Discussions of religion share a common disadvantage: their typically emotional character. Founded on subjective experiences and invocations of authorities, they rarely refer to knowledge about emotions, beliefs, society, etc. grounded on methodology, the purpose of which is to eliminate or minimise the influence of human beliefs on the process of observation and drawing conclusions. It is highly probable that a large percentage of believers, and maybe even non-believers, are not aware of the fact that religion/religiousness can be discussed on the basis of a wide range of empirical data. The purpose of this book is to educate by quoting the results of research in social science published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on subjects related to religiosity.