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Table of Contents

Cover image

Copyright

Preface

Contributors

Introduction

Chapter 1. The Automation Practicum

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Job Descriptions

1.3. Careers and Career Paths

1.4. Where Automation Fits in the Extended Enterprise

1.5. Manufacturing Execution Systems and Manufacturing Operations Management

Chapter 2. Basic Principles of Industrial Automation

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Standards

2.3. Sensor and System Design, Installation, and Commissioning

2.4. Maintenance and Operation

Chapter 3. Measurement Methods and Control Strategies

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Measurement and Field Calibration Methodology

3.3. Process Control Strategies

3.4. Advanced Control Strategies

Chapter 4. Simulation and Design Software

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Simulation

4.3. Best Practices for Simulation Systems in Automation

4.4. Ground-up Testing and Training

4.5. Simulation System Selection

4.6. Simulation for Automation in the Validated Industries

4.7. Conclusion

Chapter 5. Security for Industrial Automation

5.1. The Security Problem

5.2. An Analysis of the Security Needs of Industrial Automation

5.3. Some Recommendations for Industrial Automation Security

Chapter 6. Measurement of Flow

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Basic principles of Flow Measurement

6.3. Fluid Flow in Closed Pipes

6.4. Flow in Open Channels

6.5. Point Velocity Measurement

6.6. Flowmeter Calibration Methods

Chapter 7. Measurement of Viscosity

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Behavior

7.3. Measurement of the Shear Viscosity

7.4. Shop-Floor Viscometers

7.5. Measurement of the Extensional Viscosity

7.6. Measurement of Viscosity Under Extremes of Temperature and Pressure

7.7. Online Measurements

7.8. Accuracy and Range

Chapter 8. Measurement of Length

8.1. Introduction

8.2. The Nature of Length

8.3. Derived Measurements

8.4. Standards and Calibration of Length

8.5. Practice of Length Measurement for Industrial Use

8.6. Automatic Gauging Systems

Chapter 9. Measurement of Strain

9.1. Strain

9.2. Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges

9.3. Gauge Characteristics

9.4. Installation

9.5. Circuits for Strain Gauges

9.6. Vibrating Wire Strain Gauge

9.7. Capacitive Strain Gauges

9.8. Surveys of Whole Surfaces

9.9. Photoelasticity

Chapter 10. Measurement of Level and Volume

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Practice of Level Measurement

10.3. Calibration of Level-Measuring Systems

10.4. Methods Providing Full-Range Level Measurement

10.5. Methods Providing Short-Range Detection

Chapter 11. Vibration

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Amplitude calibration

11.3. Sensor practice

11.4. Literature

Chapter 12. Measurement of Force

12.1. Basic Concepts

12.2. Force Measurement Methods

12.3. Lever-Balance Methods

12.4. Force-Balance Methods

12.5. Hydraulic Pressure Measurement

12.6. Acceleration Measurement

12.7. Elastic Elements

12.8. Further Developments

Chapter 13. Measurement of Density

13.1. General

13.2. Measurement of Density Using Weight

13.3. Measurement of Density Using Buoyancy

13.4. Measurement of Density Using a Hydrostatic Head

13.5. Measurement of Density Using Radiation

13.6. Measurement of Density Using Resonant Elements

Chapter 14. Measurement of Pressure

14.1. What is Pressure?

14.2. Pressure Measurement

14.3. Pressure Transmitters

Chapter 15. Measurement of Vacuum

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Absolute Gauges

15.3. Nonabsolute Gauges

Chapter 16. Particle Sizing

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Characterization of Particles

16.3. Terminal Velocity

16.4. Optical Effects Caused by Particles

16.5. Particle Shape

16.6. Methods for Characterizing a Group of Particles

16.7. Analysis Methods that Measure Size Directly

16.8. Analysis Methods that Measure Terminal Velocity

16.9. Analysis Methods that Infer Size from Some Other Property

Chapter 17. Fiber Optics in Sensor Instrumentation

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Principles of Optical Fiber Sensing

17.3. Interferometric Sensing Approach

17.4. Doppler Anemometry

17.5. In-Fiber Sensing Structures

Chapter 18. Nanotechnology for Sensors

18.1. Introduction

18.2. What is Nanotechnology?

18.3. Nanotechnology for Pressure Transmitters

18.4. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

18.5. MEMS Sensors Today

Chapter 19. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Terminology

19.3. Background Information

19.4. Attributes and Features of Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters

19.5. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Temperature Transmitters

19.6. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Pressure and Differential Transmitters

19.7. Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Flowmeters

19.8. Other Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters

19.9. Other Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Measurement Systems

19.10. Fieldbus

19.11. User Experience with Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Transmitters

19.12. Fieldbus Function and Benefits

Chapter 20. Industrial Wireless Technology and Planning

20.1. Introduction

20.2. The History of Wireless

20.3. The Basics

20.4. Planning for Wireless

Chapter 21. Temperature Measurement

21.1. Temperature and Heat

21.2. Temperature Scales

21.3. Measurement Techniques: Direct Effects

21.4. Measurement Techniques: Electrical

21.5. Measurement Techniques: Thermocouples

21.6. Measurement Techniques: Radiation Thermometers

21.7. Temperature Measurement Considerations

Chapter 22. Chemical Analysis

22.1. Introduction to Chemical Analysis

22.2. Chromatography

22.3. Polarography and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

22.4. Thermal Analysis

Chapter 23. Chemical Analysis

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Absorption and Reflection Techniques

23.3. Atomic Techniques: Emission, Absorption, and Fluorescence

23.4. X-Ray Spectroscopy

23.5. Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy

23.6. Microwave Spectroscopy

23.7. Neutron Activation

23.8. Mass Spectrometers

Chapter 24. Chemical Analysis

24.1. Acids and Alkalis

24.2. Ionization of Water

24.3. Electrical Conductivity

24.4. The Concept of PH

24.5. Electrode Potentials

24.6. Ion-Selective Electrodes

24.7. Potentiometry and Specific Ion Measurement

24.8. Common Electrochemical Analyzers

Chapter 25. Chemical Analysis

25.1. Introduction

25.2. Separation of Gaseous Mixtures

25.3. Detectors

25.4. Process Chromatography

25.5. Special Gas Analyzers

25.6. Calibration of gas analyzers

Chapter 26. Chemical Analysis

26.1. Introduction

26.2. Definitions

26.3. Measurement techniques

26.4. Calibration

Chapter 27. Electrical Measurements

27.1. Units and Standards of Electrical Measurement

27.2. Measurement of DC and AC Current and Voltage Using Indicating Instruments

27.3. Digital Voltmeters and Digital Multimeters

27.4. Power Measurement

27.5. Measurement of Electrical Energy

27.6. Power-factor measurement

27.7. The Measurement of Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

27.8. Digital Frequency and Period/Time-Interval Measurement

27.9. Frequency and phase measurement using an oscilloscope

Chapter 28. Optical Measurements

28.1. Introduction

28.2. Light Sources

28.3. Detectors

28.4. Detector Techniques

28.5. Intensity measurement

28.6. Wavelength and Color

28.7. Measurement of Optical Properties

28.8. Thermal Imaging Techniques

Chapter 29. Nuclear Instrumentation Technology

29.1. Introduction

29.2. Detectors

29.3. Electronics

Chapter 30. Measurements Employing Nuclear Techniques

30.1. Introduction

30.2. Materials Analysis

30.3. Mechanical measurements

30.4. Miscellaneous Measurements

Chapter 31. Non-Destructive Testing

31.1. Introduction

31.2. Visual Examination

31.3. Surface-Inspection Methods

31.4. Ultrasonics

31.5. Radiography

31.6. Underwater Non-Destructive Testing

31.7. Developments

31.8. Certification of Personnel

Chapter 32. Noise Measurement

32.1. Sound and Sound Fields

32.2. Instrumentation for the Measurement of Sound-Pressure Level

32.3. Frequency Analyzers

32.4. Recorders

32.5. Sound-Intensity Analyzers

32.6. Calibration of Measuring Instruments

32.7. The Measurement of Sound-Pressure Level and Sound Level

32.8. Effect of Environmental Conditions on Measurements

Chapter 33. Field Controllers, Hardware and Software

33.1. Introduction

33.2. Field Controllers, Hardware, and Software

Chapter 34. Advanced Control for the Plant Floor

34.1. Introduction

34.2. Early Developments

34.3. The Need for Process Control

34.4. Unmeasured Disturbances

34.5. Automatic Control Valves

34.6. Types of Feedback Control

34.7. Measured Disturbances

34.8. The Need for Models

34.9. The Emergence of MPC

34.10. MPC vs. ARC

34.11. Hierarchy

34.12. Other Problems with MPC

34.13. Where We are Today?

34.14. Recommendations for Using MPC

34.15. What's in Store for the Next 40 Years?

Chapter 35. Batch Process Control

35.1. Introduction

Chapter 36. Applying Control Valves

36.1. Introduction

36.2. Valve Types and Characteristics

36.3. Distortion of Valve Characteristics

36.4. Rangeability

36.5. Loop Tuning

36.6. Positioning Positioners

36.7. Smarter Smart Valves

36.8. Valves Serve as Flowmeters

Chapter 37. Design and Construction of Instruments

37.1. Introduction

37.2. Instrument Design

37.3. Elements of Construction

37.4. Construction of Electronic Instruments

37.5. Mechanical Instruments

Chapter 38. Instrument Installation and Commissioning

38.1. Introduction

38.2. General Requirements

38.3. Storage and Protection

38.4. Mounting and Accessibility

38.5. Piping Systems

38.6. Cabling

38.7. Grounding

38.8. Testing and Pre-Commissioning

38.9. Plant Commissioning

Chapter 39. Sampling

39.1. Introduction

39.2. Sample System Components

39.3. Typical Sample Systems

Chapter 40. Telemetry

40.1. Introduction

40.2. Communication Channels

40.3. Signal Multiplexing

40.4. Pulse Encoding

40.5. Carrier Wave Modulation

40.6. Error Detection and Correction Codes

40.7. Direct Analog Signal Transmission

40.8. Frequency Transmission

40.9. Digital Signal Transmission

Chapter 41. Display and Recording

41.1. Introduction

41.2. Indicating Devices

41.3. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

41.4. Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)

41.5. Plasma Displays

41.6. Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)

41.7. Graphical Recorders

41.8. Magnetic Recording

41.9. Transient/Waveform Recorders

41.10. Data Loggers

Chapter 42. Pneumatic Instrumentation

42.1. Basic Characteristics

42.2. Pneumatic Measurement and Control Systems

42.3. Principal Measurements

42.4. Pneumatic Transmission

42.5. Pneumatic Controllers

42.6. Signal Conditioning

42.7. Electropneumatic Interface

Chapter 43. Reliability in Instrumentation and Control

43.1. Reliability Principles and Terminology

43.2. Reliability Assessment

43.3. System Design

43.4. Building High-reliability Systems

43.5. The Human Operatorin Control and Instrumentation

43.6. Safety Monitoring

43.7. Software reliability

43.8. Electronic and Avionic Systems

43.9. Nuclear Reactor Control Systems

43.10. Process and Plant Control

Chapter 44. Safety

44.1. Introduction

44.2. Electrocution Risk

44.3. Flammable Atmospheres

44.4. Other Safety Aspects

44.5. Conclusion

Chapter 45. EMC

45.1. Introduction

45.2. Interference coupling mechanisms

45.3. Circuits, Layout, and Grounding

45.4. Interfaces, filtering, and shielding

45.5. The Regulatory Framework

Appendix A. General Instrumentation Books

Appendix B. Professional Societies and Associations

Appendix C. The Institute of Measurement and Control

Appendix D. International Society of Automation, Formerly Instrument Society of America

Index

Copyright

Butterworth-Heinemann is an imprint of Elsevier

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Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions.

This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Instrumentation reference book / [edited by] Walt Boyes. —4th ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-0-7506-8308-1

1. Physical instruments—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Engineering instruments—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Boyes, Walt.

II. Title.

QC53.I574 2010

530'.7—dc22

2009029513

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 978-0-7506-8308-1

For information on all Butterworth–Heinemann publications visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.com

Printed in the United States of America

09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Typeset by: diacriTech, India

Preface

Preface to the Fourth Edition

In this fourth edition of the Instrumentation Reference Book we have attempted to maintain the one-volume scheme with which we began while expanding the work to match the current view of the automation practitioner in the process industries.

In the process industries, practitioners are now required to have knowledge and skills far outside the instrumentation and control area. Typically, automation practitioners have been required to be familiar with enterprise organization and integration, so the instruments and control systems under their purview can easily transfer and receive needed information and instructions from anywhere throughout the extended enterprise. They have needed substantially more experience in programming and use of computers and, since the first edition of this work was published, an entirely new subdiscipline of automation has been created: industrial networking.

In fact, the very name of the profession has changed. In 2008, the venerable Instrumentation Society of America changed its official name to the International Society of Automation in recognition of this fact.

The authors and the editor hope that this volume and the guidance it provides will be of benefit to all practitioners of automation in the process industries.

The editor wishes to thank Elsevier, and his understanding and long-suffering publisher, Matthew Hart, and the authors who contributed to this volume.

— W. H. Boyes, ISA Fellow

Editor

Preface to the Third Edition

This edition is not completely new. The second edition built on the first, and so does this edition. This work has been almost entirely one of internationalizing a work mainly written for the United Kingdom. New matter has been added, especially in the areas of analyzers, level and flowmeters, and fieldbus. References to standards are various, and British Standards are often referenced. International standards are in flux, and most standards bodies are striving to have equivalent standards throughout the world. The reader is encouraged to refer to IEC, ANSI, or other standards when only a British Standard is shown. The ubiquity of the World Wide Web has made it possible for any standard anywhere to be located and purchase or, in some cases, read online free, so it has not been necessary to cross-reference standards liberally in this work.

The editor wants to thank all the new contributors, attributed and not, for their advice, suggestions, and corrections. He fondly wishes that he has caught all the typographical errors, but knows that is unlikely. Last, the Editor wants to thank his several editors at Butterworth-Heinemann for their patience, as well as Michael Forster, the publisher.

— W. H. Boyes

Maple Valley, Washington

2002

Preface to the Second Edition

E. B. Jones's writings on instrument technology go back at least to 1953. He was something of a pioneer in producing high-level material that could guide those studying his subjects. He had both practical experience of his subject and had taught it at college, and this enabled him to lay down a foundation that could be built on for more than 40 years. I must express my thanks that the first edition of the Instrumentation Reference Book, which E. B. Jones's work was molded into, has sold well from 1988 to 1994.

This book has been accepted as one of the Butterworth-Heinemann series of reference books—a goodly number of volumes covering much of technology. Such books need updating to keep abreast of developments, and this first updating calls for celebration!

There were several aspects that needed enlarging and several completely new chapters were needed. It might be remarked that a number of new books, relevant to the whole field of instrumentation, have appeared recently, and these have been added to the list. Does this signify a growing recognition of the place of instrumentation?

Many people should be thanked for their work that has brought together this new edition. Collaboration with the Institute of Measurement and Control has been established, and this means that the book is now produced under their sponsorship. Of course, those who have written, or revised what they had written before, deserve my gratitude for their response. I would also like to say thank you to the Butterworth-Heinemann staff for their cooperation.

— B. E. N. Dorking

Preface to the First Edition

Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having what might be called a fuzzy frontier with many other subjects. Look for books about it, and in most libraries you are liable to find them widely separated along the shelves, classified under several different headings. Instrumentation is barely recognized as a science or technology in its own right. That raises some difficulties for writers in the field and indeed for would-be readers. We hope that what we are offering here will prove to have helped with clarification.

A reference book should of course be there for people to refer to for the information they need. The spectrum is wide: students, instrument engineers, instrument users, and potential users who just want to explore possibilities. And the information needed in real life is a mixture of technical and commercial matters. So while the major part of the Instrumentation Reference Book is a technical introduction to many facets of the subject, there is also a commercial part where manufacturers and so on are listed. Instrumentation is evolving, perhaps even faster than most technologies, emphasizing the importance of relevant research; we have tried to recognize that by facilitating contact with universities and other places spearheading development.

One need for information is to ascertain where more information can be gained. We have catered for this with references at the ends of chapters to more specialized books.

Many agents have come together to produce the Instrumentation Reference Book and to whom thanks are due: those who have written, those who have drawn, and those who have painstakingly checked facts. I should especially thank Caroline Mallinder and Elizabeth Alderton who produced order out of chaos in the compilation of long lists of names and addresses. Thanks should also go elsewhere in the Butterworth hierarchy for the original germ of the idea that this could be a good addition to their family of reference books. In a familiar tradition, I thank my wife for her tolerance and patience about time-consuming activities such as telephoning, typing, and traveling–or at the least for limiting her natural intolerance and impatience of my excessive indulgence in them!

— B. E. N. Dorking

Contributors

C. S. Bahra, BSc, MSc, CEng, MIMechE, was formerly Development Manager at Transducer Systems Ltd.

J. Barron, BA, MA (Cantab), is a Lecturer at the University of Cambridge.

Jonas Berge, Senior Engineer, Emerson Process Management.

Martin Berutti, Director of Marketing, Mynah Technologies Inc., Chesterfield, MO, is an expert on medium and high resolution process simulation systems.

Walt Boyes, Principal, Spitzer and Boyes LLC, Aurora, Ill., is an ISA Fellow and Editor in Chief of Control magazine and www.controlglobal.com and is a recognized industry analyst and consultant. He has over 30 years experience in sales, marketing, technical support, new product development, and management in the instrumentation industries.

G. Burns, BSc, PhD, AMIEE, Glasgow College of Technology.

J. C. Cluley, MSc, CEng, MIEE, FBCS, was formerly a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Birmingham.

R. Cumming, BSc, FIQA, Scottish School of Non- destructive Testing.

W. G. Cummings, BSc, CChem, FRSC, MInstE, MinstMC, former Head of the Analytical Chemistry Section at Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

A. Danielsson, CEng, FIMechE, FInstMC, is with Wimpey Engineering Ltd. He was a member of the BS working party developing the Code of Practice for Instrumentation in Process Control Systems: Installation-Design.

C. I. Daykin, MA, is Director of Research and Development at Automatic Systems Laboratories Ltd.

Dr. Stanley Dolin, Scientist, Omega Engineering, Stamford, Conn., is an expert on the measurement of temperature.

James R. Ford, PhD, Director of Strategic Initiatives, Maverick Technologies Inc., Columbia, Ill., is a professional engineer and an expert on Advanced Process Control techniques and practices.

T. Fountain, BEng, AMIEE, is the Technical Manager for National Instruments UK Corp., where he has worked since 1989. Before that he was a design engineer for Control Universal, interfacing computers to real-world applications.

G. Fowles was formerly a Senior Development Engineer with the Severn-Trent Water Authority after some time as a Section Leader in the Instrumentation Group of the Water Research Centre.

Charlie Gifford, 21 st Century Manufacturing Technologies, Hailey, Id., is a leading expert on Manufacturing Operations Management and the chief editor of Hitchhiking through Manufacturing, ISA Press, 2008.

J. G. Giles, TEng, has been with Ludlam Sysco Ltd. for a number of years.

Sir Claud Hagart-Alexander, Bt, BA, MInstMC, DL, formerly worked in instrumentation with ICI Ltd. He was then a director of Instrumentation Systems Ltd. He is now retired.

D. R. Heath, BSc, PhD, is with Rank Xerox Ltd.

E. H. Higham, MA, CEng, FIEE, MIMechE, MInstMC, is a Senior Research Fellow in the School of Engineering at the University of Sussex, after a long career with Foxboro Great Britain Ltd.

W. M. Jones, BSc, DPhil, FInstP, is a Reader in the Physics Department at the University College of Wales.

David Kaufman, Director of New Business Development, Honeywell Process Solutions, Phoenix, Az., is an officer of the Wireless Compliance Institute, a member of the leadership of ISA100, the industrial wireless standard, and an expert on industrial wireless networking.

D. Aliaga Kelly, BSc, CPhys, MInstP, MAmPhys-Soc, MSRP, FSAS, is now retired after working for many years as Chief Physicist with Nuclear Enterprises Ltd.

C. Kindell is with AMP of Great Britain Ltd.

E. G. Kingham, CEng, FIEE, was formerly at the Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

T. Kingham, is with AMP of Great Britain Ltd.

J. Kuehn, FInst Accoust, is Managing Director of Bruel & Kjaer (UK) Ltd.

C. K. Laird, BSc, PhD, CChem, MRSC, works in the Chemistry Branch at Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

F. F. Mazda, DFH, MPhil, CEng, MIEE, MBIM, is with Rank Xerox Ltd.

W. McEwan, BSc, CEng, MIMechE, FweldInst, Director Scottish School of Non-destructive Testing.

A. McNab, BSc, PhD, University of Strathclyde.

D. B. Meadowcroft, BSc, PhD, CPhys, FInstP, FICorrST works in the Chemistry Branch at Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

B. T. Meggitt, BSc, MSc, PhD, is Development Manager of LM Technology Ltd. and Visiting Professor in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, City University, London.

Alan Montgomery, Sales Manager, Lumberg Canada Ltd., is a long-time sales and marketing expert in the instrumentation field, and is an expert on modern industrial connectors.

William L. Mostia, Principal, WLM Engineering, Kemah, Tex. Mr. Mostia is an independent consulting engineer and an expert on pneumatic instrumentation, among other specialties.

G. Muir, BSc, MSc, MIM, MInstNDT, MWeldInst, CEng, FIQA, Scottish School of Non-destructive Testing.

B. E. Noltingk, BSc, PhD, CEng, FIEE, FInstP, is now a Consultant after some time as Head of the Instrumentation Section at the Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

Eoin O'Riain, Publisher, Readout Magazine.

D. J. Pacey, BSc, FInst P, was, until recently, a Senior Lecturer in the Physics Department at Brunel University.

Dr. Jerry Paros, President, Paroscientific Corp., Redmond, Wash., is founder of Paroscientific, a leading-edge pressure sensor manufacturer, and one of the leading experts on pressure measurement.

J. Riley is with AMP of Great Britain Ltd.

M. L. Sanderson, BSc, PhD, is Director of the Centre for Fluid Instrumentation at Cranfield Institute of Technology.

M. G. Say, MSc, PhD, CEng, ACGI, DIC, FIEE, FRSE, is Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Heriot-Watt University.

R. Service, MSc, FInstNDT, MWeldInst, MIM, MICP, CEng, FIQA, Scottish School of Non-destructive Testing.

A. C. Smith, BSc, CChem, FRSC, MInstP, former Head of the Analytical Chemistry Section at Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

W. L. Snowsill, BSc, was formerly a Research Officer in the Control and Instrumentation Branch of the Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

K. R. Sturley, BSc, PhD, FIEE, FIEEE, is a Telecommunications Consultant.

P. H. Sydenham, ME, PhD, FInstMC, FIIC, AMIAust, is Head of and Professor at the School of Electronic Engineering in the South Australian Institute of Technology.

A. W. S. Tarrant, BSc, PhD, CPhys, FInstP, FCIBSE, is Director of the Engineering Optics Research Group at the University of Surrey.

M. Tooley, BA, is Dean of the Technology Department at Brooklands College and the author of numerous electronics and computing books.

K. Torrance, BSc, PhD, is in the Materials Branch at Central Electricity Research Laboratories.

L. C. Towle, BSc, CEng, MIMechE, MIEE, MInstMC, is a Director of the MTL Instruments Group Ltd.

L. W. Turner, CEng, FIEE, FRTS, is a Consultant Engineer.

Ian Verhappen, ICE-Pros Ltd., Edmonton, AB Canada, is the former Chair of the Fieldbus Foundation User Group, and an industrial networking consultant. Verhappen is an ISA Fellow, and is an expert on all manner of process analyzers.

K. Walters, MSc, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University College of Wales.

Joseph Weiss, principal, Applied Control Solutions LLC, is an industry expert on control systems and electronic security of control systems, with more than 35 years of experience in the energy industry. He is a member of the Standards and Practices Board of ISA, the International Society of Automation.

T. Williams, BSc, CEng, MIEE, formerly with Rosemount, is a consultant in electromagnetic compatability design and training with Elmac Services, Chichester.

Shari L. S. Worthington, President, Telesian Technology Inc., is an expert on electronic enablement of manufacturing and marketing in the high technology industries.

Introduction

1. Techniques and applications

We can look at instrumentation work in two ways: by techniques or by applications. When we consider instrumentation by technique, we survey one scientific field, such as radioactivity or ultrasonics, and look at all the ways in which it can be used to make useful measurements. When we study instrumentation by application, we cover the various techniques to measure a particular quantity. Under flowmetering, for instance, we look at many methods, including tracers, ultrasonics, or pressure measurement. This book is mainly applications oriented, but in a few cases, notably pneumatics and the employment of nuclear technology, the technique has been the primary unifying theme.

2. Accuracy

The most important question in instrumentation is the accuracy with which a measurement is made. It is such a universal issue that we will talk about it now as well as in the individual chapters to follow. Instrument engineers should be skeptical of accuracy claims, and they should hesitate to accept their own reasoning about the systems they have assembled. They should demand evidence—and preferably proof. Above all, they should be clear in their own minds about the level of accuracy needed to perform a job. Too much accuracy will unnecessarily increase costs; too little may cause performance errors that make the project unworkable.

Accuracy is important but complex. We must first distinguish between systematic and random errors in an instrument. Systematic error is the error inherent in the operation of the instrument, and calibrating can eliminate it. We discuss calibration in several later chapters. Calibration is the comparison of the reading of the instrument in question to a known standard and the maintenance of the evidentiary chain from that standard. We call this traceability.

The phrase random errors implies the action of probability. Some variations in readings, though clearly observed, are difficult to explain, but most random errors can be treated statistically without knowing their cause. In most cases it is assumed that the probability of error is such that errors in individual measurements have a normal distribution about the mean, which is zero if there is no systematic error.

This implies that we should quote errors based on a certain probability of the whereabouts of the true value. The probability grows steadily wider as the range where it might be also grows wider.

When we consider a measurement chain with several links, the two approaches give increasingly different figures. For if we think of possibilities/impossibilities, we must allow that the errors in each link can be extreme and in the same direction, calling for a simple addition when calculating the possible total error. On the other hand, this is improbable, so the chain error that corresponds to a given probability, e c, is appreciably smaller. In fact, statistically,

where e1, e2, and so on are the errors in the different links, each corresponding to the same probability as e c.

We can think of influence quantities as the causes of random errors. Most devices that measure a physical quantity are influenced by other quantities. Even in the simple case of a tape measure, the tape itself is influenced by temperature. Thus, a tape measure will give a false reading unless the influence is allowed for. Instruments should be as insensitive as possible to influence quantities, and users should be aware of them. The effects of these influence quantities can often be reduced by calibrating under conditions as close as possible to the live measurement application. Influence quantities can often be quite complicated. It might not only be the temperature than can affect the instrument, but the change in temperature. Even the rate of change of the temperature can be the critical component of this influence quantity. To make it even more complex, we must also consider the differential between the temperatures of the various instruments that make up the system.

One particular factor that could be thought of as an influence quantity is the direction in which the quantity to be measured is changing. Many instruments give slightly different readings according to whether, as it changes, the particular value of interest is approached from above or below. This phenomenon is called hysteresis.

If we assume that the instrument output is exactly proportional to a quantity, and we find discrepancies, this is called nonlinearity error. Nonlinearity error is the maximum departure of the true input/output curve from the idealized straight line approximating it.

It may be noted that this does not cover changes in incremental gain, the term used for the local slope of the input/output curve. Special cases of the accuracy of conversion from digital to analog signals, and vice versa, are discussed in Sections 29.3.1 and 29.4.5 of Part 4. Calibration at sufficient intermediate points in the range of an instrument can cover systematic nonlinearity.

Microprocessor-based instrumentation has reduced the problem of systematic nonlinearity to a simple issue. Most modern instruments have the internal processing capability to do at least a multipoint breakpoint linearization. Many can even host and process complex linearization equations of third order or higher.

Special terms used in the preceding discussion are defined in BS 5233, several ANSI standards, and in the ISA Dictionary of Instrumentation, along with numerous others.

The general approach to errors that we have outlined follows a statistical approach to a static situation.

Communications theory emphasizes working frequencies and time available, and this approach to error is gaining importance in instrumentation technology as instruments become more intelligent. Sensors connected to digital electronics have little or no error from electronic noise, but most accurate results can still be expected from longer measurement times.

Instrument engineers must be very wary of measuring the wrong thing! Even a highly accurate measurement of the wrong quantity may cause serious process upsets. Significantly for instruments used for control, Heisenberg's law applies on the macro level as well as on the subatomic. The operation of measurement can often disturb the quantity measured.

This can happen in most fields: A flowmeter can obstruct flow and reduce the velocity to be measured, an over-large temperature sensor can cool the material studied, or a low-impedance voltmeter can reduce the potential it is monitoring. Part of the instrument engineer's task is to foresee and avoid errors resulting from the effect instrument has on the system it is being used to study.

3. Environment

Instrument engineers must select their devices based on the environment in which they will be installed. In plants there will be extremes of temperature, vibration, dust, chemicals, and abuse. Instruments for use in plants are very different from those that are designed for laboratory use.

Two kinds of ill effects arise from badly selected instruments: false readings from exceptional values of influence quantities and the irreversible failure of the instrument itself.

Sometimes manufacturers specify limits to working conditions. Sometimes instrument engineers must make their own judgments. When working close to the limits of the working conditions of the equipment, a wise engineer derates the performance of the system or designs environmental mitigation.

Because instrumentation engineering is a practical discipline, a key feature of any system design must be the reliability of the equipment. Reliability is the likelihood of the instrument, or the system, continuing to work satisfactorily over long periods. We discuss reliability deeply in Part 4. It must always be taken into account in selecting instruments and designing systems for any application.

4. Units

The introductory chapters to some books have discussed the theme of what systems of units are used therein. Fortunately the question is becoming obsolete because SI units are adopted nearly everywhere, and certainly in this book. In the United States and a few other areas, where other units still have some usage, we have listed the relationships for the benefit of those who are still more at home with the older expressions.

References

British Standards Institution, Glossary of terms used in Metrology ( 1975); BS 5233.

Dietrich, D.F., Uncertainty, Calibration and Probability: the Statistics of Scientific and Industrial Measurement. ( 1973)Adam Hilger, London.

ISA Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society (ISA), The ISA Comprehensive Dictionary of Measurement and Control, 3rd ed.; online edition, www.isa.org.

Topping, J., Errors of Observation and their Treatment. ( 1972)Chapman and Hall, London.

Chapter 1. The Automation Practicum

W. Boyes

1.1. Introduction

In the years since this book was first published, there have been incredible changes in technology, in sociology, and in the way we work, based on those changes. Who in the early 1970s would have imagined that automation professionals would be looking at the outputs of sensors on handheld devices the size of the communicators on the science fiction TV show Star Trek? Yet by late 2007, automation professionals could do just that (see Figure 1.1).

There is now no way to be competitive in manufacturing, or no way to do science or medicine, without sensors, instruments, transmitters, and automation. The broad practice of automation, which includes instrumentation, control, measurement, and integration of plant floor and manufacturing operations management data, has grown up entirely since the first edition of this book was published.

So, what exactly is automation, and why do we do it? According to the dictionary¹automation has three definitions: 1: the technique of making an apparatus, a process, or a system operate automatically; 2: the state of being operated automatically; 3: automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human labor.

¹.Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2008.

How do we do this? We substitute sensors for the calibrated eyeball of human beings. We connect those sensors to input/output devices that are, in turn, connected to controllers. The controllers are programmed to make sense of the sensor readings and convert them into actions to be taken by final control elements. Those actions, in turn, are measured by the sensors, and the process repeats.

Although it is true that automation has replaced much human labor, it is not a replacement for human beings. Rather, the human ability to visualize, interpret, rationalize, and codify has been moved up the value chain from actually pushing buttons and pulling levers on the factory floor to designing and operating sensors, controllers, computers, and final control elements that can do those things. Meanwhile, automation has become ubiquitous and essential.

Yet as of this writing there is a serious, worldwide shortage of automation professionals who have training, experience, and interest in working with sensors, instrumentation, field controllers, control systems, and manufacturing automation in general.

There are a number of reasons for this shortage, including the generally accepted misunderstanding that the profession of automation is not necessarily recognized as a profession at all. Electrical engineers practice automation. Some mechanical engineers do, too. Many nonengineers also practice automation, as technicians. Many people who are not engineers but have some other technical training have found careers in automation.

Automation is really a multidisciplinary profession, pulling its knowledge base from many different disciplines, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, systems engineering, safety engineering, chemical engineering, and many more areas.

What we hope to present in this book is a single-volume overview of the automation profession—specifically, the manufacturing automation profession and the tools and techniques of the automation professional.

It must be said that there is a closely allied discipline that is shared by both manufacturing and theater. It is the discipline of mechatronics. Gerhard Schweitzer, Emeritus Professor of Mechanics and Professor of Robotics at the ETH Zurich, defines mechatronics this way:

Mechatronics is an interdisciplinary area of engineering that combines mechanical and electrical engineering and computer science. A typical mechatronic system picks up signals from the environment, processes them to generate output signals, transforming them for example into forces, motions and actions.

It is the extension and the completion of mechanical systems with sensors and microcomputers which is the most important aspect. The fact that such a system picks up changes in its environment by sensors, and reacts to their signals using the appropriate information processing, makes it different from conventional machines.

Examples of mechatronic systems are robots, digitally controlled combustion engines, machine tools with self-adaptive tools, contact-free magnetic bearings, automated guided vehicles, etc. Typical for such a product is the high amount of system knowledge and software that is necessary for its design. Furthermore, and this is most essential, software has become an integral part of the product itself, necessary for its function and operation. It is fully justified to say software has become an actual machine element.²

².www.mcgs.ch/mechatronics_definition.html.

This interdisciplinary area, which so obviously shares so many of the techniques and components of manufacturing automation, has also shared in the reluctance of many engineering schools to teach the subject as a separate discipline. Fewer than six institutions of higher learning in North America, for example, teach automation or mechatronics as separate disciplines. One university, the University of California at Santa Cruz, actually offers a graduate degree in mechatronics—from the Theater Arts Department.

In this text we also try to provide insight into ways to enter into a career in manufacturing automation other than falling into it, as so many practitioners have.

1.2. Job Descriptions

Because industrial automation, instrumentation, and controls are truly multidisciplinary, there are many potential job descriptions that plant the job holder squarely in the role of automation professional. There are electricians, electrical engineers, chemical engineers, biochemical engineers, control system technicians, maintenance technicians, operators, reliability engineers, asset and management engineers, biologists, chemists, statisticians, manufacturing, industrial, and civil and mechanical engineers who have become involved in automation and consider themselves automation professionals. System engineers, system analysts, system integrators—all are automation professionals working in industrial automation.

1.3. Careers and Career Paths

A common thread that runs through surveys of how practitioners entered the automation profession is that they were doing something else, got tapped to do an automation project, found they were good at it, and fell into doing more automation projects. There are very few schools that offer careers in automation. Some technical schools and trade schools do, but few universities do.

Many automation professionals enter nonengineering-level automation careers via the military. Training in electronics, maintenance, building automation, and automation in most of the Western militaries is excellent and can easily transfer to a career in industrial automation. For example, the building automation controls on a large military base are very similar to those found in the office and laboratory space in an industrial plant. Reactor control technicians from the nuclear navies of the world are already experienced process control technicians, and their skills transfer to industrial automation in the process environment.

Engineering professionals usually also enter the automation profession by studying something else. Many schools, such as Visvesaraya Technological University in India, offer courses in industrial automation (usually focusing on robotics and mechatronics) as part of another degree course. Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) in Canada, the University of Greenwich in the United Kingdom, and several others offer degrees and advanced degrees in control or automation. Mostly, control is covered in electrical engineering and in chemical engineering curricula, if it is covered at all.

The International Society of Automation (or ISA, formerly the Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society and before that the Instrument Society of America) has addressed the multidisciplinary nature of the automation professional by establishing two global certification programs.

The Certified Control Systems Technician, or CCST, program serves to benchmark skills in the process industries for technicians and operator-level personnel: ISA's Certified Control Systems Technician Program (CCST) offers third-party recognition of technicians' knowledge and skills in automation and control.³ The certification is divided into seven functional domains of expertise: calibration, loop checking, troubleshooting, startup, maintenance/repair, project organization, and administration. The CCST is achieving global recognition as an employment certification.

³.From www.isa.org.

Although ISA is the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) curriculum designer for the Control System Engineering examination, ISA recognized in the early 2000s the fact that the U.S. engineering licensure program was not global and didn't easily transfer to the global engineering environment. Even in the United States, only 44 of 50 states offer licensing to control system engineers. ISA set out to create a nonlicensure-based certification program for automation professionals. The Certified Automation Professional (CAP) program was designed to offer an accreditation in automation on a global basis: ISA certification as a Certified Automation Professional (CAP ) will provide an unbiased, third-party, objective assessment and confirmation of your skills as an automation professional. Automation professionals are responsible for the direction, definition, design, development/application, deployment, documentation, and support of systems, software, and equipment used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting.

⁴.From www.isa.org.

The following guidelines list the experience and expertise required to achieve CAP certification. They are offered here by permission from ISA as a guide to the knowledge required to become an automation professional.

1.3.1. ISA Certified Automation Professional (CAP) Classification System

⁵.ISA Certified Automation Professional (CAP) Classification System, from www.isa.org/~/CAPClassificationSystemWEB.pdf.

Domain I: Feasibility Study. Identify, scope, and justify the automation project.

Task 1. Define the preliminary scope through currently established work practices in order to meet the business need.

Knowledge of:

1. Established work practices

2. Basic process and/or equipment

3. Project management methodology

4. Automation opportunity identification techniques (e.g., dynamic performance measures)

5. Control and information technologies (MES) and equipment

Skill in:

1. Automating process and/or equipment

2. Developing value analyses

Task 2. Determine the degree of automation required through cost/benefit analysis in order to meet the business need.

Knowledge of:

1. Various degrees of automation

2. Various cost/benefit tools

3. Control and information technologies (MES) and equipment

4. Information technology and equipment

Skill in:

1. Analyzing cost versus benefit (e.g., life cycle analysis)

2. Choosing the degree of automation

3. Estimating the cost of control equipment and software

Task 3. Develop a preliminary automation strategy that matches the degree of automation required by considering an array of options and selecting the most reasonable option in order to prepare feasibility estimates.

Knowledge of:

1. Control strategies

2. Principles of measurement

3. Electrical components

4. Control components

5. Various degrees of automation

Skill in:

1. Evaluating different control strategies

2. Selecting appropriate measurements

3. Selecting appropriate components

4. Articulating concepts

Task 4. Conduct technical studies for the preliminary automation strategy by gathering data and conducting an appropriate analysis relative to requirements in order to define development needs and risks.

Knowledge of:

1. Process control theories

2. Machine control theories and mechatronics

3. Risk assessment techniques

Skill in:

1. Conducting technical studies

2. Conducting risk analyses

3. Defining primary control strategies

Task 5. Perform a justification analysis by generating a feasibility cost estimate and using an accepted financial model to determine project viability.

Knowledge of:

1. Financial models (e.g., ROI, NPV)

2. Business drivers

3. Costs of control equipment

4. Estimating techniques

Skill in:

1. Estimating the cost of the system

2. Running the financial model

3. Evaluating the results of the financial analysis for the automation portion of the project

Task 6. Create a conceptual summary document by reporting preliminary decisions and assumptions in order to facilitate go/no go decision making.

Knowledge of:

1. Conceptual summary outlines

Skill in:

1. Writing in a technical and effective manner

2. Compiling and summarizing information efficiently

3. Presenting information

Domain II

Task 1. Determine operational strategies through discussion with key stakeholders and using appropriate documentation in order to create and communicate design requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Interviewing techniques

2. Different operating strategies

3. Team leadership and alignment

Skill in:

1. Leading an individual or group discussion

2. Communicating effectively

3. Writing in a technical and effective manner

4. Building consensus

5. Interpreting the data from interviews

Task 2. Analyze alternative technical solutions by conducting detailed studies in order to define the final automation strategy.

Knowledge of:

1. Automation techniques

2. Control theories

3. Modeling and simulation techniques

4. Basic control elements (e.g., sensors, instruments, actuators, control systems, drive systems, HMI, batch control, machine control)

5. Marketplace products available

6. Process and/or equipment operations

Skill in:

1. Applying and evaluating automation solutions

2. Making intelligent decisions

3. Using the different modeling tools

4. Determining when modeling is needed

Task 3. Establish detailed requirements and data including network architecture, communication concepts, safety concepts, standards, vendor preferences, instrument and equipment data sheets, reporting and information needs, and security architecture through established practices in order to form the basis of the design.

Knowledge of:

1. Network architecture

2. Communication protocols, including field level

3. Safety concepts

4. Industry standards and codes

5. Security requirements

6. Safety standards (e.g., ISAM, ANSI, NFPA)

7. Control systems security practices

Skill in:

1. Conducting safety analyses

2. Determining which data is important to capture

3. Selecting applicable standards and codes

4. Identifying new guidelines that need to be developed

5. Defining information needed for reports

6. Completing instrument and equipment data sheets

Task 4. Generate a project cost estimate by gathering cost information in order to determine continued project viability.

Knowledge of:

1. Control system costs

2. Estimating techniques

3. Available templates and tools

Skill in:

1. Creating cost estimates

2. Evaluating project viability

Task 5. Summarize project requirements by creating a basis-of-design document and a user-requirements document in order to launch the design phase.

Knowledge of:

1. Basis of design outlines

2. User-requirements document outlines

Skill in:

1. Writing in a technical and effective manner

2. Compiling and summarizing information

3. Making effective presentations

Domain III

Task 1. Perform safety and/or hazard analyses, security analyses, and regulatory compliance assessments by identifying key issues and risks in order to comply with applicable standards, policies, and regulations.

Knowledge of:

1. Applicable standards (e.g., ISA S84, IEC 61508, 21 CFR Part 11, NFPA)

2. Environmental standards (EPA)

3. Electrical, electrical equipment, enclosure, and electrical classification standards (e.g., UL/FM, NEC, NEMA)

Skill in:

1. Participating in a Hazard Operability Review

2. Analyzing safety integrity levels

3. Analyzing hazards

4. Assessing security requirements or relevant security issues

5. Applying regulations to design

Task 2. Establish standards, templates, and guidelines as applied to the automation system using the information gathered in the definition stage and considering human-factor effects in order to satisfy customer design criteria and preferences.

Knowledge of:

1. Process Industry Practices (PIP) (Construction Industry Institute)

2. IEC 61131 programming languages

3. Customer standards

4. Vendor standards

5. Template development methodology

6. Field devices

7. Control valves

8. Electrical standards (NEC)

9. Instrument selection and sizing tools

10. ISA standards (e.g., S88)

Skill in:

1. Developing programming standards

2. Selecting and sizing instrument equipment

3. Designing low-voltage electrical systems

4. Preparing drawings using AutoCAD software

Task 3. Create detailed equipment specifications and instrument data sheets based on vendor selection criteria, characteristics and conditions of the physical environment, regulations, and performance requirements in order to purchase equipment and support system design and development.

Knowledge of:

1. Field devices

2. Control valves

3. Electrical standards (NEC)

4. Instrument selection and sizing tools

5. Vendors' offerings

6. Motor and drive selection sizing tools

Skill in:

1. Selecting and sizing motors and drives

2. Selecting and sizing instrument equipment

3. Designing low-voltage electrical systems

4. Selecting and sizing computers

5. Selecting and sizing control equipment

6. Evaluating vendor alternatives

7. Selecting or sizing of input/output signal devices and/or conditioners

Task 4. Define the data structure layout and data flow model considering the volume and type of data involved in order to provide specifications for hardware selection and software development.

Knowledge of:

1. Data requirements of system to be automated

2. Data structures of control systems

3. Data flow of control systems

4. Productivity tools and software (e.g., InTools, AutoCAD)

5. Entity relationship diagrams

Skill in:

1. Modeling data

2. Tuning and normalizing databases

Task 5. Select the physical communication media, network architecture, and protocols based on data requirements in order to complete system design and support system development.

Knowledge of:

1. Vendor protocols

2. Ethernet and other open networks (e.g., DeviceNet)

3. Physical requirements for networks/media

4. Physical topology rules/limitations

5. Network design

6. Security requirements

7. Backup practices

8. Grounding and bonding practices

Skill in:

1. Designing networks based on chosen protocols

Task 6. Develop a functional description of the automation solution (e.g., control scheme, alarms, HMI, reports) using rules established in the definition stage in order to guide development and programming.

Knowledge of:

1. Control theory

2. Visualization, alarming, database/reporting techniques

3. Documentation standards

4. Vendors' capabilities for their hardware and software products

5. General control strategies used within the industry

6. Process/equipment to be automated

7. Operating philosophy

Skill in:

1. Writing functional descriptions

2. Interpreting design specifications and user requirements

3. Communicating the functional description to stakeholders

Task 7. Design the test plan using chosen methodologies in order to execute appropriate testing relative to functional requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Relevant test standards

2. Simulation tools

3. Process Industry Practices (PIP) (Construction Industry Institute)

4. General software testing procedures

5. Functional description of the system/equipment to be automated

Skill in:

1. Writing test plans

2. Developing tests that validate that the system works as specified

Task 8. Perform the detailed design for the project by converting the engineering and system design into purchase requisitions, drawings, panel designs, and installation details consistent with the specification and functional descriptions in order to provide detailed information for development and deployment.

Knowledge of:

1. Field devices, control devices, visualization devices, computers, and networks

2. Installation standards and recommended practices

3. Electrical and wiring practices

4. Specific customer preferences

5. Functional requirements of the system/equipment to be automated

6. Applicable construction codes

7. Documentation standards

Skill in:

1. Performing detailed design work

2. Documenting the design

Task 9. Prepare comprehensive construction work packages by organizing the detailed design information and documents in order to release project for construction.

Knowledge of:

1. Applicable construction practices

2. Documentation standards

Skill in:

1. Assembling construction work packages

Domain IV: Development. Software development and coding.

Task 1. Develop Human Machine Interface (HMI) in accordance with the design documents in order to meet the functional requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Specific HMI software products

2. Tag definition schemes

3. Programming structure techniques

4. Network communications

5. Alarming schemes

6. Report configurations

7. Presentation techniques

8. Database fundamentals

9. Computer operating systems

10. Human factors

11. HMI supplier options

Skill in:

1. Presenting data in a logical and aesthetic fashion

2. Creating intuitive navigation menus

3. Implementing connections to remote devices

4. Documenting configuration and programming

5. Programming configurations

Task 2. Develop database and reporting functions in accordance with the design documents in order to meet the functional requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Relational database theory

2. Specific database software products

3. Specific reporting products

4. Programming/scripting structure techniques

5. Network communications

6. Structured query language

7. Report configurations

8. Entity diagram techniques

9. Computer operating systems

10. Data mapping

Skill in:

1. Presenting data in a logical and aesthetic fashion

2. Administrating databases

3. Implementing connections to remote applications

4. Writing queries

5. Creating reports and formatting/printing specifications for report output

6. Documenting database configuration

7. Designing databases

8. Interpreting functional description

Task 3. Develop control configuration or programming in accordance with the design documents in order to meet the functional requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Specific control software products

2. Tag definition schemes

3. Programming structure techniques

4. Network communications

5. Alarming schemes

6. I/O structure

7. Memory addressing schemes

8. Hardware configuration

9. Computer operating systems

10. Processor capabilities

11. Standard nomenclature (e.g., ISA)

12. Process/equipment to be automated

Skill in:

1. Interpreting functional description

2. Interpreting control strategies and logic drawings

3. Programming and/or configuration capabilities

4. Implementing connections to remote devices

5. Documenting configuration and programs

6. Interpreting P & IDs

7. Interfacing systems

Task 4. Implement data transfer methodology that maximizes throughput and ensures data integrity using communication protocols and specifications in order to assure efficiency and reliability.

Knowledge of:

1. Specific networking software products (e.g., I/O servers)

2. Network topology

3. Network protocols

4. Physical media specifications (e.g., copper, fiber, RF, IR)

5. Computer operating systems

6. Interfacing and gateways

7. Data mapping

Skill in:

1. Analyzing throughput

2. Ensuring data integrity

3. Troubleshooting

4. Documenting configuration

5. Configuring network products

6. Interfacing systems

7. Manipulating data

Task 5. Implement security methodology in accordance with stakeholder requirements in order to mitigate loss and risk.

Knowledge of:

1. Basic system/network security techniques

2. Customer security procedures

3. Control user-level access privileges

4. Regulatory expectations (e.g., 29 CFR Part 11)

5. Industry standards (e.g., ISA)

Skill in:

1. Documenting security configuration

2. Configuring/programming of security system

3. Implementing security features

Task 6. Review configuration and programming using defined practices in order to establish compliance with functional requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Specific control software products

2. Specific HMI software products

3. Specific database software products

4. Specific reporting products

5. Programming structure techniques

6. Network communication

7. Alarming schemes

8. I/O structure

9. Memory addressing schemes

10. Hardware configurations

11. Computer operating systems

12. Defined practices

13. Functional requirements of system/equipment to be automated

Skill in:

1. Programming and/or configuration capabilities

2. Documenting configuration and programs

3. Reviewing programming/configuration for compliance with design requirements

Task 7. Test the automation system using the test plan in order to determine compliance with functional requirements.

Knowledge of:

1. Testing techniques

2. Specific control software products

3. Specific HMI software products

4. Specific database software products

5. Specific reporting products

6. Network communications

7. Alarming schemes

8. I/O structure

9. Memory addressing schemes

10. Hardware configurations

11. Computer operating systems

12. Functional requirements of system/equipment to be automated

Skill in:

1. Writing test plans

2. Executing test plans

3. Documenting test results

4. Programming and/or configuration capabilities

5. Implementing connections to remote devices

6. Interpreting functional requirements of system/equipment to be automated

7. Interpreting P & IDs

Task 8. Assemble all required documentation and user manuals created during the development process in order to transfer essential knowledge to customers and end users.

Knowledge of:

1. General understanding of automation systems

2. Computer operating systems

3. Documentation practices

4. Operations procedures

5. Functional requirements of system/equipment to be automated

Skill in:

1. Documenting technical information for non-technical audience

2. Using documentation tools

3. Organizing material for readability

Domain V

Task 1. Perform receipt verification of all field devices by comparing vendor records against design specifications in order to ensure that devices are as specified.

Knowledge of:

1. Field devices (e.g., transmitters, final control valves, controllers, variable speed drives, servo motors)

2. Design specifications

Skill in:

1. Interpreting specifications and vendor documents

2. Resolving differences

Task 2. Perform physical inspection of installed equipment against construction drawings in order to ensure installation in accordance with design drawings and specifications.

Knowledge of:

1. Construction documentation

2. Installation practices (e.g., field devices, computer hardware, cabling)

3. Applicable codes and regulations

Skill in:

1. Interpreting construction drawings

2. Comparing physical implementation to drawings

3. Interpreting codes and regulations (e.g., NEC, building codes, OSHA)

4. Interpreting installation guidelines

Task 3. Install configuration and programs by loading them into the target devices in order to prepare for testing.

Knowledge of:

1. Control system (e.g., PLC, DCS, PC)

2. System administration

Skill in:

1. Installing software

2. Verifying software installation

3. Versioning techniques and revision control

4. Troubleshooting (i.e., resolving issues and retesting)

Task 4. Solve unforeseen problems identified during installation using troubleshooting skills in order to correct deficiencies.

Knowledge of:

1. Troubleshooting techniques

2. Problem-solving strategies

3. Critical thinking

4. Processes, equipment, configurations, and programming

5. Debugging techniques

Skill in:

1. Solving problems

2. Determining root causes

3. Ferreting out information

4. Communicating with facility personnel

5. Implementing problem solutions

6. Documenting problems and solutions

Task 5. Test configuration and programming in accordance with the design documents by executing the test plan in order to verify that the system operates as specified.

Knowledge of:

1. Programming and configuration

2. Test methodology (e.g., factory acceptance test, site acceptance test, unit-level testing, system-level testing)

3. Test plan for the system/equipment to be automated

4. System to be tested

5. Applicable regulatory requirements relative to testing

Skill in:

1. Executing test plans

2. Documenting test results

3. Troubleshooting (e.g., resolving issues and retesting)

4. Writing test plans

Task 6. Test communication systems and field devices in accordance with design specifications in order to ensure proper operation.

Knowledge of:

1. Test methodology

2. Communication networks and protocols

3. Field devices and their performance requirements

4. Regulatory requirements relative to testing

Skill in:

1. Verifying network integrity and data flow integrity

2. Conducting field device tests

3. Comparing test results to design specifications

4. Documenting test results

5. Troubleshooting (i.e., resolving issues and retesting)

6. Writing test plans

Task 7. Test all safety elements and systems by executing test plans in order to ensure that safety functions operate as designed.

Knowledge of:

1. Applicable safety

2. Safety system design

3. Safety elements

4. Test methodology

5. Facility safety procedures

6. Regulatory requirements relative to testing

Skill in:

1. Executing test plans

2. Documenting test results

3. Testing safety systems

4. Troubleshooting (i.e., resolving issues and retesting)

5. Writing test plans

Task 8. Test all security features by executing test plans in order to ensure that security functions operate as designed.

Knowledge of:

1. Applicable security standards

2. Security system design

3. Test methodology

4. Vulnerability assessments

5. Regulatory requirements relative to testing

Skill in:

1. Executing test plans

2. Documenting test results

3. Testing security features

4. Troubleshooting (i.e., resolving issues and retesting)

5. Writing test plans

Task 9. Provide initial training for facility personnel in system operation and maintenance through classroom and hands-on training in order to ensure proper use of the system.

Knowledge of:

1. Instructional techniques

2. Automation systems

3. Networking and data communications

4. Automation maintenance techniques

5. System/equipment to be automated

6. Operating and maintenance procedures

Skill in:

1. Communicating with trainees

2. Organizing instructional materials

3. Instructing

Task 10. Execute system-level tests in accordance with the test plan in order to ensure the entire system functions as designed.

Knowledge of:

1. Test methodology

2. Field devices

3. System/equipment to be automated

4. Networking and data communications

5. Safety systems

6. Security systems

7. Regulatory requirements relative to testing

Skill in:

1. Executing test plans

2. Documenting test results

3. Testing of entire systems

4. Communicating final results to facility personnel

5. Troubleshooting (i.e., resolving issues and retesting)

6. Writing test plans

Task 11. Troubleshoot problems identified during testing using a structured methodology in order to correct system deficiencies.

Knowledge of:

1. Troubleshooting techniques

2. Processes, equipment, configurations, and programming

Skill in:

1. Solving problems

2. Determining root causes

3. Communicating with facility personnel

4. Implementing problem solutions

5. Documenting test results

Task 12. Make necessary adjustments using applicable tools and techniques in order to demonstrate system performance and turn the automated system over to operations.

Knowledge of:

1. Loop tuning methods/control theory

2. Control system hardware

3. Computer system performance tuning

4. User requirements

5. System/equipment to be automated

Skill in:

1. Tuning control loops

2. Adjusting final control elements

3. Optimizing software performance

4. Communicating final system performance results

Domain VI: Operation and Maintenance. Long-term support of the system.

Task 1. Verify system performance and records periodically using established procedures in order to ensure compliance with standards, regulations, and best practices.

Knowledge of:

1. Applicable standards

2. Performance metrics and acceptable limits

3. Records and record locations

4. Established procedures and purposes of procedures

Skill in:

1. Communicating orally and written

2. Auditing the system/equipment

3. Analyzing data and drawing conclusions

Task 2. Provide technical support for facility personnel by applying system expertise in order to maximize system availability.

Knowledge of:

1. All system components

2. Processes and equipment

3. Automation system functionality

4. Other support resources

5. Control systems theories and applications

6. Analytical troubleshooting and root-cause analyses

Skill in:

1. Troubleshooting (i.e., resolving issues and retesting)

2. Investigating and listening

3. Programming and