This publication is a completion report for “UNEP Support for Environmental Management of theIraqi Marshlands” project, which was one of the largest environmental projects conducted withinthe framework of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) Iraq Trust Fund. The publication presents the background of the project, project activities, and major outputs and results. It also makes recommendations on additional initiatives to improve the environmental conditions for the Marshlands area as well as for the country. Through this project, UNEP supported sustainable management and rehabilitation of the IraqiMarshlands in the post-conflict and reconstruction period of 2004 to 2009, by monitoring environmental conditions, raising capacity of Iraqi decision makers, and providing drinking water, sanitation, and wetland management options on a pilot basis through the applications of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs). Based on the success of this project,UNEP’s initiatives in this area are now transitioning to focus on more longer-term managementprogramming.