## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Ratings:

384 pages3 hours

Prepared for students by renowned professors and noted experts, here are the most extensive and proven study aids available, covering all the major areas of study in college curriculums. Each guide features: up-to-date scholarship; an easy-to-follow narrative outline form; specially designed and formatted pages; and much more.

Publisher: HarperCollinsReleased: Oct 25, 2011ISBN: 002328580XFormat: book

**Publisher **

This book presents the material for a firm foundation in elementary algebra. There are many worked examples with enough steps to help the beginning algebra student follow the work from one step to the next step. As you progress through the material, if you are able to skip a step or two, great! A set of exercises and answers appear at the end of each chapter to allow the reader to practice and receive immediate feedback. Keep pencil and paper handy—reading and working through this book will give you the skills necessary to continue your study of mathematics.

Joan Van Glabek, Ph.D.

This chapter contains a review of arithmetic topics and extends these concepts to algebra. You may be able to skip part (or all) of this chapter if your mathematics background is current. Consider working the problems at the end of the chapter as a pretest. If you can work the problems at the end of the chapter correctly, move ahead to Chapter 2.

The four basic operations used in arithmetic—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division—are also used in algebra. This section reviews some language and symbols from arithmetic and describes the uses of some of these familiar symbols in algebra. You may want to highlight words that are unfamiliar and refer back to this section as necessary. Variables (letters like *x *and *y*) will be used in some of the exercises to represent numbers.

The following table reviews some of the language and symbols associated with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division:

We avoid the use of the symbol x

for multiplication in algebra to prevent confusion between the variable *x *and the symbol x

to imply multiplication. Other ways to show multiplication in algebra may involve the use of parentheses.

Multiplication is implied in the following cases: when there is no symbol between two variables; when there is no symbol between a variable and a number; and when there is no symbol between a variable and a parenthesis. You cannot use this convention when multiplying two numbers, however. 34 means thirty-four, never 3 times 4.

Likewise, there are several ways to imply division.

In arithmetic, many problems contain only one of the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. In algebra, there will often be *more *than one operation involved. Thus, you will often see directions such as simplify,

which means you should perform any indicated operations.

The following symbols are used to group numbers together:

When simplifying, perform operations inside parentheses, brackets, braces, and absolute value bars first. The fraction bar as a grouping symbol means to simplify above and below the bar separately.

*Exercise *1.1

Simplify:

a) (4 + 8)

b) [10-5 ]

d) (7 - 3) + (6 - 4)

*Solution *1.1

The numbers and/or variables involved in the four basic operations have names, as given in the following table:

*Exercise *1.2

For each sentence, write an equivalent expression in symbols:

a) The sum of x and 2

b) The difference of 5 and *y *

c) The product of 4 and *a *

d) The quotient of *z *and 5

*Solution *1.2

We use exponents to write repeated multiplications.

2

is the exponent (also called the power).

5² = 5 · 5 = 25

5

is the base.

The exponent (or power) tells you how many times to use the base as a factor.

*Exercise *1.3

Expand and multiply:

a) 2⁵

b) 5²

c) 10³

*Solution *1.3

Often, there will be more than one operation or one set of grouping symbols in a problem. Mathematicians have agreed upon the order of operations to be followed in solving problems.

1. Simplify inside grouping symbols, starting with the innermost pair and working out.

2. Simplify exponents.

3. Perform multiplication and division steps in order from left to right.

4. Perform addition and subtraction steps in order from left to right.

You may find it helpful in remembering the order of operations to memorize the expression: P E M D A S or Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, which stands for Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction.

*Exercise *1.4

Simplify {5 + [8 - (3 - 1)]}.

*Solution *1.4

*Exercise *1.5

Simplify 4 + 6 ÷ 2 + 3 · 5-4 .

*Solution *1.5

*Exercise *1.6

Simplify 2³ ÷ 2 + 4(9 - 2²).

*Solution *1.6

*Exercise *1.7

*Solution *1.7

Remember, a fraction bar is a grouping symbol. Simplify above the fraction bar and below the fraction bar separately.

You can use a **number line **to picture the real numbers. Begin by drawing a line and labeling a convenient point as 0. Mark a point to the right of 0 and label it as 1. The distance between

Notice that the positive numbers are located to the right of zero on the number line, and the negative numbers are located to the left of zero. Numbers increase in value from the left to the right of the number line. Note also that a negative number must have a negative sign preceding it, while a positive number can be written either with a positive sign preceding it or with no sign preceding it. Because fractions and decimals are real numbers, they also can be pictured (or graphed) on the number line.

*Exercise *1.8

Label points on a number line for the following numbers:

,3.8

*Solution *1.8

Use a point on the number line to locate each point:

**EQUALITY AND INEQUALITY SYMBOLS **

You can use a number line to decide the order relationship between numbers. You will need to use the following symbols:

*Exercise *1.9

Write an equivalent expression in symbols:

a) The sum of 4 and x is greater than 12.

b) The product of 5 and *y *is less than or equal to 20.

c) The product of 3 and *x *is equal to the difference of *x *and 6.

*Solution *1.9

When a number *a *is to the left of a number *b *on the number line, *a *is less than *b*. If *c *is to the right of *b *on the number line, *c *is greater than *b*. Consider the following number line and the inequalities it represents:

You may change the order in which an inequality is written as long as you keep the symbol pointing

at the same number. Thus, an inequality stated as *a *< *b *can be written as *b *> *a*.

Although it is usually easy to compare two positive numbers, you may want to draw a number line to help you compare negative numbers.

*Exercise *1.10

Insert <

or >

to make each statement true. Use a number line if you need help:

a) -1__4

b) -2__4

*Solution *1.10

a) – 1 < 4, because – 1 is to the left of 4.

b) – 2 > –4, because – 2 is to the right of –4.

c) You may want to draw a number line to help with this one.

< –3.

You use a number line to define absolute value. The distance of a number a from zero is its absolute value, written |a|.

*Exercise *1.11

Find the absolute value of:

a) 2

b) – 3

c) 0

*solution *1.11

You can use the number line to note that

a) |2| = 2, because 2 is 2 units away from 0.

b) |–3| = 3, because – 3 is 3 units away from 0.

c) |0| = 0, because 0 is 0 units away from 0.

You also use a number line to describe the **additive inverse **or **opposite **of a number. The **opposite **of a number *a *is the number that is the same distance from 0 as *a*, but on the opposite side of 0.

*Exercise *1.12

Find the opposite of:

a) 3

b) – 2

c) 0

*Solution *1.12

a) Using a number line, you can see that - 3 is the opposite of 3.

b) 2 is the opposite of -2.

c) 0 is the only number that is its own opposite.

Another way to write the opposite of a number is to use the symbol –

. For example, the opposite of 3 is written –3. The opposite of –2 is written – (–2). Notice from Exercise 1.12 that –(–2 ) = 2.

*Exercise *1.13

a) 6

b) –5

c) *x *

*Solution *1.13

Addition of two signed numbers can be demonstrated using a number line. For example, 2 + 4 would be shown by starting at 0, drawing an arrow 2 units to the right, and then drawing an arrow 4 more units to the right. Where this second arrow ends, 6 is the sum.

Similarly, to add (–2) + (–3), start at 0 and draw an arrow 2 units to the left to represent –2. Then draw an arrow 3 more units to the left to represent –3. This second arrow ends at – 5 , which is the sum.

These two examples lead to the following rule for adding numbers with the same signs:

1. Add the absolute values of the numbers.

2. Write the common sign.

*Exercise *1.14

Find the sums:

a) 5 + 2

b) – 4 + (–7)

*Solution *1.14

A number line can also be used to demonstrate adding numbers with different signs. For example, add 5 + (–3) by beginning with an arrow from 0 to the right 5 units. Then draw an arrow from the end of that arrow 3 units to the left. The second arrow ends at the sum, which is 2.

You can also show – 6 + 2 on a number line. Begin at 0 and draw an arrow 6 units to the left. Then draw an arrow from the end of that arrow 2 units to the right. The second arrow ends at the sum, —4.

To add numbers with different signs without using a number line, do the following:

1. Find the absolute value of each number.

2. Subtract the number with the smaller absolute value from the number with the larger absolute value.

3. Write the sign of the number with the larger absolute value in front of the sum.

You may need to work several more exercises to convince yourself that the preceding rules work. (Remember that positive signs do not have to be written, but negative signs must be written.)

*Exercise *1. 15

Find the sums:

a) 4 + (–2)

b) 3 + (–7)

c) (–6) + 9

d) (–5) + 3

*Solution *1.15

*Exercise *1.16

Find the sums:

a) –6 + 4 +(–8 )

b) (–7 + 12) + [(–2) + (–6)]

c) – 8 + 2(–4 + 7) + 6

*Solution *1.16

Subtraction is actually defined in terms of addition. For example, 5 – 3 is defined to be 5 + (–3), where – 3 represents the opposite of 3. This definition leads to the following rules for subtracting:

1. Change the subtraction symbol to addition.

2. Write the opposite of the number being subtracted.

3. Use the rules for adding signed numbers.

*Exercise *1.17

Find the differences:

a) 6–1 1

b) –3– 7

c) 8–(–3 )

d) –12–(–5 )

*Solution *1.17

The following exercises are subtraction problems with more than two numbers. Some exercises involve grouping symbols and order of operation rules. Remember to work inside the grouping symbols first.

*Exercise *1.18

Simplify each of the following:

a) 2 – 6 – 5

b) 2–(6–5 )

c) 7 – (– 4 + 2)

d) (–5 – 4) — (–7 – 1)

*Solution *1.18

Note that exercises (a) and (b) differ by a set of parentheses, which lead to different answers. If there are no grouping symbols, you must work in order

You've reached the end of this preview. Sign up to read more!

Page 1 of 1

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading