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*Aboubakr Bayoumi King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *

*This chapter is devoted to the introduction of some of the fundamental theorems in functional analysis in their new versions. Those versions may be suitable to tackle several types of problems in Infinite Dimensional Holomorphy, in the absence of convexity condition*.

*In fact this chapter consists of 4 parts deal with: I-Linear mappings, II-Hahn-Banach theorems, III-Open mapping theorem, and IV-Uniform boundedness principles. *

*The well known results of the open mapping theorems have been introduced with different proofs, which may be similar to the classical ones. The results on Hahn-Banach theorems and of the uniform boundedness principles are totally new and the reader may not find them in any other books on functional or complex analysis. They have several applications as we we shall see here in our book*.

Linear maps between *p*-normed spaces and linear functional on a *p*-normed space play a central role in functional analysis and the study of calculus and holomorphy. In this chapter we study the interrelationship between continuity and boundedness. As a consequence we prove the three basic principles of *p*-Banach spaces, namely the *Hahn-Banach theorem*, the *Open Mapping Theorem *and the *Uniform Boundedness Theorem*, see parts II,III & IV.

All the spaces considered in this book unless otherwise stated are complex locally bounded spaces (**Lbs**), so they are *p*-normed spaces for some 0 < *p *≤ 1, and consequently they are quasi-normed spaces, Rolewicz [**186]. In particular E and F will denote the p-normed and the q-normed spaces respectively, where (0 < p,q ≤ 1). **

*A p-norm on a vector space E over *

(i) ||*x*|| = 0 *if and only if x *= *0 *

(ii) ||*λx*|| = |λ|*P*||*x*||, *for every **,x *∈ *E *

(iii) ||*x* + *y*||≤ ||*x*||+ ||y ||, *for every x,y *∈ *E*.

*A quasi-norm on a vector space E is a real non-negative function *||⋅||

(a) ||*x*|| = 0 *if and only if x *= 0

(b) ||*tx*|| = |*t*| ||*x*||

(c) ||*x* + *y*||≤ *σ *(||*x*||+ ||*y*||)

*for all x,y *∈ *E, t **, and some constant σ* ≥ 1, *which is independents of x,y*.

*The smallest σ for which *(*c*) *holds is called the quasi-norm constant of *(

The sets { *x *: ||*x*> 0, form a base of neighbourhoods of 0 for a metrizable vector topology on *E*. If (*E*, ||⋅||) is quasi-normed, then there exists 0 < *p *≤ 1 and a *p*- norm ||⋅||*p *which determine the topology of *E*is then a quasi-norm on *E *which determines the topology of *E*.

*Let E and F be p-normed, and q-normed spaces respectively over the same field **. A map A : E → F is said to be linear if *

*for all x, y in E and for all t in *.

A linear map may not be continuous in general as the following example shows.

*Let E *= *C*(*I, *) *be the p- normed space of all continuous functions on the unit interval I *= [*0,1*] *under the sup p-norm*: ||*f*||*p *= sup*x*∈ *I*|*f*(x)|*p*. *Let F *= *C*¹(*I, *) *be the p-normed subspace of E consisting of those functions f which have continuous derivative df. Then the linear map f → df of F into E is not continuous*.

*In fact, if we set fn*(*x*) = (*sin nx*)*/n, then the sequence *(*fn*) *converges to *0, *whereas the sequence *(*dfn*) *does not converge to *

*Let U* ⊂ *E be a nonempty set of a p-normed space E and let F be a q-normed space*, (0 < *p, q *≤ 1). *A linear mapping A *: *U → F is said to be bounded if there is a real number C such that for all x *∈

**(1.1) **

Formula **(1.1) shows that a bounded linear mapping maps bounded sets in U to bounded sets in F. **

The smallest possible *C *such that **(1.1) still holds for all x ∈ U will be called the norm of A, denoted by ||A||. Thus **

**(1.2) **

If *U *= {0}, we define ||*A*|| = 0. In this case, *A* ≡ 0 since *A*(0) = 0.

It is useful to note that

**(1.3) **

This formula will be applied quite frequently.

Let *A *be a bounded linear mapping as defined by **(1.1). Then an alternative formula for the norm of A is **

**(1.4) **

In fact, if we set *y *= *x*/||*x*||¹/*p *where *x* ≠ 0, then ||*y*|| = 1. Since *A *is linear,

.

So we may use either of the equivalent formulas **(1.2) or (1.4) for the norm of A. **

The following theorem gives some equivalent conditions for the continuity of a linear map.

[**26] **

*Given E and F p-normed and q-normed spaces respectively*, (0 < *p,q *≤ 1) *and *

*a linear map, the following conditions are equivalent *:

(a) A is continuous.

(b) A is continuous at 0.

(c) *There exists M such that *||*A*(*x*)||≤ *M*||*x*||*q/p, x *∈ *E*.

(d) *A maps bounded sets onto bounded sets*.

(b) and (c) ⇔(d) are obvious.

(c): If A is continuous at 0, then there exists a closed ball *BE*(*0,r*) in *E *with the centre at the origin with radius *r *such that the image *A*(*BE*) is contained in the unit ball *BF*(*0,1*) of *F*, i.e. *A*(*BE*(*0,r*)) ⊆ *BF*(0,1). Thus if *x*, and hence

**(1.5) **

. If *x *= 0, this inequality holds trivially.

(a): If (c) holds, then

for every *x *and *y *in *E*; hence *A *is uniformly continuous on *E*. ■

*If p *= *q, then in *(*c*) *we have the following particular case similar to that be given for the normed spaces*,

We denote the vector space of all continuous linear maps between *E *and *F *by *L*(*E,F*). Members of this space are called **bounded linear maps **in view of **Theorem 1, (c) and (d) and Definition 4. Given A ∈ L(E,F), we can also prove **

By **Theorem 1, || A|| is well-defined and **

It is easy to show that

see **(1.2), (1.4). **

As defined above, ||⋅|| makes *L*(*E,F*) *a***q-normed space**. This *q*-norm will be called the **usual F-norm **on

If the *F*-norms on *E, F *are replaced by equivalent *F-*norms respectively, it is easy to show that the usual F-norm on *L*(*E,F*) is replaced by an equivalent *F*-norm. Thus the topology on *L*(*E,F*) depends only on the topologies on *E, F*.

[**26] **

*If F is a q-Banach space, then L*(*E, F*) *is also a q-Banach space*.

Let (*An*) be a Cauchy sequence in *L*(*E,F*), and let *x *∈ *E*. Then

So (*An*(*x*)) is a Cauchy sequence in *F*. Since *F *is complete, (*An*(*x*)) converges to an element *y *in *F*. If we define *A*: *E → F *by *A*(*x*) = *y*, then *A *is clearly linear.

To see that *A *is continuous, we note that

since (*An*) is a Cauchy sequence, the sup is finite, hence *A *is continuous by **Theorem 1 (c). **

Now we show that *An→ A *with respect to the usual *q*-norm on *L*(*E, F*> 0. Choose *N *such that

whenever *m,n* ≥ *N*. Then

So ||*An − A*|| → 0.■

*If p *= *q in Theorem 2, then L(E, F) is a q-Banach space. *

*But if F **, then L*(*E,F*) = *L*(*E*) *and it turns out to be a Banach space*.

Let *E *be a p-normed space and *M *a subspace. Then the closure *M¯ *of *M *is also a subspace. Thus if

then

where *r *. Hence M¯ is a subspace of *E*.

*Let E be a p-normed space, M a subspace of E, and F be a q-Banach space. If *

*is a continuous linear map, then there exists a unique extension of A to a continuous linear map *

*such that *

The uniqueness of *A*' is clear from the continuity. We show its existence. Let *x *∈ *M*¯ and let *x *= limn*xn *with *xn *in *M*. Then

Hence (*A*(*xn*)) is a Cauchy sequence in *F*, and since *F *is complete, (*A*(*xn*)) has a limit in F which we denote by *A*’(*x*). The value *A*’(*x*) is well-defined, for if *x *= limn yn with *yn *∈ *F *then limn*A*(*xn*) = lim*n A*(*yn*). Thus we have a well defined map *A*’ : *M*¯→*F*.

It remains to show that *A*’ is a continuous linear map. If *y *∈ *M*¯ and *y *= lim *y*n with *yn *∈ *M*, then for *r *,

Therefore,

Similarly,

Hence *A*’ is linear. For *x *∈ M, we have *A*’(*x*) = *A*(x) trivially. This show that *A*’ is a linear extension of *A*. Finally, we have

since the q-norm is a continuous function. From

(see **subsection 1.1.1), it follows that **

Hence *A*' is continuous and

Since *M* ⊂ *M*¯ and *A*’ = *A *on M, we have easily || *A *||≤ || *A*’ ||, which shows

*If E **i.e., q *= 1, *we have *|| *A*|| = ||*A*’||. *Also when p *= *q *= 1 *we get this classical result for the extension to the closure of subspaces in normed spaces, see*[**69]. **

The extension and separation problems for linear functionals have been studied in locally convex spaces by several authors.

In fact, the importance of the further study of the Hahn-Banach Theorems arises from its wide applications to several branches of sciences such as Mathematics (Complex and Functional analysis) and Physics ( Thermodynamics ), see Feinber & Lavine [**110]. Our goal in this part is the establishment of extension and separation theorems for linear functionals in different classes of topological vector spaces which are not necessarily locally convex, such as locally pseudoconvex spaces and F-spaces (complete metric spaces with F-norms defined by translation invarient metrics). **

More precisely, we devote this part to give a new and general version of the Hahn-Banach Theorem in vector spaces suitable for application to non locally convex spaces.

*Let E be a vector space over a scalar field **. A non-negative real-valued function q on E is called a sublinear functional of type a if it satisfies*,

(i) *q*(*x* + *y*) *≤ σ*[*q*(*x*) + *q*(*y*)], *x,y *∈ *E*,

(ii) *q*(*tx*) = *tq*(*x*)*, x *∈ *E, t* ≥ 0

*where σ *≥ 1 *here and throughout this book. q is called absolutely sublinear of type σ if *(

The following theorem provides us with a new version of the Hahn-Banach Theorem in vector spaces. We extend a linear functional *f *which is majorized on a subspace *M* ⊂ *E *by a sublinear functional *q *of type *σ *defined on *E*. The majorization will not remain fixed under the extension if σ > 1.

[**18](1990) **

*Let E be a real vector space, M a subspace of E with codimM *= *n, and q a sublinear functional of type σ. Suppose f is a linear functional on M such that*,

**(1.7) **

.

*Then, there exists a linear extension **defined on E for which **on M and *

**(1.8) **

*If σ *= 1 *we obtain the classical Hahn-Banach theorem*.

Assume first that codim *M *= 1. Let *b *∈ *E *– *M *and *M1 *be the subspace spanned by *MU*{*b*}. We claim that there exists a linear extension *fI *on *M1 *

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