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by M.A. Akivis and V.V. Goldberg

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Length: 361 pages6 hours

In this book, the general theory of submanifolds in a multidimensional projective space is constructed. The topics dealt with include osculating spaces and fundamental forms of different orders, asymptotic and conjugate lines, submanifolds on the Grassmannians, different aspects of the normalization problems for submanifolds (with special emphasis given to a connection in the normal bundle) and the problem of algebraizability for different kinds of submanifolds, the geometry of hypersurfaces and hyperbands, etc. A series of special types of submanifolds with special projective structures are studied: submanifolds carrying a net of conjugate lines (in particular, conjugate systems), tangentially degenerate submanifolds, submanifolds with asymptotic and conjugate distributions etc. The method of moving frames and the apparatus of exterior differential forms are systematically used in the book and the results presented can be applied to the problems dealing with the linear subspaces or their generalizations.

Graduate students majoring in differential geometry will find this monograph of great interest, as will researchers in differential and algebraic geometry, complex analysis and theory of several complex variables.

Publisher: Elsevier ScienceReleased: Jun 30, 1993ISBN: 9780080887166Format: book

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Page 1 of 1

M.A. Akivis

*Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Department of Mathematics, Moscow, Russia *

V.V. Goldberg

*New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Newark, NJ, USA *

ISSN 0924-6509

Volume 49 • Number (C) • 1993

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**North-Holland Mathematical Library **

**Copyright page **

**Preface **

**Chapter 1: Preliminaries **

**1.1 Vector Space **

**1.2 Differentiable Manifolds **

**1.3 Projective Space **

**1.4 Some Algebraic Manifolds **

**Notes **

**Chapter 2: The Foundations of Projective Differential Geometry of Submanifolds **

**2.1 Submanifolds in a Projective Space and Their Tangent Subspaces **

**2.2 The Second Fundamental Form of a Submanifold **

**2.3 Osculating Subspaces and Fundamental Forms of Higher Orders of a Submanifold **

**2.4 Asymptotic and Conjugate Directions of Different Orders on a Submanifold **

**2.5 Some Particular Cases and Examples **

**2.6 Classification of Points of Submanifolds by Means of the Second Fundamental Form **

**5.2 Notes **

**Chapter 3: Submanifolds Carrying a Net of Conjugate Lines **

**3.1 Basic Equations and General Properties **

**3.2 The Holonomicity of the Conjugate Net ∑2 **

**3.3 Classification of the Conjugate Nets E2 **

**3.4 Some Existence Theorems **

**3.5 Laplace Transforms of Conjugate Nets and Their Generalizations **

**3.6 Conic m-Conjugate Systems **

**Notes **

**Chapter 4: Tangentially Degenerate Submanifolds **

**4 Basic Notions and Equations **

**4.2 Focal Images **

**4.3 Decomposition of Focal Images **

**4.4 The Holonomicity of the Focal Net **

**4.5 Some Other Classes of Tangentially Degenerate Submanifolds **

**4.6 Manifolds of Hypercones **

**4.7 Parabolic Submanifolds without Singularities in Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Spaces **

**Notes **

**Chapter 5: Submanifolds with Asymptotic and Conjugate Distributions **

**5.1 Distributions on Submanifolds of a Projective Space **

**5.2 Asymptotic Distributions on Submanifolds **

**5.3 Submanifolds with a Complete System of Asymptotic Distributions **

**5.4 Three-Dimensional Submanifolds Carrying a Net of Asymptotic Lines **

**5.5 Submanifolds with a Complete System of Conjugate Distributions **

**Notes **

**Chapter 6: Normalized Submanifolds in a Projective Space **

**6.1 The Problem of Normalization of a Submanifold in a Projective Space **

**6.2 The Affine Connection on a Normalized Submanifold **

**6.3 The Connection in the Normal Bundle **

**6.4 Submanifolds with Flat Normal Connection **

**6.5 Intrinsic Normalization of Submanifolds **

**6.6 Normalization of Submanifolds Carrying a Conjugate Net of Lines **

**Notes **

**Chapter 7: Projective Differential Geometry of Hypersurfaces **

**7.1 Basic Equations of the Theory of Hypersurfaces **

**7.2 Osculating Hyperquadrics of a Hypersurface **

**7.3 Invariant Normalizations of a Hypersurface **

**7.4 The Rigidity Problem in a Projective Space **

**7.5 The Geometry of a Surface in Three-Dimensional Projective Space **

**7.6 The Geometry of Hyperbands **

**Notes **

**Chapter 8: Algebraization Problems in Projective Differential Geometry **

**8.1 The First Generalization of Reiss’ Theorem **

**8.2 The Second Generalization of Reiss’ Theorem **

**8.3 Degenerate Monge’s Varieties **

**8.4 Submanifolds with Degenerate Bisecant Varieties **

**Notes **

**Bibliography1 **

**Symbols Frequently Used **

**Index **

*Board of Advisory Editors: *

M. Artin, H. Bass, J. Eells, W. Feit, P.J. Freyd, F.W. Gehring, H. Halberstam, L.V. Hörmander, J.H.B. Kemperman, H.A. Lauwerier, W.A.J. Luxemburg, L. Nachbin, F.P. Peterson, I.M. Singer and A.C. Zaanen

VOLUME 49

NORTH-HOLLAND

AMSTERDAM • LONDON • NEW YORK • TOKYO

ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V.

Sara Burgerhartstraat 25

P.O. Box 211,1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

**Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data **

**Akivis, M. A. (Maks Aizikovich) **

Projective differential geometry of submanifolds M.A. Akivis, V.V. Gol’dberg.

p. cm. – (North-Holland mathematical library 49)

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 0-444-89771-2

1. Submanifolds, 2. Projective differential geometry.

I. Gol’dberg, V. V., (Vladislav Viktorovich) II. Title.

III. Series.

CA649.A38 1993

516.3’62–dc20

93-10725

CIP

ISBN: 0 444 89771 2

© 1993 ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Copyright & Permissions Department, P.O. Box 521, 1000 AM Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Special regulations for readers in the U.S.A. – This publication has been registered with the Copyright Clearance Center Inc. (CCC), Salem, Massachusetts. Information can be obtained from the CCC about conditions under which photocopies of parts of this publication may be made in the U.S.A. All other copyright questions, including photocopying outside of the U.S.A., should be referred to the publisher.

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This book is printed on acid-free paper

Printed in The Netherlands

**Maks A. Akivis, Moscow, Russia **

**Vladislav V. Goldberg, Livingston, New Jersey, USA **

**1. **The projective differential geometry of submanifolds of *three-dimensional projective *space was intensively developed during the first half of this century. Its main results were presented in the monographs [**Wi 06] by Wilczynski, [Tz 24] by Tzitzéica, [Če 26] by Čech, [FČ 26], [FČ 31] by Fubini and Čech, [La 32], [La 42] by Lane, [Fi 37], [Fi 50], [Fi 56] by Finikov, [Bo 50a] by Bol, [H 45] by Hlavatý, [Mi 58] by Mihailescu, [Shc 60] by Shcherbakov, [Ko 63] by Kovantsov, [Go 64] by Godeaux, [Shu 64] by Shulikovskii, [Šv 65] by Švec, [Su 73] by Su Buchin, [Kr 80] by Kruglyakov, and [Sto 92a] and [Sto 92b] by Stolyarov. Many papers of E. Cartan were also devoted to projective differential geometry (see [Ca 16], [Ca 18], [Ca 19], [Ca 20a], [Ca 20b], [Ca 20c], [Ca 20d], [Ca 24], [Ca 27], [Ca 31], [Ca 44] and [Ca 45b]). Moreover, É. Cartan was among the first geometers to study multidimensional projective differential geometry systematically. **

Following É. Cartan, in the 1930’s—1940’s many geometers (Bol, Bompiani, Bortolotti, Brauner, Chern, Finikov, Fubini, Hlavatý, Kanitani, Muracchini, Norden, Vangeldère, Villa, Vaona and others) also considered some problems in multidimensional projective differential geometry. During these years, many papers on multidimensional projective differential geometry were published in the Soviet Union. However, these papers remained unnoticed by western geometers. Many of these papers were authored by the participants in the seminar on classical differential geometry at the Moscow State University. The seminar was under the supervision of S.P. Finikov (1883–1964), G.F. Laptev (1911–1972) and A.M. Vasilyev (1923–1987).

In 1978 S.S. Chern in his scientific autobiography [**C 78] emphasized the importance of projective differential geometry. He wrote: I wish to say that I believe that projective differential geometry will be of increasing importance. In several complex variables and in the transcendental theory of algebraic varieties the importance of the Kähler metric cannot be over-emphasized. On the other hand, projective properties are in the holomorphic category. They will appear when the problems involve, directly or indirectly, the linear subspaces or their generalizations. **

Note that projective differential geometry is a basis for Euclidean and non-Euclidean differential geometries since metric properties of submanifolds of Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces should only be added to their projective properties. This fact was noted by É. Cartan in his paper [**Ca 19]. **

In recent years the interest in multidimensional projective differential geometry increased again. Many interesting works devoted to different problems of multidimensional projective differential geometry were published (see [**A 82c], [A 83b], [A 84a], [A 84b], [A 88], [A 92a], [A 92b], [Cha 90], [Gr 74], [GH 79], [JM 92], [Kr 80], [P 90], [Sto 92a], [Sto 92b], [Sas 88], [Sas 91], [Wo 84], [Ya 85], [Ya 92], etc.). **

However, there is as yet no book in which the *multidimensional *projective differential geometry has been systematically presented. The present book will fill the indicated gap in the literature on differential geometry. In particular, this book reflects the content of many papers by Soviet geometers in multidimensional projective differential geometry.

In this book we give the foundations of the local projective differential geometry of submanifolds and present many results obtained after World War II. In particular, we investigate here a series of special types of submanifolds with a special projective structure

. The problem of studying such submanifolds was posed by É. Cartan in [**Ca 19]. **

The authors of this book were very much influenced by the paper [**GH 79] of Griffiths and Harris where the relationship between local differential geometry and algebraic geometry was stressed. **

In our exposition we emphasize a projective base of some problems which were usually considered in affine, Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. Among these problems are: the theory of conic conjugate nets (**Section 3.6), the theory of parabolic submanifolds without singularities (Section 4.7), the construction of the generalized Koenigs nets on a hypersurface (Section 5.5), some aspects of the theory of normal connections on submanifolds (Sections 6.3 and 6.4), the projective interpretation of the notion of affine normal (Section 7.3) and hypersurfaces with the parallel second fundamental form (Section 7.2) and the projective theory of space hyperbands (Section 7.6). A series of other problems of this nature, for example, the projective interpretation of the Egorov transformations (see [A 84b]) is out of the scope of this book. **

As a rule, we use the index notations in our presentation. In our opinion, this allowed us to obtain a deeper understanding of the essence of problems of the local differential geometry.

As a rule, we also do not distinguish between the presentation of material in a real domain and in a complex domain. This is the reason that in the book we use the notation **GL( n) **for the general linear group instead of

However, in some places, namely in those where we are forced to solve algebraic equations or find intersections of algebraic images, the assumption that the objects under consideration be complex becomes essential.

Note also that if we impose a restriction on a submanifold, then, as a rule, we assume that this condition holds at all points of this submanifold. More precisely, we consider only a domain on a submanifold where this restriction holds.

**2. **We will make a few general remarks for readers of this book. First of all, note that the book is intended for graduate students whose field is differential geometry, and for mathematicians and teachers conducting research in this subject. This book can also be used for a few special courses for graduate students in Mathematics.

In our presentation of material we use the tensorial methods in combination with the methods of exterior differential forms and moving frames of Élie Cartan. The reader is assumed to be familiar with these methods as well as with the basics of modern differential geometry. Many notions of differential geometry are explained briefly in the text and some are given without any explanation. As references, the books [**KN 63], [St 64], [Ca 37], [CaH 67] and [BCGGG 91] are recommended. For Russian readers the books [A 77] and [Vas 87] can be also recommended. **

All functions, vector and tensor fields and differential forms are considered to be differentiable sufficiently many times.

The book consists of eight chapters whose subjects are clear from the Table of Contents. Sections, formulas and figures are numbered within each chapter. Each chapter is accompanied by a set of notes with remarks of historical and bibliographical nature. A sufficiently complete bibliography, a list of notations and index are given at the end of the book.

A large portion of the book was written during the summers of 1991 and 1992 in the Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach (MFO), Germany. We express our deep gratitude to Professor Dr. M. Barner, the Director of MFO, for giving us the opportunity to work in MFO using its excellent conditions and facilities.

We also are grateful to the Mathematics Departments of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Russia, and New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA, where we are working, and to the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev for the assistance provided in the process of our writing the book.

We express our sincere gratitude to G.R. Jensen, V.V. Konnov, J.B. Little and J. Vilms for reading some of the book chapters and making many useful suggestions, and to L.V. Goldstein for her invaluable assistance in preparing the manuscript for publication.

**Chapter 1 **

**Preliminaries **

**1. **over the field of real or complex numbers will playan important role. We will not state here the basic axioms and properties of a vector space— they can be found in any textbook on linear algebra. Note only that a *frame *(or a *basis*) of an *n*is a system consisting of *n *is determined by the relation

**(1.1) **

) is a non-singular square matrix. (In these formulas as well as everywhere in the sequel it is understood that summation is carried out over the indices which appear twice: once above and once below.) Thus, the family *R*depends on *n*² parameters.

The transformations of type **(1.1) of frames form a group which is isomorphic to the general linear group GL(n) ) of order n. As was the case for the family R) of frames, this group depends on n² parameters. **

, where *a *a transformation of type **: **

**(1.2) **

**is a differentiable function (in fact, linear) of parameters a. , where I is a differentiable function of acan be represented in the form: **

**(1.3) **

where *o*(*da*) are infinitesimals of higher orders than *da*defining the principal linear part of transformation **(1.3) is called an infinitesimal transformation . **

The *derivational formulas *or the *equations of infinitesimal displacement *of a frame are equations of the form:

**(1.4) **

consists of *n *, in the coordinate form, **formula (1.4) can be written as follows: **

**(1.5) **

are linear differential forms which depend on the parameters *a *) and their differentials *da*.

of the group **GL**(*n*and *e′j *and *Ra+da*, we have:

. It follows that

). The last two formulas imply

**(1.6) **

Comparing formulas **(1.5) and (1.6), we obtain: **

**(1.7) **

or in matrix notation

**(1.8) **

) is called an *invariant linear form of the general linear group ***GL**(*n*).

. Suppose we have two frames *R *and *R′ *whose vectors are connected by relations **(1.1). An arbitrary vector x can be represented in the form of linear combinations of the vectors of these two frames: **

**(1.9) **

Using formulas **(1.1), we find from (1.9) that **

**(1.10) **

).

In what follows, it will be more convenient for us to replace **equations (1.10) by equivalent differential equations. We assume that the vector x is unchanged under transformations of a frame, i.e. we assume that dx = 0. If we differentiate the first equation of (1.9) and apply formulas (1.5), we obtain: **

implies that

**(1.11) **

These equations are the desired differential equations which are equivalent to **equations (1.10). The latter equations can be recovered by integrating equations (1.11). **

of an arbitrary vector *x *is constant, i.e. this contraction does not depend on a choice of a frame:

Differentiating this relation and using **formulas (1.11), we find that **

, it follows that

**(1.12) **

Similar equations can be derived for a tensor of any type. For example, let us consider a tensor *t *of arbitrary vectors *x, y *and an arbitrary covector ξ does not depend on a choice of a frame:

Differentiating this relation and using formulas **of the tensor t satisfy: **

**(1.13) **

By integrating equations **under transformation (1.11) of a frame: **

To simplify the form of equations **(1.11), (1.12) and (1.13) and similar equations, it is convenient to introduce a differential operator ∇ defined by the following formulas: **

Using this operator, we can write equations **(1.11), (1.12) and (1.13) in the form: **

**(1.16) **

In addition to the vectors and tensors which were considered above and which were invariant under transformations of a frame, we will encounter objects that get multiplied by some number under transformations of a frame. This number depends on a choice of a basis and on some other factors. Such objects are called *relative vectors *and *relative tensors*. Their coordinates satisfy equations which are slightly different from **equations (1.16). For example, for a relative tensor of type (1, 2), these equations have the form: **

**(1.17) **

where θ is a linear differential form. The following law of transformation:

**(1.18) **

corresponds to **equations (1.17). **

The simplest tensor is the tensor of type (0, 0) or an *absolute invariant*, i.e. a quantity *K *which does not depend on a choice of a frame. For this quantity, **equation (1.17) becomes **

**(1.19) **

A *relative invariant *is a quantity *K *which is multiplied by a factor under transformations of a frame. For this quantity, equation **(1.17) becomes **

**(1.20) **

**1. **The second basic notion which will be needed is the notion of a *differentiable manifold*. We give here only the main points of the definition. For more detail, we refer the reader to other books (see, for example, [**KN 63] or [D 71]). **

A neighborhood of any point of a differentiable manifold *M *is homeomorphic to an open simply connected domain of the coordinate space **R n (or Cn if **the manifold

If neighborhoods of two points of the manifold *M *have a non-empty intersection, then the two coordinate systems defined in this intersection are connected by means of invertible differentiable functions. The differentiability class of these functions is called the *class *, and in the complex case we will assume them to be analytic.

Consider a point *x *of an *n*. In a neighborhood of the point *x*, we introduce coordinates in such a way that the point *x *(*t*) be a smooth curve passing through the point *x*are called the *coordinates of the tangent vector *ξ to the curve under consideration, at the point *x*(*t*) are infinitesimals of orders higher than *t*.

The set of tangent vectors to all curves passing through a point *x *forms an *n*-dimensional vector space. This space is called the *tangent space *at the point *x *is called its *tangent bundle *and is denoted by *T*). An element of the tangent bundle is a pair (*x*. This explains why the tangent bundle is also a differentiable manifold of dimension 2*n*.

} in each tangent space. This set can be viewed as a fiber of a fibration *R*) which is called the *frame bundle *. Since the family of frames at a fixed point *x *depends on *n*² parameters, the dimension of the fiber bundle *R*.

} has the form:

**(1.21) **

}. These coordinates are linear forms constituting a *cobasis *. It follows from formula **(1.21) that **

**(1.22) **

forms the *cotangent bundle T*.

is an *n*-dimensional vector space, we can consider tensors of different types in this space. A *tensor field t*(*x*) is a function that assigns to each point *x *the value of the tensor *t *at this point. We will assume that the function *t*(*x*) is differentiable as many times as we need.

} admit transformations whose differentials can be written in the form **(1.5). Since further on we will also consider displacements of the point x , we will rewrite formulas (1.5) in the form: **

**(1.23) **

where δ denotes differentiation under condition that the point *x *is fixed, i.e. δ is the restriction of the operator of differentiation *d *) of the frame bundle *R*are invariant forms of the general linear group **GL**(*n*are called *secondary parameters*, in contrast to *principal parameters *which define the location of the point *x *. This is the reason why the symbol δ is called the *operator of differentiation with respect to the secondary parameters *. are called the *secondary forms*.

, then the coordinates of this field must satisfy equations of type **, these equations have the form: **

**(1.24) **

If, in accordance with formulas **, then this equation takes the form: **

**(1.25) **

**2. **Let *M *and *N *be two manifolds of dimension *m *and *n *be a differentiable mapping *M *into *N*under the mapping *f *of the points *a *and *b*. The mapping *f *defines a correspondence

between coordinates of points *x *and *y *. A mapping *f *is differentiable of class *r, f *are infinitely differentiable functions, then the mapping *f *.

Consider the matrix

having *n *rows and *m *columns. This matrix is called the *Jacobi matrix *of the mapping *f*. It is obvious that the rank *r *of this matrix satisfies the condition

It is also obvious that the rank *r *depends on a point *x *. If the rank reaches its maximal value at a point *x*, then a mapping f is said to be *nondegenerate *at the point *x*, and the point *x *itself is called a *regular *point of a mapping *f*, at the point *x *is called a *singular *point of a mapping *f*.

The following relations can exist between the dimensions *m *and *n*:

a) *m *< *n*. In this case a mapping *f *is called *injective*. In a neighborhood of a regular point a, the image *f*(*M*) = *V *of a manifold *M *is an *m*-dimensional submanifold of the manifold *N*, and the point *b *= *f*(*a*) is a regular point of the submanifold *V*(*V*) at a regular point *b *is an *m*(*N*) whose dimension is equal to *n*. In particular, as we indicated earlier, if *m *= 1, the submanifold *V *is a *curve *in *N*, and if *m *= *n *− 1, the submanifold *V *is a *hypersurface *in *N*.

b) *m *> *n*. In this case a mapping *f *is called *surjective*of a regular point *a*are the complete preimages *f*−1(*y*) of the points *y *, where *b *= *f*(*a*). The dimension of a leaf is equal to *m *- *n*is also *m - n*. If dim *N *are the level hypersurfaces of the function

defining the mapping *M *→ **R**.

c) *m *= *n*. In this case, in a neighborhood of a regular point *a*, a mapping *f *is *bijective*(*M*(*N*) to the manifolds *M *and *N *at the points *a *and *b *are of the same dimension, and the mapping *f *with the matrix *M*.

Note also that if *m *< *n*, in a neighborhood of a regular point a the correspondence between the manifolds *M *and *f*(*M*) is bijective.

**3. **be coordinates in a neighborhood of a point *x *and let *f*(*x*) be a function defined in this neighborhood. Then the differential of this function can be written in the form:

**(1.26) **

. However, this form is a form of special type since its coefficients are partial derivatives of the function *f*(*x*). A linear differential form of general type can be written in the form:

**(1.27) **

(*x*).

is an *exterior quadratic form*(see, for example, [**KN **over the field of real or complex numbers.

In a similar manner, one can define the exterior differential forms of degree *p, p *≤ *n *.

The multiplication of exterior forms of different degrees can be also defined. If θ1 and θ2 are exterior forms of degrees *p *and *q*is an exterior form of degree *p *+ *q*. This product satisfies the following property:

**(1.28) **

By the skew-symmetry, the exterior forms of degree greater than *n *vanish.

The exterior forms of different degrees form the *Grassmann algebra *:

**(1.29) **

here Λ*p *is the module of exterior forms of degree *p*. Exterior forms of degree *p *are also called *p-forms*, and 1-forms are also called the *Pfaffian forms*.

, this form can be written as

are the basis 2-forms. A skew-symmetric bilinear form is associated with the form θ. This bilinear form is defined by the formula:

where ξ and η are vector fields defined in *T*). If these two vector fields satisfy the equation

then we say that they are *in involution *with respect to the exterior quadratic form θ. The notion of the value of an exterior *p*-form on a system consisting of *p *can be defined in a similar manner.

Note further the following proposition of algebraic nature, which is called the *Cartan lemma: *

*(Cartan) Suppose the linearly independent *1-*forms *ω¹, ω², …, ω*p and the *1-*forms *θ1, θ2, …, θ*P are connected by the relation: *

**(1.30) **

*Then the forms *θ*a are linearly expressed in terms of the forms *ω*a as follows: *

**(1.31) **

*where *

**(1.32) **

**Proof. **, are linearly independent forms in a vector space *T*to a basis for *T**. Then

Substituting this into relation **(1.30), we obtain **

.

In the algebra of differential forms, another operation—the *exterior differentiation *can be defined. For functions, i.e. exterior forms of degree zero, this operation coincides with ordinary differentiation, and for exterior forms of type

**(1.33) **

this operation is defined by means of the formula:

**(1.34) **

:

**(1.35) **

Using formula **(1.34), the formula for differentiation of a product of two exterior forms can be proved. Namely, if the forms θ1 and θ2 have degrees p and q, respectively, then **

In addition, the following formula holds:

**(1.37) **

This formula is called the *Poincaré lemma*. In particular, for a function *f *.

and such that *d*ω = 0, then ω = *df*. A 1-form ω satisfying the condition *d*ω = 0 is called *closed*, and a form ω satisfying the condition ω = *df *is called *exact*.

Note also that in fact, the operation of exterior differentiation defined by formula **. **

**4. **As an example, we will apply the operation of exterior differentiation to derive the structure equations of the general linear group **GL**(*n*). In subsection 1, invariant forms for this group were determined for the frame bundle *R*and were written in the form **(1.7) or in the matrix form (1.8). Applying exterior differentiation to equations (1.8) and using equations (1.34), we obtain **

**(1.38) **

From relation **(1.8) we find that **

**(1.39) **

, we have

**(1.40) **

Substituting expressions **(1.39) and (1.40) into equation (1.38), we arrive at the equation **

**(1.41) **

In coordinate form, this equation is written as

or, more often, as

**(1.42) **

Equations **(1.41) and (1.42) are called the structure equations or **

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