Foundations of Complex Analysis in Non Locally Convex Spaces by A. Bayoumi by A. Bayoumi - Read Online

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Chapter 1

Fundamental Theorems in F-Spaces

Aboubakr Bayoumi    King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

This chapter is devoted to the introduction of some of the fundamental theorems in functional analysis in their new versions. Those versions may be suitable to tackle several types of problems in Infinite Dimensional Holomorphy, in the absence of convexity condition.

In fact this chapter consists of 4 parts deal with: I-Linear mappings, II-Hahn-Banach theorems, III-Open mapping theorem, and IV-Uniform boundedness principles.

The well known results of the open mapping theorems have been introduced with different proofs, which may be similar to the classical ones. The results on Hahn-Banach theorems and of the uniform boundedness principles are totally new and the reader may not find them in any other books on functional or complex analysis. They have several applications as we we shall see here in our book.

1.1 LINEAR MAPPINGS

Linear maps between p-normed spaces and linear functional on a p-normed space play a central role in functional analysis and the study of calculus and holomorphy. In this chapter we study the interrelationship between continuity and boundedness. As a consequence we prove the three basic principles of p-Banach spaces, namely the Hahn-Banach theorem, the Open Mapping Theorem and the Uniform Boundedness Theorem, see parts II,III & IV.

All the spaces considered in this book unless otherwise stated are complex locally bounded spaces (Lbs), so they are p-normed spaces for some 0 < p ≤ 1, and consequently they are quasi-normed spaces, Rolewicz [186]. In particular E and F will denote the p-normed and the q-normed spaces respectively, where (0 < p,q ≤ 1).

1.1.1 Linearity and Boundedness

Definition 1

A p-norm on a vector space E over is a mapping ||⋅|| from E to +satisfying

(i) ||x|| = 0 if and only if x = 0

(ii) ||λx|| = |λ|P||x||, for every ,x E

(iii) ||x + y||≤ ||x||+ ||y ||, for every x,y E.

Definition 2

A quasi-norm on a vector space E is a real non-negative function ||⋅|| on E satisfying:

(a) ||x|| = 0 if and only if x = 0

(b) ||tx|| = |t| ||x||

(c) ||x + y||≤ σ (||x||+ ||y||)

for all x,y E, t , and some constant σ ≥ 1, which is independents of x,y.

The smallest σ for which (c) holds is called the quasi-norm constant of (E,||⋅||).

The sets { x : ||x> 0, form a base of neighbourhoods of 0 for a metrizable vector topology on E. If (E, ||⋅||) is quasi-normed, then there exists 0 < p ≤ 1 and a p- norm ||⋅||p which determine the topology of Eis then a quasi-norm on E which determines the topology of E.

Definition 3

Let E and F be p-normed, and q-normed spaces respectively over the same field . A map A : E → F is said to be linear if

for all x, y in E and for all t in .

A linear map may not be continuous in general as the following example shows.

Example 1

Let E = C(I, ) be the p- normed space of all continuous functions on the unit interval I = [0,1] under the sup p-norm: ||f||p = supx∈ I|f(x)|p. Let F = C¹(I, ) be the p-normed subspace of E consisting of those functions f which have continuous derivative df. Then the linear map f → df of F into E is not continuous.

In fact, if we set fn(x) = (sin nx)/n, then the sequence (fn) converges to 0, whereas the sequence (dfn) does not converge to

Definition 4

Let U ⊂ E be a nonempty set of a p-normed space E and let F be a q-normed space, (0 < p, q ≤ 1). A linear mapping A : U → F is said to be bounded if there is a real number C such that for all x U,

   (1.1)

Formula (1.1) shows that a bounded linear mapping maps bounded sets in U to bounded sets in F.

The smallest possible C such that (1.1) still holds for all x U will be called the norm of A, denoted by ||A||. Thus

   (1.2)

If U = {0}, we define ||A|| = 0. In this case, A ≡ 0 since A(0) = 0.

It is useful to note that

   (1.3)

This formula will be applied quite frequently.

Let A be a bounded linear mapping as defined by (1.1). Then an alternative formula for the norm of A is

   (1.4)

In fact, if we set y = x/||x||¹/p where x ≠ 0, then ||y|| = 1. Since A is linear,

.

So we may use either of the equivalent formulas (1.2) or (1.4) for the norm of A.

The following theorem gives some equivalent conditions for the continuity of a linear map.

Theorem 1

[26]

Given E and F p-normed and q-normed spaces respectively, (0 < p,q ≤ 1) and

a linear map, the following conditions are equivalent :

(a) A is continuous.

(b) A is continuous at 0.

(c) There exists M such that ||A(x)||≤ M||x||q/p, x E.

(d) A maps bounded sets onto bounded sets.

Proof

 (b) and (c) ⇔(d) are obvious.

 (c): If A is continuous at 0, then there exists a closed ball BE(0,r) in E with the centre at the origin with radius r such that the image A(BE) is contained in the unit ball BF(0,1) of F, i.e. A(BE(0,r)) ⊆ BF(0,1). Thus if x, and hence

   (1.5)

. If x = 0, this inequality holds trivially.

 (a): If (c) holds, then

for every x and y in E; hence A is uniformly continuous on E. ■

Example 2

If p = q, then in (c) we have the following particular case similar to that be given for the normed spaces,

1.1.2 The Space L(E, F)

We denote the vector space of all continuous linear maps between E and F by L(E,F). Members of this space are called bounded linear maps in view of Theorem 1, (c) and (d) and Definition 4. Given A L(E,F), we can also prove

   (1.6)

By Theorem 1, ||A|| is well-defined and

It is easy to show that

see (1.2), (1.4).

As defined above, ||⋅|| makes L(E,F) aq-normed space. This q-norm will be called the usual F-norm on L(E,F).

If the F-norms on E, F are replaced by equivalent F-norms respectively, it is easy to show that the usual F-norm on L(E,F) is replaced by an equivalent F-norm. Thus the topology on L(E,F) depends only on the topologies on E, F.

Theorem 2

[26]

If F is a q-Banach space, then L(E, F) is also a q-Banach space.

Proof

Let (An) be a Cauchy sequence in L(E,F), and let x E. Then

So (An(x)) is a Cauchy sequence in F. Since F is complete, (An(x)) converges to an element y in F. If we define A: E → F by A(x) = y, then A is clearly linear.

To see that A is continuous, we note that

since (An) is a Cauchy sequence, the sup is finite, hence A is continuous by Theorem 1 (c).

Now we show that An→ A with respect to the usual q-norm on L(E, F> 0. Choose N such that

whenever m,n ≥ N. Then

So ||An − A|| → 0.■

Remark 1

If p = q inTheorem 2, then L(E, F) is a q-Banach space.

But if F , then L(E,F) = L(E) and it turns out to be a Banach space.

Linear Extension Theorem

Let E be a p-normed space and M a subspace. Then the closure of M is also a subspace. Thus if

then

where r . Hence M¯ is a subspace of E.

Theorem 3

Let E be a p-normed space, M a subspace of E, and F be a q-Banach space. If

is a continuous linear map, then there exists a unique extension of A to a continuous linear map

such that

Proof

The uniqueness of A' is clear from the continuity. We show its existence. Let x M¯ and let x = limnxn with xn in M. Then

Hence (A(xn)) is a Cauchy sequence in F, and since F is complete, (A(xn)) has a limit in F which we denote by A’(x). The value A’(x) is well-defined, for if x = limn yn with yn F then limnA(xn) = limn A(yn). Thus we have a well defined map A’ : M¯→F.

It remains to show that A’ is a continuous linear map. If y M¯ and y = lim yn with yn M, then for r ,

Therefore,

Similarly,

Hence A’ is linear. For x ∈ M, we have A’(x) = A(x) trivially. This show that A’ is a linear extension of A. Finally, we have

since the q-norm is a continuous function. From

(see subsection 1.1.1), it follows that

Hence A' is continuous and

Since M ⊂ M¯ and A’ = A on M, we have easily || A ||≤ || A’ ||, which shows

Remark 2

If E i.e., q = 1, we have || A|| = ||A’||. Also when p = q = 1 we get this classical result for the extension to the closure of subspaces in normed spaces, see[69].

1.2 HAHN-BANACH THEOREMS

The extension and separation problems for linear functionals have been studied in locally convex spaces by several authors.

In fact, the importance of the further study of the Hahn-Banach Theorems arises from its wide applications to several branches of sciences such as Mathematics (Complex and Functional analysis) and Physics ( Thermodynamics ), see Feinber & Lavine [110]. Our goal in this part is the establishment of extension and separation theorems for linear functionals in different classes of topological vector spaces which are not necessarily locally convex, such as locally pseudoconvex spaces and F-spaces (complete metric spaces with F-norms defined by translation invarient metrics).

More precisely, we devote this part to give a new and general version of the Hahn-Banach Theorem in vector spaces suitable for application to non locally convex spaces.

1.2.1 The Main Results

Definition 5

Let E be a vector space over a scalar field . A non-negative real-valued function q on E is called a sublinear functional of type a if it satisfies,

(i) q(x + y≤ σ[q(x) + q(y)], x,y E,

(ii) q(tx) = tq(x), x E, t ≥ 0

where σ ≥ 1 here and throughout this book. q is called absolutely sublinear of type σ if (ii) is replaced by q(tx) = |t|q(x) for scalars t. It is obvious that a quasi-seminorm is an example of such q, see [207] and [186].

The following theorem provides us with a new version of the Hahn-Banach Theorem in vector spaces. We extend a linear functional f which is majorized on a subspace M ⊂ E by a sublinear functional q of type σ defined on E. The majorization will not remain fixed under the extension if σ > 1.

Theorem 4

[18](1990)

Let E be a real vector space, M a subspace of E with codimM = n, and q a sublinear functional of type σ. Suppose f is a linear functional on M such that,

   (1.7)

.

Then, there exists a linear extension defined on E for which on M and

   (1.8)

If σ = 1 we obtain the classical Hahn-Banach theorem.

Proof

Assume first that codim M = 1. Let b E M and M1 be the subspace spanned by MU{b}. We claim that there exists a linear extension fI on M1