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by Don Hong, Jianzhong Wang, and Robert Gardner

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Length: 392 pages4 hours

*Real Analysis with an Introduction to Wavelets and Applications *is an in-depth look at real analysis and its applications, including an introduction to wavelet analysis, a popular topic in "applied real analysis". This text makes a very natural connection between the classic pure analysis and the applied topics, including measure theory, Lebesgue Integral, harmonic analysis and wavelet theory with many associated applications.
The text is relatively elementary at the start, but the level of difficulty steadily increases
The book contains many clear, detailed examples, case studies and exercises
Many real world applications relating to measure theory and pure analysis
Introduction to wavelet analysis

Publisher: Academic PressReleased: Jan 12, 2006ISBN: 9780080540313Format: book

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Kathryn

*Real Analysis *is based on the real numbers, and is naturally involved in practical mathematics. On the other hand, it has taken on subject matter from set theory, harmonic analysis, integration theory, probability theory, the theory of partial differential equations, etc., and has provided these areas with important ideas and basic concepts. This relationship continues even today. This book contains the basic matter of real analysis

and an introduction to wavelet analysis,

a popular topic in applied real analysis.

Today, students studying real analysis come from different backgrounds and have diverse objectives. A course in this subject may serve both undergraduates and graduates, students not only in mathematics but also in statistics, engineering, etc., and students who are seeking master’s degrees and those who plan to pursue doctoral degrees in the sciences. Written with the student in mind, this book is suitable for students with a minimal background. In particular, this book is written as a textbook for the course usually called *Real Analysis *as presently offered to first- or second-year graduate students in American universities with a master’s degree program in mathematics.

The subject matter of the book focuses on measure theory, the Lebesgue integral, topics in probability, *Lp *spaces, Fourier analysis, and wavelet theory, as well as on applications. It contains many features that are unique for a real analysis text. This one-year course provides students the material in Fourier analysis, wavelet theory and applications and makes a very natural connection between classical pure analysis and the applied topic — wavelet theory and applications. The text can also be used for a one-semester course only on *Real Analysis (I) *by covering **Chapters 1–3 and selected material in Chapters 4 and 5 or a one-semester course on Applied Analysis or Introduction to Wavelets using material in Chapters 5–9. Here are a few other features: **

• The text is relatively elementary at the start, but the level of difficulty increases steadily.

• The book includes many examples and exercises. Some exercises form a supplementary part of the text.

• In contrast to the classical real analysis books, this text covers a number of applied topics related to measure theory and pure analysis. Some topics in basic probability theory, the Fourier transform, and wavelets provide interesting subjects in applied analysis. Many projects can be developed that could lead to quality undergraduate/graduate research theses.

• The text is intended mainly for graduates pursuing a master’s degree, so only a basic background in linear algebra and analysis is assumed. Wavelet theory is also introduced at an elementary level, but it leads to some updated research topics. We provide relatively complete references on relevant topics in the bibliography at the end of the text.

This text is based on our class notes and, a primary version of this text has been tested in the classroom of our universities on several occasions in the courses of *Real Analysis, Topics in Applied Mathematics*, and *Special Topics on Wavelets*.

Though the text is basically self-contained, it will be very helpful for the reader to have some knowledge of elementary analysis — for example, the material in Walter Rudin’s *Principles of Mathematical Analysis *[**25] or Kirkwood’s An Introduction to Analysis [16]. **

The Outline of the book is as follows.

**Chapter 1 is intended as reference material. Many readers and instructors will be able to quickly review much of the material. This chapter is intended to make the text as self-contained as possible and also to provide a logically ordered context for the subject matter and to motivate later development. **

**Chapter 2 presents the elements of measure theory by first discussing measure on the rings of sets and then the Lebesgue theory on the line. **

**Chapter 3 discusses Lebesgue integration and its fundamental properties. This material is prerequisite to subsequent chapters. **

**Chapter 4 explores the relationship of differentiation and integration and presents some of the main theorems in probability which are closely related to measure theory and Lebesgue integration. **

**Chapters 5 and 6 provide the fundamentals of Hilbert spaces and Fourier analysis. These two chapters become a natural extention of the Lebesgue theory and also a preparation for the later wavelet analysis. **

**Chapters 7 and 8 include basic wavelet theory by starting with the Haar basis and multiresolution analysis and then discussing orthogonal wavelets and the construction of compactly supported wavelets. Smoothness, convergence, and approximation properties of wavelets are also discussed. **

**Chapter 9 provides applications of wavelets. We examine digital signals and filters, multichannel coding using wavelets, and filter banks. **

A Web site is available which contains a list of known errors and updates for this text:

**http://www.etsu.edu/math/real-analysis/updates.htm. Please e-mail the authors if you have any input. **

We are deeply grateful to Professor Charles K. Chui for his constant encouragement, kind support, and patience. Our thanks are due to, in particular, Jiansheng Cao, Bradley Dyer, Reneé Ferguson, Wenyin Huang, Joby Kauffman, Jun Li, Anna Mu, Chris Wallace, David Atkins, Panrong Xiao, and Qingbo Xue for giving us useful suggestions from students’ point of view. We thank our colleagues who have reviewed the manuscript: Doug Hardin (Vanderbilt University), Pete Johnson (Auburn University), Ram Mohapatra (University of Central Florida), Dave Ruch (Metropolitan State College of Danver), and Wasin So (San Jose State University). It is a pleasure to acknowledge the great support given to us by Robert Ross, Barbara Holland, Mary Spencer, Kyle Sarofeen, and Tom Singer at Elsevier/Academic Press.

**Don Hong and Robert Gardner, ***Johnson City, TN *

**Jianzhong Wang, ***Huntsville, TX *

The concepts of real analysis rest on the system of real numbers and on such notions as sets, relations, and functions. In this chapter we introduce some elementary facts from set theory, topology of the real numbers, and the theory of real functions that are used frequently in the main theme of this text. The style here is deliberately terse, since this chapter is intended as a reference rather than a systematic exposition. For a more detailed study of these topics, see such texts as [**16] and [25]. **

We start with the assumption that the reader has an intuitive feel for the concept of a set.

In fact, we have no other choice! Since we can only define objects or concepts in terms of other objects and concepts, we must draw the line somewhere and take some ideas as fundamental, intuitive starting blocks (almost *atomic *in the classical Greek sense). In fact, one of the founders of set theory, Georg Cantor (1845–1918), in the late 1800s wrote: "A set is a collection into a whole of definite, distinct objects of our intuition or our thought [**13]." With this said, we begin…. **

A *set *is a well-defined collection of objects. The objects in the collection will be called *elements *of the set. For example, *A *= {*x, y, z*} is a set with three elements *x, y*, and *z*. We use the notation *x *∈ *A *to denote that *x *belongs to *A *or, equivalently, *x *is in *A*. The set *A*, in turn, will be said to *contain *the element *x*. By convention, a set contains each of its elements exactly once (as opposed to a *multiset*, which can contain multiple copies of an element).

Sets will usually be denoted by capital letters: *A, B, C*, … and elements by lowercase letters: *a, b, c*, …. If *a *does not belong to *A*, we write *a **A*. We sometimes describe sets by displaying the elements in braces. For example, *A *= {2, 4, 8, 16}. If *A *is the collection of all *x *that satisfy a property *P*, we indicate this briefly by writing *A *= {*x *| *x *satisfies P}. A set containing no elements, denoted by ∅, is called an *empty set*. For example, {*x *| *x *is real and *x*² + 1 = 0} = ∅. We say that two sets are *equal *if they have the same elements.

, closed interval [*a, b*] = {*x | a *≤ *x *≤ *b*}, open interval (*a, b*) = {*x | a *< *x *< *b*), and half-open and half-closed intervals [*a, b*) = {*x *| *a *≤ *x*<*b*} and (*a, b*] = {*x *| *a*<*x*<*b*}.

:

and

Given two sets *A *and *B*, we say *A *is a *subset *of *B*, denoted by *A **B*, if every element of *A *is also an element of *B*. That is, *A **B *means that if *a *∈ *A *then *a *∈ *B*. We say *A *is a *proper subset *of *B *if *A **B *and *A *= *B*. Notice that *A *= *B *if and only if *A *⊂ *B *and *B **A*. The empty set ∅ is a subset of any set. The *union *of two sets *A *and *B *is defined as the set of all elements that are in *A *or in *B*, and it is denoted by *A **B*. Thus, *A *∩ *B *= {*x *| *x *∈ *A *or *x *∈ *B*}. The *intersection *of two sets *A *and *B *is the set of all elements that are in both *A *and *B*, denoted by *A *∩ *B*. That is, *A *∪ *B *= {*x *| *x *∈ *A *and *x *∈ *B*}. If *A *∪ *B *= ∅, then *A *and *B *are called *disjoint*(Λ is called the *indexing set*), union and intersection are defined as

We define the *relative complement *of *B *in *A*, also called the *difference set *and denoted *A \ B*. The *symmetric difference *of *A *and *B*, denoted by *A*Δ*B*. The following properties are easy to prove.

**Theorem 1.1.1: **Let *A, B*, and *C *be subsets of *X*. Then

(i) *A *∪ *B *= *B *∪ *A, A *∩ *B *= *B *∩ *A*;

(ii) (*A *∪ *B*) ∪ *C *= *A *∪ (*B *∪ *C*), (*A *∩ *B*) ∩ *C *= *A *∩ (*B *∩ *C*);

(iii) (*A *∪ *B*) ∩ *C *= (*A *∩ *C*) ∪ (*B *∩ *C*), (*A *∩ *B*) ∪ *C *= (*A *∪ *C*) ∩ (*B *∪ *C*).

When it is clearly understood that all sets in question are subsets of a fixed set (called a *universal set*) *X*, we define the *complement Ac *of a set *A *(in *X*) as *Ac *= *X *\ *A*. In this situation we have *de Morgan’s Laws*:

In general, we have the following.

**Theorem 1.1.2: **For any collection of sets *A*λ, λ ∈ Λ, we have:

**(1.1) **

**(1.2) **

**Proof: **We only show

For *x *∈ *P*. Therefore, *x *∈ *Q*. This implies that *P *⊂ *Q*.

On the other hand, for *x *∈ *Q*, we have that for any λ ∈ Λ, *x *∉ *A*. This means that *Q *⊂ *P*. Hence, *P *= *Q*.

Let (*An*) = {*An*}*n*be a sequence of subsets of *X*. (*An*) is said to be *increasing *if

(*An*) is called *decreasing *if

For a given sequence (*An*) of subsets of *X*, we construct two new sequences (*Bn*) and (*Cn*) of sets as follows:

Clearly, (*Bn*) is decreasing and (*Cn*) is increasing. The set of intersection of *Bn*,*n *is called the *limit superior *of (*An*or lim sup*n*→∞*An*. The set of union of *Cn*, *n *, is called the *limit inferior *of (*An*or lim inf*n*→∞*An*. Therefore,

It can be seen that the limit superior is the set of those members that belong to *An *for infinitely many values of *n*, while the limit inferior is the set of those members that belong to *An *then we say the *limit *of (*An*.

**EXAMPLE 1.1.1: **Let *E *and *F *be any two sets. Define a sequence (*Ak*) of sets by

, *n *= 1, 2, 3, …, we obtain

For a given set *A*, the *power set *of *A*, denoted by *P*(*A*) or 2*A*, is the collection of all subsets of *A*. For example, if *A *= {1, 2, 3}, then *P*(*A*) = {∅, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3}}. There are 8 distinct elements in the power set of *A *= {1, 2, 3}. In general, for any finite set *A *containing *n *distinct elements, we find that *A *has 2*n *subsets and therefore, *P*(*A*) has 2*n *elements in it.

1. For sets *A, B*, and *C*, the operations ∩ and ∪ satisfy the properties of commutation, association, and distribution:

(a) *A *∪ *B *= *B *∪ *A, A *∩ *B *= *B *∩ *A*;

(b) (*A *∪ *B*) ∪ C = *A *∪ (*B *∪ *C*), (*A *∩ *B*) ∩ *C *= *A *∩ (*B *∩ *C*);

(c) (*A *∪ *B*) ∩ *C *= (*A *∩ *C*) ∪ (*B *∩ *C*), (*A *∩ *B*) ∪ *C *= (*A *∪ *C*) ∩ (*B *∪ *C*).

2. Show that *S *and *T *are disjoint if and only if *S *∪ *T *= *S*Δ*T*.

3. Prove that *A*Δ(*B*Δ*C*) = (*A *Δ *B*)Δ *C *and *A *∩ (*B *Δ *C*) = (*A *∩ *B*)Δ(*A *∩ *C*).

4. For any sets *A, B*, and *C*, prove that

(a) *A *Δ *B *⊂ (*A*Δ*C*)∪(*B*Δ*C*), and show by an example that the inclusion may be proper.

(b) (*A *\ *B*) ∪ *B *= (*A *∪ *B*) \ *B *.

5. For a given integer *n *, the set of integers.

6. Let (*An*) be a sequence of sets. Prove the following properties.

(a) *x *if and only if for any *N *, there exists *n *≥ *N *such that *x *∈ *An*.

(b) *x *if and only if there exists *Nx *, such that for all *n *≥ *Nx*, we have *x *∈ *An*.

(c) If (*An*exists and

(d) If (*An*exists and

7. If *A *and *B *. Show that *B*.

8. Let (*An*) be a sequence of sets defined as follows:

= [0, 2).

9. Let (*An*) be a sequence of sets which are mutually disjoint, i.e., *Ak *∩ *Al *= ∅ for *k *≠ *l*.

10. Let *A *be a nonempty finite set with *n *elements. Show that there are 2*n *elements in its power set *P*(*A*).

Let *X *and *Y *be two sets. The *Cartesian product*, or *cross product*, of *X *and *Y*, denoted by *X *× *Y*, is the set given by

The elements of *X *× *Y *are called *ordered pairs*. For (*x*1, *y*1), (*x*2, *y*2) ∈ *X *× *Y*, we have (*x*1, *y*1) = (*x*2, *y*2) if and only if *x*1 = *x*2 and *y*1 = *y*2.

Any subset *R *of *X *× *Y *is called a *relation *from *X *to *Y*. We also write (*x, y*) ∈ *R *as *xRy*. For nonempty sets *X *and *Y*, a *function*, or *mapping f *from *X *to *Y*, denoted by *f *: *X **Y*, is a relation from *X *to *Y *in which every element of *X *appears exactly once as the first component of an ordered pair in the relation. We often write *y *= *f*(*x*) when (*x, y*) is an ordered pair in the function. In this case, *y *is called the *image *(or the *value*) of *x *under *f *and *x *the *preimage *of *y*. We call *X *the *domain *of *f *and *Y *the *codomain *of *f*. The subset of *Y *consisting of those elements that appear as second components in the ordered pairs of *f *is called the *range *of *f *and is denoted by *f*(*X*) since it is the set of images of elements of *X *under *f*. If *f *: *X **Y *and *A *⊂ *X*, the *image *of *A *under *f *is the set

If*B *⊂ *Y*, the *inverse image *of *B *is the set

A*real-valued function *on *A *is a function *f *: *A *, and a *complex-valued function on A *is a function *f *: *A *.

The proofs of the following properties are left to the reader as exercises.

**Theorem 1.2.1: **Let *f *: *X **Y *and *A *a collection of subsets of *X*, *B *a collection of subsets of *Y*. Then

A function *f *: *X **Y *is called *one-to-one*, or *injective*, if *f*(*x*1) = *f*(*x*2) implies that *x*1 = *x*2. Therefore, by the contrapositive of the definition, *f *: *X **Y *is one-to-one if and only if *x*1 ≠ *x*2 implies that *f*(*x*1) ≠ *f*(*x*2). A function *f *: *X **Y *is called *onto*, or *surjective*, if *f*(*X*) = *Y*. Thus, *f *: *X **Y *is onto if and only if for any *y *∈ *Y*, there is *x *∈ *X *such that *f*(*x*) = *y. f *: *X **Y *is said to be *bijective *or a *one-to-one correspondence *if *f *is both one-to-one and onto.

Let *f *be a relation from a set *X *to a set *Y *and *g *a relation from *Y *to a set *Z*. The *composition *of *f *and *g *is the relation consisting of ordered pairs (*x, z*), where *x *∈ *X, z *∈ *Z*, and for which there exists an element *y *∈ *Y *such that (*x, y*) ∈ *f *and (*y, z*) ∈ *g*. We denote the composition of *f *and *g *by *g **f*. If *f *: *X **Y *and *g*: *Y **Z *are functions, then *g **f *: *X **Z *is called the *composite function *or *composition *of *f *and *g*. If *f *: *A **B *is bijective, there is a unique inverse function *f*−1 : *B **A *such that *f**f*(*x*) = *x*, for all *x *∈ *A*, and *f **f*−1(*y*) = *y *for all *y *∈ *B*.

**Definition 1.2.1: **For *E *, a function *f *: *E *is said to be *continuous at a point x*0 ∈ *E*, if for every ∈ > 0, there exists a δ > 0 such that

forall *x *∈ *E *with |*x *- *x*0| <δ. The function *f *is said to be *continuous on E *if and only if *f *is continuous at every point in *E*. The set of continuous functions on *E *is denoted by *C*(*E*). When *E *= [*a, b*] is an interval, we simply denote *C*(*E*) by *C*[*a, b*].

**EXAMPLE 1.2.1: **Consider the functions *f *, *g *, *h *, defined by *f*(*n*) = *n*² + 1, *g*(*n*) = 3*n, h*(*n*) = 1 − *n*. Then *f *is neither one-to-one nor onto, *g *is one-to-one but not onto, *h *is bijective, *h*−1(*n*) = 1 - *n*, and *f **h*(*n*) = *n*² − 2*n *+ 2. All of these functions are continuous on their domains.

**EXAMPLE 1.2.2: **A real-valued *polynomial function *of degree *n *is a function *p*(*x*) of the form

, where n is a fixed nonnegative integer and the coefficients *ak *, *k *= 0, 1, …, *n *with *an *≠ 0. We usually denote by *Pn *the set of polynomials of degree at most *n*. *p*(*x*) = *x*³ ∈ *P*. However, *q*(*x*) = *x*² + *x *− 2 is neither one-to-one nor onto. Polynomial functions are continuous.

**Definition 1.2.2: **Let -∞<*a *= *x*0<*x*1 …<*xn *= *b*<∞. Then the set Δ := {*xk*}*k*=0*n *of *knots xk*, *k *= 0, 1, …, *n*, is called a *partition *of the interval [*a, b*]. A function *s *: [*a, b*is called a spline of degree *d *defined over the partition Δ if *s *restricted to each subinterval (*xk*, *xk*+1) is a polynomial in *Pd*. We denote by *Sdr*(Δ) the set of splines of degree *d *with smoothness order *r *defined over Δ. That is, *s *∈ *Sdr*(Δ) if and only if *s *is a spline of degree *d *defined over Δ and its *r*th derivative is continuous. As usual, the derivative of *f *: [*a, b*at a point *x *∈ [*a, b*], denoted by *f′*(*x*, is defined as *f′*(*x*(under the restriction that *x, x *+ *h *∈ [*a, b*]) and the *r*for any integer *r *> 1. We denote by *Cr*[*a, b*] the set of functions with continuous *r*th derivatives over [*a, *

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