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by Bryan Barrass and Capt D R Derrett

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Length: 584 pages6 hours

*Ship Stability for Masters and Mates *explores all aspects of ship stability and ship strength, squat, and interaction and trim, as well as materials stresses and forces. Organized into 56 chapters, the book looks at the relationship between ship stability and ship motion, with emphasis on group weights in a ship. It also explains how TPCs are calculated for a range of drafts extending beyond the light and loaded drafts, along with form coefficients, including the coefficient of fineness of the waterplane area.

The book explains how to perform KB, BM, and KM calculations and make graphics on metacentric diagrams. It considers large-angle stability, the effect of beam and freeboard on stability, and hydrostatic curves and values for vessels that are initially on even keel. The reader is also introduced to free-surface effects of slack tanks with divisional bulkheads, how side winds affect ship stability, and the correlation between freeboard and stability curves. Other chapters focus on timber ship freeboard marks, procedures and calculations for drydocking and stability, and ship squat in open water and in confined channels. The book also includes extracts from the 1998 Merchant Shipping (Load Line) Regulations Number MSN 1752(M).

This book is intended for students seeking to obtain Transport Certificates of Competency for Deck Officers and Engineering Officers and STCW equivalent International qualifications, as well as Chief Mates and Officers on Watch (Officers in Charge) on board merchant ships and other maritime personnel, port authorities, marine consultants, nautical study lecturers, and marine superintendents.

Updated throughout to include new shipping industry developments and regulations, with 9 new chapters, the latest ship stability datasheets, and sample exam questions Provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of ship stability and ship strength, squat, interaction and trim, materials stresses and forces Concepts are supported with numerous worked examples, clear diagrams, graphs and equations to assist with understanding and application of this critical subjectPublisher: Elsevier ScienceReleased: Nov 27, 2012ISBN: 9780080970943Format: book

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Australia.

This book is written specifically to meet the needs of students studying for their Transport Certificates of Competency for Deck Officers and Engineering Officers and STCW equivalent International qualifications.

It is primarily for Chief Mates and Officers on Watch (Officers in Charge) on board merchant ships. The book will also prove to be extremely useful to other maritime personnel shown listed in the Introduction.

Throughout this book, when dealing with transverse stability, BM, GM, and KM will be mentioned and used in calculations. When dealing with trim, i.e. longitudinal stability, then BML, GML, and KML will be used to denote the longitudinal considerations.

Therefore, there will be no suffix ‘T’ for transverse stability calculations but there will be a suffix ‘L’ for the longitudinal stability text and diagrams.

**C.B. Barrass **

In 2006, I updated the 1999 edition of *Ship Stability for Masters and Mates*. At the request of the publishers, I have now refreshed, updated, and hopefully improved on this 2006 edition.

I have introduced further topics in keeping with certain developments within the Maritime Shipping Industry during 2006–2012. At the same time, I have attempted to improve the standard of content and presentation as and when required.

Changes to the previous edition include the following:

• Nine chapters of the 2006 book being deleted and replaced with nine new chapters in this book

• Details of FLNG ‘Facility’ design of 2011

• Website information for maritime establishments in the UK

• Turning circle diameters in shallow waters

• Triple ‘E’ container ships of 2011

• Qflex and Qmax LNG vessels of 2007–2012

• Ship squat improvements in research over the period 2006–2012

• Latest examination papers for Chief Mate and Officer On Watch (Officer In Charge) courses

• Thirty possible reasons why the *Herald of Free Enterprise *capsized at Zeebrugge

• Equations and graphs for position of LCB about amidships

• Recent worldwide ship groundings over the period 2006–2012

• General particulars of vessels delivered to shipowners 2006–2012

• Statical stability curves in waves having peaks at amidships or at end drafts

• Hydrostatic information for static vessels having trim instead of being on even keel

• Dividing the trim chapter in the 2006 book into three chapters, to improve presentation

• Separating cross curves and hydrostatic curves data into two chapters

• Combining two chapters on stability relationship with large suspended weights

• Ship stability data sheets as per MCG/SQA organizations

• Revamped pages on nomenclature of ship terms.

My main aims and objectives for this seventh edition of the book are:

1. To help Masters, Mates, and Engineering Officers prepare for their MCA/SQA written and oral examinations.

2. To provide knowledge at a basic level for those whose responsibilities include the day-to-day safe operation of ships.

3. To give Maritime students and Marine Officers an awareness of ship stability problems and to suggest solutions to these problems that are easily understandable.

4. To act as a good quick reference source for those officers who obtained their Certificates of Competency a few months/years prior to joining their ship, port, or dry dock.

5. To assist students of Naval Architecture/Ship Technology in studies on ONC, HNC, and HND and their initial years on undergraduate degree courses.

6. To advise drydock personnel, Ship Designers, DfT Ship Surveyors, Port Authorities, Marine Consultants, Nautical Study Lecturers, Marine Superintendents, etc. in their deliberations regarding ship stability.

Maritime Courts are continually dealing with cases involving ships that have gone aground, collided, or capsized. If this book helps to prevent further incidents of this sort, then the efforts of the late Captain D.R. Derrett and myself will have been worthwhile.

Finally, it only remains for me to wish each student every success in the exams and to wish those working within the Shipping Industry continued success in your chosen career. I hope you find this book to be a useful addition to your bookshelf.

**C.B. Barrass **

*17 July 2012 *

**Chapter 1. Group Weights, Water Draft, Air Draft, and Density **

**Chapter 2. Transverse Statical Stability **

**Chapter 3. Effect of Decreasing Free Surface on Stability **

**Chapter 4. TPC and Displacement Curves **

**Chapter 5. Form Coefficients **

**Chapter 6. Discussion on LCB Position Relative to Amidships **

**Chapter 7. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Areas and Centroids **

**Chapter 8. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Moments of Inertia **

**Chapter 9. Quadrature – Simpson’s Rules for Centers of Pressure on Transverse Bulkheads **

**Chapter 10. KB, BM, and KM Calculations and Graphics on Metacentric Diagrams **

**Chapter 11. Final KG Plus 20 Reasons for Rise in KG **

**Chapter 12. Angle of List Considerations – Text, Calculations, and Graphics **

**Chapter 13. Angle of Heel – Effects of Suspended Weights **

**Chapter 14. Angle of List Due to Bilging of Side Compartments **

**Chapter 15. Heel Due to Turning **

**Chapter 16. Angle of Loll **

**Chapter 17. Moments of Statical Stability **

**Chapter 18. Aspects of Trim – The Main Factors Involved **

**Chapter 19. Trim Calculations – Changing Conditions of Loading **

**Chapter 20. Trim Calculations – Satisfying Prescribed Requirements for End Drafts **

**Chapter 21. Large-Angle Stability Considerations – GZ and KN Cross Curves of Stability **

**Chapter 22. Effects of Beam and Freeboard on Stability **

**Chapter 23. Dynamical Stability Relating to Statical Stability Curves **

**Chapter 24. Changes in Statical Stability Relating to Wave Profiles – Loss of Quasi-Static Stability **

**Chapter 25. Hydrostatic Curves and Values for Vessels Initially on Even Keel **

**Chapter 26. Hydrostatic Curves and Values for Vessels Initially Having Trim by the Bow or by the Stern **

**Chapter 27. Increase in Draft Due to List **

**Chapter 28. Combined List and Trim **

**Chapter 29. Calculating Free-Surface Effects of Slack Tanks with Divisional Bulkheads **

**Chapter 30. Bilging Effects of Stability – Permeability Effects **

**Chapter 31. Effects of Side Winds on Ship Stability **

**Chapter 32. Icing Allowances Plus Effects on Trim and Stability **

**Chapter 33. The Sectional Area Curve **

**Chapter 34. FL and PL Curves Plus Type A and Type B Vessels **

**Chapter 35. Load Lines and Freeboard Marks **

**Chapter 36. Timber Ship Freeboard Marks **

**Chapter 37. IMO Grain Rules for Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk **

**Chapter 38. True Mean Draft **

**Chapter 39. Inclining Experiment (Stability Test) Plus Fluctuations in a Ship’s Lightweight **

**Chapter 40. The Calibration Book Plus Soundings and Ullages **

**Chapter 41. Drydocking and Stability – Procedures and Calculations **

**Chapter 42. Ship Squat in Open Water and in Confined Channels **

**Chapter 43. Turning Circle Diameter (TCD) Values for Vessels in Shallow Waters **

**Chapter 44. Interaction Effects, Including Two Case Studies **

**Chapter 45. Rolling, Pitching, and Heaving Motions **

**Chapter 46. Synchronous Rolling and Parametric Rolling of Ships **

**Chapter 47. Effects of Change of Density on a Ship’s Draft and Trim **

**Chapter 48. The Deadweight Scale **

**Chapter 49. The Trim and Stability Book **

**Chapter 50. Simplified Stability Information **

**Chapter 51. The Stability Pro-Forma **

**Chapter 52. Looking Forward into the Next Decade **

**Chapter 1 **

**Group Weights, Water Draft, Air Draft, and Density **

The first estimate that the Naval Architect makes for a new ship is to estimate the lightweight.

*Lightweight*: This is the weight of the ship itself when completely *empty*, with boilers topped up to working level. It is made up of steel weight, wood and outfit weight, and the machinery weight. This lightweight is evaluated by conducting an inclining experiment normally just prior to delivery of the new vessel. Over the years, this value will change.

*Deadweight*: This is the weight that a ship *carries*. It can be made up of oil fuel, fresh water, stores, lubricating oil, water ballast, crew and effects, cargo, and passengers. This deadweight will vary, depending on how much the ship is loaded between light ballast and fully loaded departure conditions.

*Displacement*: This is the weight of the volume of water that the ship displaces:

Hence

*Water draft*: This is the vertical distance from the waterline down to the keel. If it is to the top of the keel, then it is draft molded. If it is to the bottom of the keel, then it is draft extreme. Draft molded is used mainly by naval architects. Draft extreme is used mainly by masters, mates, port authorities, and dry-dock personnel.

*Air draft*: This is the quoted vertical distance from the waterline to the highest point on the ship when at *zero forward speed*. It indicates the ability of a ship to pass under a bridge spanning a waterway that forms part of the intended route.

Figures in May 2011 stipulate that, for the Panama Canal, this air draft is to be no greater than 57.91 m. For the St Lawrence Seaway the maximum air draft is to be 35.5 m. For the Suez Canal, the maximum air draft is to be 68 m.

In order to go beneath bridges over rivers, some vessels have telescopic masts. Others have hinged masts to lessen the chances of contact with the bridge under which they are sailing.

Occasionally, the master or mate needs to calculate the maximum cargo to discharge or the minimum ballast to load to safely pass under a bridge. This will involve moment of weight estimates relating to the final end drafts.

What must be remembered is that the vessel is at a forward speed. Therefore, allowances have to be made for the squat components of mean bodily sinkage and trim ratio forward and aft (see **Chapter 43). **

When a ship moves from water of one density to water of another density, without there being a change in mass, the draft will change. This will happen because the ship must displace the same mass of water in each case. Since the density of the water has changed, the volume of water displaced must also change. This can be seen from the formula:

If the density of the water increases, then the volume of water displaced must decrease to keep the mass of water displaced constant, and vice versa.

or

**Example 1 **

A box-shaped vessel floats at a mean draft of 2.1 meters, in dock water of density 1020 kg per cubic meter. Find the mean draft for the same mass displacement in salt water of density 1025 kg per cubic meter.

*Ans*. New draft = 2.09 m.

**Example 2 **

A box-shaped vessel floats upright on an even keel as shown in fresh water of density 1000 kg per cubic meter, and the center of buoyancy is 0.50 m above the keel. Find the height of the center of buoyancy above the keel when the vessel is floating in salt water of density 1025 kg per cubic meter.

*Note*. The center of buoyancy is the geometric center of the underwater volume and for a box-shaped vessel must be at half draft, i.e. KB = ½ draft.

**Figure 1.1 **

*Ans*. New KB = 0.488 m, say 0.49 m.

It has already been shown that when the density of the water in which a vessel floats is changed the draft will change, but the mass of water in kg or tonnes displaced will be unchanged, i.e.

or

With ship shapes this formula should not be simplified further as it was in the case of a box shape because the underwater volume is not rectangular. To find the change in draft of a ship shape due to change of density a quantity known as the ‘Fresh Water Allowance’ must be known.

The *Fresh Water Allowance *is the number of millimeters by which the mean draft changes when a ship passes from salt water to fresh water, or vice versa, whilst floating at the loaded draft. It is found by the formula:

The proof of this formula is as follows:

Consider the ship shown in **Figure 1.2 to be floating at the load Summer draft in salt water at the waterline, WL. Let V be the volume of salt water displaced at this draft. **

**Figure 1.2 **

Now let W1L1 be the waterline for the ship when displacing the same mass of fresh water. Also, let ‘v’ be the extra volume of water displaced in fresh water.

The total volume of fresh water displaced is then V + v.

Now let w be the mass of salt water in volume v, in tonnes, and let W be the mass of salt water in volume V, in tonnes:

or

where

**Figure 1.3 shows a ship’s load line marks. The center of the disk is at a distance below the deck line equal to the ship’s statutory freeboard. Then 540 mm forward of the disk is a vertical line 25 mm thick, with horizontal lines measuring 230 × 25 mm on each side of it. The upper edge of the one marked ‘S’ is in line with the horizontal line through the disk and indicates the draft to which the ship may be loaded when floating in salt water in a Summer Zone. Above this line and pointing aft is another line marked ‘F’, the upper edge of which indicates the draft to which the ship may be loaded when floating in fresh water in a Summer Zone. If loaded to this draft in fresh water the ship will automatically rise to ‘S’ when she passes into salt water. The perpendicular distance in millimeters between the upper edges of these two lines is therefore the ship’s Fresh Water Allowance. **

**Figure 1.3 **

When the ship is loading in dock water that is of a density between these two limits, ‘S’ may be submerged such a distance that she will automatically rise to ‘S’ when the open sea and salt water is reached. The distance by which ‘S’ can be submerged, called the *Dock Water Allowance*, is found in practice by simple proportion as follows:

Then

or

**Example 3 **

A ship is loading in dock water of density 1010 kg per cubic meter. FWA = 150 mm. Find the change in draft on entering salt water.

**Figure 1.4 **

*Ans*. Draft will decrease by 90 mm, i.e. 9 cm.

**Example 4 **

A ship is loading in a Summer Zone in dock water of density 1005 kg per cubic meter. FWA = 62.5 mm, TPC = 15 tonnes. The lower edge of the Summer load line is in the waterline to port and is 5 cm above the waterline to starboard. Find how much more cargo may be loaded if the ship is to be at the correct load draft in salt water.

**Figure 1.5 **

*Note*. This ship is obviously listed to port and if brought upright the lower edge of the ‘S’ load line on each side would be 25 mm above the waterline. Also, it is the upper edge of the line that indicates the ‘S’ load draft and, since the line is 25 mm thick, the ship’s draft must be increased by 50 mm to bring her to the ‘S’ load line in dock water. In addition ‘S’ may be submerged by x mm.

and

*Ans*. Cargo to load = 150 tonnes.

A ship displaces 7000 tonnes whilst floating in fresh water. Find the displacement of the ship when floating at the same draft in water of density 1015 kg per cubic meter, i.e. 1.015 t/m³.

*Ans*. New displacement = 7105 tonnes.

A ship of 6400 tonnes displacement is floating in salt water. The ship has to proceed to a berth where the density of the water is 1008 kg per cubic meter. Find how much cargo must be discharged if she is to remain at the salt water draft.

or

*Ans*. Cargo to discharge = 6400 − 6294 = 106 tonnes.

A ship 120 m × 17 m × 10 m has a block coefficient 0.800 and is floating at the load Summer draft of 7.2 meters in fresh water. Find how much more cargo can be loaded to remain at the same draft in salt water.

*Ans*. Cargo to load = 12,044 − 11,750 = 294 tonnes.

*Note*. This problem should not be attempted as one involving TPC and FWA.

1. A ship displaces 7500 cubic meters of water of density 1000 kg per cubic meter. Find the displacement in tonnes when the ship is floating at the same draft in water of density 1015 kg per cubic meter.

2. When floating in fresh water at a draft of 6.5 m a ship displaces 4288 tonnes. Find the displacement when the ship is floating at the same draft in water of density 1015 kg per cubic meter.

3. A box-shaped vessel 24 m × 6 m × 3 m displaces 150 tonnes of water. Find the draft when the vessel is floating in salt water.

4. A box-shaped vessel draws 7.5 m in dock water of density 1006 kg per cubic meter. Find the draft in salt water of density 1025 kg per cubic meter.

5. The KB of a rectangular block that is floating in fresh water is 50 cm. Find the KB in salt water.

6. A ship is lying at the mouth of a river in water of density 1024 kg per cubic meter and the displacement is 12,000 tonnes. The ship is to proceed up river and to berth in dock water of density 1008 kg per cubic meter with the same draft as at present. Find how much cargo must be discharged.

7. A ship arrives at the mouth of a river in water of density 1016 kg per cubic meter with a freeboard of ‘S’ m. She then discharges 150 tonnes of cargo, and proceeds up river to a second port, consuming 14 tonnes of bunkers. When she arrives at the second port the freeboard is again ‘S’ m, the density of the water being 1004 kg per cubic meter. Find the ship’s displacement on arrival at the second port.

8. A ship loads in fresh water to her salt water marks and proceeds along a river to a second port consuming 20 tonnes of bunkers. At the second port, where the density is 1016 kg per cubic meter, after 120 tonnes of cargo have been loaded, the ship is again at the load salt water marks. Find the ship’s load displacement in salt water.

9. A ship’s draft is 6.40 meters forward and 6.60 meters aft. FWA = 180 mm. Density of the dock water is 1010 kg per cubic meter. If the load mean draft in salt water is 6.7 meters, find the final drafts F and A in dock water if this ship is to be loaded down to her marks and trimmed 0.15 meters by the stern (center of flotation is amidships).

10. A ship floating in dock water of density 1005 kg per cubic meter has the lower edge of her Summer load line in the waterline to starboard and 50 mm above the waterline to port. FWA = 175 mm and TPC = 12 tonnes. Find the amount of cargo that can yet be loaded in order to bring the ship to the load draft in salt

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