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Belize History, and the Early Colony

Belize History, and the Early Colony


Belize History, and the Early Colony

Length:
212 pages
3 hours
Released:
Jun 25, 2016
ISBN:
9781310173790
Format:
Book

Description

How much have you found out about Belize, the hidden reality about Belize, the history of Belize, and the entire civilization, the people of Belize, the culture of Belize, business environment in Belize, government and politics, want to know more about this country Belize.
Perhaps as early as 35,000 years ago, nomadic people came from Asia to the Americas across the frozen Bering Strait. In the course of many millennia, their descendants settled in and adapted to different environments, creating many cultures in North America, Central America, and South America. The Mayan culture emerged in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in what is now southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, and Belize. Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly half a millennium of European domination. All evidence, whether from archaeology, history, ethnography, or linguistic studies, points to a cultural continuity in this region. The descendants of the first settlers in the area have lived there for at least three millennia.
Prior to about 2500 B.C., some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. While hunting and foraging continued to play a part in their subsistence, these farmers domesticated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and chili peppers-- which are still the basic foods in Central America. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Mayan core culture. Between about 2500 B.C. and A.D. 250, the basic institutions of Mayan civilization emerged. The peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began about A.D. 250 and ended about 700 years later

Released:
Jun 25, 2016
ISBN:
9781310173790
Format:
Book

About the author

I'm a historian, I have being teaching and writing on histories across the continent and outside world, base on my knowledge in history of human civilization.



Inside the book

Top quotes

  • Should the Senate, however, reject a measure or amend it in a manner unac- ceptable to the House, the House still has the power to enact the bill, as long as the Senate received the House’s bill at least one month before the end of the ses- sion.

  • With the formation of the UDP in 1973, the outlook for people who opposed the PUP began to brighten. The UDP won 31.8 percent of the vote in 1974 and 46.8 per- cent in 1979. The PUP, however, still held majorities in the House of Represen- tatives.

  • Riots, strikes, and rebellions had occurred before, during and after the period of slavery, but the events of the 1930s were modern labor disturbances in the sense that they gave rise to organizations with articulate industrial and political goals.

  • According to the constitution as amended in 1988, the country is to have no fewer than twenty-eight electoral districts, or divisions, each with a nearly equal number of eligible voters and the right to elect one House member.

  • Moreover, the party still had to overcome the divi- sions among its constituencies. Lindo, who had become party leader after the 1974 election, was defeated in his district in 1979. Theodore Aranda, a Garifuna suc- ceeded Lindo as party leader.

Book Preview

Belize History, and the Early Colony - Henry Albinson

Belize

History,

And

The Early Colony

___________________________________________________

Ancient Mayan Civilization, Slavery in the Settlement, 1794-1838,

The Society and Its Environment,

Cultural Diversity of Belizean Society,

Ethnicity, Economy, Tourism, Government, Politics.

By - Henry Albinson

Published by Sonit Education Academy

All-right reserved Sonit Education Academy publication

Copyright 2016

Smashwords Edition

License Note

The content of this book is copyright protected, under DRM, for the merely reason that its distribution is private. Your access to this book is limited to the commercial relation that you may have with the sole distributor or vendor of this book. Any further exercise with intention to commercialize or duplicate of this book for any reason at all is strictly prohibited, and knowing fully well that you are violating the law, under which this book is being commercialized, as Digital Right Management content. Only based on a clear understanding of the above statement, that your access to this book is permitted.

Author’sNote

The information on Belize History, and the Early Colony, is educational intensive and awareness, for touristic value, holiday resort, Business engagements and self-knowledge, it has to do with letting people know of what they don’t know about a place or something, and so much need to know. We have spent a tremendous amount of time in working towards achieving this, and here we are today. The book may not be as long as you might have expected, if you had expected more pages, but that is not the importance, and it does not make the value of a book, but providing you with a book that drives towards your need and provide you the information that solve your problem or serve your purpose. Belize History, and the Early Colony information book will surely get you satisfied. Note! There is no image in this book, the reason for not including images is to attract a full concentration for better understanding of this book, images are just picture reference, the real attraction is the quality of the book base on the written content. Please go through our Table of Content to know how valued this book is ahead of start reading it. Thank you

Table of Content

Belize History, and the Early Colony

Historical Setting

Ancient Mayan Civilization

Pre-Columbian Mayan Societies and the Conquest

The Emergence of the British Settlement

Beginnings of Self-Government and the Plantocracy

Slavery in the Settlement, 1794-1838

Emigration of the Garifuna

The Early Colony

Mayan Emigration and Conflict

Formal Establishment of the Colony, 1862-71

Colonial Stagnation and Crisis

The Genesis of Modern Politics, 1931-54

Decolonization and the Border Dispute with Guatemala

The Society and Its Environment

Geography

Geology

Physical Features

Natural Resources

Population

Migration

The Cultural Diversity of Belizean Society

Language

Religion

Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversity

Structure of Belizean Society

The Upper Sector

The Middle Sector

The Lower Sector

Social Dynamics

Education

School System

Patterns of Access and Performance

Standard of Living

Food and Diet

Health and Welfare

The Economy

Growth and Structure of the Economy

The Small Economy

Economic History

Growth during 1980-85

Economic Growth after 1985

Peripheral Factors

Government Policy

Balance of Payments

Investments

Fiscal Performance

External Debt

Labor

Foreign Economic Relations

Agriculture

Citrus

Bananas

Other Crops

Fishing and Forestry

Industry

Manufacturing

Construction

Tourism

Government and Politics

Constitutional Background

The Public Meeting and the Superintendent, pre-1854

Elected Legislative Assembly, 1854-70

Crown Colony, 1871-1935

The Return to Elected Government, 1936-53

Constitution of 1954 and Extension of Suffrage, 1954-60

The 1960 Constitution

Internal Self-Rule, 1964-81

Constitution of 1981

Structure of the Constitution of 1981

Procedure for Amending the Constitution

Government Institutions

Political Dynamics

Electoral Process since Independence

Political Parties

United Democratic Party

Other Parties

Interest Groups

Business Community

Churches and Religious Institutions

Consciousness-Raising Organizations

Mass Communications

Relations with the United States

Relations with Guatemala

Relations with Latin American and Caribbean Countries

Relations with Britain

Historical Setting

Information

TWO THEMES DOMINATE the history of Belize: the outward struggle to establish and maintain an English-speaking nation in an area dominated by Hispanic peoples and culture, and the inward interaction between groups of different races and cultural backgrounds. Understanding contemporary social relations and the politics of Belize depends on understanding these diverse groups and their interpretations of past events.

The first English settlers arrived in the early 1600s in present-day Belize (known as the Settlement of Belize in the Bay of Honduras prior to 1862 and British Honduras from 1862-1973). Their arrival marked the beginning of a conflict with neighboring Spanish settlers that lasted for centuries. For the first 200 years, this conflict was part of the larger rivalry between Britain and Spain. In the early 1800s, after most of the Spanish colonies in the New World became independent, the conflict in Belize evolved into a Guatemalan territorial claim on the area that continued into the 1990s.

Like many nations that have recently emerged from colonialism, Belize has a population that is fragmented into many racial and cultural groups. The two largest groups are the Creoles, English-speaking or Creole-speaking blacks and people of mixed African and European heritage, and the Mestizos, Spanish-speaking people of mixed Mayan and Spanish European. Two other significant groups are the Garifuna, a group of African and Carib ancestry originally from the Lesser Antilles, and the Maya, descendants of the original inhabitants of Belize.

These groups all have different interpretations of key events in Belize’s history. The subjugation of the indigenous people, the rivalry between Spain and Britain, slavery and the process of emancipation, the legacy of colonization, and the position of Belize in the modern world have all been subject to reinterpretation and debate. Despite the gradual emergence of a national identity, the differences among ethnic groups and their divergent outlooks on the present and the past play an important role in Belize today.

Ancient Mayan Civilization

Perhaps as early as 35,000 years ago, nomadic people came from Asia to the Americas across the frozen Bering Strait. In the course of many millennia, their descendants settled in and adapted to different environments, creating many cultures in North America, Central America, and South America. The Mayan culture emerged in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in what is now southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, and Belize. Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly half a millennium of European domination. All evidence, whether from archaeology, history, ethnography, or linguistic studies, points to a cultural continuity in this region. The descendants of the first settlers in the area have lived there for at least three millennia.

Prior to about 2500 B.C., some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. While hunting and foraging continued to play a part in their subsistence, these farmers domesticated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and chili peppers-- which are still the basic foods in Central America. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Mayan core culture. Between about 2500 B.C. and A.D. 250, the basic institutions of Mayan civilization emerged. The peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began about A.D. 250 and ended about 700 years later.

Farmers engaged in various types of agriculture, including labor-intensive irrigated and ridged-field systems and shifting slash-and-burn agriculture. Their products fed the civilization’s craft specialists, merchants, warriors, and priest-astronomers, who coordinated agricultural and other seasonal activities with a cycle of rituals in ceremonial centers. These priests, who observed the movements of the sun, moon, planets, and stars, developed a complex mathematical and calendrical system to coordinate various cycles of time and to record specific events on carved stelae.

Belize boasts important sites of the earliest Mayan settlements, majestic ruins of the classic period, and examples of late postclassic ceremonial construction. About five kilometers west of Orange Walk, is Cuello, a site from perhaps as early as 2,500 B.C. Jars, bowls, and other dishes found there are among the oldest pottery unearthed in present-day Mexico and Central America. The site includes platforms of buildings arranged around a small plaza, indicating a distinctly Mayan community. The presence of shell, hematite, and jade shows that the Maya were trading over long distances as early as 1500 B.C. The Mayan economy, however, was still basically subsistence, combining foraging and cultivation, hunting, and fishing.

Cerros, a site on Chetumal Bay, was a flourishing trade and ceremonial center between about 300 B.C. and A.D. 100. It displays some distinguishing features of early Mayan civilization. The architecture of Mayan civilization included temples and palatial residences organized in groups around plazas. These structures were built of cut stone, covered with stucco, and elaborately decorated and painted. Stylized carvings and paintings of people, animals, and gods, along with sculptured stelae and geometric patterns on buildings, constitute a highly developed style of art. Impressive two-meter-high masks decorate the temple platform at Cerros. These masks, situated on either side of the central stairway, represent a serpent god.

The Maya were skilled at making pottery, carving jade, knapping flint, and making elaborate costumes of feathers. One of the finest carved jade objects of Mayan civilization, the head of the sun god Kinich Ahau, was found in a tomb at the classic period site of Altún Ha, thirty kilometers northwest of present-day Belize City. Settled at least as early as 200 B.C., the Altún Ha area at its peak had an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 inhabitants. At the beginning of the second century A.D., the inhabitants built their first major structure, a temple. The visitor today sees a group of temples, priests’ residences, and other buildings around two adjacent plazas. In the vicinity, there are hundreds of other structures, most of which are still unexcavated. The Maya continued to rebuild some of the temples until almost the end of the ninth century. Excavations at Altún Ha have produced evidence suggesting that a revolt, perhaps of peasants against the priestly class, contributed to the downfall of the civilization. People may have continued to live at or to visit the site in the postclassic period, even though the ceremonial centers were left to decay. Some rubbish found at Altún Ha shows that people were at the site in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, perhaps to reuse the old structures or undertake pilgrimages to the old religious center.

Other Mayan centers located in Belize include Xunantunich and Baking Pot in Cayo District, Lubaantún and Nimli Punit in Toledo District, and Lamanai on Hill Bank Lagoon in Orange Walk District. Xunantunich, meaning Lady of the Rock, was occupied perhaps as early as 300 B.C., but most of the architecture there was constructed in the late classic period. As in all the lowland Mayan centers, the inhabitants continually constructed temples and residences over older buildings, enlarging and raising the platforms and structures in the process. The views are breathtaking from Xunantunich’s El Castillo, which, at thirty-nine meters, is the tallest man-made structure in Belize. Lamanai, less accessible to tourists than Altún Ha or Xunantunich, is an important site because it provides archaeological evidence of the Mayan presence over many centuries, beginning around A.D. 150. Substantial populations were present throughout the classic and postclassic periods. Indeed, people living in the area were still refacing some of the massive ceremonial buildings after the great centers, such as Tikal in neighboring Guatemala, had been virtually abandoned in the tenth century.

In the late classic period, probably at least 400,000 people inhabited the Belize area. People settled almost every part of the country worth cultivating, as well as the cay and coastal swamp regions. But in the tenth century, Mayan society suffered a severe breakdown. Construction of public buildings ceased, the administrative centers lost power, and the population declined as social and economic systems lost their coherence. Some people continued to occupy, or perhaps reoccupied, sites such as Altún Ha, Xunantunich, and Lamanai. Still, these sites ceased being splendid ceremonial and civic centers.

The decline of Mayan civilization is still not fully explained. Rather than identifying the collapse as the result of a single factor, many archaeologists now believe that the decline of the Maya was a result of many complex factors and that the decline occurred at different times in different regions.

Increasing information about Mayan culture and society helps explain the development, achievements, and decline of their ancient civilization and suggests more continuities in Mayan history than once had been considered possible. The excavation of sites, such as those at Cuello, Cerros, Altún Ha, Xunantunich, and Lamanai, has shown the extraordinary persistence of Mayan people in Belize over many centuries.

Pre-Columbian Mayan Societies and the Conquest

Colonially oriented historians have asserted that the Maya had left the area long

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