Pumping Station Design by Garr M. Jones, PE, DEE and Robert L. Sanks, PhD, PE by Garr M. Jones, PE, DEE and Robert L. Sanks, PhD, PE - Read Online

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Pumping Station Design - Garr M. Jones, PE, DEE

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, Pumping station design/editor-in-chief, Garr M. Jones; co-editors, Bayard E. Bosserman, Robert L. Sanks, George Tchobanoglous.—Rev. 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-85617-513-5 (alk. paper) 1. Pumping stations-Design and construction. 2. Water treatment plants. 3. Sewage disposal plants. I. Jones, Garr M. II. Bosserman, Bayard E. III. Sanks, Robert L. IV. Tchobanoglous, George. TD485.P86 2008 628. 1'44-dc22 2008019632

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Robert (‘‘Bob’’) Sanks was the spark plug behind the projects (a series of individual papers by various authors, a symposium at Montana State University, and the publication of the proceedings from that symposium) that ultimately culminated in writing of a book, Pumping Station Design, an award-winning text that has received a seemingly continuous string of accolades since it was first published in 1989. The first edition was followed by an updated version in 1998. In 2000, Bob and I met to review the contents of the second edition and discuss the production of this, the third edition, because advances in technology and the advent of more meaningful standards for pumping applications demanded that a new version must be produced. Bob insisted that I should take on the mantel of Editor-in-Chief to ensure continuity for a future fourth edition. I am still in active practice and very busy, but I somewhat reluctantly agreed, with the understanding that Bob would assist me in interfacing with the other editors, authors, and contributors, as well as liaising with the publisher and copywriters. As this is written, the third edition project is advancing to a close. As in the past, we have managed to weather several crises, including massive rewrites, misplaced artwork, last minute changes, and scrambled text. Through it all, Bob has done the lion’s share of the work, with only a few executive decisions left to me. We have somehow managed to come close to most of our deadlines and suffered only a few progress reversals. During the more than five years required to produce the copy for this edition, Bob was the one that questioned, cajoled, harassed, hassled, and corrected the participants (there are many) in this endeavor to ensure that the high level of quality in previous editions has been maintained. The other editors, authors, and contributors can justifiably be proud of this final product. I firmly believe this third edition will measure up to the high standard Bob set with the first edition. The fact is, however, that while my name appears as Editor-in-Chief in the title, it is only because of Bob’s tireless efforts that this edition came into being. He deserves the credit, and we all owe him a great debt of gratitude for his tireless efforts.

Garr M. Jones

Upon publication of the third edition of Pumping Station Design, the Board of Editors undertook a thorough review of the entire book to make certain that its quality and usability equaled those of previous editions. Some errors were found and parts required rearrangement for readability. Working with the publisher, the needed corrections were made to this revised edition. The Board of Editors wishes to express its gratitude to Elsevier for its cooperation in helping us to meet our objectives for this revised version of the third edition.

Garr M. Jones

San Diego, California

Bayard E. Bosserman II

Mission Viejo, California

Robert L. Sanks

Bozeman, Montana

George Tchobanoglous

Davis, California

May, 2008

This book, Pumping Station Design, is unique in the following ways. It was written by consultants for consultants so as to be of the greatest practical use for designers. Each author is an expert whose writing is based mostly on personal experience. Little of it was obtained from, or based on, the existing literature. To make the book more usable and understandable, over 370 illustrations are included together with 59 design examples. Most design examples and all formulas are given in both SI and U.S. customary units. The book is complete enough for the novice and advanced enough to be useful to experienced designers and to those who direct or may be associated with design (such as utility managers, city engineers, or equipment suppliers). It is the only text available that deals comprehensively with the entire subject of how to design pumping stations. Finally, the book is unique in the number and expertise of its authors and contributors and in the meticulous care exercised during the seven years of its preparation (as described in the following paragraphs) to make it as easy to read as possible.

The first eleven chapters contain the fundamentals essential for effective design and include hydraulics, piping, water hammer, electricity, and theory and descriptions of pumps. The middle third is devoted to system design, including pump and driver selection and general piping layouts for water, wastewater, and sludge pumping. The last ten chapters contain supporting disciplines and subjects such as instrumentation and design, heating and ventilating, noise and vibration, comparisons of types of pumping stations and pumps, blunder avoidance, contract documents, detailing, and cost analyses. The appendices contain useful physical data, lists of codes and specifications, design checks, start-up checks, and addresses of all publishers given in the references. The tables of flow and headloss in pipes are compiled in a useful form not heretofore published. All of the work is extensively cross-referenced.

Perhaps never before has such a large, talented group of professionals been gathered to produce a book. The 132 expert contributors to this text provide broad and encompassing viewpoints gained from an aggregate of 20 centuries of practical experience. Each author was selected on the basis of specialized knowledge, past performance, experience, and commitment to the profession. Each produced one or more chapters (or parts thereof) based on detailed outlines suggested by the editorial board and improved by author and board as the rest of the book was developed. The other contributors, also selected on the basis of experience and competence, helped in the peer reviews and by supplying information.

Typically, I rewrote (or at least heavily edited) each chapter to conform to a uniform style and then sent it to from three to seven peer reviewers whose collected comments would be rephrased and given to the author with my own comments added. Following the author’s reply, a second rough draft would be prepared and sent to author and reviewers. The returned comments would be recast into a third draft and again sent to the author. The fourth draft, usually called final draft one, was sent to the co-editors. George Tchobanoglous checked every chapter for construction, clarity, and style. Garr M. Jones checked every chapter for practicality and good design practice. The other co-editors reviewed selected chapters for completeness and accuracy. Improvements, integration with other chapters, and nuances of wording often required as many as four subsequent final drafts until the chapter satisfied author, reviewers, and editors—a process that has taken seven years. As the book neared completion, new material was added and various subjects were sometimes shuffled between chapters for more logical presentation and cross-referencing. Alterations and improvements were continued through February 1989. Some idea of the effort taken can be appreciated by realizing that over 50,000 pages of review drafts have been distilled into this book. The result is considered to represent the state of the art (as of early 1989)—practical, authoritative, and essentially timeless. Consulting firms will find that this book can sharply reduce the time for an inexperienced engineer to become a competent pumping station designer. Project leaders will find the comprehensiveness, the checklists, and the list of blunders to be of great help. Utility managers will discover that selective reading of a few chapters will provide insights for directives that can produce better pumping stations for lower overall costs of construction, maintenance, and repair.

The work on this book was begun with a conference on pumping station design and a detailed proceedings outline, which served as a first approximation for the textbook to follow. Proceedings authors were selected on the basis of their experience records and were assigned chapters (or sections thereof) in strict adherence to the outline. The resulting Proceedings, published in 1981 in 4 volumes (1576 pages), are still available and valuable as an adjunct tools for design [out of print in 1996 but still available through interlibrary loan from Montana State University—Ed.]. Although the purpose of the conference was to make this new material immediately available to the profession, it also enabled us to find a group of experts and to gather resources for this book.

What prompted this project was the lack of a complete textbook about pumping station design in the United States (or in the English language insofar as we knew.) Of course, there were many books about pumps and pumping machinery and a few short manuals for designing pumping stations but there was no comprehensive, authoritative text or reference book dealing specifically with the design of all phases of water and wastewater pumping stations. Indeed, the literature about pumping station design has been fragmented, often superficial, sometimes wrong, and generally incomplete. One expert stated that 95 percent of all pumping stations he has seen contain serious design mistakes and that they occur in every category; if so there was a need for a book written by practicing engineers for consultants and others involved in decision making. Knowledge about the subject has been largely confined to consulting engineers, a few large public utilities and to equipment manufactures, so the overall purpose of this project was to gather, codify, and preserve the knowledge (much of which has never been printed) for the benefit of the public and the profession.

Carl W. Reh was the first co-editor appointed and, until his death in 1983, my chief proponent and supporter. The other co-editors, George Tchobanoglous, Donald Newton, B. E. Bosserman II, and Garr M. Jones (in order of appointment) have made this work possible. As technical advisor, Earle C. Smith provided much invaluable guidance and critiqued a large part of the work. All the authors and contributors have given a great deal of time to the project with no thought of reward beyond a desire to be of service to the profession.

Several consulting firms made extraordinary contributions of time, effort, and finances to the project, as follows: Greeley and Hansen Engineers, Chicago—six authors, including one editor, wrote four chapters, a part of another, and two appendices; Brown and Caldwell Consultants, Walnut Creek, California—three authors, including one editor, wrote six chapters and one appendix; Boyle Engineering Corporation, Newport Beach and Bakersfield, California—two authors, including one editor, produced five chapters and one appendix. Several firms, listed in Chapter 29, contributed cost data, an onerous task. Sincere appreciation is extended to all for this help, and, indeed, the engineering profession is indebted to all the contributing firms and personnel.

Mary C. Sanks patiently typed draft after draft and checked grammar, readability, punctuation, and spelling, and she assisted with galley and page proofs. Edimir Rocumback, student in architecture, drafted most of the figures. The entire project was made possible by the financial support of Montana State University. Officers directly involved included Theodore T. Williams, formerly Head, Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics; Byron J. Bennett, formerly Dean, College of Engineering; and Lawrence T. Kain, formerly Administrator of Grants and Contracts.

Robert L. Sanks

Bozeman, Montana

March 1989

The reception of the first edition of this work by the engineering profession has indeed been gratifying. It seems to have become the standard reference for pumping station designers, and many have said it is the only reference they constantly use. In 1989, it received the ‘‘Excellence’’ award from the Professional and Scholarly Publishing Division of the Association of American Publishers. Each year a single engineering book is awarded this signal honor—a sort of Pulitzer Prize for engineering.

Matching that high standard with this second edition has been a challenge. Fortunately, most of the coeditors of the first edition again gave generously of their time, knowledge, and experience. Timothy Thor took the previous draftsman’s place with equal artistry. Several experienced and competent authors and contributors joined the group to fill the omissions in the first edition. The absence of Mary Sanks to type and polish the manuscript left a gap that slowed the work and increased its difficulty.

This second edition is an improvement over the previous one in two major ways. First, every chapter has been examined and revised in some degree to reflect the best modern practice. Some changes are subtle—a word here and there, but many chapters were extensively rewritten. Second, a number of subjects, missing in the first edition, have been added. These include: (1) interviews with operators and supervisors of 15 utilities (that together manage 2700 pumping stations) to discover how to make operation better and maintenance easier and less expensive; (2) guidelines for troubleshooting existing vibration problems; (3) a straightforward explanation of how to avoid vibration problems in new stations; (4) objective, site-specific considerations in recommending whether large submersible pumps should be located in wet wells or dry pits; (5) directions for easily removing large submersible pumps from wet wells; (6) a comparison of life-cycle costs of constant-speed and variable-speed pumping stations; and (7) advice to utilities on how to choose a consulting engineering firm.

The eighth difference between the two editions is the addition of guidelines and worked examples for the design of modern pump intake basins for small to large pumping stations—especially self-cleaning basins for wastewater. In the first edition, wet wells for solids-bearing waters were limited to the few examples of Seattle Metro—now King County (Washington) Department of Metropolitan Servicespumping stations presented in Chapter 17. Other literature contained little of significance about this important subject, so a four-year period of development and research was immediately begun to improve the self-cleaning properties of the trench-type wet well and to develop guidelines for design. As a result, the self-cleaning properties were enhanced manyfold (as much as 50 or more), and the trench-type wet well, previously limited to variable-speed pumping, was adapted to constant-speed pumping—essentially made possible by the use of the sloping approach pipe described in Chapter 12. The inclusion of the results of this research and development is the most important improvement in the second edition.

Although the research was begun for the express purpose of improving this book, it was partly responsible for the appointment of the Committee on Pump Intake Design by the Hydraulic Institute. Following nearly three years of work by the committee, the standards for wet well design were extensively revised, and, at this writing, the draft is being circulated for public review as a step leading to approval by the American National Standards Institute. The trench-type wet well is included in the proposed new standards for both solids-bearing and clean waters. Other types are also allowed if provisions are made for cleaning those for solids-bearing waters. The new proposed standards are in consonance with the presentations in Chapters 12, 17, 26, and 29. The research has, furthermore, led to the construction of several successful trench-type wet wells, and more are being planned or constructed.

The co-editors join me in hoping that you find the second edition even more useful than the first. Suggestions for further improvements (other topics, elimination of errors, etc.) to make future printings or editions ever more valuable are welcome.

Robert L. Sanks

Bozeman, Montana

January, 1998

The third edition of this book has been revised extensively to reflect the many recent advances in equipment, design, and application of pumping systems and equipment. All chapters have been reviewed and revised as appropriate. Some material, representing equipment or technologies now obsolete has been removed and a great deal of new material added. Among other additions, for example, is a means for ensuring the smoothest operation of rotating equipment, greatly increasing the longevity of bearings, and otherwise reducing maintenance given in Section 16-5 and Appendix C, Section 1.05B.

This new edition contains many references to the Hydraulic Institute Standards, which have been improved to a point that they now are extremely valuable to engineers, owners, and to the public at large. Two of the editors served on some of the committees that revised the standards, and the book and standards are fully compatible. The editors believe understanding and appreciating the many Hydraulic Institute’s standards is helpful—almost essential—to the design and installation of pumping equipment.

To emphasize the care needed to meet the requirements of the Hydraulic Institute’s Intake Design Standard, Chapter 12 has been entirely rewritten. The latest design information for self-cleaning, trench-type wet wells, obtained by extensive model studies made by Professors Emeriti Theodore Williams and Robert Sanks (and verified by others) in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Montana State University is presented and discussed. Complete calculations are given for the designs of trench-type wet wells for variable speed and for constant speed pumps with computer-assisted methods for analyzing flow during the cleaning cycle. Dr. Joel Cahoon, Associate Professor, Montana State University, developed computer programs (UnifCrit2.2, Approach, and Trench2.0) that ease the effort associated with designing self-cleaning wet wells. The use of computers for pump selection is presented and illustrated by example. A step-by-step approach to pump selection is given in which current Hydraulic Institute standards are used to aid in identifying the most suitable equipment for the most reliable performance. The chapter also includes extensive material on those installation details that extend service life and minimize maintenance.

Every effort has been made to improve this edition and to make it more user friendly. The editors welcome suggestions from readers for further improvements.

Garr M. Jones

San Diego, California

Robert L. Sanks

Bozeman, Montana

George Tchobanoglous

David, California

Bayard E. Bosserman II

Newport Beach, California

December, 2004

The list of 171 contributors has increased to 183 including several author-experts, namely: Paul Cooper (Chapter 10), Alan Vause (Chapters 13 and 15), James W. Schettler (Chapter 14), Thomas M. Flegal (Chapters 16 and 28 and Appendix C), and Philip Wolstenholme (Chapter 23). The editors are grateful to these and all other contributors. Fairbanks Morse Division of Pentair Pump contributed most of the cost to build the expensive large-scale model of the revised Kirkland Pump Station for the Hydraulic Laboratory at Montana State University. Robert Sanks contributed the rest. Yeomans Chicago Corporation contributed the recirculation pump for the model, and Mountain West Thortex.gave enough Cerami-Tech E.G. to coat the wetted surfaces of the pump for preventing corrosion. The model was constructed by Gordon Williamson and set on a cabinet built by Professor Theodore Lang. Wes Harms, Laboratory Specialist, assisted. The Civil Engineering Department contributed space, cabinets, electricity, water, and other facilities including printing the hard copy of the manuscript for the book.

ITT Flygt contributed an engineer for several days of testing. Arnold Sdano of Fairbanks Morse spent two days helping with other tests on the model. Professor Theodore Williams worked a great many days with Robert Sanks and the model.

Arnold Sdano drew some of the more complex figures. John Clements prepared Figure 12-35 to 12-39. Many people, not always listed as contributors, have been helpful with advice and information. Thank you all for the assistance received.

Robert L. Sanks

Bozeman, Montana

December, 2004

*STEFAN M. ABELIN

Systems Engineering Manager

ITT Flygt Corporation

Trumbull, Connecticut

APPIAH AMIRTHARAJAH, Ph.D., PE

Professor of Civil Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

Atlanta, Georgia

*CARL N. ANDERSON, MS, PE

Consultant

Oakland, California

THOMAS L. ANGLE, PE

Director, Engineering and R&D

Weir Specialty Pumps

Salt Lake City, Utah

RICHARD (RICK) ARBOUR

Vice President, Business Consulting Practice

Brown and Caldwell

Saint Paul, Minnesota

NICHOLAS J. ARHONTES

Collection Facilities O&M Manager

County Sanitation Districts of Orange County

Fountain Valley, California

RUSSELL H. BABCOCK, PE

Consulting Engineer

Westwood, Massachusetts

MICHAEL L. BAHM (Retired)

Pump Maintenance Supervisor

Department of Public Works

Wastewater Treatment Division

City of Baton Rouge, Louisiana

VIRGIL J. BEATY (Retired)

Vice President, Engineering

Fairbanks Morse Pump Corp.

Kansas City, Kansas

*ROBERT S. BENFELL, PE (Deceased)

Chief Instrumentation Engineer

Brown and Caldwell

Seattle, Washington

HARRISON C. BICKNELL, PE

Product Application Engineer

General Electric Co.

Schenectady, New York

DONALD R. BJORK, MSEE, PE

Consultant

Bozeman, Montana

CHARLES T. BLANCHARD

CPC Corporation

Sturbridge, Massachusetts

KIRK BLANCHARD, PE

Manager of Manufacturing

Flygt Corporation

Trumbull, Connecticut

*BAYARD E. BOSSERMAN II, PE

Engineering Consultant

Mission Viejo, California

PAT H. BOUTHILLIER, PENG

Professor of Civil Engineering

University of Alberta

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

E. ROBERT BOUWKAMP, PE

Formerly, Electrical Design Engineer

Williams & Works, Inc.

Grand Rapids, Michigan

MEAD BRADNER

Consultant

Formerly, Applications Engineer

Foxboro Company

Foxboro, Massachusetts

ROBERT H. BROTHERTON, PE

Director of Public Works & Utilities

City of Dunedin, Florida

Formerly, Associate

Envirodyne Engineers

Knoxville, Tennessee

GEORGE R. BROWER, SCD, PE

Vice President

Barge, Sumner, and Cannon, Inc.

Knoxville, Tennessee

Formerly, Professor

University of Arkansas

ROLAND S. BURLINGAME, PE (Deceased)

Senior Vice President

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

Walnut Creek, California

FREDRIC C. BURTON, BCE, LS, PE (Retired)

Manager of International Operations

Flygt Corporation

Norwalk, Connecticut

CASI CADRECHA

Western Regional Marketing Manager

Golden-Anderson

Mars, Pennsylvania

Formerly, Manager Valve Division

Willamette Iron and Steel Co.

JOEL E. CAHOON, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

GEOFFREY A. CARTHEW

Vice President and Office Manager

Brown and Caldwell Consultants

Walnut Creek, California

A. L. CHARBONNEAU, PENG

Consulting Hydraulic Engineer

Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

JOHN CLEMENTS

Illustrator

Brown and Caldwell

Portland, Oregon

*JOHN E. CONNELL, PE (Transferred)

Senior Environmental Engineer

Christian, Spring, Sielbach and Associates

Billings, Montana

*PAUL COOPER, MS, Ph.D., PE (Retired)

Director, Advanced Technology, Ingersoll-Dresser Pumps, now Flowserve Corp.,

Phillipsberg, New Jersey

HARRY E. COVEY, PE

Chief Engineer

The Metropolitan District

Hartford, Connecticut

PATRICK J. CREEGAN, MCE, CE, SE, GE, PE

Vice President–Technical Manager

Water Storage and Conveyance Projects

Engineering-Science, Inc.

Berkeley, California

ROGER J. CRONIN, PE

Partner

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Richmond, Virginia

ALFRED B. CUNNINGHAM, Ph.D.

Professor of Civil Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

RODNEY L. CUSWORTH

Formerly, President

Mono Group, Inc.

Bensenville, Illinois

ZBIGNIEW CZAMOTA

Research Engineering Specialist

ITT Flygt Corporation

Solna, Sweden

ROBERT A. DAFFER, JR., PE

Project Manager and Senior Engineer

Burns and McDonnell

Kansas City, Missouri

THOMAS DEMLOW

Principal

northwest hydraulic consultants

Seattle, Washington

BRUCE DENSMORE

Quality Control Manager

Magna Drive Corporation

Bellevue, Washington

KUNDAN DESAI, MS

Zimpro/Passavant Inc.

Birmingham, Alabama

MICHAEL A. DEVINE

Engine Division

Caterpillar, Inc.

Peoria, Illinois

JOHANNES DE WAAL, PE

Formerly, Principal Associate

Clinton Bogert Associates

Fort Lee, New Jersey

JOHN L. DICMAS, PE (Deceased)

Consulting Mechanical Engineer

Arcadia, California

*GARY S. DODSON, PE

President

G.S. Dodson & Associates

Walnut Creek, California

RICK A. DONALDSON

District Manager

Parco Engineering Corporation

Medfield, Massachusetts

*JAMES C. DOWELL, PE

Partner

Wilson & Company, Engineers & Architects

Phoenix, Arizona

RONALD W. DUNCAN

Senior Application Engineer

MagneTek Louis Allis Drives and Systems

Division of MagneTek

New Berlin, Wisconsin

*DAVID L. EISENHAUER, PE (Retired)

Manager

Engineering Standards Department

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

RAYMOND L. ELLIOTT, PE (Retired)

Director of Plan Review

Williams & Works, Inc.

Grand Rapids, Michigan

EDWARD J. ESFANDI

Senior Engineer

Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts

Compton, California

FRED A. FAIRBANKS, PE (Transferred)

President

Fairway Engineering

San Bernardino, California

*ERIK B. FISKE, MSEE, PE (Retired)

Director of Engineering

Byron Jackson Pump Division

BW/IP International, Inc.

Los Angeles, California

*THOMAS M. FLEGAL, MSc, PE, CDT

Engineering Standards Department Manager

Brown and Caldwell

Eugene, Oregon

MAX FREY, PE (Retired)

Consultant

Vice President of Engineering

Cornell Pump Company

Portland, Oregon

*GEORGE FRYE, BS (Deceased)

Chief Engineer

Yeomans Brothers Company

Specialist

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

RAY A. GALL, MSME

Senior Development Engineer

Spicer Universal Joint Division

Dana Corporation

Toledo, Ohio

PAUL R. GALLO

Vice President, Engineering

Rodney Hunt Company

Orange, Massachusetts

*RICHARD O. GARBUS, MSME, MBA, PE (Deceased)

Senior Consulting Engineer

Fairbanks Morse Pump Corporation

Kansas City, Kansas

VICTOR G. GEREZ, Ph.D.

Department of Electrical Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

JAMES G. GIBBS, JR., PE

Partner

Wilson & Company, Engineers & Architects

Albuquerque, New Mexico

HAROLD D. GILMAN, BA, MA

Associate

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

ROBERT C. GLOVER, PE

President

Fluid Kinetics Corporation

Ventura, California

HOWARD N. GODAT, PE

President

Howard Godat & Associates, Inc.

Olympia, Washington

*MAYO GOTTLIEBSON, BS, PE (Deceased)

President Dyna Systems Company, Inc.

Dublin, Ohio

WILLIAM F. H. GROS

President

The Pitometer Associates, Inc.

Chicago, Illinois

L. V. GUTIERREZ, JR., DENG, PE

Public Works Engineer

City of Chandler, Arizona

Formerly, Vice President

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

Boston, Massachusetts

*DAVID J. HANNA, PE

Associate Professor of Construction

Technology & Management

Ferris State University

Big Rapids, Michigan

GREG HARKER

Senior Applications Engineer, Flow Products

Endress + Hauser Instruments

Greenwood, New Jersey

ROBERT J. HART

Principal Engineer, Pumps & Pumping Systems

DuPont Engineering

Wilmington, Delaware

GEORGE E. HECKER (Retired)

President

Alden Research Laboratory

Holden, Massachusetts

*EARL L. HECKMAN, PE (Retired)

Mechanical Group Head

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

*STANLEY S. HONG, BSEE, MSME, PE (Deceased)

Associate and Chief of Electrical Design

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

W. ERIC HOPKINS (Retired)

Project Manager

Gore and Storrie Limited,

Consulting Engineers

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

DAVID A. HOUSE

Engineering Product Manager

Dresser Pump Division

Taneytown, Maryland

*PHILIP A. HUFF, PE, R-M-S

Consulting Electrical Engineer

Acampo, California

*ELIZABETH M. HUNING, PE

Key Associate

Wilson & Company, Engineers & Architects

Phoenix, Arizona

*WILLIAM A. HUNT, Ph.D., PE

Consulting Engineer

HKM Associates

Bozeman, Montana

Formerly, Professor of Civil Engineering

Montana State University

GARY ISAAC (Retired)

Superintendent of Operations

Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle

(now King County Department of Metropolitan Services)

Renton, Washington

JOSEPH K. JACKSON

Vice President, Sales

Yeomans Chicago Corporation

Melrose Park, Illinois

CHARLES J. JEELACK, PE

Utility Engineering Administrator

Department of Public Utilities

City of Virginia Beach, Virginia

CASEY JONES

Manager

Application Engineering

Square D Company

Columbia, South Carolina

*GARR M. JONES, BSCE, BSIE, PE

Senior Vice President, Design

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

*GEORGE JORGENSEN, PE (Retired)

Chief Engineer

Salt Lake City Public Utilities

Salt Lake City, Utah

WILLARD O. KEIGHTLEY, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

RONALD P. KETTLE

Superintendent of Desert Operations

Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts

Whittier, California

WILLIAM R. KIRKPATRICK, MSCE, PE

Project Manager

Engineering-Science

Berkeley, California

*FRANK KLEIN, BSAE, MSCE, ARCHITECT, PE (Retired)

President

Klein and Hoffman, Inc.

Chicago, Illinois

JOSEPH R. KROON, MSCE, PE

Director, Liquid Services

Stoner Associates, Inc.

Carlisle, Pennsylvania

MELVIN P. LANDIS, PE

Consulting Engineer

Carmichael, California

LONNIE LANGE

Maintenance Manager

Wastewater Operations

Division of Public Works and Engineering Department

City of Houston

Houston, Texas

R. RUSSELL LANGTEAU (Retired)

Pump Specialist

Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers

Kansas City, Missouri

*PAUL C. LEACH, PE

Consulting Engineer

LaConner, Washington

Formerly, Chief Electrical Engineer

Brown and Caldwell

JOHN LEAK, BSC, ARCS

Instrumentation & Automation Engineer

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

JOSEPH E. LESCOVICH

Chief Engineer

GA Industries

Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania

*JERRY G. LILLY, MS, PE

President

JGL Acoustics, Inc.

Bellevue, Washington

RICHARD A. MALESICH

Generator Sales Manager

A&I Distributors

Billings, Montana

RALPH E. MARQUISS, PE (Retired)

Partner

Rummel, Klepper & Kahl, Consulting Engineers

Baltimore, Maryland

*WILLIAM D. MARSCHER

President

Mechanical Solutions

Parsippany, New Jersey

COLIN MARTIN

President

Cham Engineering

Columbia, Connecticut

Consultant to ABS Pumps, Inc.

Meriden, Connecticut

JAMES J. MCCORMACK

RHYS M. MCDONALD

Senior Scientist

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

M. STEVE MERRILL, Ph.D., PE

Project Manager

Brown and Caldwell

Seattle, Washington

WARREN H. MESLOH, PE

Director

Process Design & Equipment Selection

Wilson & Company, Engineers & Architects

Salina, Kansas

J. DAVIS MILLER, PE

President

White Rock Engineering, Inc.

Dallas, Texas

STEPHEN G. MILLER (Transferred)

Vice President

Komline-Sanderson

Peapack, New Jersey

ALOYSIUS M. MOCEK, JR., PE

Vice President of Engineering

Parrish Power Products, Inc.

Toledo, Ohio

JAMES L. MOHART, MSCE, PE, CVS

Director of Administrative Services

Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers

Kansas City, Missouri

ARTHUR MOLSEED

*CHARLES D. MORRIS, Ph.D., PE

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

University of Missouri

Rolla, Missouri

Formerly, Principal Engineer

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

Boston, Massachusetts

MICHAEL C. MULBARGER, MS, PE (Retired)

Vice President

Havens and Emerson, Inc.

Cleveland, Ohio

SATEESH J. NABAR, Ph.D., PE

Senior Principal

Nabar Stanley Brown

Phoenix, Arizona

RICHARD L. NAILEN, PE

Project Engineer

Wisconsin Electric Power Company

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

TIMOTHY NANCE

Senior Engineer Specialist

Square D Company

Columbia, South Carolina

WILLIAM E. (ED) NELSON

DENNIS R. NEUMAN

Research Chemist

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

*DONALD NEWTON, PE (Retired)

Partner

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

REYNOLD NICKEL

Senior Engineer

Parametrix, Inc.

Sumner, Washington

*ROBERT A. (RANDY) NIXON

President

Corrosion Probe, Inc.

Centerbrook, Connecticut

LORAN D. NOVACHEK

Applications Engineer

Waukesha Engine Division

Dresser Industries, Inc.

Waukesha, Wisconsin

ALAN W. O’BRIEN, PE

O’Brien & Associates

Albuquerque, New Mexico

LAURENCE B.OETH, PE

Principal Engineer

Brown and Caldwell

Portland, Oregon

MICHAEL R. OLSON

Senior Applications Engineer

Eaton Corporation, Electric Drives Division

Kenosha, Wisconsin

STEPHEN H. PALAC

Partner and Chief Electrical Engineer

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

CONSTANTINE PAPADAKIS, Ph.D., PE

President

Drexel University

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

*RANDALL A. PARKS

Principal

Integra Engineering

Denver, Colorado

RUSSELL L. PARR

Application Engineer

Cornell Pump Corporation

Portland, Oregon

EVANS W. PASCHAL, Ph.D.

Consultant

Whistler Radio Services

Sinclair Island

Anacortes, Washington

NED W. PASCHKE

Director of Engineering

Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District

Madison, Wisconsin

M. LEROY PATTERSON

Manager Electric Transmission Operations

Montana Power Co.

Butte, Montana

DUANE M. PETERSON

Construction Engineer

Archer-Western Contractors, Ltd.

Phoenix, Arizona

DUANE M. PETERSEN

Municipal Market Manager

Cornell Pump Co.

Portland, Oregon

ALLEN W. PETERSON, MSC, PENG

Professor Emeritus

Department of Civil Engineering

University of Alberta

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

ROBERT E. PHILLIPS, Ph. D. (Retired)

Vice President of Applications and Sales

Turner Designs

Sunnyvale, California

WYETT C. PLAYFORD, PE (Retired)

Project Engineer

Williams & Works, Inc.

Grand Rapids, Wisconsin

JERRY P. POLLOCK

Engineering Manager

Johnson Power Ltd.

Toledo, Ohio

E. O. POTTHOFF, PE (Deceased)

Application Engineer

General Electric Co.

Schenectady, New York

*MARC T. PRITCHARD (Deceased)

Manager, Planning and Control

Construction Management Division

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

RICHARD E. PUSTORINO, PE

President

R. E. Pustonno, PC

Commack, New York

EDGARDO QUIROZ

Engineer

Brown and Caldwell Consultants

Walnut Creek, California

SANJAY P. REDDY

Project Engineer

Carollo Engineers

Phoenix, Arizona

JOHN REDNER

Sewerage System Superintendent

Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts

Whittier, California

DAVID M. REESER, PE

Environmental Process Manager

RUST International Corp.

Portland, Oregon

CARL W. REH, PE (Deceased)

Partner

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

WILLIAM H. RICHARDSON, PE

Partner

Alvord, Burdick and Howson

Chicago, Illinois

*RICHARD J. RINGWOOD, PE

Consulting Engineer

Walnut Creek, California

Formerly, Manager of Environmental Engineering

Kaiser Engineers, Inc.

Oakland, California

RONALD ROSIE

Capital Projects Administrator

Seattle Metro

(now King County Department of Metropolitan Services)

Seattle, Washington

*ROBERT L. SANKS, Ph.D., PE

Consulting Engineer and Professor Emeritus

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

*PERRY L. SCHAFER

Vice President

Brown and Caldwell

Oakland, California

*JAMES W. SCHETTLER

Senior Project Manager, Mechanical

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

*MARVIN DAN SCHMIDT, PE

Principal Engineer

Boyle Engineering Corporation

Bakersfield, California.

DOUGLAS L. SCHNEIDER

Senior Associate

Brown and Caldwell

Seattle, Washington

ARNOLD R. SDANO

Director of Engineering

Fairbanks Morse Pump Corporation

Kansas City, Kansas

DANIEL L. SHAFFER, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

W. STEPHEN SHENK, PE

Manager of Civil Engineering

Wiley and Wilson, Architects–Engineers–Planners

Lynchburg, Virginia

RICHARD N. SKEEHAN, PE

Chief Electrical Engineer

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

GARY SKIPPER

President

MGD Technologies Inc.

San Diego, California

*LOWELL G. SLOAN

Chief Engineer

Prosser/ENPO Industries, Inc.

Piqua, Ohio

*EARLE C. SMITH (Deceased)

President

E.C. Smith and Associates

Upper Montclair, New Jersey

LARRY R. SMITH, PE

Civil Engineering Associate

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

Dallas, Texas

ROBERT E. STARKE

Operations Engineer

Aurora/Layne & Bowler

North Aurora, Illinois

OTTO STEIN, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

JOSEPH W. STEINER

Plants Superintendent

Public Utilities

City of Billings, Montana

DALE STILLER

Director of Maintenance

Madison Metro Sewerage District

Madison, Wisconsin

BRIAN G. STONE, PE

Consulting Engineer

Cottesloe, Australia

Formerly, Vice President

James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers

Pasadena, California

*SAM V. SUIGUSSAAR, PE

Senior Engineer

Greeley and Hansen Engineers

Chicago, Illinois

CHARLES E. SWEENEY, PE

Partner

Water Resources

ENSR Consulting and Engineering

Redmond, Washington

JAMES TAUBE

Electrical Designer

Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority

Florida City, Florida

HARVEY W. TAYLOR, PE (Retired)

Vice President

CRS Engineers

Portland, Oregon

*LEROY R. TAYLOR, PE (Retired)

Division Manager

CH2M-Hill

Boise, Idaho

WILLIAM R. TAYLOR, Ph.D., PE

Professor of Industrial and Management Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

*GEORGE TCHOBANOGLOUS, Ph.D., PE

Consulting Engineer and Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering

University of California, Davis

Davis, California

*MICHAEL G. THALHAMER, PE

Manager and Director of Water and Wastewater Engineering

Psomas and Associates

Sacramento, California

TIMOTHY A. THOR

Architect

KMD Architects and Planners

Portland, Oregon

PATRICIA A. TRAGER, WBE, PE

President

TRH Engineering

Chicago, Illinois

JERALD D. UNDERWOOD, PE

Public Utilities Director

City of Billings, Montana

R. DANIEL VANLUCHENE, Ph.D., PE

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

*ALAN VAUSE

Managing Engineer

Brown and Caldwell

Rancho Cordova, California

ASHOK VARMA, MSME, PE

Vice President and Office Manager

Camp Dresser & McKee, Inc.

Dallas, Texas

JOHN VUNCANNON

Sales Manager

International Valve Marketing, Inc.

Rockdale, Illinois

LELAND J. WALKER, PE (Retired)

Chairman, Board of Directors

Northern Testing Laboratories, Inc.

(now Maxim Technologies, Inc.)

Great Falls, Montana

DAVID WALRATH, PE

Vice President

Hazen & Sawyer, PC

New York, New York

THOMAS M. WALSKI, Ph.D., PE

Vice President

Haestad Methods, Inc.

Waterbury, Connecticut

HORTON WASSERMAN, PE

Senior Project Engineer

Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.

White Plains, New York

GARY Z. WATTERS, Ph.D., PE

Dean, College of Engineering

Computer Science and Technology

California State University

Chico, California

JAMES C. WELL

WILLIAM WHEELER

Consulting Engineer

Doylestown, Pennsylvania

*THEODORE B. WHITON

Formerly, Project Manager

G.S. Dodson & Associates

Walnut Creek, California

THEODORE T. WILLIAMS

Professor Emeritus

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana

THOMAS O. WILLIAMS

Technical Consultant on Gas Engines and Power Generation

Engine Products Division

Caterpillar, Inc.

Mossville, Illinois

ROY E. WILSON, PE

President

Wilson Management Associates, Inc.

Glen Head, New York

ERIC L. WINCHESTER, PENG

Senior Engineer

ADI Limited

Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

FREDERICK R. L. WISE,

Vice President

Parco Engineering

Medfield, Massachusetts

JOHN E. WISKUS, MSSE, PE

Project Manager

CH2M-Hill

Boise, Idaho

*PHILIP WOLSTENHOLME, PE

National Practice Leader for Odor Control

Brown and Caldwell

Seattle, Washington

FRANK A. WOODBURY, PE (Retired)

Senior Applications Engineer

Westinghouse Electric Corporation

Dallas, Texas

JAMES R. WRIGHT, PE

Senior Project Manager

Black & Veatch Engineers–Architects Kansas City, Missouri

EUGENE K. YAREMKO, PENG

Principal

Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, Ltd.

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

WILLIAM YOUNG

Operations Specialist

Brown and Caldwell

Walnut Creek, California

*Asterisk denotes chapter author.

*Asterisk denotes chapter author.

Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Special Preface to the Third Edition of Pumping Station Design

Special Preface to the Revised Third Edition of Pumping Station Design

Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

Acknowledgments

Authors and contributors

Chapter 1: Introduction

1-1. Authors and Contributors

1-2. Responsibilities of Project Engineers

1-3. Units

1-4. Standards and Codes

1-5. Manufacturers’ Recommendations

1-6. Safety

1-7. How to Utilize This Book

1-8. How to Select Consulting Engineering Firms

1-9. Value Engineering

1-10. Ensuring Quality and Economy

1-11. Avoiding Litigation

1-12. Library

1-13. Operator Training

1-14. References

Chapter 2: Nomenclature

2-1. Abbreviations

2-2. Definitions

2-3. Symbols

2-4. Supplementary Reading

Chapter 3: Flow in Conduits

3-1. Fundamentals of Hydraulics

3-2. Friction Losses in Piping

3-3. Pipe Tables

3-4. Headlosses in Pipe Fittings

3-5. Friction Losses in Open Channel Flow

3-6. Energy in Pressurized Pipe Flow

3-7. Energy in Open Channel Flow

3-8. Unbalanced Hydraulic Forces

3-9. Field Measurement of Pipe Diameter and Friction Coefficient

3-10. Flow of Sludges

3-11. Unsteady Flow

3-12. Model Studies

3-13. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

3-14. References

Chapter 4: Piping

4-1. Selection of Exposed Pipe

4-2. Selection of Buried Piping

4-3. Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP)

4-4. Steel Pipe

4-5. Plastic Pipe

4-6. Asbestos Cement Pipe (ACP)

4-7. Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe (RCPP)

4-8. Design of Piping

4-9. Special Piping and Plumbing

4-10. References

4-11. Supplementary Reading

Chapter 5: Valves

5-1. Designing for Quality

5-2. Isolation Valves

5-3. Sluice Gates, Shear Gates, Flap Valves, and Stop Plates

5-4. Check Valves

5-5. Control Valves

5-6. Valve Actuators

5-7. Air and Vacuum Valves

5-8. Materials of Construction

5-9. Installation of Valves

5-10. Corrosion Protection

5-11. References

Chapter 6: Fundamentals of Hydraulic Transients

6-1. Introduction

6-2. Nomenclature

6-3. Methods of Analysis

6-4. Surge Concepts in Frictionless Flow

6-5. Slow Closure of Valves

6-6. Surge Concepts in Flow with Friction

6-7. Column Separation

6-8. Criteria for Conducting Transient Analysis

6-9. References

Chapter 7: Control of Hydraulic Transients

7-1. Overview of Hydraulic Transient Control Strategies

7-2. Control of Pumps

7-3. Control Tanks

7-4. Valves for Transient Control

7-5. Containment of Transients

7-6. Surge Control for Water Pumping Stations

7-7. Surge Control for Raw Wastewater Pumping Stations

7-8. Pipeline Design

7-9. Computer Analysis

7-10. Transients in Distribution Systems

7-11. References

Chapter 8: Electrical Fundamentals and Power System Principles

8-1. Definitions and Code References

8-2. Electrical Fundamentals

8-3. Power and Control System Elements

8-4. Standby Generators and Auxiliaries

8-5. Grounding

8-6. Lighting and Power Outlets

8-7. Electrical Circuit Diagrams

8-8. Power and Control System Practices

8-9. Reference

8-10. Supplementary Reading

Chapter 9: Electrical Design

9-1. Final Construction Drawings

9-2. Specifications

9-3. Contacting Utilities

9-4. Construction Information to Utilities

9-5. Load Estimation

9-6. Overcurrent Protection and Conductor Sizing

9-7. Lighting

9-8. Power Factor

9-9. Engine Generators

9-10. Short-Circuit Current Calculations

9-11. Harmonics

9-12. Construction Service

9-13. References

Chapter 10: Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

10-1. Classification of Centrifugal Pumps

10-2. Pump Application Terminology, Equations, and Performance Curves

10-3. Pump Operating Characteristics

10-4. Cavitation

10-5. Pump Characteristic Curves

10-6. Pump Operating Regions

10-7. Elementary Pump System Analysis

10-8. Practical Pumping System H-Q Curve Analysis

10-10. References

Chapter 11: Types of Pumps

11-1. General Classifications of Pumps

11-2. Classification of Centrifugal Pumps

11-3. Construction of Centrifugal Pumps

11-4. Overhung-Impeller Pumps

11-5. Impeller-between-Bearings Pumps

11-6. Classification of Vertical Pumps

11-7. Construction of Vertical Pumps

11-8. Types of Vertical Pumps

11-9. Positive-Displacement Pumps

11-10. Special Pumps

11-11. Summary of Typical Pump Applications

11-12. References

11-13. Supplementary Reading

Chapter 12: Pumps

12-1. Design of Pump Intakes

12-2. Pump Intake Design Standards

12-3. Types of Pump Intake Basins

12-4. Model Study

12-5. Evolution of Trench-Type Wet Wells

12-6. Summary of Trench-Type Wet Well Characteristics

12-7. Trench-Type Wet Well Design

12-8. Wet Wells in Small Lift Stations

12-9. Principles of Pump Selection

12-10. Step-by-Step Pump Selection and Installation Procedure

12-11. Reducing Cost of Ownership

12-12. Installation Design

12-13. References

Chapter 13: Electric Motors

13-1. General

13-2. Applications of Motors

13-3. Fundamentals

13-4. Types of Motors for Pump Drivers

13-5. Characteristics of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors

13-6. Motor Speed

13-7. Motor Voltage

13-8. Enclosures

13-9. Insulation

13-10. Squirrel-Cage Motors

13-11. Frequency of Motor Starts

13-12. Miscellaneous Motor Features

13-13. Specifying Pumping Unit Drivers

13-14. Definite Purpose Induction Motors

13-15. Design Checklist

13-16. References

Chapter 14: Engines

14-1. Selecting an Engine Drive

14-2. Duty Cycle

14-3. Fuel for Engines

14-4. Aspiration

14-5. Types of Engines

14-6. Rich-Burn or Lean-Burn

14-7. Application Criteria

14-8. Starting Methods

14-9. Cooling Methods

14-10. Controls

14-11. Governors for Engine Control

14-12. Accessories for Engines

14-13. Combustion Air

14-14. Exhaust Silencing

14-15. Pollution Control

14-16. Vibration Isolation

14-17. Lubrication Oil Storage and Supply

14-18. Fuel Oil Storage and Supply

14-19. Gaseous Fuel Storage and Supply

14-20. Service Piping

14-21. Building Envelope

14-22. Ventilation

14-23. Maintenance

Chapter 15: Variable-Speed Pumping

15-1. Variable Speed versus Constant Speed

15-2. Design Considerations

15-3. Theory of Variable-Speed Pumping

15-4. Pump Selection

15-5. Variable- and Constant-Speed Pumps in Simultaneous Operation

15-6. Special Design Considerations

15-7. Analysis of Variable-Speed Booster Pumping

15-8. Minimum Flow Rate

15-9. Operations in Booster Pumping

15-10. Simultaneous Operation of V/S and C/S Booster Pumps

15-11. Adjustable- and Variable-Speed Drives

15-12. References

Chapter 16: Pump-Driver Specifications

16-1. Comparison of Two Approaches to Writing Specifications

16-2. Methods for Specifying Quality of Equipment

16-3. Nonrestrictive Specifications

16-4. Operating Conditions

16-5. Mass Elastic Systems and Critical Speeds

16-6. Pump Testing

16-7. Shipping Major Pumping Units

16-8. Submittals

16-9. Product Data

16-10. Seals

16-11. Pump Shafts

16-12. Pump Shaft Bearings

16-13. Vertical Drive Shafts

16-14. Electric Motors

16-15. Optimum Efficiency

16-16. References

Chapter 17: System Design for Wastewater Pumping

17-1. Organization and Control of the Process

17-2. Preliminary Engineering

17-3. Detailed Layout

17-4. Detailed Design

17-5. Examples of Large Lift Stations

17-6. Examples of Medium-Size Lift Stations

17-7. Examples of Small Lift Stations

17-8. References

Chapter 18: System Design for Water Pumping

18-1. Types of Water Pumping Stations

18-2. Pumping Station Flow and Pressure Requirements

18-3. Raw Water Pumping from Rivers and Lakes

18-4. Raw Water Pumping from Aqueducts

18-5. Well Pumps with Elevated Tanks

18-6. Booster Pumping Stations

18-7. Retrofitting Large Pump Basins

18-8. References

18-9. Suggested Reading

Chapter 19: System Design for Sludge Pumping

19-1. Hydraulic Design

19-2. Types of Pumps

19-3. Pumping System Design

19-4. Piping System Design

19-5. Long-Distance Pumping

19-6. References

Chapter 20: Instrumentation and Control Devices

20-1. Reliability

20-2. Instrument Selection

20-3. Level Measurements

20-4. Pressure Measurements

20-5. Flow Measurements in Pipes

20-6. Open Channel Flow Measurement

20-7. Chlorine Residual Measurement

20-8. Utility and Environmental Measurements

20-9. Pumping Unit Monitors

20-10. Control Equipment

20-11. Control Logic

20-12. Altitude Valves

20-13. Monitoring and Data Acquisition

20-14. Telemetry

20-15. Design Considerations

20-16. References

20-17. Supplementary Reading

Chapter 21: Instrumentation and Control Applications

21-1. Process and Instrumentation Diagrams

21-2. Well Pump with Hydropneumatic Tank

21-3. Booster Stations

21-4. High-Service Pumping Station

21-5. Small Wastewater Lift Station

21-6. Intermediate-Sized Lift Station

21-7. Large Wastewater Pumping Station

Chapter 22: Vibration and Noise

22-1. Problems of Vibration and Noise

22-2. Avoiding Vibration Problems

22-3. Troubleshooting Excessive Vibration

22-4. Introduction to Vibration and Noise Calculations

22-5. Vibration and Noise Characteristics

22-6. Applicable Codes

22-7. Equipment Vibration

22-8. Vibration Isolation Theory

22-9. Vibration Isolators

22-10. Piping Vibration

22-11. Vibration of Drive Shafts

22-12. Vibration of Structures

22-13. Noise

22-14. Reducing Exterior Noise

22-15. References

Chapter 23: Heating, Ventilating, and Cooling

23-1. Need for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

23-2. HVAC Design Criteria

23-3. Odor Control

23-4. Dry Well Design Guidelines

23-5. Energy Use and Conservation

23-6. Corrosion Protection

23-7. Sequence of Design Steps

23-8. Ventilating System Design

23-9. Design of Heating Systems

23-10. Design of Building Cooling Systems

23-11. Design of Refrigerated Cooling Systems

23-12. References

23-13. Supplementary Reading

Chapter 24: Designing for Easy Operation and Low Maintenance

24-1. Site Selection

24-2. Landscaping

24-3. Hydraulics

24-4. Mechanical Considerations

24-5. Smooth-Running and Reliable Pumps

24-6. Electrical Considerations

24-7. Architectural Considerations

24-8. Standby Facilities

24-9. Specifications

24-10. Operators’ Preferences

24-11. Survey of Two Thousand Wastewater Pumping Stations

24-12. Auxiliary Support Systems in Raw Wastewater Pumping Stations

24-13. References

Chapter 25: Summary of Design Considerations

25-1. Need for Pumping Stations

25-2. Site Selection

25-3. Architectural and Environmental Considerations

25-4. Future Expansion

25-5. Hydraulic Constraints

25-6. Types of Pumping Stations

25-7. Power, Drivers, and Standby

25-8. Application-Engineered Equipment

25-9. Station Auxiliaries

25-10. Instruments and Control

25-11. Structural Design

25-12. Concrete Protection: Coatings and Linings

25-13. Corrosion of Metals

25-14. Force Main Design

25-15. References

Chapter 26: Pumping Station Design Examples

26-1. Redesigned Clyde Wastewater Pumping Station

26-2. Redesigned Kirkland Wastewater Pumping Station

26-3. Jameson Canyon Raw Water Pumping Station

26-4. References

Chapter 27: Avoiding Blunders

27-1. General

27-2. Site

27-3. Environmental

27-4. Safety

27-5. Hydraulics

27-6. Wet Wells

27-7. Pumps

27-8. Valves

27-9. Mechanical

27-10. Electrical

27-11. Structural-Architectural

27-12. Specifications

27-13. Economics

27-14. The Future and Remodeling

27-15. Find the Blunders

27-16. Design Reviews

27-17. Operations

27-18. References

Chapter 28: Contract Documents

28-1. General

28-2. Bidding and Contracting Requirements

28-3. Technical Specifications

28-4. Source Material

28-5. Methods of Specifying

28-6. Submittal Requirements

28-7. References

Chapter 29: Costs

29-1. Cost Indexes

29-2. Cost Curves

29-3. Maintenance and Energy

29-4. Interest Formulas

29-5. Cost Estimates

29-6. References

Physical Data

A-1. References

Data for Flow in Pipes, Fittings, and Valves

Typical Specifications for Pumps and Drivers

1.01 DESCRIPTION

1.02 TYPE

1.03 REFERENCES

1.04 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS—ALL PUMPS

1.08 SUBMITTALS

2.01 MATERIALS

2.02 GENERAL QUALITY

2.03 WEARING RINGS

2.04 BALANCE

2.05 DRIVER UNIT SUPPORTS

2.06 PRODUCT DATA

3.01 GENERAL

3.02 ALIGNMENT

3.03 FIELD VIBRATION

3.04 TRAINING

1.02 QUALITY ASSURANCE

1.03 SUBMITTALS

2.01 MANUFACTURERS

2.02 MATERIALS

2.03 EQUIPMENT FEATURES

2.04 SPARE PARTS

2.05 PRODUCT DATA

4.01 EVALUATION OF BIDS

Common Blunders

Checklist for Project Reviews

E-1. Civil Design Checklist

E-2. Structural/Geotechnical/Architectural Design Checklist

E-3. Electrical Design Checklist

E-4. Instrumentation and Control Checklist

E-5. Cross-Connection Control

E-6. Mechanical Design Checklist

E-7. References

Start-Up

F-1. Pre-Visit Check

F-2. Pre-Start-Up Check

F-3. Electrical Systems

F-4. Simplified Operational Checks for Small Stations

F-5. Well Pumps

F-6. Chlorination

F-7. Complex Drives

F-8. Control Panel and Electrical Systems

F-9. Bubbler Systems

F-10. Vacuum Priming Systems

F-11. Compressed Air Systems

F-12. Hydropneumatic Tank Systems

F-13. Main Pumps, Final Pre-Start-Up Checks

F-14. Wet Well and Testing of Main Pumps

F-15. Cleaning Wet Wells

F-16. References

Suction Specific Speed

G-1. References

Index

Introduction

ROBERT L. SANKS

CONTRIBUTORS

Roger J. Cronin

Marc T. Pritchard

Brian G. Stone

Roy L. Wilson

This book is written for a wide variety of readers: the expert and the beginner in a design office; the project leader of a design team; the city engineer or chief engineer of a water or sewerage authority (or their subordinates) who may review plans and specifications; and manufacturers’ representatives who should know how their equipment is best applied to a pumping station. Recommendations for the utilization of the book by each group of readers are given in Section 1-7.

The aim of the volume is to show how to apply the fundamentals of the various disciplines and subjects into a well-integrated pumping station—reliable, easy to operate and maintain, and free from serious design mistakes.

To facilitate the selection of good design engineers, the publisher hereby gives permission to photocopy Chapter 1 only of this book for distribution to municipalities or utilities and their representatives.

1-1. Authors and Contributors

Each author or contributor is an expert with many years of experience in the subject discussed. Furthermore, all chapters were reviewed and critiqued by four to eight other equally qualified experts, including the editors. (Editors’ names are not listed unless an editor is a principal author.)

The reviewers are listed as contributors (except, of course, for the editors), but not all contributors are reviewers. A contributor is one who has helped in any way, from writing a short segment to giving advice.

Engineers do not always agree, and the viewpoints expressed do not necessarily reflect those of each individual contributor or even of the author. Where an unresolvable conflict occurs, both viewpoints are given. No effort has been spared to make this book the most authoritative possible. In spite of these efforts, there are more differences than can be encompassed and some errors may have occurred, so read thoughtfully and with care.

1-2. Responsibilities of Project Engineers

The design of a pumping station depends on several specialties, which are listed in Table 1-1 more or less in chronological order, together with the approximate range of percentages of engineering or design costs. Not all specialties for all pumping stations are shown. For example, river engineering (not shown) might be a significant part of design costs for a raw water pumping station taking water from a river meandering in a sandy plain, and a raw wastewater lift station at a treatment plant may be so closely tied to the treatment plant that it would be impossible to assign engineering costs to the lift station alone.

Table 1-1. Specialties and Disciplines in the Design of Pumping Stations

Although each discipline is important to the success of the design, several specialties do not require a detailed knowledge of hydraulics or pumps. To direct the design of a plant, it is not necessary to be a structural, soils, mechanical, or electrical engineer. But the project leader should be familiar with these disciplines and must be able to coordinate the work of the specialists.

Plant hydraulics requires great care because the hydraulic computations establish the ultimate capacity and, thus, the total capital costs. But the selection and specifying of reliable mechanical equipment is just as important, and an understanding of control methods, available monitoring equipment, and perhaps even display and data storage is fundamental for the design of a good and efficient plant.

It is the responsibility of the project leader to provide or coordinate all of the services in Table 1-1. It is bad practice to allow equipment suppliers to design custom plants in whole or in part. Many are interested in selling their equipment, and they cannot always be trusted to use the best. The project leader should ensure (1) that decisions are made by those who are completely objective and (2) that specifications are written so that inefficient and unreliable equipment with poor maintainability is eliminated.

1-3. Units

Metric (or SI) units are used worldwide and now take precedence in American technical literature. Although SI units will probably be used exclusively in the future, many American engineers still think in English units, plans for structures in the United States are still drawn in feet and inches, and pipes and machinery conform to inches (although many manufacturers now give dimensions in both units). Much of today’s literature is written with SI units followed by English units in parentheses, a cumbersome practice but one that makes the work more universally appealing. That system is followed here, and formulas and many of the worked examples are also shown in both units. Abbreviations are defined in Chapter 2.

Engineering notation is typically used in tables and calculations. Exponents in multiples of three are useful for prefixing units with micro, milli, and kilo. Large and small numbers in calculations, for example, are written as 3.0 ×10⁷ and 1.62 × 10−3, whereas in tables the same numbers are designated in computer language as 3.0 E+7 and 1.62 E−3.

1-4. Standards and Codes

The use of standards in the specifications is extremely important. The quality of the product is largely dependent on a wide variety of standard codes and standard specifications—most of them the result of years of experience by both users and manufacturers. Because most standards and codes, updated from time to time, represent a consensus, they are an indispensable aid for quality control.

Readers, especially designers, should become familiar with the available standards (particularly those identified here) to reference exactly which standards (or portions of standards) apply to the project and to consider the advice contained in them intelligently. Never specify a standard unless you have read all of it and understand its implications. In today’s litigious society, a specifier may be held legally responsible for a conflict or contradiction in a specification. Specifications must be accurate and clear (see Specification Language in Section 28-1).

Standards are referenced in contract documents and in this book by a simple code name such as ANSI B16.1 or ASTM B43. Such designations are entirely sufficient to identify the document.

1-5. Manufacturers’ Recommendations

Be cautious when advised to consult manufacturers or to follow manufacturers’ recommendations. Many manufacturers get business based on one consideration—low price—so they tend to stretch their criteria for use to the limit. Thus, their products perform as they say only if

their instructions or recommendations are followed exactly;

their product is used in a service perfect for its use.

These constraints are rarely met in field installations, so designers must consider the merit of the manufacturer’s recommendations and often establish a more conservative design.

1-6. Safety

Many fatal accidents occur each year in the water and wastewater industries in the United States. Designers should be aware of the hazards and circumvent them insofar as possible both by good design and by adequate warnings and other instructions in the operation and maintenance (O&M) manual. Every designer should read Life Safety Code [1] and two of the NIOSH reports [2, 3] as well as Sections 23-1 and 23-2 in this volume, in which some of the hazards in both water and wastewater pumping are explored.

1-7. How to Utilize This Book

Many of the facets of pumping station design are so interrelated that coherent discussions of different topics sometimes involve the same subject in several places and from different viewpoints. Hence, none of the chapters should be studied in isolation. This is an integrated work and should be read as a whole. For example, station head-capacity (H-Q) tomarily shown as single lines for simplicity. A reader who misses Figure 10-27, Figure 10-30, and 18-17 and the discussion of friction losses in Section 3-2 might not realize that H-Q curves should be considered as broad bands. Note that there is extensive cross-referencing. The relatively complete index can be used to find any given subject.

Recommended Minimum Reading

As a minimum, the user of this book should read Chapters 12, 24, and 27. Those who are concerned with selecting consultants should read Section 1-8.

Beginners

Beginners should read the entire book and resist the temptation to study a single subject or a single chapter.

Project Leaders

Project leaders must have a working knowledge of all phases of the project and must be able to communicate with other members of the team to plan the project effectively. They must coordinate all phases, distinguish the good from the shoddy, and shoulder the responsibility for producing a well-designed facility. Hence, they too should be well acquainted with the entire book.

Experts

Experts are themselves the best judges of what to study. It would be wise to scan the entire volume to note the depth and thoroughness of coverage. There is a wealth of new and valuable information added in many chapters.

Public Utility Managers

Public utility managers and others who deal with or have control over the pumping station design would be wise to read the following:

Chapter 25 from the beginning through Section 25-6 and, especially, Tables 25-3, 25-4, and 25-5 (for wastewater pumping) and Tables 25-6 and 25-7 (for water pumping).

The first few pages of Chapters 17, 18, or 19 for wastewater, water, and sludge pumping, respectively.

Chapter 15, Sections 15-1 and 15-11 and, especially, Table 15-3 and the results of Example 29-1 if variable-speed operation is considered.

Before beginning to review plans, read Chapter 27, because much aggravation can be avoided and considerable funds may be saved by following the advice it contains.

Manufacturers

When advising consultants, it is not enough for manufacturers and their representatives to know their own products. They should also be able to help with the engineering involved in the incorporation of their products into the station. At a minimum, the chapters dealing with their products should be read together with Chapters 12, 17, 18, and 19. Scanning the book will reveal other sections of importance.

1-8. How to Select Consulting Engineering Firms

The public at large tends to believe that registration of engineers ensures competency, but that is not true. Frankly, there just are not enough good engineers for every project. Many pumping stations (and treatment works) are flawed, and a distressing number are quite badly designed. So it is important to retain truly competent designers who will (1) produce a better facility than would mediocre or inexperienced engineers, and (2) probably save the client significant lifecycle costs. Unfortunately, some public bodies are obsessed with the low-bid approach for choosing engineers in the mistaken thought that money is thereby saved—a penny-wise, pound-foolish notion that fosters hasty, ill-considered design; prevents adequate investigation of viable alternatives; and actually favors the inexperienced or incompetent who are willing to work for low wages. The nineteenth-century words of John Ruskin, ‘‘There is hardly anything in the world that some man cannot make a little worse and sell a little cheaper and the people who consider price only are this man’s lawful prey,’’ also apply to the services of any professional, including artists, engineers, lawyers, or surgeons. In fact, as engineering fees are typically only about one-eighth of the construction cost, a major saving in fees is insignificant compared with a minor saving in construction. The spread of construction bid prices is sometimes greater than the entire engineering fee, so the place to save money is in construction. A thoughtful, resourceful designer might save more than the entire consulting fee in life-cycle cost.

Any organization that contemplates selecting an engineering firm on the basis of low bid should be aware of the inevitable results. As any private enterprise must make a profit to stay in business, the following disadvantages will occur when a firm is forced to compete with others for the lowest bid.

The work will be bid exactly as written by the agency. If the scope fails to include all the tasks necessary for completing the project, those tasks will have to be completed by change orders that may negate the supposed low-bid savings.

Options for long-term cost-saving and/or innovative, low-cost alternatives will not be considered. Instead, cookbook designs and copies of previous designs will be used. Although such designs may work (water may be pumped), the design is unlikely to be optimal or the most cost-effective for the new project.

The quality of plans and specifications will decline. Fewer hours will be allocated to coordination meetings, design reviews, and interdisciplinary coordination. Consequently, there will be more construction change orders (always expensive). The effort made in preparing detailed specifications will be the minimum possible. Canned specifications or specifications from a previous job will be used with a minimum of editing for current project needs. Construction inspection will often be under the direction of young and inexperienced engineers.

Low bid is never an adequate basis for selection unless the product can be defined and specified completely and accurately. Artistry and thoughtfulness in engineering or in any product of thought cannot be so specified.

Sometimes, there is an attempt to save money by dispensing with engineering services during construction, by in-house inspection, or by retaining the services of a separate consultant to provide engineering services during construction. A design is not really completed until after the project has entered service and the adjustments required during the commissioning period have been made. When any of the above arrangements are used, the inevitable result is that the designer is shielded from the day-to-day bidding and construction events that inevitably shape and refine the completed project. Loss of direct contact with the project by the designer as it progresses toward completion