Basic Mathematics by Lawrence A. Trivieri - Read Online
Basic Mathematics
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Master Your Coursework with Collins College Outlines

From fraions, decimals, and geometric measurement to exponents, scientific notation, and an introduion to algebra, the Collins College Outline in Basic Mathematics explores and explains the topics that students will find in introduory mathematics classes. Completely revised and updated by Dr. Lawrence Trivieri, Basic Mathematics includes a test yourself seion with answers and complete explanations at the end of each chapter. Also included are bibliographies for further reading, as well as numerous graphs, charts, and example problems.

The Collins College Outlines are a completely revised, in-depth series of study guides for all areas of study, including the Humanities, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Science, Language, History, and Business. Featuring the most up-to-date information, each book is written by a seasoned professor in the field and focuses on a simplified and general overview of the subje for college students and, where appropriate, Advanced Placement students. Each Collins College Outline is fully integrated with the major curriculum for its subje and is a perfe supplement for any standard textbook.

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CHAPTER I

The Whole Numbers

In this chapter, we consider the whole numbers, together with the arithmetic operations on them. Various properties associated with these operations and ordering of the whole numbers are also examined. Applications involving whole numbers are included throughout the chapter.

1.1 NUMBERS, NUMERALS, COUNTING, AND PLACE VALUE

In this section, we discuss the value of each digit in a numeral, write the word name for a number, and write the numeral for the word name of a number.

NUMERALS

Counting involves the use of only ten symbols or numerals called digits. These are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The counting numbers from 1 through 9 involve a single digit. The numbers from 10 through 99 have two digits. The numbers from 100 through 999 have three digits, and so on.

As the numbers get larger, we need longer numerals to represent them. The digits in longer numerals are separated by commas into groups of three, such as 759,189,304.

PLACE VALUE

Each digit has place value. The location of a digit in a numeral indicates the value of the digit. Starting from the right and moving to the left, the digits represent ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, and so on.

Exercise 1.1

What numbers are represented by the following numerals?

a) 48,902

b) 367,518

Solution 1.1

a) In 48,902:

4 is in the ten thousands place; it represents 4 × 10,000 = 40,000.

8 is in the thousands place; it represents 8 × 1,000 = 8,000.

9 is in the hundreds place; it represents 9 × 100 = 900.

0 is in the tens place; it represents 0 × 10 = 0.

2 is in the ones place; it represents 2 × 1 = 2. Thus, 48,902 represents 40,000 + 8,000 + 900 + 2 and is read, forty-eight thousand, nine hundred two.

b) In 367,518:

3 is in the hundred thousands place; it represents 3 × 100,000 = 300,000.

6 is in the ten thousands place; it represents 6 × 10,000 = 60,000.

7 is in the thousands place; it represents 7 × 1,000 = 7,000.

5 is in the hundreds place; it represents 5 × 100 = 500.

1 is in the tens place; it represents 1 × 10 = 10.

8 is in the ones place; it represents 8 × 1 = 8.

Thus, 367,518 represents 300,000 + 60,000 + 7,000 + 500 + 10 + 8 and is read, three hundred sixty-seven thousand, five hundred eighteen.

Exercise 1.2

Write the word names for the following numerals:

a) 333,222,111

b) 43,598,567,104

c) 329,862,107

d) 4,444,444,444

e) 4,832,367,756,523

Solution 1.2

a) The word name for the numeral 333,222,111 is three hundred thirty-three million, two hundred twenty-two thousand, one hundred eleven.

b) The word name for the numeral 43,598,567,104 is forty-three billion, five hundred ninety-eight million, five hundred sixty-seven thousand, one hundred four.

c) 329,862,107 is read, three hundred twenty-nine million, eight hundred sixty-two thousand, one hundred seven.

d) 4,444,444,444 is read, four billion, four hundred forty-four million, four hundred forty-four thousand, four hundred forty-four.

e) 4,832,367,756,523 is read, four trillion, eight hundred thirty-two billion, three hundred sixty-seven million, seven hundred fifty-six thousand, five hundred twenty-three.

Exercise 1.3

Write the numeral for each of the following:

a) Five thousand, six hundred seventy-eight.

b) Four million, eight hundred seventy-three thousand, six hundred.

c) Two hundred thirty-seven trillion, eight hundred fifty-six billion, seven hundred nineteen million, five hundred eleven thousand, one hundred twelve.

Solution 1.3

a) 5,678

b) 4,873,600

c) 237,856,719,511,112

1.2 ORDERING AND ADDITION OF WHOLE NUMBERS

In this section, we discuss ordering of whole numbers and addition of whole numbers. We also use the operation of addition of whole numbers to determine the solutions to certain word problems.

NATURAL AND WHOLE NUMBERS

The counting numbers are also called the natural numbers. The least of the counting numbers is 1. If you include 0 with all of the counting numbers, you have the whole numbers.

To count numbers, some must come before others. For example, 5 comes before 9, 9 comes before 17, and 17 comes before 29. The process of arranging the counting numbers from the smallest to the largest is called ordering.

GREATER THAN AND LESS THAN

The symbol > is used to mean, is greater than. In counting, 9 comes after 5. Therefore, 9 is greater than 5, and you can write 9 > 5. Because 17 comes after 9, it is greater than 9, and we write 17 > 9.

The symbol < is used to mean is less than. In counting, 5 comes before 9. Therefore, 5 is less than 9, and you can write 5 < 9. Because 17 comes before 25, it is less than 25, and we write 17 < 25.

Exercise 1.4

Read each of the following:

a) 14 < 18

b) 44 > 23

c) 0 < 39

d) 304 > 289

e) 199 < 205

Solution 1.4

a) 14 < 18 is read, 14 is less than 18.

b) 44 > 23 is read, 44 is greater than 23.

c) 0 < 39 is read, 0 is less than 39.

d) 304 > 289 is read, 304 is greater than 289.

e) 199 < 205 is read, 199 is less than 205.

ADDITION

To add whole numbers, add together the digits in the numbers that represent the same place value. That is, add the ones together, add the tens together, add the hundreds together, and so on. The result in an addition problem is called the sum.

PROPERTIES OF ADDITION

Note the following properties of addition of whole numbers.

Commutative property: The order in which you add two whole numbers is not important. That is, if you let a and b represent any two whole numbers, then

a + b = b + a

Associative property: To add three whole numbers, you must group them first, because only two numbers can be added at one time. However, the order in which you group the numbers is not important. That is, if you let a, b, and c represent any three whole numbers, then

(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

If 0 is added to a whole number, or if a whole number added to 0, the sum is equal to the given whole number. That is, if a is any whole number, then

a + 0 = a and 0 + a = a

The whole number 0 is called the additive identity.

Exercise 1.5

Add:

a) 213+ 42+ 634

b) 35 + 49

Solution 1.5

a) 213+ 42+ 634

Step 1: Line up the numbers from the right:

Step 2: Add the ones:

Step 3: Add the tens:

Step 4: Add the hundreds:

b) 35 + 49

Step 1: Line up the numbers from the right:

Step 2: Add the ones:

Note that if you add 5 ones and 9 ones, you get 14 ones, but 14 is a two-digit numeral and cannot be written in the ones column. However, you can rewrite 14 as 10 + 4. Because 10 ones is equal to 1 ten, you can carry the 10 ones over to the tens column as 1 ten:

Step 3: Add the tens:

In Exercise 1.5b, observe that the 4 ones of the 14 were placed in the ones column, and the 1 ten of the 14 was carried over to the tens column and added to the tens already there. Use this procedure when adding whole numbers. However, remember that when carrying, you always start with units on the right and work to the left.

Exercise 1.6

Add 326 + 37 + 1,049

Solution 1.6

Step 1: Line up the numbers from the right:

Step 2: Add the ones:

Step 3: Add the tens:

Step 4: Add the hundreds:

Step 5: Add the thousands:

The carry procedure shown in the preceding exercises is also used when adding like units such as hours, minutes, pounds, ounces, inches, meters, quarts, liters, and so forth.

Exercise 1.7

Michelle worked three days to make a bookshelf. The first day, she worked 4 hours and 20 minutes. The second day, she worked 2 hours and 45 minutes. The third day, she worked 6 hours and 17 minutes. What was the total time spent making the bookshelf?

Solution 1.7

The total time is the sum of the time spent the first day, the second day, and the third day. We can arrange this as follows:

First day:       4 hr + 20 min

Second day:   2 hr + 45 min

Third day:   +6 hr + 17 min

Total time: 12 hr + 82 min

    = 12 hr + 60 min + 22 min (rewriting)

    = 12 hr + 1 hr + 22 min (renaming)

    = 13 hr + 22 min (adding hours)

Hence, the total time spent was 13 hours and 22 minutes.

Exercise 1.8

Liz ordered four items from a catalog store. The weights of these items were 3 lb 8 oz, 1 lb 10 oz, 5 lb 9 oz, and 11 oz. What was the total weight of these four items? (Hint: 16 oz = 1 lb)

Solution 1.8

The total weight of these four items can be represented as follows:

First item:         3 lb + 8 oz

Second item:     1 lb + 10 oz

Third item:       5 lb + 9 oz

Fourth item: +           11 oz

Total             = 9 lb + 38 oz

          = 9 lb + 16 oz + 16 oz + 6 oz (rewriting)

          = 9 lb + 1 lb + 1 lb + 6 oz (renaming)

          = 11 lb + 6 oz (adding the pounds)

Therefore, the total weight of the four items was 11 lb 6 oz.

Exercise 1.9

Four members of a baseball team weigh 165 lb 7 oz, 156 lb 10 oz, 167 lb 8 oz, and 153 lb 5 oz. Determine their combined weight.

Solution 1.9

The combined weight of the four players can be represented as follows:

First player:           165 lb + 7 oz

Second player:       156 lb + 10 oz

Third player:         167 lb + 8 oz

Fourth player:     +153 lb + 5 oz

Total weight:         641 lb + 30 oz

                = 641 lb + 16 oz + 14 oz (rewriting)

                = 641 lb + 1 lb + 14 oz (renaming)

                = 642 lb + 14 oz (adding the pounds)

Therefore, the combined weight of the four players is 642 lb 14 oz.

Exercise 1.10

A maintenance worker has four containers of different sizes. One container has a capacity of 4 gal 2 qt 1 pt; one has a capacity of 2 gal 2 qt; one has a capacity of 3 qt 1 pt; and one has a capacity of 2 qt 1 pt. What is the total capacity of the four containers? (Hint: 1 gal = 4 qt; 1 qt = 2 pt)

Solution 1.10

The total capacity of the four containers can be represented as follows:

First container:     4 gal + 2 qt + 1 pt

Second container: 2 gal + 2 qt

Third container:                 3 qt + 1 pt

Fourth container: +           2 qt + 1 pt

Total capacity:     6 gal + 9 qt + 3 pt

               = 6 gal + (4 qt + 4 qt + 1 qt) + (2 pt + 1 pt) (rewriting)

               = 6 gal + 1 gal + 1 gal + 1 qt + 1 qt + 1 pt (renaming)

               = 8 gal + 1 qt + 1 qt + 1 pt (adding gallons)

               = 8 gal + 2 qt + 1 pt (adding quarts)

Therefore, the total capacity of the containers is 8 gal 2 qt 1 pt.

Exercise 1.11

A runner passes the first timing station in a marathon after 35 minutes. The next section takes him 1 hr 13 min, and the final distance to the finish line takes him another 1 hr 37 min. What was his total time? (Hint: 60 min = 1 hr)

Solution 1.11

The total time can be represented as follows:

First section:                35 min

Second section: 1 hr + 13 min

Final section:  +1 hr + 37 min

Total time:        2 hr + 85 min

           = 2 hr + 60 min + 25 min (rewriting)

           = 2 hr + 1 hr + 25 min (renaming)

           = 3 hr + 25 min (adding hours)

Therefore, the total time for the runner was 3 hr 25 min.

1.3 SUBTRACTION OF WHOLE NUMBERS

In this section, we discuss subtraction of whole numbers and use the operation of subtraction to solve certain word problems.

The process of taking away is called subtraction. It is also the process that lets us tell how much larger one number is than another. The answer in a subtraction problem is called the difference.

To check a subtraction problem, add the answer (that is, the difference) to the number being subtracted; the result should be the number you started with.

Exercise 1.12

Solve each of the following:

a) 9 – 5

b) 13 – 8

c) 19 – 11

d) 7 – 7

Solution 1.12

a) 9 – 5 = 4, because 5 + 4 = 9

b) 13 – 8 = 5, because 8 + 5 = 13

c) 19 – 11 = 8, because 11 + 8 = 19

d) 7 – 7 = 0, because 7 + 0 = 7

Note that subtraction is the opposite (or inverse) operation of addition.

ORDER OF SUBTRACTION

You know that the order in which you add two whole numbers is not important. However, you must pay attention to the order in which you subtract one whole number from another.

because subtraction is not commutative.

Subtraction of whole numbers is not an associative operation, either. Note that (11 – 6) – 4 = 5 – 4 = 1 but 11 – (6 – 4) = 11 – 2 = 9.

11 – (6 – 4) shows that subtraction is not an associative operation; thus, how you group the whole numbers to be subtracted does matter.

To subtract a whole number from another whole number when the whole numbers have two or more digits, write the smaller number under the larger number, aligning the digits from the right. Then, subtract the digits of like place value.

Exercise 1.13

Subtract:

Solution 1.13

Step 1: Subtract the ones:

Step 2: Subtract the tens:

Step 3: Subtract the hundreds:

Step 4: Subtract the thousands:

Check:

BORROWING

Sometimes, when you subtract one number from another, the digit in a given place value is larger than the digit directly above it. In that case, you need to borrow. Borrowing in subtraction is very similar to carrying in addition.

Exercise 1.14

Subtract:

Solution 1.14

Step 1: You cannot subtract 4 ones from 2 ones, because 4 > 2. Borrow 1 ten (that is, 10 ones) from the tens column in 872. Add the 10 ones to the 2 ones already in the ones column. Now, subtract 4 ones from 12 ones:

Step 2: Subtract the tens:

(You are subtracting 2 from 6, not 2 from 7, because you borrowed 1 from 7.)

Step 3: Subtract the hundreds:

Check:

Step 1: You cannot subtract 8 ones from 4 ones, because 8 > 4. Borrow 1 ten (that is, 10 ones) from the tens column in 6,404. Subtract the ones:

There are 0 tens in 6,404; hence, you cannot borrow 1 ten. Therefore, you move to the hundreds column to borrow 1 hundred (that is, 10 tens). The subtraction problem now becomes:

Step 2: Borrow 1 ten (10 ones) from the tens column in 6,404. Add the 10 ones to the 4 ones in the ones column. Subtract the ones:

Step 3: Subtract the tens:

Step 4: Subtract the hundreds. Because 8 > 3, borrow 1 thousand (10 hundreds) from the thousands column in 6,404. Add the 10 hundreds to the 3 hundreds. Subtract:

Step 5: Subtract the thousands:

Check:

Step 1: Borrow 10 ones from the tens column; subtract the ones:

There are 0 tens in 87,002 so you cannot borrow 1 ten. Move to the hundreds column and borrow 1 hundred (10 tens). There are 0 hundreds, so you move to the thousands column and borrow 1 thousand (10 hundreds), as indicated:

Step 2: Borrow 10 tens from the hundreds column:

Step 3: Borrow 10 ones from the tens column:

Step 4: Subtract the ones:

Step 5: Subtract the tens:

Step 6: Subtract the hundreds:

Step 7: Subtract the thousands:

Step 8: Subtract the ten thousands:

Check:

Exercise 1.15

Maria can type 112 words per minute on her word processor, and Peter can type 84 words per minute on his typewriter. How many more words per minute can Maria type than Peter?

Solution 1.15

Use subtraction to solve this problem as follows:

Maria’s rate of typing: 112 words per minute

Therefore, Maria can type 28 words per minute more than Peter.

Exercise 1.16

Hattie has $536 in her savings account. If she withdraws $234, how much money will be left in her account?

Solution 1.16

Again, use subtraction to solve this problem as follows:

Therefore, Hattie will have $302 left in her account.

Exercise 1.17

Krystle and Brandan went fishing. Brandan caught a fish that weighed 9 lb 5 oz. Krystle caught a fish that weighed 6 lb 11 oz. How much heavier was Brandan’s fish than Krystle’s fish?

Solution 1.17

The problem may be set up and solved as follows:

Brandan’s fish: 9 lb + 5 oz

Rewrite this problem by borrowing 1 lb from 9 lb, converting 1 lb to 16 oz, and adding 16 oz to 5 oz. Then, 9 lb 5 oz may be written as 8 lb 21 oz.

Brandan’s fish: 8 lb + 21 oz

Therefore, Brandan’s fish was 2 lb 10 oz heavier than Krystle’s fish.

Exercise 1.18

Autumn has $408 in her checking account. If she writes checks in the amounts of $89 and $ 124, how much money will be left in her account?

Solution 1.18

Using subtraction, we can solve this problem as follows:

The amount in the checking account

The amount of the first check

The amount left after writing the first check

The amount of the second check

The amount left after writing the second check

Therefore, Autumn will have $195 left in her checking account after writing the two checks.

1.4 MULTIPLICATION OF WHOLE NUMBERS

In this section, we consider the multiplication of whole numbers and the solution of certain word problems using the operation of multiplication.

LANGUAGE OF MULTIPLICATION

Multiplication may be thought of as repeated addition, with all the numbers added being the same. The symbol × is used to indicate multiplication. Thus,

In the expression 5 • 3, a dot (•) is written in the middle of the space between the 5 and 3 that indicates multiplication. It should not be confused with a decimal point (see Chapter 4).

In a multiplication problem, the numbers being multiplied are called factors, and the answer is called the product.

Exercise 1.19

Find the product of 4 × 3.

Solution 1.19

4 × 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3= 12

Hence,

PROPERTY OF MULTIPLICATION

The order in which you multiply whole numbers is not important, because multiplication of whole numbers is a commutative operation. If you let a and b represent any two whole numbers, we can state the commutative property for multiplication of whole numbers as

a × b = b × a.

Exercise 1.20

Show that:

a) 2 × 5 = 5 × 2

b) 3 × 7 = 7 × 3

Solution 1.20

a) 2 × 5 = 5 + 5 = 10

5 × 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10

Therefore, 2 × 5 = 5 × 2.

b) 3 × 7 = 7 + 7 + 7 = 21

7 × 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 2 1

Therefore, 3 × 7 = 7 × 3.

The product of a whole number and 1 is the whole number. This is known as the identity property for multiplication of whole numbers. The whole number 1 is called the multiplicative identity for the whole numbers. Let a represent any whole number. We can then state the identity property for multiplication of whole numbers as

a × 1 = a   and   1 × a = a.

For example,

3 × 1 = 3

6 × 1 = 6

1 × 7 = 7

1 × 9 = 9

0 × 1 = 0

1 × 0 = 0

To multiply three whole numbers, you must group them by twos, just as you do in addition. Multiplication of whole numbers is an associative operation. If a, b, and c represent any whole numbers, we can state the associative property for multiplication of whole numbers as

(a × b) × c = a × (b × c).

Exercise 1.21

Show that:

a) (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4)

b) (1 × 5 ) × 1 = 1 × (5 × 1)

c) (4 × 3) × 5 = 4 × (3 × 5)

Solution 1.21

a) (2 × 3) × 4 = 6 × 4 = 24

2 × (3 × 4) = 2 × 12 = 24

Therefore, (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4).

b) (1 × 5) × 1 = 5 × 1 = 5

1 × ( 5 × 1) = 1 × 5 = 5

Therefore, (1 × 5) × 1 = 1 × (5 × 1).

c) (4 × 3) × 5 = 12 × 5 = 60

4 × (3 × 5) = 4 × 15 = 60

Therefore, (4 × 3) × 5 = 4 × (3 × 5).

MULTIPLYING NUMBERS WITH MORE THAN ONE DIGIT

To multiply numbers having more than one digit, multiply, in turn, all the digits in one number by every digit in the other number. Then add all the products obtained.

Exercise 1.22

Determine the products of the following:

a) 6 × 29

b) 325 × 246

c) 399 × 408

Solution 1.22

a)

An alternate method of solution for the above exercise shows the following shortcut.

Step 1:

Multiply 9 ones by 6 ones. The product is 54