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Trusts a Practical Guide
Trusts a Practical Guide
Trusts a Practical Guide
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Trusts a Practical Guide

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Within the genre of financial selfhelp, ‘Trusts A Practical Guide’ is an invaluable and rare resource for financial experts and members of the public alike who need a reference work on a subject that is, on the face of it, complex but which undeniably affects many people’s lives at one point or another. Whatever your occupation or background, you are almost certain at some time to need some understanding of this subject, whether in your own financial planning or in advising those around you – and this guide is particularly helpful when dealing with a relative’s probate or the complex issues arising from an inheritance.After thirtyfive years at the top of his profession, FSA member Terry O'Halloran writes passionately and informatively, not only about his subject but also about the importance of spreading the word to others. He has seen many times first hand the benefits of wellorganized and implemented financial planning on people’s lives. More poignantly, he has seen what can happen when such matters are left to chance.Using famous historical characters, placing them in recognizable situations and using real life case histories, he explains the organization and procedure of Trusts simply and easily bringing his subject alive by putting it in a perspective that is easily assimilated by the layman. Terry O'Halloran clearly explains the intricacies of Trusts and confronts their realities with reallife examples such as a family case involving a number of exwives, a business partnership that goes very expensively wrong and even the attempted murder of a director and removal of the wouldbe assassin (as a Trustee). Building the full picture from simple steps, the author explains the merits or otherwise of trusts and their uses with life assurance and pension products. “Trusts are the most important adjunct to life assurance, business protection, estate planning and pension provision. A basic understanding is essential,” he insists. After searching in vain for a book for his own use, the need for a reference book on this subject was clear. “I needed a reference book that I could refer to during the working day but which would also be simple enough for any of my clients to understand. So I wrote one – in fact I had to write it because there was simply nothing suitable in existence. Moreover, I use it all the time. My own copies are dogeared from use.” “I believe,’ Trusts’ is a practical tool for the professional’s everyday use and a good guide for the layman.
PublisherM-Y Books
Release dateAug 8, 2012
Trusts a Practical Guide
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Terence O'halloran

Writer of a number of books about the financial sector as well as the notorious “If Only Politicians Had Brains”. He was President of the Lincoln Chamber of Commerce, National Pension spokesman for the Federation of Small Business 19742005, and has worked for thirtyfive years at the highest levels within financial services while dealing with people and their problems on a daily basis. Coauthor of a major report in 1977 for the National Federation of the Self Employed regarding the injustice of the Class IV National Insurance tax on the selfemployed, which resulted in winning a case in the court in Strasbourg against the UK government along with a successful case against the Consumers’ Association for inaccurate commentary. “Preserving businesses per se and their assets while making proper provision for families and coowners is a very rewarding occupation when handled effectively. And it is part of the aim of this book to give people practical and informed opinion backed by reallife examples.” The author has also served on the executive of the Life Insurance Association, ultimately becoming its Vice President. In addition, he has worked as a tutor, mentor, and examiner in the Chartered Insurance Institute, Institute of Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Association. He also works with ‘Young Enterprise’ as an adviser and judge to youngsters running their own businesses. Terence has worked with the Department of Work and Pensions, the SBS and the Cabinet Office on a variety of matters, as a member of the Federation of Small Businesses Policy and Taxation Committee. Terence P.O’Halloran FCII, B.Sc. (Bus. Admin). Chartered Financial Planner: “We must help each other whilst we are here.”

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    Trusts a Practical Guide - Terence O'halloran

    Design and layout: Life Publications Limited

    The Work Copyright © 1997 and 2002 Terence P. O’Halloran

    The right of Terence P. O’Halloran as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988.

    Second edition published Copyright © 2002 Life Publications Limited,

    88 Newland LINCOLN LN1 1YA

    Internet Site: www.lifepublications.co.uk

    E-mail: tpo@lifepublications.co.uk

    Tel No +44 (0) 1522 522858 Fax No +44 (0) 1522 540442

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form whatsoever, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in writing of the publisher.

    Printed and bound in Great Britain by Hackman Print Group, Cambrian Ind. Park, Clydach Vale, Tonypandy, Rhondda, CF40 2XX.

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Front cover artwork Life publications Ltd.

    ISBN 978-1-9506314-5-5

    Other books by the same author:

    You Sign (the Little Cheque and We Sign the Big One)

    Mountains out of Molehills

    Stakeholder Pensions – A Practical Guide

    If Only Politicians Had Brains

    Video Seminars by the same author:

    (Running) A FEE-BASED Practice …. Seminar double video

    Trusts – A Practical Guide …. Seminar double DVD

    Trusts – A Practical Guide ….Book on 8 CDs (includes advanced case studies)


    This is a book that you need to read from cover to cover and then use over the next 20 years to dip into as a point of reference. The end of the book is simply to provide an overview for the basic tenets surrounding the use of trusts, their construction and meaning, and the constraints imposed by them.

    Trusts – A Practical Guide is a workbook that will take you through professional examinations, a reference book that will assist you in understanding and dealing with practical trust applications whether they are being created in work that you are doing or being dealt with in a problem that has arisen.

    Trusts are a fundamental focal point of financial planning. Therefore an understanding of how they work and what they can achieve is essential in dealing with ordinary family circumstances through Wills or protective life assurance moving through pensions and the safe guarding of precious resource to more complex investment, partnership, business protection and the inter generational transfers of wealth.

    This book is unique in its style. This second edition bears testimony to the value that those who owned and used the first edition placed upon it. Many have used it as a passport to success in professional examinations, which have taken them on to higher levels in their professional fields. Others use it as a source of reference, many we are told several times a week, when dealing with Trusts and the huge variety of circumstances that arise from using them.

    This second edition has been thoroughly updated to enable you to examine the past, work in the present and take the future in your stride. New trusts develop all the time but the fundamentals remain very much the same and this book is about fundamentals. Not case law or precedent; although they are included, but why trusts are necessary, how they are formed and how they interact with other financial instruments to provide financial comfort and direction with a high degree of certainty.

    Divorce and single parenting are high priority topics as are ageism and tax planning. There are constraints imposed by the use of trusts. These are dealt with within the framework of this book in an endeavour to cover exit routes and practical mechanisms for dealing with changed circumstances. One can make the complex complicated. This book’s function is to achieve the reverse and assist you in understanding the topic of trusts and give you the confidence and ability to work with these extraordinary legal mechanisms.

    The book starts with a simple analysis of family circumstances, which most readers will readily identify with. They are known characters in known circumstances. The body of the book is case history based, taking you from the simple to the more complex application of trusts and the socioeconomic structures affected by their presence.

    In the closing sections of the book you will find all of the information examined in the previous chapters brought into cogent relief as the topics of overseas and partnership trusts along with Will trusts are examined in more detail.

    As the Author it has been my objective at the very planning stage of this book to give you a practical understanding of the use of trusts in financial planning terms. I have endeavoured to avoid jargon in order to help you with your daily endeavours. This second edition of "Trusts – A Practical Guide" rises on the success of its predecessor and seeks to work for your success.

    Terence P O’Halloran BSc

    FCII MSFA FLIA [dip]

    Chartered Insurance Practitioner


    The subject of trusts has always been a tortuous one. I have been involved in advising in this area for well over twenty years now and seen many published works on it, ranging, in general, from fairly complex to the downright incomprehensible!

    It is refreshing, therefore, to read Terry’s book, which sets as its main aim, to explain the concepts associated with trusts in as simple a fashion as possible. The text is given in a clear and concise manner which could be understood and enjoyed by anyone.

    Terry’s book ‘'Trusts' A Practical Guide’ seems to me to be an excellent publication to set a beginner in the trusts field out on the right road to learning what is necessary to cover the groundwork. It would also, I am sure, prove extremely useful as a preliminary work to study when embarking on a course to lead to a professional qualification in which trusts is an integral part of the syllabus.

    The book will also prove particularly valuable to those who are looking at the specific uses of trusts in the field of financial services.

    I have actually known Terry O’Halloran for more years than I care to remember and, in that time, the one lasting principle that he has shown me is that he cares deeply about the financial services industry and about giving his clients thorough and proper advice. In undertaking the writing of this book, he brings this attitude out in his ways of explanation with his liberal use of illustrations and case studies. This makes the text interesting and meaningful to the reader.

    I wish Terry well with the book – it is a second edition. (I understand that the first edition was a complete sell-out!) I am sure this will be just as successful a venture.

    BRIAN LAWLESS LL.B(Hons)., F.C.I.I., M.S.F.A., A.L.I.A(dip).,F.R.S.A., TEP., Chartered Insurer

    Senior Tax Consultant – AXA Sun Life, and;

    Group Technical Adviser – Jelf IFM Financial Services Ltd. (Part of the Jelf IFM Group)

    Why not use Terence O’Halloran, aka Ed Upson, for your next conference or sales meeting.

    Technical Topics made interesting.

    O’Halloran Financial Management Services/Life Publications Ltd

    St James Terrace, 88 Newland, LINCOLN LN1 1YA

    Phone: +44 (0) 1522 537491

    Fax: +44 (0) 1522 540442

    Email: tpo@lifepublications.co.uk



    Web: www.lifepublications.co.uk



    Also by Terence O’Halloran


    You Sign (the Little Cheque and We Sign the Big One)

    Mountains Out of Molehills

    ‘Stakeholder Pensions’ - a Practical Guide

    If Only Politicians Had Brains

    Pensions - Pillars of Wisdom


    Trusts a Practical Guide - Double DVD

    Running a Fee Based Practice


    A Fee Based Practice

    ************ Copy this page and fax or ‘e’ ******************

    Please send me details of ……………………………………….






    ……………………………. Postcode …………………………….

    E-mail Address: ……………………………………………………





    Chapter 1

    Trust Skills

    Many people are apprehensive of the use of Trusts in any number of circumstances. Some argue that they are right to be so.

    'Trust' is a very emotive word. It implies integrity as its foremost principle. If we trust someone then we have utmost faith in their ability to do whatever is expected of them. In effect we put our lives in their hands and if not our lives, then our possessions. More importantly we put our faith in their integrity.

    Trustees are people who control 'other people's' property and have a legal responsibility that transcends everything else in life.

    They are responsible for taking the Settlor's (the person creating the Trust) wishes and enacting those wishes with regard to, and for the benefit of, the beneficiaries that the Settlor specifies, in a specific prescribed manner.

    A Trust is rather like a box with a key.

    BOX 1.1

    The Settlor places property, physical or notional, into the metaphoric box, locks it and hands the key and the box to the custodians, the Trustees, who are trusted individuals or 'legal' individuals, in the form of a Limited Company known as a Trust Corporation.

    The Trustees will open the box at the appropriate time and deliver its contents to the beneficiary, or beneficiaries, as directed by the Settlor. It is at this point that the legal ownership of the property is changed.

    An appropriate time for deliverance of the contents of the Trust to the beneficiaries will be specified in a Trust Deed. The Deed is a legal document that tells the Trustees:

    There may be powers to change the rules or there may be definite instructions that the rules cannot be changed.

    There is considerable authority within the Trust Deed.

    It is because of the power of the Trust Deed and the responsibility of the Trustees that this book has been written.

    There need be no fear where there is knowledge.

    Chapter 2

    The Personalities

    Let us take a closer look at who the personalities are. First of all let us examine those involved in the creation of a Trust.

    An individual, such as a parent or grandparent, a group of individuals, a limited company, may wish to establish a set route, or passage, to the destination for their property; which might be a house, a factory, a car, furniture, gold bullion, works of art, an estate, investments and so on. Real property. Physical property.

    On the other hand, they may wish to determine the distribution of the proceeds of a contract, a life assurance, or a pension plan - something not tangible at the time of a Trust being formed but which will become so in the future:

    The Trust can relate to business property or a private individual's personal wealth.

    As we have already seen, the party that places the property into a Trust is called 'The Settlor'. They will settle the estate (make arrangements for its movement from their ownership into the Trust's ownership) via the Trust document. To all intents and purposes the Settlor is disposing of the asset to a third party's control.

    The Trust document may be very specific as to who will benefit from the Trust. It may well stipulate that there can be no variation from the individual nominated to benefit. The beneficiary is said to have ABSOLUTE and UNEQUIVOCAL access to the contents of the Trust with no exceptions in the event of certain circumstances manifesting themselves. The trust may 'vest' immediately or at some later date.

    On the other hand, 'The Settlor' might want to change his or her mind as to who benefits in the future. We will see later what 'Aunt Nellie' might do for her favourite nephew. But what might she want to do if an equally eligible niece or second nephew comes on the scene? What about if Aunt Nellie has her own children and 'wouldn't it be nice', instead of giving the Trust property to her children to give it to her grandchildren? It may be more tax efficient to do so. Auntie would like to take a discretionary decision in this instance.

    She may make the proceeds of the Trust available to the first nephew; but leave it to the discretion of the Trustees (of whom she may be one) to nominate alternative beneficiaries should circumstances change.

    When it comes to financial planning the use, or non-use, of Trusts is paramount. A practitioner may not subscribe to the view that the majority of life insurance policies should be written under Trust. They certainly should not. The aspirations and objectives of the potential Settlor need to be taken into account, but not without due reference to the likelihood of future events as some of the case studies later in the book will show.

    Chapter 3

    The Start of a Trust in History

    Richard was in deep trouble. Events were taking place overseas that greatly disturbed him. He felt it necessary to gather together some of the ablest men in the land and take them to where the action really was, 'to sort things out'. This was not something that could be dealt with by 'remote control'.

    His dilemma stemmed from the fact that if he went, personally, to confront the problems abroad, and he knew that this was not a five-minute job, it could take years; he had to know that his property left behind in England was secure.

    Who had the ability and integrity to ensure that his possessions were safe? How could he be sure that when he returned from his mission abroad, he would have 'something' to come home to?

    Richard's main concern was that his property should be looked after, that his wealth should not be squandered, that those children and close relatives to whom he had a special responsibility would receive sufficient income and perhaps an advance of capital should they need it whilst he was gone.

    What would be your advice to Richard in the circumstances?

    BOX 3.1


    How would you have dealt with Richard's situation?

    BOX 3.2

    The Richard we are referring to is, of course, King Richard the First, popularly known as the Lionheart.

    Richard the Lionheart and the big landowners of his time, knights of the realm, had a huge problem if you consider the situation. They owned vast areas of land: farming and hunting estates. They were responsible for huge work forces comprising whole families, towns and villages.

    These noblemen had an obligation to go where duty dictated, to fight alongside their king. The enterprise would cost them a considerable amount of money, a significant amount of personal risk and, of course, the certain knowledge that a large number of them might never return.

    The problem was not so much who would look after things day by day. There were employees who performed that function as land agents, they would still be in place. They would still be looking after the estate and hopefully generating income.

    However, what if the cost of the enterprise that Richard and his nobles were entering into was so heavy financially that they became destitute, in effect bankrupt? What would happen to the special people in their lives and to what they, the landowners of the time, considered to be the heritage for their heirs?

    How could they 'ring fence' (to use a modern idiom), their favoured possessions against creditors, hardship, theft or misappropriation?

    Exercise your mind with this particular problem.

    BOX 3.3

    BOX 3.4

    This exercise is an important part of grasping the basic tenets of the topic that we are considering – Trusts.

    Richard had to create what we now know as a Trust.

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