MRI Atlas of Human White Matter by Kenichi Oishi, Andreia V. Faria, and Peter C M van Zijl by Kenichi Oishi, Andreia V. Faria, and Peter C M van Zijl - Read Online

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MRI Atlas of Human White Matter - Kenichi Oishi

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Index

Preface

Five years have past since the first edition of this atlas book was introduced. During this period, the field of MRI has witnessed a tremendous expansion of studies based on diffusion tensor imaging, which, in turn, triggered renewed interest in white matter anatomy and its pathology. Another important development during this period was the adoption of quantitative image analysis referenced to an anatomical template (atlas), as well as the use of image warping technologies to allow co-registration to these atlases for a wide range of neuroimaging approaches. The availability of a stereotaxic atlas with structure segmentation can play an important role in brain research. First, such an atlas can be used to automatically segment patient brains by warping it to the shape of the individual patient's brain. Second, voxel-based analysis results can be registered to the atlas and used to identify anatomical structures of interest. For example, voxel-based analysis can define brain regions of interest in the template coordinates (x, y, z), but it is not always straightforward to translate the coordinates to precise anatomical knowledge, such as the identification of the corona radiata. A stereotaxic atlas with anatomical annotation would be a useful resource to link between the coordinates and anatomical entities. Third, if the same atlas is used for multiple studies with multiple imaging modalities, it can serve as a resource to connect different types of anatomical and functional information within the same coordinate system.

In order to better realize some of the premises of the atlas, we have introduced two major modifications in this Second Edition. First, the atlas is now in stereotaxic coordinate systems. We adopted one of the most widely used Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates as a primary coordinate system. The atlas was normalized to the ICBM-152 brain in MNI coordinates. For the secondary coordinate system, we have also provided the classical Talairach coordinate system, which ensures the connection between previous works and more updated anatomical knowledge. Second, this new edition now provides full segmentation of 220 white matter and gray matter structures with boundaries based on MRI/DTI contrasts. In addition to these two major modifications, there are several important additions to the atlas. For example, the atlas contains a modern cytoarchitectonic map based on recent work by Drs Zilles, Amunt, Eickhoff, and their colleagues. The new edition defines not only the core white matter structures, as in the First Edition, but also the superficial white matter, the deep gray matter, and the cortex. The nomenclature is consistent with the Atlas of the human brain, Third Edition (Mai et al., Academic Press, 2008) as much as