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Chan

Brief Table of Contents

Front matter

Copyright

Dedication

List of Acronyms

List of Figures

List of Tables

Preface

Acknowledgments

List of Contributors

About the Editor

Chapter 1. Optical performance monitoring

Chapter 2. Optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring

Chapter 3. Chromatic dispersion monitoring

Chapter 4. Polarization mode dispersion monitoring

Chapter 5. Timing misalignment monitoring

Chapter 6. Optical performance monitoring based on asynchronous amplitude histograms

Chapter 7. Optical performance monitoring based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling

Chapter 8. Optical performance monitoring based on linear optical sampling

Chapter 9. Optical performance monitoring based on RF pilot tones

Chapter 10. Optical performance monitoring based on electronic digital signal processing

Chapter 11. Optical performance monitoring based on nonlinear optical techniques

Chapter 12. Optical performance monitoring of optical phase–modulated signals

Chapter 13. Optical performance monitoring for coherent optical systems

Chapter 14. Optical performance monitoring in optical transport networks

Chapter 15. Optical performance monitoring in optical long-haul transmission systems

Table of Contents

Front matter

Copyright

Dedication

List of Acronyms

List of Figures

List of Tables

Preface

Acknowledgments

List of Contributors

About the Editor

Chapter 1. Optical performance monitoring

1.1. Introduction

1.1.1. Overarching vision

1.1.2. Challenges

1.2. Physical-layer measurements and routing decisions in today's optical networks

1.3. Signal parameters requiring monitoring and OPM techniques

1.3.1. Optical impairments

1.3.2. OPM techniques

1.4. Laudable OPM-enabled functionalities in next-generation optical networks

1.4.1. Robust and stable operation

1.4.2. Accommodate transparency

1.4.3. Impairment-aware routing

1.4.4. Secure links

1.4.5. Optical supervisory channel

1.5. Smart network operation and security

1.5.1. Smart network operation

1.5.2. Security

1.6. Summary

Acknowledgments

Chapter 2. Optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Linear interpolation techniques

2.2.1. Optical spectrum analysis

2.2.2. Out-of-band noise measurement

2.2.3. Potential problems

2.3. Polarization-based techniques

2.3.1. Operating principles

2.3.2. Potential problems and limitations

2.3.3. Methods to overcome limitations

2.4. Interferometer-based technique

2.4.1. Operating principle

2.4.2. Potential problems and limitations

2.4.3. Method to overcome limitations

2.5. Beat noise analysis techniques

2.5.1. Operating principle

2.5.2. Potential problems and limitations

2.5.3. Methods to overcome limitations

2.6. OSNR estimation technique based on the operating condition of optical amplifiers

2.6.1. Operating principle

2.6.2. Link-based OSNR monitoring technique

2.6.3. Potential problems and limitations

2.7. Summary

Chapter 3. Chromatic dispersion monitoring

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Chromatic dispersion and its effects on optical fiber systems

3.2.1. Fiber chromatic dispersion

3.2.2. Systems limitations due to chromatic dispersion

3.2.3. Dispersion effects in the presence of fiber nonlinearities

3.2.4. The need for chromatic dispersion monitoring

3.3. Chromatic dispersion monitoring techniques

3.3.1. Measurement of RF spectrum

3.3.2. Measurement of relative group delay between VSB signals

3.3.3. Histogram monitoring techniques

3.3.4. All-optical spectral analysis using nonlinear optics

3.3.5. Electronic monitoring techniques

3.3.6. Other chromatic dispersion monitoring techniques

3.3.7. Differentiate chromatic dispersion from polarization mode dispersion

3.4. Summary

Acknowledgments

Chapter 4. Polarization mode dispersion monitoring

4.1. Introduction

4.2. PMD monitoring based on measurement of RF tone

4.3. PMD monitoring based on measurement of degree of polarization

4.4. Electronic PMD monitoring techniques

4.5. Other PMD monitoring techniques

4.6. Summary

Acknowledgments

Chapter 5. Timing misalignment monitoring

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Monitoring of timing alignment

5.2.1. Synchronization of pulse carving and data modulation

5.2.2. Synchronization for phase remodulation

5.2.3. Synchronization for I/Q data and data/pulse carver

5.2.4. OTDM clock recovery using timing misalignment of data pulses

5.3. Investigation of the effects of timing misalignment

5.3.1. Clock/data synchronization in CPFSK systems

5.3.2. Misalignment between pulse carver/data modulator in RZ-DPSK systems

5.3.3. Misalignment between ASK and DQPSK modulation in ASK/DQPSK orthogonal modulation systems

5.4. Mitigation of timing misalignment

5.4.1. Hybrid OTDM scheme for demultiplexing with better timing misalignment tolerance

5.4.2. Novel remodulation scheme for colorless high-speed WDM-PON without remodulation synchronization

5.4.3. Misalignment mitigation using MLSE equalizers

5.5. Summary

Chapter 6. Optical performance monitoring based on asynchronous amplitude histograms

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Monitoring techniques based on analysis of asynchronous histograms

6.2.1. Q-factor monitoring

6.2.2. OSNR monitoring using asynchronous histograms

6.3. General concepts on the acquisition and processing of amplitude histograms

6.3.1. Sampling noise

6.3.2. Averaging effects

6.4. Summary

Chapter 7. Optical performance monitoring based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Technique

7.2.1. Phase portrait

7.2.2. Pattern recognition

7.3. Experiment

7.3.1. Network emulator

7.3.2. Multi-impairment monitor

7.3.3. First-order PMD

7.3.4. Results for 10-G NRZ and 40-G NRZ-DPSK

7.3.5. System testing

7.4. Discussion

7.4.1. Extension to new impairments

7.4.2. Application to higher-order formats

7.5. Summary

Chapter 8. Optical performance monitoring based on linear optical sampling

8.1. Introduction

8.1.1. Data encoding in the electric field of optical waves

8.1.2. Temporal characterization of optical signals

8.1.3. Linear optical sampling

8.2. LOS principle and properties

8.2.1. Coherent detection

8.2.2. Various implementations of coherent detection for optical performance monitoring

8.2.3. Polarization and wavelength sensitivity

8.2.4. Phase sensitivity

8.2.5. Digital phase tracking

8.3. Implementations of LOS

8.3.1. Balanced photodetection

8.3.2. Direct photodetection

8.3.3. LOS with four-wave mixing

8.3.4. Correction of imperfections

8.4. Optical performance monitoring with LOS

8.4.1. Characterization of amplified spontaneous emission

8.4.2. Phase and amplitude noise measurements

8.4.3. Nonlinear phase noise

8.4.4. Nonlinear phase-shift measurement

8.4.5. Digital processing of sampled electric field

8.4.6. Characterization of the electric field of periodic sources

8.5. Recent results and related techniques

8.6. Summary

Acknowledgments

Chapter 9. Optical performance monitoring based on RF pilot tones

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Performance monitoring techniques using AM pilot tones

9.2.1. Operating principle

9.2.2. Potential problems

9.2.3. Scalability

9.2.4. Typical applications

9.3. Performance monitoring techniques using PM and FM pilot tones

9.3.1. Using PM pilot tones

9.3.2. Using FM pilot tones

9.4. Dispersion monitoring techniques for adaptive compensators

9.4.1. CD monitoring techniques using AM and PM pilot tones

9.4.2. CD monitoring technique using chirped pilot tone

9.4.3. CD monitoring technique using pilot tone carried by broadband light source

9.4.4. PMD monitoring technique using SSB pilot tone

9.5. Summary

Chapter 10. Optical performance monitoring based on electronic digital signal processing

10.1. Introduction

10.2. OPM in digital direct-detection systems

10.2.1. The channel model for direct-detection systems

10.2.2. State-based equalization based on MLSE

10.2.3. State-based OSNR estimation

10.2.4. Referenced parameter estimation

10.2.5. Conclusion

10.3. OPM in digital coherent receivers

10.3.1. Theory

10.3.2. Joint estimation of linear channel parameters

10.3.3. Conclusion

10.4. Summary

Chapter 11. Optical performance monitoring based on nonlinear optical techniques

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Nonlinear optics

11.3. OPM techniques using nonlinear optics

11.4. Key challenges

11.4.1. Sensitivity

11.4.2. Cost, size, and complexity

11.4.3. Impairment isolation

11.5. Summary

Chapter 12. Optical performance monitoring of optical phase–modulated signals

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Performance of phase-modulated signals

12.2.1. Signal impairments

12.2.2. Generation and detection of N-PSK signals

12.3. Optical performance monitoring

12.3.1. Monitoring techniques

12.3.2. Comparison of monitoring techniques

12.4. Summary

Acknowledgments

Chapter 13. Optical performance monitoring for coherent optical systems

13.1. Historical aspect of coherent optical systems

13.2. Single-carrier and multicarrier coherent optical systems

13.2.1. Principle of coherent detection

13.2.2. Single-carrier coherent optical systems

13.2.3. Coherent optical OFDM systems

13.2.4. Comparison of single-carrier and multicarrier coherent optical systems

13.3. OPM using coherent detection

13.3.1. OPM without receiver electrical equalization

13.3.2. OPM with receiver electrical equalization

13.4. OPM in CO-OFDM systems

13.4.1. Optical channel model

13.4.2. Principle of OPM through optical channel estimation

13.5. Progress in OPM for CO-OFDM systems

13.5.1. Simulation model and results

13.5.2. Optical performance monitoring in CO-OFDM systems with 4-QAM

13.5.3. OPM in CO-OFDM systems with 16-QAM modulation

13.6. OPM experiment results

13.7. Summary

Chapter 14. Optical performance monitoring in optical transport networks

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Overview

14.2.1. Business interface model

14.2.2. Generic OTN service requirements

14.2.3. OTN: A network of networks

14.3. Generic modeling principles for transport networks

14.3.1. Top-level functional architecture

14.3.2. Control plane functions

14.3.3. Management functions

14.3.4. Transport functions

14.4. Modeling of multilayer networks

14.4.1. Application of partitioning concept

14.4.2. Application of the layering concept

14.4.3. Transport entities: trails and connections

14.4.4. Characteristic information

14.5. Optical transport network–layered structure

14.5.1. OTN-layer networks

14.5.2. Layer management

14.5.3. OTN information structure

14.6. OTN services

14.6.1. All-Optical Networks

14.7. Test and measurement tasks in optical networking

14.7.1. Lightpath provisioning

14.7.2. Service assurance

14.8. Optical performance monitoring

14.8.1. Optical-layer signal quality supervision requirements

14.8.2. Optical power

14.8.3. Channel wavelength

14.8.4. OSNR

14.8.5. Q-factor measurement

14.8.6. OTUk, ODUkT, and ODUkP signal quality supervision

14.8.7. What is missing?

14.9. Implementation issues

14.9.1. Accuracy requirements

14.9.2. External versus embedded monitoring

14.9.3. Monitoring points

14.9.4. Recommended measurement interval

14.9.5. Risk management aspects

14.9.6. Improved fault diagnostics by event correlation

14.10. Future challenges

14.11. Summary

Chapter 15. Optical performance monitoring in optical long-haul transmission systems

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Elements of a long-haul transmission system

15.3. System performance measures

15.4. OPM in a long-haul transmission system

15.4.1. OPM functions and applications

15.4.2. Optical device monitoring

15.4.3. OSNR monitoring along transmission line

15.4.4. Transmission performance testing and analysis

15.4.5. Service-oriented system design

15.5. Summary

Front matter

Optical Performance Monitoring

Optical Performance Monitoring

Advanced Techniques for Next-Generation Photonic Networks

Calvin C. K. Chan, Ph.D., The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Copyright

Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier

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Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Chan, Calvin C. K.

Optical performance monitoring : advanced techniques for next-generation photonic networks / Calvin C. K. Chan.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-0-12-374950-5 (alk. paper)

1. Optical fiber communication. 2. Network performance (Telecommunication) I. Title.

TK5103.592.F52C48 2010

621.382′75—dc22

2009046134

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

For information on all Academic Press publications

visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.com

Printed in The United States of America.

10 11 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dedication

To my beloved wife Esther and our lovely kids, Tsz-ching and Lang-ho.

List of Acronyms

2R

Regeneration, reshaping

3R

Regeneration, reshaping, retiming

AAH

Asynchronous amplitude histogram

ACRZ

Alternate chirped return to zero

ADC

Analog-to-digital converter

AF

Amplitude filter

AIS

Alarm indication signal

AM

Amplitude modulation

AMI

Alternate mark inversion

ANN

Artificial neural network

AON

All-optical network

APS

Automatic protection switching

ASE

Amplified spontaneous emission

ASIC

Application-specific integrated circuit

ASK

Amplitude shift keying

ASTN

Automated switched-transport network

AWG

Array waveguide grating

AWGN

Additive white Gaussian noise

BER

Bit error rate

BIP

Bit-interleaved parity

BLS

Broadband light source

BPF

Bandpass filter

BPSK

Binary phase-shift keying

CCI

Connection controller interface

CD

Chromatic dispersion

CI

Characteristic information

CM

Connection monitoring

CMA

Constant modulus algorithm

CMOS

Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor

CNR

Carrier-to-noise ratio

CO-OFDM

Coherent optical OFDM

CP

Cyclic prefix

CPE

Common phase error

CPFSK

Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying

CSRZ

Carrier-suppressed return to zero

CW

Continuous wave

DB

Duobinary

DBPSK

Differential binary phase-shift keying

DBR

Distributed Bragg reflector

DC

Direct current

DCF

Dispersion-compensating fiber

DCM

Dispersion-compensating module

DD-LMS

Decision-directed least mean square

DFB

Distributed feedback

DFT

Discrete Fourier transform

DGD

Differential group delay

DGEF

Dynamic gain equalizing filter

DI

Delay interferometer

DML

Directly modulated laser

DOP

Degree of polarization

DPASK

Differential phase-amplitude-shift keying

DPSK

Differential phase-shift keying

DQPSK

Differential quadrature phase-shift keying

DSB

Double sideband

DSP

Digital signal processing

DTS

Delay-tap sampling

DWDM

Dense wavelength-division multiplexing

EAM

Electro-absorption modulator

EBPF

Electrical bandpass filter

ECC

Embedded control channel

EDC

Electronic dispersion compensation

EDFA

Erbium-doped fiber amplifier

EO

Electrical to optical

ESNR

Electrical signal-to-noise ratio

FBG

Fiber Bragg grating

FDE

Frequency-domain equalization

FDI

Forward defect indication

FEC

Forward error correction

FFT

Fast Fourier transform

FIR

Finite impulse response

FM

Frequency modulation

FOM

Figure of merit

FROG

Frequency-resolved optical gating

FSR

Free spectral range

FWM

Four-wave mixing

GVD

Group velocity dispersion

HNLF

Highly nonlinear fiber

IC

Integrated circuit

ICI

Intercarrier interference

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IM/DD

Intensity modulation/direct detection

IP

Internet Protocol

IrDI

Interdomain interface

ISI

Intersymbol interference

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

LD

Laser diode

LEAF

Large effective area fiber

LO

Local oscillator

LOS

Linear optical sampling

LP

Low pass

LPF

Low-pass filter

LS

Least square

LSB

Lower sideband

MCM

Multicarrier modulation

MEMS

Micro-electro-mechanical systems

MI

Modulator index

MIMO

Multiple-input and multiple-output

ML

Maximum likelihood

MLSE

Maximum likelihood sequence equalizer

MMSE

Minimum mean-square estimation

MPDR

Monitoring power dynamic range

MPI

Multiple path interference

MPLS

Multiprotocol label switching

MSPE

Multisymbols phase estimation

MTBF

Mean time before failure

MTTR

Mean time to repair

MZ

Mach-Zehnder

MZI

Mach-Zehnder interferometer

MZM

Mach-Zehnder modulator

NE

Network element

NLSE

Nonlinear Schrödinger equation

NMS

Network management system

NPN

Nonlinear phase noise

NRZ

Non-return to zero

NZ-DSF

Nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber

OA

Optical amplifier

OADM

Optical add/drop multiplexer

OAM

Operations, administration, and maintenance

OBPF

Optical bandpass filter

OCA

Optical channel analyzer

OCC

Optical channel carrier

OCE

Optical channel estimation

OCG

Optical channel group

OCh

Optical channel

OChr

Optical channel with reduced functionality

OCM

Optical channel monitoring

ODUk

Optical data unit of level k

ODUkP

Optical data unit of level k, path

ODUkT

Optical data unit of level k, tandem connection sublayer

OE

Optical-to-electrical

OEO

Optical-electrical-optical

OFDM

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

OH

Overhead

OMS

Optical multiplex section

ONE

Optical network element

ONU

Optical network unit

OOK

On-off keying

OOS

Optical transport multiplex overhead signal

OPM

Optical performance monitoring

OPPL

Optical phase-locked loop

OPS

Optical physical section

OPSn

Optical physical section of level n

OPUk

Optical channel payload unit of level k

OS

Optical section

OSA

Optical spectrum analyzer

OSC

Optical supervisory channel

OSNR

Optical signal-to-noise ratio

OTDR

Optical time-domain reflectometer

OTM

Optical transport module

OTN

Optical transport network

OTR

Optical-to-RF

OTS

Optical transmission section

OTU

Optical channel transport unit

OTUk

Optical channel transport unit of level k

OTUkV

Optical channel transport unit of level k, functionally standardized

OXC

Optical crossconnect

PA

Preamplifier

PBS

Polarization beam splitter

PD

Photodetector

PDF

Probability density function

PDG

Polarization-dependent gain

PDL

Polarization-dependent loss

PDM

Polarization-division multiplexing

PHB

Polarization hole burning

PM

Polarization maintaining

PM

Phase modulator

PMD

Polarization mode dispersion

PMDC

Polarization mode dispersion compensator

PMF

Polarization-maintaining fiber

PolMux

Polarization multiplexing

PON

Passive optical network

PRBS

Pseudo-random bit sequence

PSD

Power spectral density

PSP

Principal states of polarization

PXC

Photonic crossconnect

QAM

Quadrature amplitude modulation

QoS

Quality of service

QPM

Quasi phase matched

QPSK

Quadrature phase-shift keying

RAH

Reference asynchronous histogram

RF

Radio frequency

RFSA

RF spectrum analyzer

ROADM

Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer

RSOA

Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier

RTO

RF-to-optical

RWA

Routing wavelength assignment

Rx

Receive

RZ

Return zero

S&H

Sample and hold

SBS

Stimulated Brillouin scattering

SCM

Subcarrier multiplexing

SDH

Synchronous digital hierarchy

SE

Spectral efficiency

SES

Severely errored second

SHG

Second harmonic generation

SISO

Single-input and single-output

SITO

Single-input and two-output

SLA

Service-level agreement

SMF

Single-mode fiber

SNR

Signal-to-noise ratio

SOA

Semiconductor optical amplifier

SONET

Synchronous optical network

SOP

State of polarization

SPIDER

Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction

SPM

Self-phase modulation

SRB

Stimulated Rayleigh back-scattering

SRS

Stimulated Raman scattering

SSB

Single sideband

SSMF

Standard single-mode fiber

TC

Tandem connection

TCM

Tandem connection monitoring

TDE

Time-domain equalization

TDM

Time-division multiplexing

TIA

Transimpedance amplifier

TITO

Two-input and two-output

TMN

Telecommunication(s) management network

TPA

Two-photon absorption

TTI

Trail trace identifier

Tx

Transmit

UNI

User (to) network interface

VOA

Variable optical attenuator

VPN

Virtual private network

VSB

Vestigial sideband

WB

Wavelength blocker

WDM

Wavelength-division multiplexing

XGM

Crossgain modulation

XPM

Crossphase modulation

xPSK

Multilevel phase-shift keying

xQAM

Multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation

ZF

Zero forcing

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Window of operability is shrinking as networks become more complex.

Figure 1.2 A self-managed network with optical performance monitoring.

Figure 1.3 Features of ubiquitous monitoring for robust and self-managed networks.

Figure 1.4 Overview of various optical impairments within the network.

Figure 1.5 Future heterogeneous networks should accommodate various types of traffic and use optimal channel characteristics for each application/user. The required hardware should be reconfigurable and transparent.

Figure 1.6 Multivariable routing.

Figure 1.7 (a) Denial of service, and (b) eavesdropping of an intrusive wavelength using the nonlinear effects in the fiber link.

Figure 1.8 Identification and localization of network impairments allow network resources to be adapted for compensation, data re-routing, and resource reallocation.

Figure 2.1 Graphical description of OSNR measurement based on optical spectrum.

Figure 2.2 (a) Conceptual diagram of optical spectrum analyzer. (b) Relationship between level of optical noise and resolution bandwidth (BW) of OSA.

Figure 2.3 Out-of-band noise measurement using AWG.

Figure 2.4 Out-of-band noise measurement using OSAs, when there are DGEs within the optical link. The OSAs measure the power of out-of-band ASE noise for the OSNR monitoring, as well as the channel powers for the gain equalization.

Figure 2.5 (a) Example of a dynamically reconfigurable transparent optical network configured with ROADMs. Optical spectrum measured at point A, (b) when unmodulated CW signals are transmitted, or (c) when 10-Gb/s NRZ signals are transmitted. (Resolution bandwidth: 0.05 nm.)

Figure 2.6 (a) Optical spectrum of 43-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signals. (b) Optical spectrum measured after turning off modulators. (Resolution: 0.1 nm; div, division.)

Figure 2.7 Principle of OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling technique. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 2.8 Configuration of polarization-nulling technique based on (a) adaptive polarization control with feedback, or (b) rotating quarter-wave plate and polarizer.

Figure 2.9 (a) Correlation between DOP and OSNR. (b) OSNR monitoring sensitivity to DOP error.

Figure 2.10 Measured DOP and normalized power of WDM signals. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 2.11 Illustration of the error mechanism caused by PMD in the execution of the polarization-based OSNR monitoring technique in (a) the time domain and (b) the frequency domain.

Figure 2.12 OSNR monitoring error caused by PMD (mean PMD = 3.22 ps). Copyright © 2001 IEEE.

Figure 2.13 Illustration of error mechanism caused by nonlinear birefringence in execution of polarization-based OSNR monitoring technique.

Figure 2.14 Maximum OSNR errors caused by nonlinear birefringence (a) measured in a two-channel experiment (200-GHz spacing, and 0- and 7-dBm input power for the probe and pump, respectively) (Copyright © 2006 IEEE), or (b) measured in various 640-km-long fiber links with six channels (200-GHz spacing, 0-dBm/channel input power, 80 km × 8 spans) (Copyright © 2001 IEEE).

Figure 2.15 Illustration of the error mechanism caused by PDL in execution of polarization-based OSNR monitoring technique.

Figure 2.16 (a) Cumulative probability of errors in the measured OSNRs by using the polarization-nulling technique due to partially polarized ASE noise in a transmission link consisting of 15 spans (average PDL/span = 0.57 dB). (b) Probability that the error in the measured OSNRs by using the polarization-nulling technique becomes >1 dB (due to the partially polarized ASE noise caused by PDL). Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 2.17 (a) Fourier components of the Stokes parameters of an optical signal measured in a 120-km-long aerial fiber link. (b) OSNR measured by using the polarization-nulling technique in a 120-km-long aerial fiber link. Copyright © 2004 OSA.

Figure 2.18 Schematic diagram of the polarization-nulling technique improved by using additional optical filter. PBS, polarization beam splitter; BPF, bandpass filter; PD, photo detector. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 2.19 (a) Illustration of off-center filtering technique for OSNR monitoring. (b) Effects of filter detuning for 39.81-Gb/s, 2.5-ps, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) RZ signal. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.

Figure 2.20 Schematic diagram of the polarization-nulling technique, improved by multiple-frequency measurement and PMD compensation. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 2.21 Principle of spectral SOP measurement technique.

Figure 2.22 (a) Schematic diagram of OSNR monitoring technique based on MZDI interferometer. (b) Total power measurement with constructive interference. (c) Noise power measurement with destructive interference.

Figure 2.23 Schematic diagram of modified optical interferometer for OSNR monitoring.

Figure 2.24 (a) Power spectral density of receiver noises caused by signal-ASE and ASE-ASE beating. (b) Measured receiver noise spectrum from 40 to 50 kHz when OSNR is 20 dB or 30 dB.

Figure 2.25 Principle of OSNR monitoring technique based on low-frequency beat noise analysis. ADC, analog-to-digital converter; B, bit rate; FFT, fast Fourier transform; PD, photodetector.

Figure 2.26 RF spectrum of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal with PRBS pattern (pattern length: 2²³ – 1).

Figure 2.27 (a) Principle of OSNR monitoring technique based on high-frequency beat noise analysis. (b) RF spectrum of 2.5-Gb/s NRZ signal with 20-dB or 30-dB OSNR.

Figure 2.28 OSNR of 2.5-Gb/s NRZ signal measured by monitoring beat noise at (a) 2.5-GHz null point or (b) 10 GHz.

Figure 2.29 Schematic diagram of OSNR monitoring technique based on polarization diversity.

Figure 2.30 Waveforms of 1.25-Gb/s signal. The upper graph shows the outputs of two arms of the polarization-diversity receiver; the lower graph shows the sum and difference of outputs. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 2.31 Conversion from polarization variation to intensity variation by polarization-diversity receiver with subtraction circuit.

Figure 2.32 Schematic diagram of orthogonal polarization delayed-homodyne technique for monitoring OSNR.

Figure 2.33 (a) Principle of nullifying data spectrum using the orthogonal polarization delayed-homodyne technique. (b) Measured RF spectra of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal with and without data spectrum nullifying.

Figure 2.34 Schematic diagram of OSNR monitoring technique based on frequency diversity.

Figure 2.35 RF spectra of the signal after (a) one photodiode and (b) balanced subtraction. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 2.36 Effect of chromatic dispersion on OSNR monitoring technique based on a frequency-diversity receiver. Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 2.37 Schematic diagram of orthogonal polarization self-heterodyne technique for monitoring OSNR.

Figure 2.38 Operating principle of orthogonal polarization self-heterodyne technique for OSNR monitoring.

Figure 2.39 (a) Relation of polarization states of the signals in branches 1 and 2. (b) Effect of PMD on electrical spectrum. Copyright © 2007 IEEE.

Figure 2.40 (a) Schematic diagram of OSNR monitoring technique based on synchronously gated signal. RF spectra of signal (b) without gating pulses and (c) with gating pulses. Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 2.41 Schematic diagram of OSNR monitoring technique based on operating condition of optical amplifiers. OCM, optical channel monitor; PM, power monitor. Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 2.42 (a) Schematic diagram of OSNRlink monitoring. (b) Schematic diagram of OPM manager GUI, graphic user interface; LSP, label-switched path; CLI, command line interface; GMPLS, generalized multiprotocol label switching; SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

Figure 2.43 Monitoring error of link OSNR caused by total power monitoring (a) without calibration and (b) with 50% of optical noise power calibrated (contour plots). Span loss = gain of EDFA = 20 dB; noise figure of EDFA = 8 dB; optical noise bandwidth = 30 nm; input power/channel to fiber = 0 dBm. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

Figure 2.44 Maximum OSNR monitoring error in the worst-case scenario for optical link with AGC-EDFAs (a) under normal operating conditions, or (b) with an increase of 10 dB in span loss at worst position (contour plots). Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

Figure 3.1 Dispersion coefficient, D, as a function of wavelength in conventional silica single-mode fiber. Copyright © 2003 IEEE.

Figure 3.2 Dispersion coefficient in a dispersion-shifted fiber.

Figure 3.3 CD values for several commercially available types of transmission fiber.

Figure 3.4 Origin of CD in data transmission. (a) CD is caused by the frequency-dependent refractive index in fiber. (b) Non zero spectral width due to data modulation. (c) Dispersion leads to pulse broadening, proportional to the transmission distance and data rate. f, frequency; v, velocity.

Figure 3.5 Transmission distance limitations due to uncompensated dispersion in SMF as a function of data rate for intensity-modulated optical signals. Copyright © 2001 IEEE.

Figure 3.6 (a) The glass that a photon in the λ³ pulse sees changes as other channels (with potentially varying power) move to coincide with the λ³ pulse. (b) System performance (SNR) versus fiber dispersion. Higher dispersion is preferred to reduce XPM effects. Copyright © 1994 IEEE.

Figure 3.7 (a, b) FWM induces new spectral components via nonlinear mixing of two wavelength signals. (c) The signal degradation due to FWM products falling on a third data channel can be reduced by even small amounts of dispersion. Copyright © 1995 IEEE.

Figure 3.8 Dispersion map of basic dispersion-managed system. Positive dispersion transmission fiber alternates with negative dispersion compensation elements such that total dispersion is nearly zero end to end.

Figure 3.9 (a) Zero-dispersion wavelength shifts due to temperature change; thus, dispersion itself changes at a fixed wavelength (b) For a 40-Gb/s, 1000-km fiber link, 30°C temperature change causes dispersion beyond system limit. Copyright © 2000 IEEE.

Figure 3.10 Principle of RF fading used for dispersion monitoring: RF tone within data band fades due to CD. Copyright © 2002 IEEE.

Figure 3.11 (a) RF fading due to dispersion for 7- and 9-GHz tones. Solid lines represent theoretical results and points are experimental results. (b) Theoretical curve for measurable range of CD. Copyright © 2002 IEEE.

Figure 3.12 (a) Clock regenerating effect for NRZ data. (b) Clock fading effect for RZ data. Solid lines represent without SPM; dashed lines represent with SPM; dotted lines represent experimental. Copyright © 2001 IEEE.

Figure 3.13 (a) Experimental setup. RF power at half of data rate (5 GHz) is measured after MZI with path difference of 100 ps. (b) Received RF power as function of dispersion. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 3.14 Conceptual diagram for monitoring CD using optical VSB filtering. Recovered bits from either part of spectrum arrive at slightly different times depending on CD. Copyright © 2002 IEEE.

Figure 3.15 Phase shift between the two VSB signals versus the normalized. The three lines are simulation results for NRZ data, Gaussian filter (dashed dotted line); RZ data, Gaussian filter (solid line); and RZ data, fiber Fabry-Perot filter (dashed line). Scatter points are experimental for 10-Gb/s RZ data using a fiber Fabry-Perot filter. Copyright © 2002 IEEE.

Figure 3.16 (a) Eye diagram and (b) histogram with synchronous sampling. (c) Eye diagram and (d) histogram with asynchronous sampling. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.

Figure 3.17 Portraits processing of delay-tap sample pairs to create phase portraits. Labels on phase portrait represent the sampled bit sequences. Copyright © 2007 IEEE.

Figure 3.18 Eye diagrams and phase portraits for NRZ: (a) OSNR = 35 dB and no impairment; (b) OSNR = 25 dB; (c) OSNR = 35 dB and CD = 800 ps/nm; (d) OSNR = 35 dB and PMD = 40 ps; (e) OSNR = 35 dB and crosstalk = 25 dB; and (f) OSNR = 25 dB, CD = 800 ps/nm, PMD = 40 ps, and crosstalk = −25dB. Copyright © 2007 IEEE.

Figure 3.19 Monitor versus actual values of various impairments and signal quality measures for simultaneous mixtures of OSNR, CD, PMD, and filter offset from 10-Gb/s NRZ simulations. Copyright © 2007 IEEE.

Figure 3.20 Principle of residual dispersion monitoring via SPM and filtering. Copyright © 2002 IEEE.

Figure 3.21 Comparison of long-pass, spectral monitoring signal (solid squares) with typical 40-Gb/s RZ receiver BER penalty (open circles), both plotted versus residual dispersion. Eye diagrams are indicated for three residual dispersion values. Lines are a guide to the eye. Copyright © 2002 IEEE.

Figure 3.22 Experimental setup to vary noise and accumulated dispersion on a data signal. The wavelength-converted monitoring signal is generated by mixing Pdata with CW signal PCW in SOA and selected by the optical filter. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 3.23 Monitor signal for 40-Gb/s data as function of accumulated dispersion. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 3.24 (a) Typical measured data for logarithm of BER versus decision threshold (Copyright © 1993 IEEE). (b) BER as a function of the received optical SNR (Copyright © 1988 Holt, Rinehart, and Winston).

Figure 3.25 RF tone fading due to CD and PMD.

Figure 3.26 System setup of the CD monitoring scheme suppressing PMD and chirp effects. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 3.27 CD monitoring error, (a) versus DGD without and with PMD cancellation, and (b) versus α parameter without and with chirp suppression. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 4.1 Origin of PMD.

Figure 4.2 Illustration of input optical pulse with power transmitted on the two PSPs, each arriving at a different time.

Figure 4.3 (a) Probability distribution of DGD in typical fiber. (b) System performance (BER) fluctuations due to changes in temperature caused by PMD. Copyright © 1991 IEEE.

Figure 4.4 Graphical representation of all-order PMD effect on an optical pulse.

Figure 4.5 Transmission distance limitations for a 40-Gb/s NRZ system due to combination of fiber PMD and PMD of cascaded in-line optical components found in amplifier sites. Copyright © 2004 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.6 Explanation of PMD-induced RF power fading in an SSB SCM system in optical domain. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.

Figure 4.7 Received RF power variation versus DGD for eighth, quarter, half, and bit rate frequency components. Copyright © 2004 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.8 Concept of CD-insensitive RF power fading using optical bandpass filtering. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.

Figure 4.9 CD-induced RF clock power fading under various DGD values (a) without bandpass filtering and (b) with bandpass filtering. Insets are RF clocks when DGD is 23 ps and CD is 0 and 640 ps/nm, respectively. Copyright © 2004 IEEE.

Figure 4.10 Experimental setup of simultaneous PMD and OSNR monitoring through enhanced RF spectrum analysis by adding large DGD element. FMLL, fiber mode–locked laser. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 4.11 PMD monitoring results for 10-Gb/s, 2.5% RZ data by adding large DGD element. OSNR varies from 15 to 35 dB. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 4.12 (a) Conceptual diagram of PMD monitoring technique for DPSK/DQPSK. (b) RF power increases with decreasing FSR of polarization-based interferometer filter (i.e., with increasing DGD values). Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 4.13 Experimental results of (a) RF power measured at 170 MHz for PMD monitoring of NRZ-DQPSK and NRZ-DPK, and (b) CD dependence for PMD monitoring with DGD 23 ps and 40 ps, respectively. Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 4.14 Schematic illustration of DOP signal degradation by PMD. (a) Optical waveform and SOP of signal without PMD. (b) Optical waveform and SOP of signal with PMD. The x and y axes correspond to two PSPs of the transmission media. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.15 DOP as function of DGD for 10-Gb/s NRZ data modulated by MZ modulator. Plots, experiment; dashed line, rectangular waveform approximation; thin lines, numerical simulation. All simulated DOP curves are relatively unaffected by chirp parameter α and by fiber dispersion of 350 ps/nm. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.16 Theoretical results of minimum DOP versus DGD (relative to bit time, Tb) as pulse width of RZ signal varies. Copyright © 2004 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.17 Sensitivity of DOP reduction as a function of DGD (first-order PMD). Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.18 Measured DOP reduction with scrambled input polarization of 40-Gb/s RZ signal. (a) First-order PMD of 1.25 ps. (b) Second-order PMD, concatenation of two unaligned birefringent secitons (6-ps and 4-ps DGD). Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.19 Prior to optical filtering, an RZ signal that undergoes DGD equal to the pulse width is completely deplorized, thus limiting the DGD monitoring range of DOP-based DGD monitors. After filtering, the signal is partially polarized, allowing DOP-based monitoring of the DGD. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.20 Frequency-domain illustration of reducing depolarization via symmetric narrowband optical filtering. Short optical pulses have a wide optical spectrum, enhancing the effects of DGD-induced depolarization. A narrowband filter shrinks the optical spectrum, thus reducing these depolarization effects and increasing the DGD monitoring range. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.21 (a) Experimental results for minimum DOP versus DGD for 40-Gb/s 50% RZ signals. (b) Simulation results for minimum DOP versus DGD for 40-Gb/s NRZ signals before and after asymmetric partial optical filtering. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.22 (a) Design of error monitor with analog integrator, and (b) typical characteristics of integrator voltage Uint versus monitor threshold U¹ for first-order PMD signals with variable DGD and Y = 0.5. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.23 (a) BER versus eye opening for all orders PMD statistics. (b) BER after compensation versus eye opening using eye monitoring. Copyright © 2001 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.24 (a) Eye diagram and (b) histogram with synchronous sampling. (c) Eye diagram and (d) histogram with asynchronous sampling. Copyright © 2004 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.25 Portrait processing of delay-tap sample pairs to create phase. Labels on phase portrait represent sampled bit sequences. Copyright © 2007 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.26 Eye diagrams and phase portraits for NRZ with OSNR = 35 dB at (a) no impairment and (b) PMD = 40 ps. Copyright © 2007 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 4.27 Measurement of effective DGD (root mean square error of 3.1 ps) in presence of OSNR levels ranging from 13.5 to 25 dB. Copyright © 2009 IEEE/OSA.

Figure 5.1 The effect of timing misalignment between pulse carver and data modulator. Copyright © 2003 IEEE.

Figure 5.2 Measured spectrum asymmetry due to timing misalignment. Copyright © 2002 OSA.

Figure 5.3 Measured spectra for (a) aligned and (b) misaligned cases. The first spectral null occurs at around 6.4 GHz. Copyright © 2003 IEEE.

Figure 5.4 (a) Simple alignment-detection scheme. (b) Measurements: microwave monitoring of misalignment. Copyright © 2003 IEEE.

Figure 5.5 (a) Illustration of timing alignment between pulse carver and data modulator. (b) Calculated signal spectra with timing alignment between pulse carver and data modulator of (i) 0, (ii) 0.3, and (iii) 0.5 T in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system with ~0.28-T pulsewidth. Copyright © 2005 IEEE.

Figure 5.6 (a) Proposed setup for monitoring clock misalignment. (b) Frequency-to-intensity conversion characteristic of delay-and-add discriminator. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 5.7 (a) Two-tap plot for various modulation timing misalignment. (b) Measured d and t parameters for various timing misaligments. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 5.8 Misalignment monitoring of an RZ-DQPSK transmitter. Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 5.9 Monitoring signal power for (a) I/Q data misalignment and (b) carver/data misalignment. Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 5.10 (a) Basic structure of CPFSK modulator with synchronous control. Numerically calculated optical modulation spectra for (b) CPFSK and (c) BPSK (DPSK). Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 5.11 Modulation characteristics of PM and MZM. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 5.12 Receiver power penalty versus t⁰ for various ASK formats and DQPSK modulation methods. (a–c) sampling phases are optimized. Copyright © 2006 IEEE.

Figure 6.1 (a) Synchronous and (b) asynchronous eye diagrams and corresponding histograms of an NRZ signal.

Figure 6.2 Examples of asynchronous histograms acquired from an NRZ signal (a) in presence of ASE noise for different values of signal-to-noise ratio; (b) in presence of intraband crosstalk; and (c) when the signal is impaired by fiber dispersion. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.3 Examples of histogram acquisition systems. (a) Based on electrical sampling using an unsynchronized digital oscilloscope (© 2009, IEEE). (b) Based on optical sampling using a sum-frequency generation crystal. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.4 Schematic of asynchronous histogram for an average Q-factor analysis technique. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.5 Relationship between Q-factor and average Q-factor using analysis of an NRZ signal. ○, α = 0.1; x, α = 0.2; Δ, α = 0.3; □, α = 0.4; +, α = 0.49. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.6 Relationship between Q-factor and average Q-factor using analysis of an NRZ signal for different values of dispersion-impairing 10-Gb/s signal under analysis. ○, 0 ps/nm; x, 1190 ps/nm; Δ, 1530 ps/nm. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.7 Schematic of histogram crosspoint elimination method. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.8 Illustration of BER estimation method using multi-Gaussian fitting of asynchronous histogram after process to eliminate crosspoint data. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.9 Histogram of mark symbol of signal affected by intraband crosstalk (signal-to-crosstalk ratio of 19 dB) and degraded by Gaussian noise (a) without deconvolution and (b) after deconvolution and filtering. In the case of (b), the crosstalk floor around the mark symbol becomes clearly visible and may be evaluated. Copyright © 2009, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 6.10 Diagram of method to estimate an asynchronous histogram of the signal impaired with the ASE noise proposed.

Figure 6.11 Asynchronous histogram acquired from simulated signals with □, raised-cosine pulse shape; •, rectangular pulse shape filtered by Bessel filter with bandwidth of 70% of signal's bit rate; Δ, 40-Gb/s raised-cosine signal degraded by accumulated chromatic dispersion of 34 ps/nm; continuous lines, estimated histograms using the raised-cosine approximation. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.12 Diagram of histogram estimation method A.

Figure 6.13 Diagram of histogram estimation method B.

Figure 6.14 Schematic diagram of OMS for OSNR evaluation using asynchronous histograms.

Figure 6.15 Asynchronous histograms of reference signal considering an OSNR of 28 dB (dashed line) and signal under analysis with OSNR values of 14, 20, and 30 dB (continuous lines) for (a) power at OMS input of 0 dBm and (b) power at OMS input of −5 dBm. Optical preamplification in OMS is not considered in this case. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.16 Dependence of estimated OSNR on OSNRSIG for OSNRREF = 28 dB (□), OSNRREF = 22 dB (Δ), and OSNRREF = 16 dB (○). Optical amplification or filtering in OMS is not considered in this case. The insets present eye diagrams of signal under analysis for OSNR values of 16 and 30 dB. (a) Power at OMS input of 0 dBm and (b) power at OMS input of −5 dBm. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.17 Dependence of estimated OSNR on OSNRSIG for OSNRREF = 28 dB (□), OSNRREF = 22 dB (Δ), and OSNRREF = 16 dB (○). An EDFA is used within the OMS for pre-amplification. The insets present the eye diagram of the signal under analysis for OSNR values of 16 and 30 dB. (a) Power at OMS input of −20 dBm and (b) power at the OMS input of −25 dBm. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.18 Simplified block diagram of S&H circuit.

Figure 6.19 General block diagram of S&H system. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.20 Signal-to-sampling-noise ratio as function of aperture time for different values of transition time. (a) Using rectangular sampling impulse. (b) Using triangular sampling impulse. Numerical simulation results, symbols; analytical results, continuous line.

Figure 6.21 General block diagram of equivalent S&H system. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.22 Simulated nonideal histogram acquisition system for optical monitoring.

Figure 6.23 qeq/q and qcor/q as function of aperture time for 40-Gb/s signal. •, qeq/q for q = 8; ○, qeq/q for q = 10; ▪, qcor/q for q = 8; □, qcor/q for q = 10. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 6.24 Asynchronous histogram of a 40-Gb/s signal obtained with a nonideal sampling system from simulated signals with □, aperture time of 28 ps; •, aperture time of 44 ps. Continuous lines represent estimated histogram. Arrows indicate new relative maximums that result from averaging effect induced by nonideal sampling. Copyright © 2009, IEEE.

Figure 7.1 Schematic of asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique. Sample pairs are separated by a fixed delay, Δt.

Figure 7.2 NRZ phase portraits for (a) 1-bit delay, and (b) ¼-bit delay.

Figure 7.3 Phase portraits of an NRZ signal showing the effects of small changes in tap delay.

Figure 7.4 Eye diagrams and phase portraits (1-bit delay, ¼-bit delay) for 10-Gb/s NRZ: (a) OSNR = 35 dB and no impairments; (b) OSNR = 25 dB; (c) CD = 800 ps/nm; (d) DGD = 40 ps; (e) crosstalk = −25 dB; and (f) OSNR = 25 dB, CD = 800 ps/nm, PMD = 40 ps, and crosstalk = −25 dB.

Figure 7.5 Setup for generation of training sets. The impairment emulator adds known combinations of OSNR, CD, and first-order PMD to clean transponder signals. A polarization controller ensures a random distribution of power splits between principal states. AS, asynchronous sampler and outboard processing; PC, polarization controller; TDCM, tunable dispersion compensation module; TOF, tunable optical filter; Tx, transponder under test; VOA, variable optical attenuator.

Figure 7.6 Experimental phase portraits for (a–c) 10-Gb/s NRZ and (d–f) 40-Gb/s DPSK showing the effects of CD and DGD; the OSNR is 14 dB for all cases. The tap delay was set at 25 ps for both bit rates. The impairment levels were DGDeff (ps), absCD (ps/nm): (a) 0,0, (b) 39,0, (c) 0,1200, (d) 0,0, (e) 14,0, and (f) 2,400.

Figure 7.7 Experimental measurements (gray) of simultaneous OSNR, CD, and DGD impairments for (a–c) 10-Gb/s NRZ and (d–f) 40-Gb/s NRZ-DPSK. Results for 250 test cases are ordered along the x axis by true values (shown in black). The test errors, stdTe, are quoted at the 2σ level.

Figure 7.8 Setup for 10-G NRZ WDM system test. OSNR and CD were monitored at the three tap points. An additional ±400 ps/nm dispersion was added at each of the tap points as a further check of CD accuracy. The input power to the monitor was −18 dBm.

Figure 7.9 Simulation results for 10-Gb/s NRZ demonstrating monitoring of simultaneous OSNR, CD, DGD, in-band crosstalk, and optical filter offset. The training ranges were for OSNR, 11–25 dB; CD, −1400 to 1400 ps/nm; and DGD, 0–50 ps (random γ), crosstalk 15–24 dB, and filter offset 0–12 GHz. The training set consisted of 2000 random combinations of these impairments. Predictions for 1000 test cases (gray) are shown; true values are shown in black. The RMS error at the 2σ level are (a) OSNR 0.3 dB, (b) absCD 15 ps/nm, (c) DGD 1.6 ps, (d) crosstalk 1.4 dB, and (e) filter offset 0.7 GHz.

Figure 7.10 Simulation results for simultaneous measurements of absCD and DGDeff for 40-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK. The training set contained 2000 cases with OSNR ranging from 14 to 28 dB; CD, −800 to 800 ps/nm; and DGD, 0 to 25 ps.

Figure 7.11 Simulated phase portraits for (a–c) 40-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK and (d–f) 80-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed DPSK showing the effects of CD and DGD. The OSNR is 14 dB for all cases. The tap delay was set at 25 ps for both bit rates. The impairment levels were DGDeff (ps), absCD (ps/nm): (a) 0,0, (b) 25,0, (c) 0,800, (d) 0,0, (e) 25,0, and (f) 0,800.

Figure 8.1 Data-encoded optical signals represented by intensity and phase as a function of time (left column) and complex electric field at center of time slot (right column). The signals correspond to (a) on-off keying, (b) binary phase-shift keying, (c) quaternary phase-shift keying, and (d) 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation.

Figure 8.2 Layout for the direct measurement of the complex interference between data source and local oscillator. The two sources are split at the splitters SLO and SDATA, and recombined pairwise at the combiners CA and CB. Balanced photodetection of the two outputs of each combiner yields the in-phase and quadrature components of the interference if a relative π/2 phase shift is introduced in the optical path of one of the two sources between splitters and combiners. Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 8.3 Spectral representation of the sources involved in various implementations of linear optical sampling. (a) the Monochromatic local oscillator is spectrally overlapped with the signal. (b) the Broadband pulsed local oscillator is overlapped with the signal. (c) the Nonlinear interaction between the short pump pulse and the signal leads to an idler pulse, and the monochromatic signal is overlapped with the generated idler.

Figure 8.4 Train of sampling pulses in the time domain showing the carrier-phase evolution under the field envelope.

Figure 8.5 Phase samples measured on a 10-Gb/s BPSK signal. The phase is shown (a) without any processing, (b) after removal of a linear term leading to rotation in complex plane, and (c) after removal of both a linear term and a slowly-varying phase.

Figure 8.6 Schematic of a polarization interferometer. The orthogonally polarized data and sampling sources are combined with a nonpolarizing 3-dB coupler. The two outputs of the coupler are sent to identical setups leading to a pair of balanced photodetectors, excepting that a π/2 phase shift is introduced in one arm, so that the real and imaginary parts of the interference are measured.

Figure 8.7 (a) Picture of a 90-degree optical hybrid made with silicon-on-silica. (b) Setup for coherent photodetection of a data source with a copolarized pulsed local oscillator using the waveguide 90-degree optical hybrid. The sampling source is spectrally filtered to match the optical spectrum of the data source. The relative phase between the two measured signals is controlled by applying a low continuous voltage to a thermo-optic coupler. Copyright © 2005 OSA.

Figure 8.8 Setup for the coherent photodetection of a data source by gating with four-wave mixing and detection with a monochromatic local oscillator. The sampling and data source are combined and propagate in a highly nonlinear fiber. The idler resulting from four-wave mixing of the sampling source acting as a pump on the data source is filtered and detected by homodyne detection with a local oscillator. Courtesy of Mathias Westlund and Peter A. Andrekson; copyright © 2009 OSA.

Figure 8.9 Experimental results obtained with four-wave mixing and coherent detection. (a) Constellation diagram of 625,000 samples measured on a 10-GBaud QPSK signal. Electric-field samples located at the center of the bit slots in a time interval corresponding to 20% of the bit period are plotted in black. Other samples appear in gray, while lines correspond to interbit transitions averaged over a large number of similar transitions in the bit sequence. (b) Measured phase as function of position in the bit sequence. (c) Close-up of (b) in a 10-bit intervals. Courtesy of Mathias Westlund and Peter A. Andrekson; copyright © 2009 OSA.

versus the measured OSNR. Line of dots represents the theoretical relation between variance and OSNR. Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 8.11 (a, b) Constellation diagrams of phase-modulated signals generated with a phase modulator for differential phase of π/2 and π. (c) Standard deviation of the amplitude σρ and phase σψ of one of the symbols as a function of the differential phase (respectively round markers and square markers). Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 8.12 (a, b) Constellation diagrams of BPSK signal generated with Mach-Zehnder modulator for two different amplitudes of the drive voltage. (c) Standard deviation of the amplitude and phase of one of the symbols as a function of the drive voltage (respectively round markers and square markers). Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 8.13 Constellation diagrams measured at input and output of wavelength converter set to reduce the phase noise of a BPSK signal. (a) and (c) are measured before the wavelength converter, while (b) and (d) are the corresponding converted signals. Copyright © 2008 IEEE.

Figure 8.14 Constellation diagrams measured after propagation of a noisy signal in a highly nonlinear fiber at (a) low power and (b) high power. The coupling between the intensity and phase of the samples is a sign of Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise. This coupling is quantified in (c) as a function of the average power of the source. Copyright © 2006 OSA.

Figure 8.15 (a) Constellation diagram of a QPSK signal measured after two roundtrips in a recirculating loop (the propagation distance in transmission fiber is 800 km). Gordon-Mollenauer phase noise can be seen. (b) Coupling between intensity and phase in constellation diagrams measured for various propagation distances and/or launch powers.

Figure 8.16 Measured relative instantaneous power and phase of an amplitude-modulated optical source after propagation in a nonlinear fiber. The coupling between power and phase is due to self-phase modulation, and the nonlinear coefficient of the fiber can be quantified with these data. Copyright © 2005, Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Figure 8.17 Examples of measured constellation diagrams of a 10.7-Gb/s BPSK signal (a) after the transmitter, and (b) after propagation in 90 km of standard single-mode fiber. The trajectories of the electric field in the complex plane are plotted with continuous gray lines and the values of the field at the center of the bit slot are plotted with a black round marker. Courtesy of Michael G. Taylor.

Figure 8.18 (a) Temporal transmission and phase of a semiconductor optical amplifier depleted by a short optical pulse. (b) Temporal intensity and phase of an optical pulse carved by an electro-absorption modulator. In (a), the period of the depleting pulse is 100 ps, while in (b), the period of the drive voltage is 25 ps. The lines correspond to the quantities measured with linear optical sampling and the markers correspond to the same quantities measured with the spectrogram technique. Copyright © 2005 OSA.

Figure 9.1 Pilot-tone-based optical performance monitoring technique.

Figure 9.2 Pilot-tone generation and detection methods. (a) Adding a small sinusoidal current to the laser's bias current. (b) Dithering bias voltage of external modulator. (c) PM tone generation by using phase modulator. (d) Pilot-tone detection using FFT. (e) Using tunable electrical bandpass filter. (f) Using tunable local oscillator for the down-conversion of tone frequency. LD, laser diode; AM, amplitude modulator; PM, phase modulator; PD, photodetector; A/D, analog-to-digital converter; FFT, fast Fourier transform; BPF, tunable bandpass filter; RFD, radio frequency power detector; LOSC, tunable local oscillator.

Figure 9.3 Effects of modulation index and frequency of pilot tone on 10-Gb/s NRZ signal (pattern length = 2³¹ − 1). (a) Pilot-tone-induced power penalty measured at low tone frequencies. (b) Maximum allowable modulation indices of high-frequency pilot tones for 0.5-dB penalty.

Figure 9.4 Effect of highpass filter on data signal.

Figure 9.5 Eye closure penalty calculated while varying low cut-off frequency in comparison with simulation results (bit rate = 2.5 Gb/s, pattern length = 2⁷ − 1).

Figure 9.6 Experimental setup.

Figure 9.7 Power penalty measured while varying the bit rate (low cut-off frequency = 1 MHz).

Figure 9.8 Power penalty measured while varying tone frequency (bit rate = 2.5 Gb/s, pattern length = 2⁷ − 1, MI = 12%).

Figure 9.9 Mechanisms of performance degradation caused by XGM and SRS.

Figure 9.10 Measured optical and electrical spectra. (a) Optical spectrum measured after 640-km transmission. (b) Electrical spectrum measured after 640-km transmission (without using control channel). (c) Electrical spectrum measured after first EDFA (with using control channel). (d)