reading this but am so glad that I did.
  • (2/5)
    I was reluctant to pick up this book, as I had been warned that it would turn me (already an infrequent meat eater) into a vegetarian. And though this well-written book does feel a bit manipulative at times, it does present various points of view, going from vegans to cattle farmers, to compare against your own. The author is at his best when he explains the abominations of the American livestock industry, which seems to operate in a legal vacuum (and I counted myself blessed for living in the European Union, which has such a strong focus on food regulation). The weakest parts are when he comes across as a sentimental big city-dweller who thinks that a happy sow would never unwittingly crush her piglets, or that pigs, given enough room, would abstain from eating their own excrement, and the pages and pages of violent slaughterhouse porn - though instructive and instrumental in proving a point (although maybe a few times too many).
  • (4/5)
    one of the better examinations of conscience for meat-eaters as Foer identifies his love of food which I share as well as the horrors of commercial farm methods which I also abhor - his fast-paced highly entertaining style make the facts and stories come alive
  • (5/5)
    On one hand, I really loved this book -- it is thoughtful, provocative, and well-written. Like Malcolm Gladwell, it can change the way you view the world. On the other hand, it's incredibly disturbing and upsetting. Although written in the quirky style of Foer's fiction, this is a well-researched work of nonfiction that critiques the factory farm industry and the impact of eating meat on our world. Part of me wants to become a vegetarian or even a vegan, yet I also enjoy eating meat and have been struggling with myself since I started reading this book. Now that I've read it, I can't un-know what I've learned.
  • (4/5)
    So before I decided to become a vegetarian I didn't read anything like this. While my decision was partially based on the constantly updated knowledge about the sophistication of animals and their communication skills along with the well-known cruelty of the food industry, I told myself it was mostly a reaction to the knowledge that feeding, keeping, and moving food animals is terribly detrimental to the environment. Horribly. And that's true. It is. I was fairly sure that reading about the cruelty in depth wouldn't have too much of an effect on me. I knew about it already and had rationally already chosen to change my behavior accordingly. I believed myself desensitized to actual strong feelings by my lifelong knowledge of the practice, but about half way through this book, it really got to me in a way that it hadn't before.Of course, I also think it's incredibly important to read the book for the information about the unbelievably detrimental effect the meat industry has on the environment, public health, and biodiversity. The information about the sophistication of the intelligence of animals usually considered to be dumb can be pretty astonishing (fish learning!). I was frankly shocked to finally pay attention to how much weight the meat industry lobby has in government. All of this was balanced against stories of wonderful grandmothers who provide meat-laden foods and family farmers who fight to do what is right for the animals that they say they love. If the book doesn't encourage you to consider vegetarianism (or, gasp, veganism, which I am now considering), then expect it to cause you to seriously consider where you get your animal products. And I believe you should consider where you get your meat (if you don' want to stop), because 99.9999999999999999% of the time, it's been tortured, unless you know who you're getting it from and you've done the research.
  • (4/5)
    This was a hard read for me, but completely worth it.
  • (4/5)
    First off, I'd like it to be known that I am an Iowa girl, I've lived in this great state my entire life. Clearly an ag state and the number one producer of pork in the nation. It is literally everywhere. I can't think of a government luncheon or dinner that I've been to that didn't serve pork loin as the main course. My mom is from Minnesota and grew up on a farm that my grandma still lives on today. They didn't have animals but their neighbors do. Every morning we step outside of my grandmothers house you can smell the pigs wafting through the air piercing your nose with the stench that is swine. The pools of animal waste mentioned in this book are visible in the neighbors yards as you drive by and I remember my mom even making a joke about them the last time we were home how you'd think it was a pond but no it's waste, imagine that! But after reading this book I wonder if she even understands the dangers involved in all of this because she grew up around it and is acustom to it.Not sure if this review will include spoilers because it's not as much a story line as an awareness containing facts about our farming industry but I'll state a warning now that some may not want to read any further.I have seen the food documentaries Food inc. and I've been exposed to various other informational pieces discussing the flaws in our current ag system. I interned for the Governor of Iowa from last August to May and remember when their was a law being brought up in the House and Senate concerning whether or not it is legal to record video footage of farming operations without being honest about who you are to Iowa farmers. I remember the phone calls we received during that time, there were literally 5 of us on the phones that day (more than the usual 3) and we were getting non-stop phone calls. Literally the second you put down the phone your phone was ringing again before you let go. We got phone calls from as far away as Turkey. News was spreading fast and it was clear that many were concerned. The one thing I regret is that many feel that farmers who do have poor practices within their operations, don't care about their animals and I know that by and large that is false. This book did a great job of highlighting that no one gets into these practices out of hatred for animals everywhere. But I agree that something does need to change.After watching Food inc. and other documentaries I felt that I had a good handle and knew what was going on but this book revealed to me just how much I didn't know. Sure the book has it's flaws and maybe isn't structured in the best way it could have been but I feel the content is no less important because of these flaws. It will still surely prove to be jaw dropping for most readers.Sadly I don't think I have the will-power to be a vegan or vegetarian as the book mentions is one of the best ways to fight factory farming but I know now what to be aware of when I do consume meat, what to look for on labels, and a better awareness of what had to occur in order for the food I'm eating to be on my plate. To know that for every helping of shrimp that I eat (formerly my favorite seafood) about 5 feet of fish had to die for me to eat that shrimp in the by-catch. I know that roughly 90% of the chicken on the market is infected with salmonella or some other bacteria. I know that my meat has been soaked in water to increase weight without actually increasing the amount of meat I'm buying. I know that most animals live a miserable life before they were eventually killed and landed on my plate. For those who argue that abuse is not the norm in the farming industry today I wonder how they would feel if their dog had to spend a day on one of these farms or if they knew that when their dog had to be put down one day it would be killed in a similar manner as these animals. Maybe then they would change their mind as to whether or not we are acting ethically in the food and meat processing industry. Maybe.
  • (5/5)
    This is an extraordinarily well written book and very persuasive. I will own that I found it emotionally draining.
  • (4/5)
    The industry of food production in the US is incredibly awful. I knew that before reading this book, and only feel more certain that the lifestyle choices my family and I have made in regards to healthy eating are sound, both for our bodies and for our world. I found it interesting that it was the birth of his son that caused Foer to begin the ruminations that became this book. Something about becoming a parent awakens a protective instinct in many of us. We just want to keep that little one safe any way we can -- even when they're all grown up and out there on their own. My favorite part of this book, however, were the stories of his grandmother.If the future finder of this book is interested in reading a bit more on this whole subject, with more offshoots, take a look at Barbara Kingsolvers Animal, Vegetable, Miracle which she co-wrote with her kids and husband. That was a lifechanger for me.Foer will be in town next week to speak jointly with College of Charleston and the Friends of the Library. It really pains me that I won't be able to attend, because the more I get to know of him, the more interesting I find him to be. Plus I'd like to ask him how much of his wife's first book was influenced by him.
  • (4/5)
    As a vegetarian, it was still bracing for me to be reminded why I became one. I live in a country with few vegetarians so I have to let my standards slip and allow chicken and seafood too oftenEven for those who have read Fast Food Nation and Michael Pollan's books, there is quite a lot more information here--make that horrifying and disgusting information. Despite the power of Big Meat lobbies, I think that the govts of developed countries will eventually respond to the public's demands for pollution control if not for compassion. It's heartening too that there is a strong demand for meat from farms that aren't factories. That there aren't even regulatory standards for shit disposal!?! But how does the US compare to other developed countries in this regard?I think the relative lack of factual information on foreign countries--in a book otherwise chockful of statistics--exposes a central weakness of this book. Foer really does wander. Near the end, he seems to realize this when he notes that he could have written a book about vegetarianism and public health or with several other foci. This is around the same time that he notes how many people sitting around a virtual global table would be from China, India and other developing countries. The entire population of North America and Western Europe could become vegetarians tomorrow and it wouldn't make much of a dent in the growth trend; globally, the numbers of animals killed, the suffering in factory farms, the ensuring pollution would still expand by leaps and bounds. I wish he had delved into that more because I know the figures would be mind-boggling : as countries become richer, people eat more meat--most especially more beef.I didn't want to believe that factory farming was extensive in other parts of the world, at least not in less developed ones, but then Foer reels off a list of countries, including China and Poland, where Smith has a hoof print. So, yeah, I guess pigs and chickens are widely farmed that way. But beef? Doesn't a hell of a lot of the world's beef come from the US, Oz and perhaps Argentina and other Latin American countries?Anyway, China. There's got to be some data on pollution from factory farms: the WSJ Asia has done a lot on on environmental catastrophes in China.Certainly on growth in meat consumption. If it's going to be bad, there's nothing like China. But examining China would also have challenged some of Foer assumptions. Most of the population today grew up in rural areas even if they are in cities now. And not on super-big communal farms either. Even in the harshest communist times, families were allowed to own two chickens ("revolutionary chickens," of course). Yet is there any people less compassionate about animals? I have long wanted to write something on Chinese demand and trafficking in endangered animals. Not to mention the effect of demand for shark's fin soup.Delving in globalization and public health might not turn up the answers you want. The SARS epidemic and the first big Asian avian flu epidemic of this century can't be blamed on factory farming. In the latter case (and I guess HiN1 in general), the virus probably leapt from a migratory bird species to a more domestic one. Maybe chickens, but the poorest people in Asia are more likely to have ducks, which can feed themselves by wandering all over the place. As for the more deadly and scary SARS, it's believed that the species jump was from a civet cat of some sort to a domestic species. A Chinese produce market (and I think Guangzhou's is a prime suspect) can have all sorts of wild and rare beasts near cages of cats, dogs, turtles, fowl. And that's traditional husbandry for you. Factory farming might well be the cleaner alternative.A great many Indians of course have more compassionate views of animals. So as the country rapidly becomes richer, how it meets the greater demand for meat must be very interesting. I'm sure Indians have thought about all this too ...
  • (5/5)
    Jonathan Safran Foer (a name I still cannot spell without looking up) presents a very interesting look at Western human's relationship to meat eating and vegetarianism. Early in the book he writes that he will try to present just the facts, without any proselytizing from either side. Of course, when the facts relate to the disastrous system of factory farming that exists in America, they tend to be persuausive anyways. I loved reading it- it came at a time in my life where I was doing my annual vegetarian-for-Lent thing and it has had a very strong effect on me.
  • (5/5)
    I have been vegetarian for some 20 years. My reasoning is a combination of personal health, the ethics of killing to live, and what I thought I knew about factory farming. In truth, I didn't know the half of it. Safran Foer has done the homework for me, and here presents a well-structured, insightful, moving study of the way 99% of meat gets sourced and processed. It's an angry. alarming, unsettling and ultimately horrifying polemic about what globalization and corporatism has done to the majority of our food. For the past two decades, whenever someone has asked my 'why vegetarian?' - and the question is usually asked in a restaurant while we're ordering - I have deferred answering to be polite, not wanting to put anyone off the meal they are about to eat. From now on, I'll give them a different answer: read 'Eating Animals' by Jonathan Safran Foer.
  • (3/5)
    It is a bit of a mystery, why Jonathan Safran Foer suddenly felt prompted to write this book. I could not suppress the feeling that his publisher may have prodded him, with materialistic motives rather than a sense of idealism. The book almost reads like a pendant to The omnivore's dilemma by Michael Pollan.The book tells us nothing very much new. It almost could have been written in the same way ten years ago. Possibly, through, the farming takes place on an even larger scale than before.This book is not for the reader who is weak of heart. It contains some gruesome descriptions. The book is rather thick, and becomes repetitive, as the same type of problem is described for different types of animal, chicken, pigs and cows in succession.It was funny that I was reading Jonathan Coe's novel What a carve up! at the same time, which also includes a chapter on the excesses in animal husbandry during the Thatcherite and neo-liberalist period of the past ten or 20 years.
  • (4/5)
    I grew up in the smallest possible version of a farm. We planted potatoes, corn and assorted vegetables. We made our own wine. We had chickens, both for eggs and meat. And we raised one pig a year. We knew what we ate, and we cared fr our animals.So, I inmediately shared Foeer's view about the farming industry in the US. I was also very surprised by the levels of wickedness to which industrial farming has arrived. I am thankful to Foer for the amount of research he has done, and for the thoughtfulness in presenting his subject.My only, and strong, negative feeling about "Eating Animals" is the way in which the author can not stay away from throwing himself in the spotlight: "I did this", "I did that", "I investigated", "I chose". Buddy, what you were talking about is much bigger than any individuality. This was not the time your 15 minutes of fame.
  • (5/5)
    I have a lot to say about this book, but I want to sit on it overnight at least. Just first I want to say that EVERYONE should read this. It's not for vegetarians or vegans only and he's not trying to convert you to that lifestyle. It's about learning what we are supporting when we go to somewhere like KFC. Eat your chicken, okay, but does it need to be from such deplorable conditions? There are family farms out there that definitely are worth supporting if you wish to eat animal products. Seriously. We need to open our minds and know exactly what is going on and do what we can to not support this world. I know it seems impossible to change, and we all "know" that it's bad, really I had no idea just how bad it all truly is. No one with any sort of a soul would be okay with the way things are run. Even if you don't care about animal welfare for whatever reason, the damage these companies do to the entire world.. the mass use of antibiotics before there is even medical necessity, the mutating of influenzas, the dumping of thousands of gallons of poisonous shit (literal shit) into the water you drink. How can anyone be okay with this.
  • (5/5)
    A very thorough investigation into the meat industry and thoughtful reflection on the ethical implications of factory farming. Foer brings full attention to the reality of how animals must be treated and killed in order to satisfy the the ever increasing demand for meat in America. This book is an important call for mindfulness that everyone should read, since every single person eats and the vast majority eat animals.
  • (5/5)
    every human omnivore should read this book and decide - do I want to eat animals? tough decision making...
  • (3/5)
    This is a very interesting book for anyone not familiar with factory farming as it is perpetrated in North America. For my part, I wasn't aware of the magnitude of the situation, and was thus horrified to learn that such a minime proportion of meat produced in the US comes from sensible husbandry. Still, the book remains very US-centric and it would be interesting to know about the situation in other parts of the world. In Switzerland where I live, for example, it is relatively easy to find top-quality, locally and familiy produced meat, if you are ready to shell out a little bit more than for supermarket fare. And thus I have no problems being a "selective omnivore", eating mostly vegetarian food and occasionnaly indulging in a good piece of meat.To get back to the US situation, the conclusion I'm personnaly drawing after reading JSF's book is that the real problem is that there is virtually no legislation to control meat production, and that is extremely worrisome. The "solution" to this problem is probably not a handful of well-educated people going vegetarian, but a real political uprising to demand stricter governement control. And also a decrease in the consumption of cheap meat by the population at large, but this book will probably fail to reach the people most in need of education on these matters. One good thing about this book is that it at least gets people talking. Just look at the reviews on LT...
  • (4/5)
    I am not a vegetarian. While not a big meat eater, I am unlikely to ever become a vegetarian. Nevertheless, I try to listen to the arguments of the often very vocal vegetarians. Jonathan Safran Foer has written a thought- and powerful if disorganized book about the issue. The weakest point is his raging sentimentality about promoting vegetarianism as doing the best for his son. I wonder what he will do when his offspring clamors to visit McDonald's. Repeatedly appealing to "think about the children" is the weakest part of the book. In a disorganized way (he probably calls it "poetic"), he offers four argumentative lines: Vegetarianism is right due to animal rights reasons, animal cruelty reasons, human health care reasons and ecological reasons.Animal rights reasons are exemplified by the question: Do you eat dog and why not? Where does one draw the line which animals are deemed eatable. Most carnivorous persons, if they have thought about the issue at all, do not hold an ethically consistent preferences of eat/don't eat animals. Foer's main argument that animals share many human traits sounds reasonable but Utopian given human propensity to inflict violence on other humans. Shylock's "If you prick us, do we not bleed?" has not prevented the cruelties committed against Jews. How could the same argument, which totally relies on empathy, hold if the cruelty against non-humans is committed out of view? It is the practice of agribusiness to remove the act of killing and food processing out of the public view. My grandparents' experience of slaughtering a chicken or rabbit in the garden (often with the assistance of the children!) would be deemed highly unusual today. The food processing industry hides the cruel process that turns oink into bacon. It is always quite shocking to see this process still celebrated openly in (usually) less developed countries.Foer's second argument about animal cruelty in food processing has a distinct US focus with its political capture of all regulation. The documentary "Food, inc." is very revealing about the extreme concentration and industrialization of the US food production. While hardly a week passes without a food scandal in Europe, the level of regulation is much tougher, and the concentration and centralization of food processing has not happened yet. Much of the worst examples that are standard practice in the US are not allowed in most of Europe (which is considered as a trade restriction by the US lobbyists and the US government in their pay). Much of the sting of Foer's arguments can be lessened by enlightened decent farming and slaughtering processes. Something many European retailers support out of naked self-interest. The US focus on ultra-cheap food might currently keep off their underclass from revolting, it does not look to be sustainable in the long run.Foer's third and fourth reasons are connected: The current agribusiness practices are both unhealthy and ecologically unsustainable. Animal protein is expensive to produce and creates a lot of waste, which again can be limited by good market incentives and strong regulations. In my conclusion, I accept only the weaker conclusion of personally reducing the amount of meat consumed and supporting tougher regulations. But then again, I live in Europe and can, while walking the dog, personally see fully free living chickens roaming in a small scale farm. One of these fortunate chickens took an unfortunate end when it triggered the dog's blood lust. Seeing the malicious satisfaction mixed with a bit of socially expected contrition in the returning dog's blood stained face showed that deep down, we share with man's best friend a deep dark hunger for meat that requires much cultural sophistication to overcome. Foer's book certainly helps in the advancement of Elias' process towards civilization.
  • (4/5)
    It seems I should only eat plants and maybe some beef. Mr. Foer doesn't mention buffalo meat, which I assume is still available at the nearest kosher butcher. He makes his point at the end of the first chapter:
  • (4/5)
    A profoundly depressing book. I'd already been a vegetarian for several years before I read this book, and so was in some ways prepared for what was coming, but that doesn't make the facts of our meat industry any easier to swallow (literally, I suppose). Foer does a good job of detailing the horrors of what eating animals in today's world means, and does so without being overly moralistic or self-righteous, giving earnest consideration to all sides of the debate.Yet this book is not perfect. Its main error, in my opinion, is the one that many vegetarian tracts fall into: it emphasizes only the negative aspects of vegetarianism---the side of vegetarianism that sees it as defined by what we don't do: that is, vegetarians don't eat animals. Yet this leaves out the more important positive aspect of vegetarianism---all the new joys we find in our diet and way of life, all the things we do that everyone else doesn't. (For instance, an omnivore's salad is not a vegetarian's salad, and they have no idea what they're missing.) In this way, I think vegetarians have a much richer story to tell than Foer gives them credit for. Moreover, this is further worrisome because convincing people to stop eating animals without educating them about how to do that is dangerous and ultimately won't work in the long term. You can't simply cut meat out from diet and continue on as before, sans meat. Vegetarianism is about informing oneself, not just about why you're not eating animals, but also about what you need to be eating now, without them.Foer deserves praise for what he's done in this book, and it should compel everyone to take their first steps to going veg. Just don't let it be your last. There's more to vegetarianism than not eating animals.
  • (5/5)
    Cursed book. Now I'm a vegetarian. I bought Eating Animals because a friend highly recommended it. I was fascinated by how dramatically it had changed his eating habits so I was curious to see what effect it would have on me. I was skeptical I would be converted and mainly wanted to read for the gory details. A few pages in, I quickly grew concerned that I would soon be put off meat altogether so I quickly ran to the kitchen to eat as much meat as I could. Yes, I was eating freak-meat while I was reading this book. I am a BIG meat-eater and most of my meals contain a lot of meat so I'm now obviously devastated. :( It might take a long while, but I'm hoping to work my way towards veganism. Please stay away from this book if you want to continue eating meat. But don't. Everyone should read it. I'm making everyone I care about read it. Writing style is passable. Still, 5 stars for converting this carnivore.
  • (4/5)
    It has changed my outlook forever. I like eating meat but I will probably become a vegetarian as soon as I figure out a balance between conscience and food that I can live with. You can't ignore the information in this book as it is disturbing. It's presented without apology or ranting and I think that's what makes it so memorable.
  • (4/5)
    Not exactly a fun read. Parts are disturbing. You may be shocked if you don't know much, or anything, about where that chicken breast in the grocery store actually comes from. I considered myself pretty well-informed but even I learned some things that disturbed me. I stopped eating meat several years ago. This book has made me re-think my decision to continue to eat fish. I have not changed that decision yet- but every time I pick up a fork I am more aware of how the choices I make affect animal welfare. Passed onto my mother for her to read!
  • (5/5)
    Quite possibly one of the most important books you will ever read. Damn it.
  • (5/5)
    This is a really good read. I picked it up because it sounded interesting and I liked his writing in Everything Is Illuminated. I did not expect it to change my mind about what I eat, but it did. Even more than the treatment of animals (which is horrible, but on its own, probably not enough to make me want to give up tasty animals), the stuff that's in them and the environmental effects of the "farms" are what did it. I don't want all that stuff in my body.I'm not going to go totally vegan or even totally vegetarian, but I am going to limit my meat-eating to an occasional thing. I don't think it will be hard, and I was already planning to limit meat just for financial reasons (plus already limiting dairy and eggs and red meat).