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Current and Future Perspectives of Regenerative Medicine

Mark E. Furth and Anthony Atala

Regenerative Medicine: Current and Future Perspectives

Progress and Challenges for Cell-Based Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine seeks to devise new therapies for patients with severe injuries or chronic diseases in which the body's own responses do not suffice to restore functional tissue. A recent publication from the US National Academy of Sciences, Stem Cells and the Future of Regenerative Medicine (Committee 2002), identified a wide array of major unmet medical needs which might be addressed by regenerative technologies. These include congestive heart failure (approximately 5 million patients in the United States) (Murray-Thomas and Cowie, 2003), osteoporosis (10 million US patients), Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (5.5 million patients each), severe burns (0.3 million), spinal cord injuries (0.25 million), and birth defects (0.15 million). Another area of critical need is diabetes mellitus (16 million US patients and more than 217 million worldwide) (Smyth and Heron, 2006). Patients with type 1 diabetes lack pancreatic beta-cells, essential for the production of insulin, because of autoimmune destruction and represent from 10% to 20% of the total. Many patients with type 2 diabetes also show insufficient pancreatic beta-cell mass. Thus, patients in both groups potentially might be treated if methods could be developed to promote endogenous regeneration of beta-cells or to provide enough surrogate beta-cells and pancreatic islets for transplantation (Weir, 2004).

The therapeutic use of growth factors and cytokines to stimulate the production and/or function of endogenous cells represents the area of regenerative medicine that, arguably, has shown the greatest clinical impact to date (Ioannidou, 2006). Regenerative therapies comprising living cells also have entered into practice, initially through the widespread adoption of both allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation (Thomas, 1999). The presence of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells with great replicative capacity in vivo, and their ability to reenter the bone marrow niche from the circulation, enabled this major medical advance. Subsequently, the development of methods to expand ex vivo and deliver such cell types as keratinocytes and chondrocytes, through advances in cell culture and scaffold technologies, led to successful tissue engineering for wound repair (Johnson, 2000; Lavik and Langer, 2004). Despite significant challenges in development and manufacturing, several bioartificial skin graft and cartilage replacement products have achieved regulatory approval (Lysaght and Reyes, 2001; Naughton, 2002; Lysaght and Hazlehurst, 2004). These therapies validate the potential of cell-based regenerative approaches.

The extension to new therapeutic areas, especially the development of neo-organs with complex three-dimensional structure, will depend on complementary advances in biology, materials science, and engineering. A major limitation remains the ability to provide oxygen and nutrients to neo-tissues both in vitro and after implantation. Advances in scaffold composition and design, in bioreactor technology, and in the use of pro-angiogenic factors may all help to overcome this barrier and are discussed in depth in other chapters of this book.

Here we will focus mainly on sources of cells for regenerative medicines. A primary issue remains the choice between using a patient's own cells, or those of a closely matched relative, versus those from an unrelated allogeneic donor. More broadly, future developments depend heavily on increased understanding and effective utilization of multiple classes of progenitor and stem cells.

When populations that include precursor cells (i.e. cells not yet fully differentiated and capable of significant proliferation) can be obtained from a small biopsy of a patient's tissue, and these cells are able to expand and differentiate in culture and/or after implantation back into the patient, autologous therapies are feasible. These have the great advantage of avoiding the risk of immune rejection based on differences in histocompatibility antigens, so that the use of immunosuppressive drugs is not required. However, there is a substantial practical appeal to off the shelf products that do not require the cost and time associated with customized manufacturer of an individual product for each individual recipient (Lysaght and Hazlehurst, 2004).

Among the approved bioengineered skin products, Dermagraft (Smith & Nephew) and Apligraf (Organogenesis) utilize allogeneic cells expanded from donated human foreskins to treat many unrelated patients. Despite the genetic mismatch between donor and recipient, the skin cells in Dermagraft and Apligraf do not induce acute immune rejection, possibly because of the absence of antigen-presenting cells in the grafts (Briscoe et al., 1999; Horch et al., 2005). Thus, these products can be utilized without immunosuppressive drug therapy (Moller et al., 1999). Eventually, the donated skin cells may be rejected, but after sufficient time has passed for the patient's endogenous skin cells to recover and take their place.

Products based on autologous cells also have achieved regulatory approval and reached the market. In particular, Genzyme Biosurgery has developed Epicel, a permanent skin replacement product for patients with life-threatening burns, and Carticel, a chondrocyte-based treatment for large articular cartilage lesions. In each case seed cells are obtained from a small biopsy of the patient's tissue. These cells are expanded in culture, processed, and returned to the patient.

New Therapies Using Autologous Cells

Recent clinical studies highlight ongoing efforts to develop new autologous cell-based therapies. The recognition that, in addition to hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow also contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), has spurred ongoing efforts to use autologous marrow cells for blood vessel tissue engineering and for treatment of myocardial infarction.

In the case of engineering of blood vessels, vascular grafts of autologous bone marrow cells seeded onto biodegradable synthetic conduits or patches have been implanted in children with congenital heart defects (Shin'oka et al., 2005). Safety data on 42 patients with a mean follow-up period of 490 days post-surgery appeared very encouraging, with no major adverse events reported. The grafted engineered vessels remained patent and functional. Moreover, there was evidence that the vessels increased in diameter as the patients grew, thus highlighting a critical potential advantage of regenerative therapies incorporating living cells.

Further advances in blood vessel engineering will likely arise from multidisciplinary approaches demanding advances at the interface of biology and engineering. In recent preclinical studies scaffolds for neo-vessels blending collagen type I and elastin with polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) were fabricated by electrospinning and showed compliance, burst pressure, and mechanical properties comparable to native vessels (Stitzel et al., 2006). The electrospun vessels also displayed good biocompatibility both in vitro and after implantation in vivo. When seeded with endothelial and smooth muscle cells, or progenitor MSCs and/or EPCs, these constructs may provide a basis to produce functional vascular grafts suitable for clinical applications such as cardiac bypass procedures. The seeding process itself may demand future advances, since it will be difficult for cells to penetrate a nanofibrillar structure in which pore spaces are considerably smaller than the diameter of a cell (Lutolf and Hubbell, 2005). Electrospinning actually may be used to incorporate living cells into a fibrous matrix. A recent proof of concept study documented that smooth muscle cells could be concurrently electrospun with an elastomeric poly(ester urethane)urea, leading to microintegration of the cells in strong, flexible fibers with mechanical properties not greatly inferior to those of the synthetic polymer alone (Stankus et al., 2006). The cell population retained high viability and, when maintained in a perfusion bioreactor, the cellular density in the electrospun fibers doubled over 4 days in culture. One can imagine that in the future, progenitors of vessel cells may be harvested from a patient, incorporated into an electrospun matrix and incubated in a bioreactor, first to drive expansion and differentiation and then, via pulsed flow, to promote vessel maturation (Niklason et al., 1999).

Similar strategies may be attempted to treat patients with congestive heart failure (Krupnick et al., 2004). Already, a number of clinical studies have been carried out on the injection of autologous bone marrow cells, sometimes unfractionated sometimes enriched for stem/progenitor cells, into the heart after myocardial infarction (Stamm et al., 2006). The initial rationale for this approach came from experiments in rodents interpreted as demonstrating the production of new cardiomyocytes through the transdifferentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Evidence for myogenesis of grafted cells, whether from the hematopoietic lineage or, as seems much more plausible, from mesenchymal progenitors, remains sparse. However, some controlled studies do indicate potential clinical benefits from the autologous cell therapy. This may result from the production of angiogenic factors by the injected cells rather than from integration of donor cells into either muscle or new blood vessels. Nonetheless, although still a daunting challenge, the application of regenerative medicine principles to repair damaged cardiac muscle now seems within the possible realm (Dimmeler et al., 2005). The correct choice of cell source, the development and maturation of tissue engineered cardiac patches, and overcoming chronic fibrotic scarring remain hurdles to be overcome.

In another example of regenerative therapy utilizing autologous cells, here following the general paradigm first established for skin, bladder urothelial and smooth muscle cells were expanded in culture from small biopsies and seeded on scaffolds to produce tissue engineered neo-bladders. Such constructs were implanted in seven pediatric patients with high-pressure or poorly compliant bladders, some of whom have now been followed for over 5 years (mean 46 months) (Atala et al., 2006). The results are strongly encouraging and should lead to larger scale studies of safety and efficacy, targeting product approval after regulatory review.

Cell Sources

The ability to produce enough cells of the necessary types from the skin, cartilage, or bladder for bioengineered products depended on the presence of stem and progenitor cells in the corresponding adult tissues. It also required the development of culture methods that both permit the expansion of the precursor cells and allow enough differentiation for generation of the desired neo-tissue. Implementation of this strategy for regenerative medicine, based on expansion of autologous cells, cannot yet be extended to all tissues and organs. In some cases it is not clear how to obtain biopsies containing progenitor or stem cells, or even whether such cells exist. In other cases, culture conditions for expansion of the precursor cell population are not yet available.

The future development of cell-based regenerative medicine depends on further translation of basic discoveries regarding the identity and behavior of stem cells into practical clinical applications. Important targets include cells of organs for which orthotopic transplantation already has been established as an important mode of therapy, but for which the supply of donor organs does not meet the current need. Examples include cells of the heart, kidney, liver, and pancreas, specifically insulin-producing beta-cells. In addition production of neurons and other cells of the nervous system may permit therapy of degenerative diseases for which no effective treatment yet exists.

Mammalian stem cells have been divided into two general categories: embryonic and adult. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and the comparable embryonic germ (EG) cells appear to give rise to all specialized cell types, with the exception of a limited set of extra-embryonic cells. Adult stem cells, which may actually derive from fetal, neonatal, or truly adult tissue, show varying degrees of restriction to particular lineages.

ES Cells

ES cells and EG cells appear very similar (we will use ES to refer to both) and will likely have comparable medical applications. In fact, a recent report indicates that ES cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of early embryos, most closely resemble early germ cells (Zwaka and Thomson, 2005). The ES cells can self-renew apparently without limit in culture, although mechanisms underlying this capacity remain incompletely understood (Rao, 2004; Stewart et al., 2006) and established ES lines may display some genomic instability. Furthermore, ES cells are broadly pluripotent (Evans and Kaufman, 1981; Martin, 1981; Shamblott et al., 1998; Amit et al., 2000). This great degree of plasticity represents both the strongest attraction and a significant potential limitation to the use of ES cells for regenerative medicine. A major remaining challenge is to direct the efficient production of pure populations of specific desired cell types from human ES cells (Odorico et al., 2001).

ES cells appear unique among normal stem cells in being tumorigenic, forming teratomas that contain cell types representing all three EG layers in a disorganized form (Martin, 1981; Thomson et al., 1998; Cowan et al., 2004). For clinical use it will be important to exclude undifferentiated stem cells from any products derived from ES cells (Lawrenz et al., 2004). Strategies have been envisaged to increase safety by introducing into ES cells a suicide gene, for example that encoding the thymidine kinase of Herpes simplex virus, which would render any escaping tumor cells sensitive to the drug ganciclovir (Odorico et al., 2001; Schuldiner et al., 2003). However, the genetic manipulation is itself not without risk, and the need to validate the engineered cell system would likely extend and complicate regulatory review of therapeutic products.

A central issue that must be addressed for tissue engineered products derived from ES cells, and also from any non-autologous adult stem cells, is immune rejection based on mismatches at genetic histocompatibility loci. It generally has been assumed that, because human ES cells and their differentiated derivatives can be induced to express high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I antigens (e.g. HLA-A and HLA-B), any ES cell-based product will be subjected to graft rejection (Drukker et al., 2002).

Therapeutic cloning offers a potential means to generate cells with the exact genetic constitution of each individual patient, so that immune rejection of grafts based on mismatched histocompatibility antigens should not occur. The approach entails transferring the nucleus of a somatic cell into an enucleated oocyte (SCNT), generating a blastocyst, and then culturing the inner cell mass to obtain an ES cell line (Colman and Kind, 2000). If required, genetic manipulation of the cells may be carried out to correct an inherited defect prior to production of the therapeutic graft (Rideout III et al., 2002). Despite a published claim (Hwang et al., 2005) later withdrawn, the generation of human ES cells by SCNT has not yet been achieved. However, the concept of therapeutic cloning to provide cells for tissue engineering applications has been clearly validated in a large animal model. Adult bovine fibroblasts were used as nuclear donors and bioengineered tissues were generated from cloned cardiac, skeletal muscle, and kidney cells (Lanza et al., 2002). The grafts, including functioning renal units capable of urine production, were successfully transplanted into the corresponding donor animals long term with no evidence for rejection. Although SCNT is the subject of political, ethical, and scientific debate (Hall et al., 2006), intense efforts in both the private sector (Lysaght and Hazlehurst, 2003) and academic institutions are likely to yield cloned human lines in the near future.

The reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei to yield pluripotent cells after introduction into the cytoplasm of enucleated eggs raises the possibility that additional means may be found to create cells with expanded potential to yield desired differentiated cell types. Counter to intuition, it appears that nuclei taken from certain terminally differentiated cells, such as postmitotic neurons, are readily reprogrammed to yield pluripotent cells by SCNT (Eggan et al., 2004). Nuclei from more differentiated cells may actually be superior for this purpose than nuclei of adult stem cells (Inoue et al., 2006; Sung et al., 2006), although the opposite trend was noted in studies using nuclei from neuronal lineage cells (Blelloch et al., 2006). In addition, fusion of somatic cells to ES cells can reprogram the somatic nuclei to an embryonic state (Cowan et al., 2005). Most remarkably, the expression of a small set of genes usually associated with ES cells (e.g. Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4) can induce an embryonic state, including pluripotency and the capacity to form teratoma tumors, in at least some somatic cells (fibroblasts) (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006).

The properties and differentiation potential of a number of human ES cell lines obtained by traditional means from early embryos currently used for research have been reviewed recently (Hoffman and Carpenter, 2005). The clinical application of ES cells for tissue engineering will depend on the development of robust methods to isolate and grow them under conditions consistent with Good Manufacturing Practice and regulatory review for safety. In particular, it is important to eliminate the requirement for murine feeder cells by using human feeders or, better, feeder-free conditions. In addition, development of culture conditions without the requirement for non-human serum would be advantageous. Progress has been made in the derivation and expansion of human ES cells with human feeder cells (Amit et al., 2003; Hovatta et al., 2003; Yoo et al., 2005; Stacey et al., 2006) or entirely without feeders (Amit et al., 2004; Carpenter et al., 2004; Beattie et al., 2005; Hovatta and Skottman, 2005; Klimanskaya et al., 2005; Sjogren-Jansson et al., 2005).

Perhaps the greater challenge remains in directing the differentiation of human ES cells to a given desired lineage with high efficiency. The underlying difficulty is that ES cells are developmentally many steps removed from adult, differentiated cells, and to date we have no general way to deterministically control the key steps in lineage restriction. Presumably, the same problem would be encountered with ES cells generated by SCNT or other means of reprogramming somatic cell nuclei.

To induce differentiation in vitro ES cells are allowed to attach to plastic in monolayer culture or, more frequently, to form aggregates called embryoid bodies (Itskovitz-Eldor et al., 2000). Over time within these aggregates cell types of many lineages are generated, including representatives of the three germ layers. The production of embryoid bodies can be enhanced and made more consistent by incubation in bioreactors (Gerecht-Nir et al., 2004). Further selection of specific lineages generally requires sequential exposure to a series of inducing conditions, either based on known signaling pathways or identified by trial and error. In most cases lineage-specific markers are expressed by the differentiated cells, but cells often do not progress to a full terminally differentiated phenotype. As summarized in recent reviews, the cell lineages which have been generated in vitro include, among others, several classes of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, multipotent mesenchymal precursor cells, osteoblasts, cardiomyocytes, keratinocytes, pneumocytes, hematopoietic cells, hepatocytes, and pancreatic beta-cells (Nir et al., 2003; Tian and Kaufman, 2005; Raikwar et al., 2006; Trounson, 2006).

In general, it appears easier to obtain adult cells derived from ectoderm, including neurons, and mesoderm, including cardiomyocytes, than cells derived from endoderm (Trounson, 2006). This may help determine the first areas in which ES-derived cells enter clinical translation, once the barriers discussed above are surmounted. Dopaminergic neurons generated from primate and human ES cells already have been tested with encouraging results in animal models of Parkinson's disease (Perrier et al., 2004; Sanchez-Pernaute et al., 2005). Promising data also have been obtained with ES-derived oligodendrocytes in spinal cord injury models (Keirstead et al., 2005; Mueller et al., 2005). Cardiomyocytes derived from human ES cells, similarly, are candidates for future clinical use (He et al., 2003; Nir et al., 2003; Goh et al., 2005; Lev et al., 2005). However, the functional criteria that must be met to ensure physiological competence will be stringent because of the risk of inducing arrhythmias (Caspi and Gepstein, 2006; Passier et al., 2006).

The robust generation of pancreatic beta-cells and bioengineered islets from human ES cells or other stem cells would represent a particularly important achievement, with potential to treat diabetes (Weir, 2004; Nir and Dor, 2005). Clusters of insulin-positive cells, resembling pancreatic islets and expressing various additional markers of the endocrine pancreatic lineage, have been produced from mouse ES cells (Lumelsky et al., 2001) and also from non-human primate and human ES cells (Assady et al., 2001; Lester et al., 2004; Brolen et al., 2005; Baharvand et al., 2006). The production of beta-like cells can be enhanced by the expression of pancreatic transcription factors (Miyazaki et al., 2004; Shiroi et al., 2005). However, the assessment of differentiation must take into account the uptake of insulin from the growth medium, in addition to de novo synthesis (Paek et al., 2005). It seems fair to conclude that the efficient production of functional beta-cells from ES cells remains a difficult objective to achieve. As in other bioengineering applications with ES-derived cells, efforts to reverse diabetes also will depend on the complete removal of non-differentiated cells to avoid the formation of teratoma tumors, which were observed after implantation of ES-derived beta-cells in an animal model (Fujikawa et al., 2005).

Adult Stem Cells

Despite the acknowledged promise of ES cells, the challenges of controlling lineage-specific differentiation and eliminating residual stem cells are likely to extend the timeline for a number of tissue engineering applications. In many cases adult stem cells may provide a more direct route to clinical translation.

Lineage-restricted stem cells have been isolated from both fetal and postnatal tissues based on selective outgrowth in culture and/or immunoselection for surface markers. Examples with significant potential for new applications in regenerative medicine include neural (Baizabal et al., 2003; Goh et al., 2003), cardiac (Beltrami et al., 2003; Oh et al., 2003), muscle-derived (Cao et al., 2005), and hepatic stem cells (Kamiya et al., 2006; Schmelzer et al., 2006). A significant feature of each of these populations is a high capacity for self-renewal in culture. Their ability to expand may be less than that for ES cells, but in some cases the cells have been shown to express telomerase and may not be subjected to replicative senescence. These adult stem cells are multipotent. Neural stem cells can yield neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Cardiac stem cells are reported to yield cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. Muscle-derived stem cells yield skeletal muscle and can be induced to produce chondrocytes. Hepatic stem cells yield hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells. The lineage-restricted adult stem cells all appear non-tumorigenic. Thus, unlike ES cells, it is likely that they could be used safely for bioengineered products with or without prior differentiation.

It is possible that some lineage-specific adult stem cells are capable of greater plasticity than might be supposed based solely on their tissue of origin. For example, there is evidence that hepatic stem cells may be induced to generate cells of additional endodermal lineages such as the endocrine pancreas (Yang et al., 2002; Nakajima-Nagata et al., 2004; Yamada et al., 2005; Zalzman et al., 2005). This type of switching of fates among related cell lineages may prove easier than inducing a full developmental program from a primitive precursor such as an ES cell.

Another class of adult cells with enormous potential value for regenerative medicine is the MSC, initially described in bone marrow (Bruder et al., 1994; Pittenger et al., 1999). These multipotent cells are able to give rise to differentiated cells of connective tissues including bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, and fat. The MSC have, therefore, generated considerable interest for musculoskeletal and vascular tissue engineering (Gao and Caplan, 2003; Tuan et al., 2003; Barry and Murphy, 2004; Guilak et al., 2004; Risbud and Shapiro, 2005). Cells with similar differentiation potential and marker profiles have been isolated from a number of tissues in addition to the bone marrow. A notable source is the adipose tissue in which the cells are abundant and easily obtained by processing of suction-assisted lipectomy (liposuction) specimens (Zuk et al., 2001; Gimble and Guilak, 2003).

In general it seems better to view MSC as mixed populations of progenitor cells with varying degrees of replicative potential, rather than homogeneous stem cells. However, some classes of MSC, including lines cloned from single cells in skin (Bartsch et al., 2005), have been maintained in culture for extended periods. A very small subset of mesenchymal cells from bone marrow, termed multipotent adult progenitor cell (MAPC), reportedly are capable of extensive self-renewal and of differentiation into cell lineages not observed with typical MSC, including examples from each EG layer (Jiang et al., 2002).

Cells originating in a developing fetus and isolated from amniotic fluid or chorionic villi are a new source of stem cells of great potential interest for regenerative medicine (De Coppi et al., 2001; Siddiqui and Atala, 2004; Tsai et al., 2006). Fetal-derived cells with apparently similar properties also have been described in the amnion of term placenta (Miki et al., 2005). Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells and amniotic epithelial cells can give rise to differentiated cell types representing the three EG layers (Siddiqui and Atala, 2004; Miki et al., 2005). Formal proof that single AFS cells can yield this full range of progeny cells was obtained using clones marked by retroviral insertion (unpublished data from A. Atala laboratory). The cells can be expanded for well over 200 population doublings with no sign of telomere shortening or replicative senescence, and retain a normal diploid karyotype. They are readily cultured without need for feeder cells. The AFS cells express some markers in common with ES cells, such as the surface antigen SSEA4 and the transcription factor Oct3/4, while other markers are shared with mesenchymal and neural stem cells. A broadly multipotent cell population obtained from umbilical cord blood may have certain key properties in common with AFS cells, and was termed unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) (Kogler et al., 2004). This population may overlap with or be identical to the so-called umbilical cord matrix stem (UCMS) cells isolated from Wharton's jelly (Mitchell et al., 2003; Weiss et al., 2006).

The full developmental potential of the various stem cell populations obtained from fetal and adult sources remains to be determined. It is possible that virtually all of the cell types that might be desired for tissue engineering could be obtained from AFS cells, equivalent stem cells from placenta, those from the non-hematopoietic subset in umbilical cord blood, or comparable populations. Similar approaches to those being taken with ES cells, such as genetic modification with expression vectors for lineage-specific transcription factors, may help in the generation of those differentiated cell types for which it proves difficult to develop a straightforward induction protocol using external signals. However, it will remain necessary to show, beyond induction of a set of characteristic markers, that fully functional mature cells can be generated for any given lineage.

Immune Compatibility

The growing number of choices of cell sources for bioengineered tissues opens up a range of strategies to obtain the desired differentiated cell populations. The issue of immune compatibility remains central. Although life-long immunosuppression can be successful, as in conjunction with orthotopic organ transplantation, it would be preferable to design bioengineering-based products that will be tolerated by recipients without the need for immunosuppressive drugs. The only cell-based therapies guaranteed to be histocompatible would contain autologous cells or those derived by therapeutic cloning (assuming mitochondrial differences are not critical) (Lanza et al., 2002). When a perfectly matched, personalized therapeutic product is not available, there still should be ways to limit the requirement for immunosuppression. First, there may be a strong intrinsic advantage to developing cell-based products from certain stem cells because there is evidence that they, and possibly differentiated cells derived from them, are immune privileged. Second, it may be possible to develop banks of cells that can be used to permit histocompatibility matching with recipient patients.

Human ES cells express low levels of MHC Class I antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B) and are negative for MHC Class II (HLA-DR) (Drukker et al., 2002). Differentiated derivatives of the ES cells remain negative for MHC II but show some increase in MHC Class I that is further up-regulated by exposure to interferon. These observations gave rise to the natural assumption that ES cells and their differentiated progeny would be subjected to rejection based on MHC mismatches, and led to a search for strategies to induce immunological tolerance in recipients of transplanted cells derived from ES lines (Drukker, 2004). However, it was observed that ES cells in the mouse and comparable stem cells from the inner cell mass of the embryo in the rat could be transplanted successfully in immune competent animals despite mismatches at the MHC loci. Furthermore, rodent ES cells may be able to induce immune tolerance in the recipient animals (Fandrich et al., 2002). Even more remarkably, human ES cells and differentiated derivatives were not rejected by immune competent mice in vivo, nor did they stimulate an immune response in vitro by human T-lymphocytes specific for mismatched MHC. Rather, the human cells appeared to inhibit the T-cell response (Li et al., 2004). An independent study using mice with a humanized immune system confirmed a very low T-cell response to human ES cells and differentiated derivatives (Drukker et al., 2006).

MSC from bone marrow and their differentiated derivatives also have been shown both to escape an allogeneic immune response and to possess immunomodulatory activity to block such a response (Bartholomew et al., 2002; Le Blanc, 2003; Potian et al., 2003; Aggarwal and Pittenger, 2005). The effect likewise is observed with MSC isolated from adipose tissue (Puissant et al., 2005). The successful therapeutic use of allogeneic MSC has been confirmed in animal models (Arinzeh et al., 2003; De Kok et al., 2003). Therefore, beyond the application of MSC as regenerative cells, it is possible that they could be employed to induce immune tolerance to grafts of other cell types. The mechanisms underlying the immunodulatory properties of MSC are under active investigation and understanding them may have profound impact on regenerative medicine (Plumas et al., 2005; Krampera et al., 2006; Sotiropoulou et al., 2006).

Other stem cell populations should be examined for their ability to escape and/or modulate an allogeneic immune response. While it is important to exercise caution in interpreting the laboratory results and in designing clinical trials, there is some reason to hope that the use of allogeneic stem cell-based bioengineered products will not necessarily imply the need for life-long treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. In the first FDA-approved clinical trial of allogeneic human neural stem cells, in children with a Neural Ceroid Lipofuscinosis disorder known as Batten disease (Taupin, 2006), immunosuppressive therapy will be utilized for the initial year after cell implantation and then reevaluated.

Banking of stem cells for future therapeutic use extends possibilities both for autologous and allogeneic therapy paradigms, even if it turns out that histocompatibility matching is important for stem cell-based therapies. Amniocentesis specimens, placenta, and cord blood represent sources from which highly multipotent adult stem cells can be obtained and typed with minimal invasiveness. Prospective parents could opt for collection and cryopreservation of such cells for future use by their children in the event of medical need. Furthermore, collection and typing of a sufficient number of samples (ca. 100,000 for the US population) to permit nearly perfect histocompatibility matching between unrelated donors and recipients would be readily achieved. Similarly, collection and banking of cells from adult adipose tissue appears straightforward. Although it would entail a greater level of effort and could be politically controversial, it also might be feasible to prepare and bank a relatively large set of human ES lines to facilitate histocompatibility matching.

One recent study suggests that a surprisingly modest number of banked lines or specimens could provide substantial ability to match donor cells to recipients (Taylor et al., 2005). Taken together with the low immunogenicity of certain stem cells, these results support the concept that allogeneic bioengineered products may not inevitably demand intensive immunosuppressive treatment, even if it proves impossible to develop general methods to induce selective immunological tolerance.


Regenerative medicine is a highly interdisciplinary field. Future progress will continue to depend on synergies between advances in biology, chemistry, and engineering. Yet the development of new therapies may be rate limited by the need to identify and obtain stem and progenitor cells capable of yielding desired specialized cell types safely and efficiently. Exciting new work indicates unexpected paths that may provide novel solutions to two critical problems: sourcing of progenitors for a potentially unlimited range of specialized cell types and overcoming the need for life-long immunotherapy associated with allogeneic therapies.


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Fundamentals of Cell-Based Therapies

Ross Tubo


Cell-based therapies have been proposed as a solution for a multitude of clinical problems ranging from structural repair of localized tissue damage to physiological restoration of systemic defects (Green et al., 1979; Caplan et al., 1998; Li et al., 1998). The successful treatment of such varied unmet medical needs ultimately depends upon the ability of cells to respond to their environment and function in a clinically relevant manner. This represents one of the most simple, and yet most complex principles for cell-based therapies.

Many factors contribute to deciding on the most appropriate cell-based therapy for any given patient. The clinical problem and type of the tissue repair desired are primary factors. Whether the repair tissue is to be permanent or temporary, structural or biological are important considerations. For instance, replacement of permanent structure may require an autologous cell therapy, while temporary restoration of biology may be better suited for allogeneic cells.

Autologous cell-based therapies represent our best clinical success in terms of permanent structural repair, harnessing the intrinsic capabilities of patient-derived cells to repair their own damaged tissues (Peterson et al., 2000). Studies examining the potential for allogeneic somatic cells for restoration of biology have also been successfully completed, resulting in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use of three allogeneic tissue-engineered products (Lysaght and Hazlehurst, 2004). The potential for use of allogeneic stem cells for structural repair of biological correction remains the subject of vigorous debate and research (Rao and Civin, 2006).

Our knowledge of cells and their interaction with extracellular matrices and biological factors have continued to grow during the past 20–25 years, with significant progress being made in the in vitro generation of three-dimensional tissue-engineered constructs of skin, cartilage, and blood vessels. We have learned the importance of providing proper physical and biological context in order to elicit the desired cellular response. Understanding these interactions will continue to guide the future development of clinically useful engineered tissues or organs in the practice of regenerative medicine.

Rationale for Cell-based Therapies

The inability of most adult tissues to regenerate themselves following injury has led to the development of cell-based strategies for structural repair or restoration of tissue physiology. Moreover, our ability to culture just about any somatic cell type has made it possible to consider the development of cell-specific culture systems for rapid proliferative expansion of such cells to treat previously unmet medical needs.

Cell-based therapies generally fall into two main categories: (1) autologous cells for permanent structural repair and (2) allogeneic cells for short-term structural repair or restoration of physiological function. Autologous cells are derived from the patient to be treated, while allogeneic cells are derived from a donor. Allogeneic cell therapies developed in the past include cultured dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes as dermal/epidermal constructs for the repair of cutaneous wounds (Parenteau et al., 2000), cultured kidney epithelia for renal assist (Humes and Szczypka, 2004), hepatocytes for liver function (Chan et al., 2004), pancreatic islets for diabetes (Ryan et al., 2002), and hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation and immune reconstitution in leukemia and other cancers.

Structural repair using autologous cells seems to be the most straightforward type of cell-based therapy, where the role of the cells is to produce a permanent repair tissue having the structural characteristics of the tissue from which they were derived. Allogeneic cells are expected to elicit a physiological response from the host by the transient production of tissue stimulatory molecules, which alters host disease biology resulting in restoration of physiological function. Use of allogeneic cells for short-term physiological restoration or stimulation of host repair is slightly more complicated, given the potential for immunological rejection of donor cells. Lastly, long-term correction of physiology, as is necessary for replacing organ function, is clearly the most sophisticated and problematic therapy. Careful attention needs to be given to physical structure, biological function, and the immunological component for a successful cell therapy.

Autologous Cell-Based Therapies (Unmet Medical Need)

The two earliest examples of successful cell-based therapies for structural repair are cultured autologous epidermal keratinocytes (Epicel) for permanent skin replacement in severe burns (Gallico et al., 1984) and cultured autologous articular chondrocytes (Carticel) for repair of a patient's own damaged articular cartilage (Brittberg et al., 1994). These products represent the first, the second, and the only autologous cell-based therapies ever commercialized.

Epicel, the First Autologous Cell Therapy

Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) or skin cells can be proliferatively expanded by culture on a mouse 3T3-fibroblast feeder layer under very specific conditions. Single cell suspensions of HEKs are prepared by enzymatic digestion of host skin tissue and placed in monolayer culture on the feeder layer. The feeder layer provides the appropriate physical niche and biological milieu for rapid expansion (Rollins et al., 1989). HEKs change their morphology and characteristic in vivo gene expression pattern when placed in vitro. This phenomenon, generically called dedifferentiation, is a process quite characteristic of any cell type subjected to proliferative expansion in vitro (Haudenschild et al., 2001). For HEKs, dedifferentiation is characterized by rapid change in cellular morphology, increased cell proliferation, and decreased expression of keratins normally found in epidermis with increased expression of keratins found in proliferating cells (Lersch et al., 1989). When propagated HEKs are subsequently applied to the host, they sense their environment and respond by redifferentiating, expressing genes and proteins characteristic of HEKs found in skin.

When applied to the patient, Epicel grafts have the appearance of a patchwork quilt. The grafts are quite fragile, being only 2–3 HEK cell layers thick (Figure 2.1). As such, they are very sensitive to microbial infection and physical manipulation. The nascent epithelial tissue attaches to the wound bed and further redifferentiates, having three to four differentiated layers of epidermis within about 7–10 days. Over time the epithelium develops into a fully functional epidermis and modulates the development of a neo-dermis or new dermis having all the histological hallmarks of a fully functional dermal–epidermal junction with rete ridges within a year (Compton et al., 1993).

Figure 2.1 Confluent cultured autologous human epidermal keratinocytes are affixed to petrolatum gauze (left) prior to shipment and subsequent application to patient. The nascent epithelial tissue is only 2–3 cell layers thick, as shown in the cross-section of graft on the right (hematoxylin/eosin stained).

Carticel, the Second Autologous Cell Therapy

The ability of cells to dedifferentiate, proliferate, and then redifferentiate and express a mature phenotype is central to the success of autologous cell therapy. As with Epicel, the paradigm used for Carticel is similar to that for any other autologous cell therapy. Cells are isolated by enzymatic digestion of a sample of the patient's own tissue, subjected to proliferative expansion in cell culture, and then returned to the patient for treatment (Figure 2.2). Cells are cultured under conditions designed to increase the number of cells in a timely fashion while maintaining their ultimate ability to re-express a differentiated phenotype. Maintenance of this functional ability is required for proper tissue function in vivo.

Figure 2.2 Chondrocyte transplantation in the right femoral condyle. The distal part of the femur and proximal part of the tibia are shown. Cells were isolated following enzymatic digestion of normal tissue. Cells were cultured in cell-specific media to increase the number of cells for subsequent administration to the patient

(reprinted from Brittberg et al., 1994, with permission).

Cultured human autologous chondrocytes (HACs), delivered as a cell suspension underneath a periosteal patch to the subchondral bone surface of a localized or focal defect in articular cartilage, will redifferentiate and express protein and proteoglycan consistent with hyaline-like articular cartilage tissue (Brittberg et al., 1994). Human articular chondrocytes in tissue normally produce hyaline articular cartilage comprised of type II collagen and aggrecan in articular cartilage tissue. When isolated from tissue and placed in monolayer culture, expression of hyaline cartilage-specific genes is down-regulated (Haudenschild et al., 2001) and characterized by decreased expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, increased expression of type I collagen and versican, and subsequent cell proliferation. Once the cultured cells are returned to the environment of the knee joint, for example, they