"Notre Dame cathedral", author Hugo was born in Besancon in eastern France on February 26th, 1806, his father was a General of the Napoleon army, his mother was the supporter of bourbon. Hugo was affected by his mother in youth, and had been ever sympathy with the royalist. At the beginning of the twenties, he began to move to the bourgeois nationalism thought, and celebrated the rebolution in 1830, and then become a staunch Republican after the 1848 revolution. He was forced to exile abroad for nineteen years because against Louis Bonaparte. In 1870, Napoleon third collapsed, Hugo returned to the motherland, warmly welcomed by people. After the outbreak of the Franco Prussian War, he enrolled in the National Guard, donated to cast war cannon, represented the lofty patriotic enthusiasm. He initially hold a opposition because they did not understand when the uprising of the Paris commune outbroke, but when the Versailles suppressed on the uprising molecules crazily, he stood up bravely and criticized the crimes of the reactionaries severely, asking for a pardon for all the commune members, and made his own house in Brussels as the commune members shelter. Hugo maintained the dignity and freedom of the oppressed nation, against the tsar, Metternich, Bismarck and other oppressors. He expressed outrage over the British and French allied forces about their invasion of China and the incineration of Old Summer Palace, in the article of "to Butt Leo Caption", he denounced the "two thieves". In May 22, 1885, Hugo died in Paris, the French national mourned for him.
The best-known of the French Romantic writers, Victor Hugo was a poet, novelist, dramatist, and political critic. Hugo was an avid supporter of French republicanism and advocate for social and political equality, themes that reflect most strongly in his works Les Mis�rables, Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame), and Le Dernier jour d'un condamn� (The Last Day of a Condemned Man). Hugo’s literary works were successful from the outset, earning him a pension from Louis XVIII and membership in the prestigious Acad�mie fran�aise, and influencing the work of literary figures such as Albert Camus, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Elevated to the peerage by King Louis-Philippe, Hugo played an active role in French politics through the 1848 Revolution and into the Second and Third Republics. Hugo died in 1885, revered not only for his influence on French literature, but also for his role in shaping French democracy. He is buried in the Panth�on alongside Alexandre Dumas and �mile Zola.read more