Mastering Intelligence Scientifically: The Glory of Making Mistakes by Othman Ahmad by Othman Ahmad - Read Online

Book Preview

Mastering Intelligence Scientifically - Othman Ahmad

You've reached the end of this preview. Sign up to read more!
Page 1 of 1



The objective of this book is to explain in layman terms a scientifically based theory on Intelligence. It is based on well-established theories and mathematical principles. It is not based on philosophical theories.

This Intelligence Theory is actually just an extension of Information Theory that was first proposed by Claude Shannon. A thorough understanding of this theory is vital in order to understand Intelligence Theory that is proposed in this book.

The theory was first published in a conference paper when I was a lecturer at Nanyang Technological University. It was published by ISITA, International Symposium on Information Theory and Applications in 1992 with Professor Hirota as the Program Chairman. He was also the session chairman as well. We should thank him for the publication of that paper at the ISITA conference(International Symposium on Information Theory and its Applications). The paper was called Quantitative Measure of Intelligence. It is available for download from IEEEXPLORE.

I also made it available at my website:

Citation count from QuadSearch, 1753 as on the 5th of October, 2010 but it is no longer true. Quadsearch was supposed to have got the citation value from google but in google scholar there is no citation count at all.On searching the article, I could find 2 papers citing this paper but is not recorded by google scholar any more.

By reading the papers that had cited this paper, I find that they do not understand the message conveyed in the article. I can say that they had miscited my paper. Google had also removed any information about citations to this article. One reason could be citations citations at websites instead of journals.

I am not concerned so much about citations. I am more concerned about the understanding of fellow researchers in a very important but dangerous subject. It could lead to the dominance of robots that are feared by many scholars. If this were the fact, nothing much we can do about it. I have been delaying the technical development of this theory. However it is still useful in other fields such as education and in combating racism.

The proposed Intelligence Theory actually makes fun a lot of scholars. That is why doing research on this field is going to be difficult. Because of so much misunderstanding, this theory must be explained thoroughly. So far, there has not been much debate. Scholars just go about their old ways, ignoring challenges to their theories while not bothering to defend themselves. It is up to the interested public to correct their ways. This book tries to create awareness of alternative theories to established research in intelligence.

The Intelligence Theory measures intelligence quantitatively, in bits, just like information, as measured by Information Theory. Not surprising, because Intelligence Theory is based on Information Theory. Information Theory has the ability to measure abstract concepts very accurately and therefore more scientific, instead of using surveys and averages.

Basically, Intelligence is defined as the Information content of the address of the instruction memory. Or program memory. It is not the content of the instruction. Or the operations carried out by the instruction. To make matters simple, in a computer program, it is the conditional jump that makes a program appears intelligent. The amount of conditional jumps determines the level of intelligence.

For human beings, it is the amount of trials and errors that had been carried out. A person that is capable of coming up with a method that is out of expectations, is the more intelligent, regardless of whether the idea is right of wrong. This is in line with hardware designs. It takes more resources to design a computer that can execute with a high degree of randomness. It will be explained in more detail in the book. The original paper also tried to explain some aspects of it.

Then someone can argue that the entity measured is not really intelligence. One person called it creativity. The same problem actually happened to Information Theory. Is the entity really information? Because the English language or any language is not precise, a mathematical formulation will make it very precise, but it will make other interpretations incorrect.

One interpretation of Information is that it must be useful. The mathematical expression for Information, derived by the formulation of the Information Theory does not give any usefulness to it. For hardware designs, usefulness is meaningless as well because it is so subjective. In Information Theory, the more information, the more storage we need.

As it turned out, the more random the data is, the more storage space we require, because we cannot compress the data. Similarly for the Intelligence Theory. The more random the instructions are searched, the harder to design computers. The more radical your ideas are, the more intelligent you are. Not how correct you are.

Alan Turing, some said the father of Computer Science, devised a method to measure intelligence. If a machine can behave like a human being, the machine is therefore intelligent. He is making the assumption that only humans are intelligent. Research in animals show them to be just as intelligent as human beings in certain areas. They have not reached the level of human beings, but it does not mean that animals and machines do not exhibit any intelligence at all.

If intelligence is just a matter of trial and error, what is the point of being intelligent at all? Human civilisation