Authoritative information and practical advice from the nation's cancer experts about urethral cancer includes official medical data on signs, symptoms, early detection, diagnostic testing, risk factors and prevention, treatment options, surgery, radiation, drugs, chemotherapy, staging, biology, prognosis, and survival, with a complete glossary of technical medical terms and current references.
Starting with the basics, and advancing to detailed patient-oriented and physician-quality information, this comprehensive in-depth compilation gives empowered patients, families, caregivers, nurses, and physicians the knowledge they need to understand the diagnosis and treatment of urethral cancer.
Comprehensive data on clinical trials is included - with information on intervention, sponsor, gender, age group, trial phase, number of enrolled patients, funding source, study type, study design, NCT identification number and other IDs, first received date, start date, completion date, primary completion date, last updated date, last verified date, associated acronym, and outcome measures.
Urethral cancer is a rare cancer that occurs more often in women than in men. There are different types of urethral cancer that begin in cells that line the urethra. These cancers are named for the types of cells that become malignant (cancerous):
* Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of urethral cancer. It forms in cells in the part of the urethra near the bladder in women, and in the lining of the urethra in the penis in men. * Transitional cell carcinoma forms in the area near the urethral opening in women, and in the part of the urethra that goes through the prostate gland in men. * Adenocarcinoma forms in glands near the urethra in both men and women.
Urethral cancer can metastasize (spread) quickly to tissues around the urethra and is often found in nearby lymph nodes by the time it is diagnosed. Age and a history of bladder cancer can affect the risk of developing urethral cancer. Risk factors include the following:
* Having a history of bladder cancer.
* Having conditions that cause chronic inflammation in the urethra, including:
* Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
* Frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs).
* Being 60 or older.
* Being a white female.
Possible signs of urethral cancer include bleeding or trouble with urination. These and other symptoms may be caused by urethral cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Sometimes early cancer of the urethra does not cause any symptoms at all. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
* Bleeding from the urethra or blood in the urine. * Weak or interrupted ("stop-and-go") flow of urine. * Frequent urination. * A lump or thickness in the perineum or penis. * Discharge from the urethra. * Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area.
Extensive supplements, with chapters gathered from our Cancer Toolkit series and other reports, cover a broad range of cancer topics useful to cancer patients. This edition includes our exclusive Guide to Leading Medical Websites with updated links to 81 of the best sites for medical information, which let you quickly check for updates from the government and the best commercial portals, news sites, reference/textbook/non-commercial portals, and health organizations. Supplemental coverage includes:
Levels of Evidence for Cancer Treatment Studies Glossary of Clinical Trial Terms Clinical Trials Background Information and In-Depth Program Clinical Trials at NIH How To Find A Cancer Treatment Trial: A Ten-Step Guide Taking Part in Cancer Treatment Research Studies Access to Investigational Drugs Clinical Trials Conducted by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Cancer Research at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Taking Time: Support for People with Cancer Facing Forward - Life
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