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by József Dénes and A. Donald Keedwell

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Length: 452 pages8 hours

In 1974 the editors of the present volume published a well-received book entitled ``Latin Squares and their Applications''. It included a list of 73 unsolved problems of which about 20 have been completely solved in the intervening period and about 10 more have been partially solved.

The present work comprises six contributed chapters and also six further chapters written by the editors themselves. As well as discussing the advances which have been made in the subject matter of most of the chapters of the earlier book, this new book contains one chapter which deals with a subject (r-orthogonal latin squares) which did not exist when the earlier book was written.

The success of the former book is shown by the two or three hundred published papers which deal with questions raised by it.

Publisher: Elsevier ScienceReleased: Jan 24, 1991ISBN: 9780080867861Format: book

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times.

In this preliminary chapter, we provide a number of basic definitions and introduce some of the concepts which will be used throughout the book. Our intention is to ensure that the reader who does not have easy access to a copy of [DK] will be able to read the present book without difficulty.

A latin square of order n is an n×n matrix L whose entries are taken from a set S of n symbols and which has the property that each symbol from S occurs exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column of L.

A latin square based on the natural numbers as symbol set is reduced or in standard form if the elements of its first row and column are in natural order.

A set S on which a binary operation (.) is defined forms a quasigroup with respect to that operation if, when any two elements a, b of S are given, the element a.b is in S and the equations a.x = b and y.a = b each have exactly one solution in S.

A loop H is a quasigroup which has an identity element: that is, a quasigroup in which there exists an element e of H with the property that e.x = x.e = e for all x of H.

It is easy to see that the multiplication table (often called the Cayley table) of a quasigroup is a latin square (Theorem 1.1.1 of [DK]). Moreover, if the quasigroup is commutative, then the latin square is symmetric. If the quasigroup is a loop and the identity element e is taken as first element of the row border and the column border of its multiplication table, then the first row and the first column of the latin square coincide with its borders. As an illustrative example, we exhibit in **Figure 1.1 the multiplication table of a loop of order five whose identity element is denoted by e. This is the smallest order for which there exists a loop which is not a group. **

**Figure 1.1 **

A quasigroup (Q,.) for which a.a = a for all a in Q is called idempotent. One for which a.a = b.b is called unipotent. These same adjectives are applied to the corresponding latin squares. Thus, the latin square exhibited in **Figure 1.1 is unipotent. **

The Cayley table of a group (associative quasigroup) has a property additional to that of being a latin square. Namely, it satisfies the so-called quadrangle criterion. If the entry in the i-th row and j-th column is denoted by aij and if h, i, j, k, …, are any indices, it follows from the equations aij = ai1j1, ahj = ah1j1, ahk = ah1k1 that aik = ai1k1.

(For a proof, see Theorem 1.2.1 of [DK]).

Two latin squares L1 = ||aij|| and L2 = ||bij|| on n symbols, say 1, 2, …, n, are said to be orthogonal if every ordered pair of symbols occurs exactly once among the n² pairs (aij, bij), i = 1, 2, …, n; j = 1, 2, …, n. A pair of orthogonal latin squares A1 and A2 of the smallest possible order 3 is exhibited in **Figure 5.1 of Chapter 2. (In that Figure, the symbol set used is 0, 1, 2.) **

A pair of orthogonal latin squares is also called a graeco-latin square, especially in statistical applications, because **L. Euler (1779) used Greek letters for one square of the pair and latin letters for the other. See, for example, A. D. Keedwell (1983a). **

n), then the entries in the corresponding cells of the latin square L1 must be all different, otherwise the squares would not be orthogonal. Since the symbol h occurs exactly once in each row and once in each column of the latin square L2, we see that the n entries of L1 corresponding to the entry h in L2 have the property that they are all different and also occur one in each row and one in each column of the square L1. A set of n different symbols having this property in a latin square of order n is usually called a transversal of the latin square. (Other names have sometimes been used, more particularly the term directrix and occasionally the confusing term diagonal.)

It will be immediately obvious from the above remarks that a given latin square possesses an orthogonal mate (latin square orthogonal to it) if and only if it has n disjoint transversals. (Theorem 5.1.1 of [DK]).

The concepts of transversal and orthogonal latin squares date from the time of **L. Euler (1779), two hundred years ago. Euler had been able to construct pairs of orthogonal latin squares of every odd order and of every order divisible by four but not of any order congruent to 2 modulo 4. He conjectured that pairs of orthogonal latin squares do not exist for such orders. The conjecture remained unresolved until the present century. In 1900, G. Tarry (1900a) proved that the conjecture was true for the order six by an exhaustive enumeration of cases. Subsequently, a number of much shorter proofs of this result have been obtained. In particular, we refer the reader to R. A. Fisher and F. Yates (1934), K. Yamamoto (1954), A. K. Rybnikov and N. M. Rybnikova (1966), and for two really short proofs to D. R. Stinson (1984) and to D. Betten (1983, 1984). **

Much later, **R. C. Bose, S. S. Shrikhande and E. T. Parker (1960) proved that the Euler conjecture was false for all orders n of the form 4k+2 except n = 2 or 6 by providing a constructive method of obtaining pairs of orthogonal latin squares of all of these orders. Their proof was lengthy and involved concepts from the theory of experimental design. However, it undoubtedly stimulated much new research on the structure and properties of latin squares. Another stimulus was the increasing interest in the theory of finite projective planes, since such a plane can be viewed as a so-called complete set of mutually orthogonal latin squares (Theorem 5.2.2 of [DK]). A set of n−1 pairwise orthogonal latin squares of order n is called a complete set because it is easily seen that no larger set can exist (Theorem 5.1.5 of [DK]). **

Since 1960, much shorter disproofs of Euler’s conjecture have been obtained. The first of these was that of **D. J. Crampin and A. J. W. Hilton (1975) but this involved the use of a computer. A short direct and elegant proof was obtained by L. Zhu (1977) and published in Chinese in that year. Later, an English version was published in Ars Combinatoria, L. Zhu (1982), with editorial comment by one of the present authors. The reader interested in this subject is strongly recommended to look at Zhu’s proof. However, he should take cognizance of the following unfortunate misprints: On page 49 of the Ars Combinatoria paper, the last line should read (Note that we have proved that there exist only two distinct k-th power residues other than unity when p = 3k+1). In the case when p = 3k−1, we show that the cubes of… **

Page 51, line 4, should read … then α³x = αt mod p or …

Page 53, last line, should read If v is divisible by an odd prime p other than 3, then v = 2(2s+1)3h = u.3h where p|(2s+1) and …

.

Page 54, line 9, should read Sets of four MOLS…

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Latin squares which can be obtained one from the other by a permutation of rows, a permutation of columns or a renaming of the symbols are in some sense not mathematically different. We call them isotopic or, sometimes, equivalent.

Similarly, two sets of mutually orthogonal latin squares of the same order are often called equivalent if the numbers of squares in the two sets are the same and if the squares of the two sets can be put into one-to-one correspondence in such a way that each pair is equivalent relative to the same renaming of symbols and reordering of rows and columns.

There is an analogous concept of isotopy between quasigroups. Let (G, ·) and (H,*) be two quasigroups of the same order. An ordered triple (α, β, γ) of one-to-one mappings α, β, γ of the set G onto the set H is called an isotopism of (G,.) upon (H, *) if (xα) * (yβ) = (x.y)γ for all x, y in G. The quasigroups (G,.) and (H,*) are then said to be isotopic.

With any given quasigroup (Q, θ), there are associated, generally speaking, five conjugate or parastropic quasigroups defined on the same set G by the five operations θ*, -1θ, θ-1, -1(θ-1) ≡ (-1θ)*, (-1θ)-1 ≡ (θ-1)* where, if aθb = c for a, b, c ε Q, we write b(o*)a = c, c(-1θ)b = a, a(θ-1)c = b, b{-1(θ-1)}c = a, c{(-1θ)-1}a = b.

It is immediately clear from the definitions that the operations (-1θ)* and (θ-1)* are respectively the same as the operations -1 (θ-1) and (-1θ)-1 as we have indicated. In **S. K. Stein (1956) and (1957) and V. D. Belousov (1965), these five operations associated with a given opeation θ have been called conjugates of θ, while in A. Sade (1959a) they have been called parastrophes of θ. The significance of these operations from the point of view of latin squares is that, if the multiplication table of the quasigroup (Q, θ) is given by the bordered latin square L, then (Q, θ*) has multiplication table given by the transpose of L, while in (Q, -1θ), (Q, θ-1) the roles of row and element number, column and element number, respectively, are interchanged. In the remaining two parastrophic quasigroups, the roles of row, column, and element number are all three permuted. **

If the quasigroup (Q, θ) satisfies a given identity, for example the associative law, then in general each of its conjugates will satisfy a different conjugate identity. Thus, for example, the quasigroup (Q, θ-1) satisfies the identity (xθ-1 y)θ-1 (xθ-1 z) = yθ-1z if (Q, θ) is associative. A table listing the identities conjugate to a number of well-known identities appears as Figure 2.1.8 of [DK].

A set of latin squares which comprises all the latin squares isotopic to a given latin square (an isotopy class) together with all their conjugates is called a main class of latin squares (sometimes a transformation set or an adjugate class). The latin squares of a given order can be classified by separating them first into their main classes and then into their isotopy classes. (See **chapter 4 of [DK].) In addition, we say that two latin squares are isomorphic if their corresponding quasigroups are isomorphic: that is, if one can transform one square into the other by making the same permutation of rows, columns and symbols simultaneously. **

In Part II of the present book, the question of when a latin square is orthogonal to all its parastrophes is discussed.

We end this section and this introductory chapter by calling the reader’s attention to an important theorem due to V. D. **Belousov (1966) of which a new short proof has been published since [DK] was written. Belousov proved that a quasigroup which satisfies any irreducible balanced identity is isotopic to a group. (An identity W1 = W2 defined on a quasigroup (Q,.) is balanced if each variable x which occurs on one side W1 of the identity occurs on the other side W2 too and if no variable occurs in W1 or W2 more than once. The identity is reducible if either (i) each of W1 and W2 contains a free element x so that W1 is of the form U1.x or x. V1 and W2 is likewise of the form U2. x or x. V2 (where Ui or Vi represents a subword of Wi) or (ii) W1 has the product xy of two free elements as a subword and W2 has one of the products xy or yx as a subword, or the dual of this statement. For examples, we refer the reader to [DK], pages 68 and 69). In M. A. Taylor (1978) a short and quite elementary proof of the following generalized version of Belousov’s result has been given: Let W1 = W2 be a balanced identity with the property that W1 contains a subword xy and that x and y are separated in W2. Then every quasigroup (Q,.) which satisfies this identity is isotopic to a group. (We say that x and y are separated in W2 if neither xy nor yx occurs in W2: that is, at least one bracket lies between x and y. Taylor’s proof involves showing that the quadrangle criterion is satisfied by such a quasigroup (Q,.).) **

**Chapter 2 **

**Transversals and Complete Mappings (J. Dénes and A. D. Keedwell) **

The concept of transversal and the closely related one of complete mapping are fundamental to the theory of latin squares. In this chapter, we summarize the basic facts about these concepts and give an account of more recent generalizations and results.

A transversal of a latin square of order n is a set of n cells, one in each row, one in each column, such that no two of the cells contain the same symbol. [**L. Euler (1779)]. A complete mapping of a group, loop, or quasigroup (G, ·) is a bijection x → θ(x) of G onto G such that the mapping x → ϕ(x) defined by ϕ(x) = x.θ(x) is again a bijection of G. [H. B. Mann (1942)]. **

We shall assume the following facts to be well-known:

(1) If Q is a quasigroup which possesses a complete mapping then its multiplication table is a latin square with a transversal; and conversely.

(2) If L is a latin square which satisfies the quadrangle criterion (that is, is isotopic to the multiplication table of a group) and which possesses at least one transversal, then L has a decomposition into n disjoint transversals and consequently has an orthogonal mate.

(3) For a commutative quasigroup of odd order, the identity mapping is a complete mapping [**A. Sade (1960)] and the same result is true for Bol loops of odd order [D. A. Robinson (1966)]. **

A loop is called a Bol loop if, for all elements x, y, z, [(xy)z]y = x[(yz)y]. The class of Bol loops includes all Moufang loops, all Bruck loops and, of course, all groups.

(4) An abelian group has a complete mapping if and only if the product of all its elements is equal to the identity; that is, if and only if it does not have a unique element of order 2. [G. A. **Miller (1903), K. G. Ramanathan (1947), L. J. Paige (1947) and (1951). See also Remark (2) below.] **

(5) For a non-abelian group to have a complete mapping it is necessary that the product of all its elements in some order be equal to the identity and sufficient (but certainly not necessary) that it be R-sequenceable. [**L. J. Paige (1951).] **

(6) A finite group which has a cyclic Sylow 2-subgroup does not possess a complete mapping. [**M. Hall and L. J. Paige (1955).] **

(7) A finite soluble group whose Sylow 2-subgroups are non-cyclic has a complete mapping [**M. Hall and L. J. Paige (1955).] **

(8) All finite alternating groups and all finite symmetric groups except S2 and S3 possess complete mappings [**M. Hall and L. J. Paige (1955).] **

Closely related to (5) above is the concept of a P-group, first conceived by L. Fuchs. Let G be a finite group of order n and G′ its commutator subgroup. Since the elements of G commute mod G′, every product of the n elements of G is in the same coset of G′. (If G has a complete mapping, this coset is G′ itself.) L. Fuchs proposed the study of groups G for which it is true, conversely, that every element of the appropriate coset of G′ in G is expressible as the product of the n elements of G in some suitable order. J. Denes later christened such groups as P-groups. A. **Rhemtulla (1969) showed that every finite soluble group is a P-group and thirteen years later J. Denes and P. Hermann (1982) proved that every finite group is a P-group. Recently, A. D. Keedwell (1983c) and (1984) has introduced a generalization of this concept under the name of super P-group (see Chapter 3 of the present book). **

More details concerning all the above facts and proofs of most of them will be found in section 1.4 of the present authors’ earlier book.

In their earlier book [DK], the present authors had attributed the realization that the product of all the elements of an abelian group is equal to the identity unless the group has a unique element of order two to I. J. Paige. However, see J. Dénes (**1984), it turns out that this result was originally proved by G. A. Miller (1903). Also, in addition to the proofs given by L. J. Paige (1947) and M. Hall (1948), there was also one given by K. G. Ramanathan (1947). **

Regarding statements (5) and (7) above, the present authors have very recently shown that all finite non-soluble groups have non-cyclic Sylow 2-subgroups and, moreover, that there exists an ordering of the elements of any finite non-soluble group for which their product is equal to the identity element. This has led them to propose the new conjecture that every finite non-soluble group has a complete mapping. For details, see J. Dénes and **A. D. Keedwell (1989) and (1990c). **

From (1) and (6) above, it is already clear that many latin squares do not have any transversals. In particular, a latin square of order 4n+2 which has a latin subsquare of order 2n+1 does not possess any transversals. [**H. B. Mann (1944). See also theorem 5.1.4 of [DK].] More generally, a latin square of order n = mq and of q-step type has no transversals if m is even and q is odd. (See the next section.) **

This fact has led several authors to try to determine a lower bound for the length of a partial transversal: that is, a maximal set of cells, each in a different row and each in a different column and such that no two contain the same symbol. K. K. **which is one integer larger than n − √n for some values of n. Their arguments are essentially the same though differently expressed. Both arguments use graphs as a descriptive tool but, in the opinion of the present authors, the introduction of a graph in this particular case does not lead to any real simplification so we offer a graph-free version of the proof in theorem 2.2 below. Also, despite the fact that this theorem supercedes Drake’s earlier result, the ideas used by Drake seem to us sufficiently interesting to merit us including a proof of his result also (in theorem 2.1). **

n−5 · 3(log n)². The latter bound is better than the bound n−√n for all n > 2,000,000. Shor’s argument is novel and does not make use of graphs. However, because it is relatively lengthy, we refer the reader to the original paper for the proof. (The authors hope that, by employing a combination of the various methods, one of their readers may be able to improve the bound yet further.)

min (3n/4, n−2).

ii = i for i = 1, 2, …, t. We shall call the integers 1, 2, …, t minor numbers and the integers t + 1, t + 2, …, n major numbers. We partition the minor numbers into three types. The number h is of type 1 if neither the h-th row nor the h-th column of L contains any major numbers in the last n−t cells. The number h is of type 3 if either the h-th row or the h-th column of L has two or more major numbers in its last n−t cells. All remaining minor numbers are of type 2. Let there be i, j, k numbers of types 1, 2, 3 respectively. Then i+j+k = t.

t. Since T is maximal, D cannot contain any major numbers.

hv we can replace the cell (h, h) of T by the cells (w, h) and either (h, u) or (h, v) and thus extend T. This contradiction shows that no such minor number h exists and consequently, for every type 3 number h, the entries in the n−t cells of row h of B together with the entries in the n−t cells of column h of C include at most n−t major numbers (which are either all in B or all in C). Since, for a type 1 number h, there are no major numbers among the entries in the h-th row of B or the h-th column of C, we can deduce that the total number of major numbers which occur in B and C together cannot exceed 2j+(n−t)k.

wx = h, x ≠ u, then T can be extended as before by replacing cell (h, h) of T by the cells (h, u) and (w, x). From this, we deduce that a type 2 minor number occurs at most once in D.

3n/4.

t.

(i, i) = i for i = 1, 2, …, t as in Drake’s theorem. We shall again call the integers 1, 2, …, t minor numbers and the integers t−1, t+2, …, n major numbers. Because t is maximal, D contains only minor numbers.

Ai−1 ∪ M}, where M is the set of major numbers.

Then A1 contains the row-numbers of all those rows of L which contain major numbers in the (t+1)-th column, A2 contains the row-numbers of all those rows of L which contain in the (t+2) -th column either major numbers or else entries from A1, and so on. For example, in **Figure 2.1, the numbers 1, 2, …, 9 are minor numbers and the sets just defined are as **

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