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DESCRIPTION OF BOOK

This is an important professional book which has been carefully prepared by the author for many years. Electronics is an exact science of real practical importance. Whether we appreciate it or not, our lives are practically dominated by electronics, e.g., TVs, computers, smart-phones, et al.. Applying electronic theories, e.g., designing electronic circuits, would bring actual, practical results which could be tested or gauged by instruments. This book has been painstakingly prepared for readers who suffer from a phobia of technologies which tend to be difficult to grasp. This book is apparently the only one of its kind now which conveys important, useful electronics knowledge and circuit design techniques in a very simple, jargon-free, easily comprehended manner. In the book the author also shares some of his experiences in electronics by offering practical tips on circuit design.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

The author has published about 20 books, two of which have been adopted as reference texts and commended by professional bodies. He was also the editor of a book of essays. He has many years of experience in electronics. He has taught many professional, management and technical subjects for years. He has published a number of important papers, including several papers on the solutions to some famous, long unsolved problems, in international research journals and has served on the faculty of an American research university as a professor. He has received publicity from the press for some intellectual achievement.

Publisher: Kerwin MathewReleased: Apr 9, 2014ISBN: 9781498969536Format: book

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**Author **

ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUIT DESIGN MADE EASY

This book has been written with practically all types of readers in mind: laymen to engineers. It is presented in an instructional

style, precise and straight to the point, with no beating about the bush

. With this book, it is not necessary to make notes, as points are clearly and logically stated, point by point. The book is so simple in form that the reader should have little difficulty in mastering some circuit design technique - he should be able to design some simple circuits at least.

The book covers both the theoretical and practical aspects of electronics and circuit design and would act as a manual and reference guide for the student of electronics and the practicing engineer.

Kerwin Mathew, Ph.D., PE, CMfgT, CPM

1. A Few Basics

2. Diodes

3. Alternating Current (AC)

4. Resonant Circuits

5. Transformers

6. AC Diode Circuits And Power Supply Circuits

7. Transistors

8. Transistor Switches

9. Transistor Ampliﬁers

10. Oscillators

11. ABCs Of Electronic Circuit Design

12. Some Personal Tips On Circuit Design

13. Epilogue

Bibliography

**Ohm’s Law **

1.1 Ohm’s law states that:

Voltage = Resistance x Inductance

**Resistors In Series **

2.1 The following figure shows two resistors connected in series:-

2.1.1 Their total resistance is as follows:-

RT = R1 + R2 = 15 ohms + 10 ohms = 25 ohms

2.2 The total resistance is often termed the equivalent series resistance

- Req.

**Resistors In Parallel **

3.1 The following figure shows two resistors connected in parallel:-

3.1.1 The total resistance in the above circuit is as follows:-

1/RT = 1/ R1 + 1/ R2 = ¼ + ¼ = 0.5 ohm

3.2 This resistance is often called the equivalent parallel resistance

.

3.3 The formula for three resistors in parallel is as follows:-

1/RT = 1/ R1 + 1/ R2 + 1/ R3

**Power **

4.1 Current flowing through a resistor dissipates power, which usually takes the form of heat.

4.2 The expression for power is watts

.

4.3 The formula for power is as follows:-

P = VI or P = I²R or P = V²/R

**The Voltage Divider **

5.1 A circuit diagram of the voltage divider is shown below:-

5.2 The voltage divider is the basis for many important theoretical and practical ideas

throughout the whole field of electronics.

5.3 The important point in the above circuit is V0, which is the voltage drop across R2.

5.4 The formula for this voltage drop is as follows:-

V0 = V x R2/(R1 + R2)

5.5 R1 + R2 = RT, the actual total resistance of the circuit.

**The Circuit Divider **

6.1 The circuit below shows the current splitting or dividing between the two resistors which

are placed in parallel:-

6.1.1 IT splits into two individual currents, I1 and I2.

6.1.2 I1 and I2 then recombine to form IT.

6.1.3 For the above circuit, the following equations are true:-

[1] V = R1 I1

[2] V = R2 I2

[3] R1 I1 = R2 I2

[4] I1/ I2 = R2/ R1 (Here, the current divides in the "inverse ratio of the resistance

values".)

**Capacitors In DC Circuits **

7.1 In electronics, capacitors are extensively used.

7.2 Their main use is with AC signals.

7.3 However, there are certain specific areas of DC where they are very important.

7.4 The main use of capacitors in DC circuits is to become charged and hold the charge.

7.5 In the diagram below, the capacitor will charge when the switch is closed:-

7.5.1 In the above circuit, the final voltage to which the capacitor will charge is 12 V.

7.5.2 The capacitor will charge up to the voltage that would appear across an open circuit that

is located at the same place where the capacitor is located.

7.5.3 The formula for the time constant of this kind of circuit is as follows:-

T = RC

7.5.4 The time constant for the above circuit is:-

T = 15 kΩ x 15 µF = 0.225 second

7.5.5 The time it takes the capacitor to reach 12 V in the above circuit is approximately 5 time

constants, or about 1.125 seconds.

7.5.6 In one time constant the capacitor charges to 63% of the final voltage, or about 7.56 V.

7.5.7 The capacitor will be uncharged before the switch is closed.

7.5.8 When uncharged or discharged, the capacitor has the same voltage on both plates.

7.5.9 In the above circuit, before the switch is closed, both the voltage on plate A and plate B

will be at 0 V if the capacitor is totally discharged.

7.5.10 In the above circuit, when the switch is closed, the voltage on plate A will rise towards

12 V.

7.5.11 In the above circuit, the voltage on plate A after one time constant will be about 7.56 V.

8.1 Capacitors can be connected in parallel as shown below:-

8.1.1 The formula for total capacitance is as follows:-

C T = C1 + C2 + C3 + .... + C N

8.1.2 The total capacitance in figure [A] is as follows:-

C T = 2 + 3 = 5 µF

8.1.3 The total capacitance in figure [B] is as follows:-

C T = 2 + 3 + 4 = 9 µF

8.2 The total capacitance for capacitors connected in parallel is obtained by simply adding

the capacitor values.

9.1 Capacitors can be connected in series, as shown below:-

9.1.1 The formula for total capacitance is as follows:-

9.1.2 In the above diagram, the total capacitance is as follows:-

1/C T = 1/2 + 1/3 = 5/6

∴ C T = 6/5 µF = 1 1/5 µF

**Switches **

10.1 A device that completes or breaks a circuit is known as a mechanical switch.

10.2 The mechanical switch is most commonly used in applying power to turn a device on or

off.

10.3 A switch can allow a signal to pass from one point to another, prevent its passage, or

route a signal to one of several points.

10.4 There are two types of switches, the on-off switch or single pole single throw switch,

and the single pole double throw switch.

10.5 Below are circuit symbols of the two switches:-

10.6 A CLOSED (or ON) switch has the total circuit current flowing through it, and there is

no voltage drop across its terminals.

10.7 An OPEN (or OFF) switch has no current flowing through it, and the full circuit

voltage appears across its terminals.

10.8 Below are circuits showing the operation of the single pole single throw switch (figure

A) and the single pole double throw switch (figure B):-

**Review **

11.1 The basic electrical circuit comprises of a source (voltage), a load (resistance) and a

path (conductor or wire).

11.2 The voltage represents a charge difference.

11.3 If the circuit is complete, electrons will flow in what we call current flow. The

resistance offers opposition to current flow.

11.4 Ohm’s Law states the following:-

I = V/R

11.5 The total resistance for resistors connected in series is given by the following formula:-

RT = R1

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