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880 pages

*Differential Equations with Mathematica, Fourth Edition* is a supplementing reference which uses the fundamental concepts of the popular platform to solve (analytically, numerically, and/or graphically) differential equations of interest to students, instructors, and scientists.

Mathematica’s diversity makes it particularly well suited to performing calculations encountered when solving many ordinary and partial differential equations. In some cases, Mathematica’s built-in functions can immediately solve a differential equation by providing an explicit, implicit, or numerical solution. In other cases, mathematica can be used to perform the calculations encountered when solving a differential equation.

Because one goal of elementary differential equations courses is to introduce students to basic methods and algorithms so that they gain proficiency in them, nearly every topic covered this book introduces basic commands, also including typical examples of their application. A study of differential equations relies on concepts from calculus and linear algebra, so this text also includes discussions of relevant commands useful in those areas. In many cases, seeing a solution graphically is most meaningful, so the book relies heavily on Mathematica’s outstanding graphics capabilities.

Demonstrates how to take advantage of the advanced features of Mathematica 10 Introduces the fundamental theory of ordinary and partial differential equations using Mathematica to solve typical problems of interest to students, instructors, scientists, and practitioners in many fields Showcases practical applications and case studies drawn from biology, physics, and engineeringPublisher: Academic PressReleased: Sep 19, 2016ISBN: 9780128047774Format: book

**Differential Equations with Mathematica **

Fourth Edition

Martha L. Abell

*Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA *

James P. Braselton

*Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA *

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright **

**Preface **

**1: Introduction to Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**1.1 Definitions and Concepts **

**1.2 Solutions of Differential Equations **

**1.3 Initial and Boundary-Value Problems **

**1.4 Direction Fields **

**2: First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**2.1 Theory of First-Order Equations: A Brief Discussion **

**2.2 Separation of Variables **

**2.3 Homogeneous Equations **

**2.4 Exact Equations **

**2.5 Linear Equations **

**2.6 Numerical Approximations of Solutions to First-Order Equations **

**3: Applications of First-Order Equations **

**Abstract **

**3.1 Orthogonal Trajectories **

**3.2 Population Growth and Decay **

**3.3 Newton’s Law of Cooling **

**3.4 Free-Falling Bodies **

**4: Higher-Order Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**4.1 Preliminary Definitions and Notation **

**4.2 Solving Homogeneous Equations With Constant Coefficients **

**4.3 Introduction to Solving Nonhomogeneous Equations **

**4.4 Nonhomogeneous Equations With Constant Coefficients: The Method of Undetermined Coefficients **

**4.5 Nonhomogeneous Equations With Constant Coefficients: Variation of Parameters **

**4.6 Cauchy-Euler Equations **

**4.7 Series Solutions **

**4.8 Nonlinear Equations **

**5: Applications of Higher-Order Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**5.1 Harmonic Motion **

**5.2 The Pendulum Problem **

**5.3 Other Applications **

**6: Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**6.1 Review of Matrix Algebra and Calculus **

**6.2 Systems of Equations: Preliminary Definitions and Theory **

**6.3 Homogeneous Linear Systems With Constant Coefficients **

**6.4 Nonhomogeneous First-Order Systems: Undetermined Coefficients, Variation of Parameters, and the Matrix Exponential **

**6.5 Numerical Methods **

**6.6 Nonlinear Systems, Linearization, and Classification of Equilibrium Points **

**7: Applications of Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**7.1 Mechanical and Electrical Problems With First-Order Linear Systems **

**7.2 Diffusion and Population Problems With First-Order Linear Systems **

**7.3 Applications That Lead to Nonlinear Systems **

**8: Laplace Transform Methods **

**Abstract **

**8.1 The Laplace Transform **

**8.2 The Inverse Laplace Transform **

**8.3 Solving Initial-Value Problems With the Laplace Transform **

**8.4 Laplace Transforms of Step and Periodic Functions **

**8.5 The Convolution Theorem **

**8.6 Applications of Laplace Transforms, Part I **

**8.7 Laplace Transform Methods for Systems **

**8.8 Applications of Laplace Transforms, Part II **

**9: Eigenvalue Problems and Fourier Series **

**Abstract **

**9.1 Boundary-Value Problems, Eigenvalue Problems, Sturm-Liouville Problems **

**9.2 Fourier Sine Series and Cosine Series **

**9.3 Fourier Series **

**9.4 Generalized Fourier Series **

**10: Partial Differential Equations **

**Abstract **

**10.1 Introduction to Partial Differential Equations and Separation of Variables **

**10.2 The One-Dimensional Heat Equation **

**10.3 The One-Dimensional Wave Equation **

**10.4 Problems in Two Dimensions: Laplace’s Equation **

**10.5 Two-Dimensional Problems in a Circular Region **

**Appendix A: Getting Started **

**Introduction to Mathematica **

**Getting Help From Mathematica **

**Mathematica Help **

**The Mathematica Menu **

**Bibliography **

**Index **

**Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier **

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This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

**Notices **

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

**Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data **

A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-0-12-804776-7

For information on all Academic Press publications visit our website at **https://www.elsevier.com/ **

*Publisher: *Nikki Levy

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*Editorial Project Manager: *Susan Ikeda

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Typeset by SPi Global, India

**Martha L. Abell martha@georgiasouthern.edu **

**James P. Braselton jbraselton@georgiasouthern.edu, Statesboro, Georgia **

*Differential Equations with Mathematica *is an appropriate reference for all users of Mathematica who encounter differential equations in their profession, in particular, for beginning users like students, instructors, engineers, business people, and other professionals using Mathematica to solve and visualize solutions to differential equations. *Differential Equations with Mathematica *is a valuable supplement for students and instructors at engineering schools that use Mathematica.

*Differential Equations with Mathematica *introduces basic commands and includes typical examples of applications of them. A study of differential equations relies on concepts from calculus and linear algebra so the text also includes discussions of relevant commands useful in those areas. In many cases, seeing a solution graphically is most meaningful so *Differential Equations with Mathematica *relies heavily on Mathematica’s outstanding graphics capabilities.

Taking advantage of Version 10 of Mathematica, *Differential Equations with Mathematica*, Fourth Edition, introduces the fundamental concepts of Mathematica to solve (analytically, numerically, and/or graphically) differential equations of interest to students, instructors, and scientists. Other features to help make *Differential Equations with Mathematica*, Fourth Edition, as easy to use and as useful as possible include the following.

1. **Version 10 Compatibility. **All examples illustrated in *Differential Equations with Mathematica*, Fourth Edition, were completed using Version 10 of Mathematica. Although most computations can continue to be carried out with earlier versions of Mathematica, we have taken advantage of the new features in Version 10 as much as possible.

2. **Applications. **Applications, many of which are documented by references, from a variety of fields, especially biology, physics, and engineering, are included throughout the text.

3. **Detailed Table of Contents. **The table of contents includes all chapter, section, and subsection headings. Along with the comprehensive index, we hope that users will be able to locate information quickly and easily.

4. **Comprehensive Index. **In the index, mathematical examples and applications are listed by topic, or name, as well as commands along with frequently used options: particular mathematical examples as well as examples illustrating how to use frequently used commands are easy to locate. In addition, commands in the index are cross-referenced with frequently used options. Functions available in the various packages are cross-referenced both by package and alphabetically.

Finally, we must express our appreciate to those who assisted in this project. We would like to express appreciation to our editors at Elsevier/Academic Press for providing a pleasant environment in which to work. We especially thank those close to us: Imogene Abell, Lori Braselton, and David Ewing for enduring with us the pressures of meeting a deadline and for graciously accepting our demanding work schedules. We certainly could not have completed this task without their care and understanding.

August, 2016

**1 **

**Introduction to Differential Equations **

The purpose of *Differential Equations with Mathematica*, Fourth Edition, is twofold. First, we introduce and discuss the topics covered in typical undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in ordinary and partial differential equations including topics such as Laplace transforms, Fourier series, eigenvalue problems, and boundary-value problems. Second, we illustrate how Mathematica is used to enhance the study of differential equations not only by eliminating the computational difficulties, but also by overcoming the visual limitations associated with the explicit solutions to differential equations. In each chapter, we first present the material in a manner similar to most differential equations texts and then illustrate how Mathematica can be used to solve some typical problems. For example, in Chapter 2, we introduce the topic of first-order equations. First, we show how to solve certain types of problems by hand and then show how Mathematica can be used to assist in the same solution procedures. Finally, we illustrate how Mathematica commands like DSolve and NDSolve can be used to solve some frequently encountered equations exactly and/or numerically. In Chapter 3 we discuss some applications of first-order equations. Since we are experienced and understand the methods of solution covered in Chapter 2, we make use of DSolve and similar commands to obtain solutions. In doing so, we are able to emphasize the applications themselves as opposed to becoming bogged down in calculations.

The advantages of using Mathematica in the study of differential equations are numerous, but perhaps some of the most useful include that of being able to produce the graphics associated with solutions of differential equations as well as generating very accurate numerical solutions of equations that can only be solved numerically. This is in the discussion of applications because many physical situations are modeled with differential equations. For example, we will see that the motion of a pendulum can be modeled by a differential equation. When we solve the problem of the motion of a pendulum, we use technology to actually watch the pendulum move. The same is true for the motion of a mass attached to the end of a spring as well as many other problems. In having this ability, the study of differential equations becomes much more meaningful as well as interesting.

If you are a beginning Mathematica user and, especially, new to Version 10, the **Appendix **contains an introduction to Mathematica, including discussions about entering and evaluating commands, and taking advantage of Mathematica’s extensive help facilities.

Although Chapter 1 is short in length, Chapter 1 introduces examples that will be investigated in subsequent chapters. Also, the vocabulary introduced in Chapter 1 will be used throughout the text. Consequently, even though, to a large extent, it may be read quickly, subsequent chapters will take advantage of the terminology and techniques discussed here.

Ordinary differential equation; Partial differential equation; Linear differential equation; Nonlinear differential equation; System of differential equations

The purpose of *Differential Equations with Mathematica*, Fourth Edition, is twofold. First, we introduce and discuss the topics covered in typical undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in ordinary and partial differential equations including topics such as Laplace transforms, Fourier series, eigenvalue problems, and boundary-value problems. Second, we illustrate how Mathematica is used to enhance the study of differential equations not only by eliminating the computational difficulties, but also by overcoming the visual limitations associated with the explicit solutions to differential equations. In each chapter, we first present the material in a manner similar to most differential equations texts and then illustrate how Mathematica can be used to solve some typical problems. For example, in **Chapter 2, we introduce the topic of first-order equations. First, we show how to solve certain types of problems by hand and then show how Mathematica can be used to assist in the same solution procedures. Finally, we illustrate how Mathematica commands like DSolve and NDSolve can be used to solve some frequently encountered equations exactly and/or numerically. In Chapter 3 we discuss some applications of first-order equations. Since we are experienced and understand the methods of solution covered in Chapter 2, we make use of DSolve and similar commands to obtain solutions. In doing so, we are able to emphasize the applications themselves as opposed to becoming bogged down in calculations. **

The advantages of using Mathematica in the study of differential equations are numerous, but perhaps some of the most useful include that of being able to produce the graphics associated with solutions of differential equations as well as generating very accurate numerical solutions of equations that can only be solved numerically. This is in the discussion of applications because many physical situations are modeled with differential equations. For example, we will see that the motion of a pendulum can be modeled by a differential equation. When we solve the problem of the motion of a pendulum, we use technology to actually watch the pendulum move. The same is true for the motion of a mass attached to the end of a spring as well as many other problems. In having this ability, the study of differential equations becomes much more meaningful as well as interesting.

If you are a beginning Mathematica user and, especially, new to Version 10, the **Appendix **contains an introduction to Mathematica, including discussions about entering and evaluating commands, and taking advantage of Mathematica’s extensive help facilities.

Although Chapter 1 is short in length, Chapter 1 introduces examples that will be investigated in subsequent chapters. Also, the vocabulary introduced in Chapter 1 will be used throughout the text. Consequently, even though, to a large extent, it may be read quickly, subsequent chapters will take advantage of the terminology and techniques discussed here.

We begin our study of differential equations by explaining what a differential equation is.

A **differential equation **is an equation that contains the derivative or differentials of one or more dependent variables with respect to one or more independent variables. If the equation contains only ordinary derivatives (of one or more dependent variables) with respect to a single independent variable, the equation is called an **ordinary differential equation**.

Discuss properties of the following differential equations.

and *dy*/*dx *+ *du*/*dx *= *u *+ *x*²*y *

and *dy*/*dx *+ *du*/*dx *= *u *+ *x*²*y *are examples of *ordinary differential equations *because they have only one independent variable (specified as *x *because of the *dy*/*dx *notation).

is an *ordinary differential equation *written in *differential form*. If *y *is the dependent variable, the equation is nonlinear in *y *because of the product of the *y *term. A differential equation is nonlinear if it is *nonlinear in terms of the dependent variable*.

Remember that if *y *= *y*(*t*), *t *is the independent variable and *y *is the dependent variable.

Using *prime notation*, a *solution *of the *ordinary differential equation *, which is called **Bessel’s equation**, is a function *y *= *y*(*x*simplifies to identically the 0 function.

On the other hand,

**(1.1) **

where *a*, *b*, *m*, and *n *are positive constants, is a *system *of two ordinary differential equations, called the **predator-prey equations**. A *solution *consists of two functions *x *= *x*(*t*) and *y *= *y*(*t*) that satisfy **both **equations. Predator-prey models can exhibit *very *interesting behavior as we will see when we study systems of differential equations and nonlinear systems of differential equations in more detail later.

See texts like Giordano, Weir, and Fox’s *A First Course in Mathematical Modeling*, [**12], and similar texts for detailed descriptions of predator-prey models. **

Note that a system of differential equations can consist of more than two equations. For example, the basic equations that describe the competition between two organisms, with population densities *x*1 and *x*2, respectively, in a chemostat are

where ′ denotes differentiation with respect to *t*; *S *= *S*(*t*), *x*1 = *x*1(*t*), and *x*2 = *x*2(*t*). For equation (**1.2), we remark that S denotes the concentration of the nutrient available to the competitors with population densities x1 and x2. We investigate chemostat models in more detail in Chapter 7. **

See Smith and Waltman’s *The Theory of the Chemostat*, [**24], for a detailed discussion of chemostat models. **

If an equation contains partial derivatives of one or more dependent variables with respect to one or more independent variables, then the equation is called a **partial differential equation**.

Discuss properties of the following partial differential equations.

2. *uux *+ *u *= *uyy *

and *uux *+ *u *= *uyy *are partial differential equations. For **Laplace’s equation**a *solution *would be a function *u *= *u*(*x*, *y*) such that *uxx *+ *uyy *is identically the 0 function. A *solution u *= *u*(*x*, *t*) of the **wave equation **.

is known as the **heat equation**.

As with systems of ordinary differential equations, systems of partial differential equations can be considered. With exceptions, their study is beyond the scope of this text.

Generally, given a differential equation, our goal in this course will most often be to construct a *solution *(or a numerical approximation of the *solution*). The approach to solving an equation depends on various features of the equation. The first level of classification, distinguishing between *ordinary *and *partial *differential equations, was discussed above. Generally, equations with higher *order *are more difficult to solve than those with lower *order*.

The **order **of a differential equation is the order of the highest-order derivative appearing in the equation.

; (b) *uxx *+ *uyy *; and (d) *y*³ + *dy*/*dx *= 1.

(a) The order of this equation is one because the only derivative it includes is a first-order derivative, *dy*/*dx*; (b) This equation is classified as second-order because the highest-order derivatives, both *uxx*, representing *∂*²*u*/*∂x*², and *uyy*, representing *∂*²*u*/*∂y*², are of order two. Hence, **Laplace’s equation**, *uxx *+ *uyy *= 0, is a second-order partial differential equation; (c) This is a first-order equation because the highest-order derivative is the first derivative. Raising that derivative to the fourth power does not affect the order of the equation. The expressions

represents the derivative of *y *with respect to *x *raised to the fourth power; *d*⁴*y*/*dx*⁴ represents the fourth derivative of *y *with respect to *x*. (d) Again, we have a first-order equation, because the highest-order derivative is the first derivative.

*Linear differential equations *are defined in a manner similar to algebraic linear equations that are introduced in algebra and pre-calculus courses.

An ordinary differential equation (of order *n*) is **linear **if it is of the form

where the functions *ai*(*x*, and *f*(*x*) are given and *an*(*x*) is not the zero function.

For the linear differential equation (**1.3), f(x) is called the forcing function. **

If an equation is in the form given by equation (**1.3), it is said to be in general form. Dividing by an so that the lead coefficient is 1 gives us the standard form of the equation: **

If the equation does not meet the requirements, definitions, or can be written in the forms described by equation (**1.3) or (1.4), the equation is nonlinear. **

If *f*(*x*) is identically equal to the zero function, the linear equations (**1.3) or (1.4) are said to be homogeneous. **

A similar classification is followed for partial differential equations. In this case, the coefficients in a linear partial differential equation are functions of the independent variables.

Determine which of the following differential equations are linear: (a) *dy*/*dx *= *x*³; (b) *d*²*u*/*dx*² + *u *= *xx*; (d) *y*(3) + *yy*′ = *x*; (e) *y*′ + *x*²*y *= *x*; (g) *uxx *+ *yuy *= 0; and (h) *uxx *+ *u uy *= 0.

(a) This equation is linear, because the nonlinear term *x*³ is the function *f*(*x*) of the independent variable in equation (**1.3). (b) This equation is also linear. Using u as the dependent variable name does not affect the linearity. (c) Solving for dy/dx . Because the right-hand side of this equation includes a nonlinear function of y, the equation is nonlinear in y. However, solving for dx/dy, we see that **

This equation is linear in the variable *x*, if we take the dependent variable to be *x *and the independent variable to be *y *in this equation. (d) The coefficient of the *y*′ term is *y *and, thus, depends on *y*. Hence, this equation is nonlinear. (e) This equation is linear. The term *x*² is the coefficient function *a*0(*x*) = *x*² of *y*. (f) This equation, known as the **pendulum equation **because it models the motion of a pendulum, is nonlinear because it involves a nonlinear function of *x*, the dependent variable in this case. (*t *is assumed to be the independent variable.) For this equation, the nonlinear function of *x *. (g) This partial differential equation is linear because the coefficient of *uy *is a function of one of the independent variables. (h) In this case, there is a product of *u *and one of its derivatives. Therefore, the equation is nonlinear.

In the same manner that we consider systems of equations in algebra, we can also consider systems of differential equations. For example, if *x *and *y *represent functions of *t*, we will learn to solve the **system of linear equations **

where *a*, *b*, *c*, and *d *represent constants and differentiation is with respect to *t *in **Chapter 8. On the other hand, systems (1.1) and (1.2) involve products of the dependent variables ( x and y; S, x1, and x2, respectively) so are nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations. **

We will see that linear and nonlinear systems of differential equations arise naturally in many physical situations that are modeled with more than one equation and involve more than one dependent variable.

When faced with a differential equation, our goal is frequently, but not always, to determine explicit and/or numerical *solutions *to the equation.

A **solution **to the *n*th-order ordinary differential equation

**(1.5) **

on the interval *a *< *x *< *b *is a function *ϕ*(*x*) that is continuous on the interval *a *< *x *< *b *and has all the derivatives present in the differential equation such that

on *a *< *x *< *b*.

In subsequent chapters, we will discuss methods for solving differential equations. Here, in order to understand what is meant to be a solution, we either give both the equation and a solution and then verify the solution or use Mathematica to solve equations directly.

Verify that the given function is a solution to the corresponding differential equation: (a) *dy*/*dx *= 3*y*, *y*(*x*) = *e*³*x*; (b) *u*″ + 16*u *; and (c) *y*″ + 2*y*′ + *y *= 0, *y*(*x*) = *xe*−*x*.

(a) Differentiating *y *we have *dy*/*dx *= 3*e*³*x *so that substitution yields

. Therefore,

(c) In this case, we illustrate how to use Mathematica. After defining *y*,

If you are a beginning Mathematica user, see the **Appendix for help getting started with Mathematica. When a semi-colon (;) is included at the end of a command, the resulting output is not displayed. **

*y*[x_] = *x*Exp[−*x*];

we use ’= *d*/*dx *to compute *y*′ = *e*−*x *− *xe*−*x*, naming the resulting output dy.

**dy= y′[x] **

*e*−*x *− *e*−*xx *

Similarly, we use ’’ to compute *y*″ = 2*e*−*x *+ *xe*−*x*, naming the resulting output d2y.

**d2y= y"[x] **

− 2*e*−*x *+ *e*−*xx *

Finally, we compute

. The result is not automatically simplified so we use Simplify to simplify the output.

*y*"[*x*]+2*y′*[*x*]+*y*[*x*]

− 2*e*−*x *+ 2*e*−*xx *+ 2 (*e*−*x*−*e*−*xx*)

**d2y+2dy+ y[x] **

− 2*e*−*x *+ 2*e*−*xx *+ 2 (*e*−*x*−*e*−*xx*)

**Simplify[ y"[x]+2y′[x]+y[x]] **

0

*y*"[*x*]+2*y′*[*x*]+*y*[*x*]//Simplify

0

We graph this solution with Plot. Entering

**Plot[ y[x], {x, −1, 1}, PlotStyle->CMYKColor[0, 0.89, 0.94, 0.28], AxesStyle→Black, AxesLabel→{x, y}] **

graphs *y*(*x*) = *xe*−*x *on the interval [−1, 1]. See **Figure 1-1. In the Plot command we include several options such as PlotStyle->CMYKColor [0, 0.89, 0.94, 0.28], which indicates a color choice. In the hard copy of this text, you will see a shade of gray. On the other hand, in the electronic version, you will see a deep red. Omitting the command will cause Mathematica to return to its default, which is currently a dark blue. Similarly, AxesStyle->Black is included because in printed versions of manuscripts, the default gray for axes is sometimes difficult to see. Our personal preference is to label axes when possible, hence the option AxesLabel->{x,y} is included to simply label the axes. For a basic graph, you would not need to include any of these options. Refer to the Appendix for more details regarding getting started with Mathematica and frequently used options with frequently used commands. **

**Figure 1-1 **Plot of *y *( *x *) = *xe *− *x *on the interval [−1, 1]

In the previous example, the solution is given as a function of the independent variable. In these cases, the solution is said to be explicit. In solving some differential equations, however, we can only find an equation involving *x *and *y *that the solution satisfies. In this case, the solution is said to be **implicit**.

Verify that the given implicit function satisfies the differential equation.

We use implicit differentiation to compute the derivative of the equation 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *= 0:

Assuming that *y *= *y*(*x*.

Hence, the given implicit solution satisfies the differential equation.

We also illustrate how to use Mathematica to differentiate the equation 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *= 0 with respect to *x*. After clearing all prior definitions of x, y, and eq, if any, with Clear, we define eq to be the equation 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *= 0. Note how we use a double equals sign (==) to separate the left- and right-hand sides of the equation.

**Clear[ x, y] eq=2x ∧2+y ∧2−2xy+5x == 0 **

5*x *+ 2*x*² − 2*xy *+ *y*² == 0

Next, we use Dt to differentiate eq with respect to *x*, naming the resulting output step1. The symbol Dt[y,x] appearing in the result represents *dy*/*dx*; step1 represents the equation 4*x *+ 2*yy*′− 2*xy*′− 2*y *+ 5 = 0.

**step1=Dt[eq, x] **

5 + 4*x *− 2*y *− 2*x*Dt[*y*, *x*] + 2*y*Dt[*y*, *x*] == 0

Finally, we obtain *y*′ = *dy*/*dx *by solving the equation step1 for Dt[y,x] with Solve.

**step2=Solve[step1, Dt[ y, x]] **

{{Dt[*y*, *x*]→5+4*x*−2*y*2(*x*−*y*)}}

Generally, to graph an equation of the form *f*(*x*, *y*) = *C*, where *C *is a constant, we use the ContourPlot command which is used to graph level curves of surfaces: the graph of *f*(*x*, *y*) = *C *is the same as the graph of the level curve of *z *= *f*(*x*, *y*) corresponding to *z *= *C*. Thus, the graph of the equation 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *= 0 is the same as the graph of the level curve of *z *= *f*(*x*, *y*) = 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *corresponding to 0. Note how 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y*, the left-hand side of the equation eq, is extracted from eq with Part ([[…]]): 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *is the first part of eq.

**eq[[1]] **

5*x *+ 2*x*² − 2*xy *+ *y*²

Thus, entering

**ContourPlot[Evaluate[eq[[1]]], { x, −7, 2}, {y, −7, 2}, Frame→False, Axes→Automatic, AxesStyle→Black, AxesOrigin→{0, 0}, PlotPoints→100, Contours→{0}, ContourShading→False] **

graphs the equation 2*x*² + *y*² − 2*xy *+ 5*y *= 0 as shown in **Figure 1-2 for − 7 ≤ x ≤ 2 and − 7 ≤ y ≤ 2 (the option Contours->{0} instructs Mathematica to graph only the level curve of corresponding to 0). The option ContourShading->False specifies to not shade the regions between contours, Frame->False specifies that a frame is to not be placed around the resulting graphics object, Axes->Automatic specifies that axes are to be placed on the resulting graphics object while the option AxesOrigin->{0,0} specifies that they intersect at the point (0, 0) and the option AxesStyle->Black specifies that they be drawn in black so that they are easily seen when printing. The option PlotPoints->100 instructs Mathematica to increase the number of sample points to 100 (the default is 15), helping assure that the resulting graphics object appears smooth. **

**Figure 1-2 **Graph of 2 *x *² + *y *² − 2 *xy *+ 5 *y *= 0

On a rectangular membrane, the solution of the **wave equation**,

For details, see Graff’s *Wave Motion in Elastic Solids*, [**13]. **

**(1.6) **

takes the form

where *Amn *and *Bmn *, *ξn *= *nπ*/*a*, *ζm *= *mπ*/*b*, and the **normal modes**, *Wnm*, are given by

*Wmn*(*x*, *y*) satisfy the wave equation (**1.6) on a rectangular membrane. (b) Plot the first few normal modes of the membrane. **

, *ξn *= *nπ*/*a*, *ζm *= *mπ*/*b*.

*ω*[m_, n_]=PicoSqrt[*n *∧2/*a *∧2+*m *∧2/*b *∧2];

*ξ*1[n_]=*n*Pi/*a*; *ξ*2[m_]=*m*Pi/*b*;

**fc[x_, y_, t_]=Cos[ ω[m, n]t]Sin[ξ1[n]x]Sin[ξ2[m]y];fs[x_, y_, t_]=Sin[ω[m, n]t]Sin[ξ1[n]x]Sin[ξ2[m]y]; **

To verify that *fc*(*x*, *y*, *t*) satisfies equation (**1.6), we compute **

**fcxx= D[fc[x, y, t], {x, 2}] **

**fcyy= D[fc[x, y, t], {y, 2}] **

**fctt= D[fc[x, y, t], {t, 2}] **

fcxx + fcyy− 1/*c*0fctt is simplified with Simplify; the result is 0 so *fc*(*x*, *y*, *t*) satisfies equation (**1.6). **

**Simplify[fcxx+fcyy−1/co ∧2fctt]//Simplify **

0

On the other hand, to verify that *fs*(*x*, *y*, *t*) satisfies equation (**1.6), we compute and simplify **

in a single step. The result is identically equal to 0 so *fs*(*x*, *y*, *t*) also satisfies equation (**1.6). **

**Simplify[ D[fs[x, y, t], {x, 2}]+D[fs[x, y, t], {y, 2}] −1/co ∧2D[fs[x, y, t], {t, 2}]] **

0

(b) To graph the normal modes, we choose *a *= *b *= 1. We then use Table and Plot3D to plot *Wnm*(*x*, *y*), 0 ≤ *x *≤ 1 and 0 ≤ *y *≤ 1, for *n *= 1, 2, 3, and 4, *m *= 1, 2, and 3. The resulting array of graphics is displayed as a graphics array using Show and GraphicsArray. In **Figure 1-3, the first row corresponds to n = 1, the second to n = 2, and so on; the first column corresponds to m = 1, the second to m = 3, and so on. **

**Figure 1-3 ***W nm *for *n *= 1, 2, 3, and 4, *m *= 1, 2, and 3

**tp=Table[Plot3D[Sin[ nPix]Sin[mPiy], {x, 0, 1}, {y, 0, 1}, BoxRatios→{1, 1, 1}, PlotPoints→45], {n, 1, 4}, {m, 1, 3}]; **

**Show[GraphicsGrid[tp]] **

As indicated in the previous example, without added initial or boundary conditions many differential equations may have more than one solution, a unique solution, or no solutions. We further illustrate this property in the following examples where we use the Mathematica command DSolve to solve the indicated equations. Generally, the command

attempts to solve the differential equation (**1.5) for y. Detailed help regarding DSolve is obtained by entering ?DSolve or by going to Help under the Mathematica menu **

and then selecting **Help… **Once Mathematica opens the **Help Browser**, you can either type DSolve and select **Go To **or select **Algebraic Computation **followed by **Equation Solving **and DSolve to obtain a description of the DSolve command, a discussion of its various options, and several examples, as illustrated in the following screen shot.

has infinitely many solutions.

We use DSolve to solve this first-order linear equation and name the resulting list sol. We see that the solution is given in terms of a *replacement rule *and interpret the result to mean that if C[1] is any number, a solution to the equation is *y *for any number *C*.

The formula for the solution is extracted from sol with sol[[1,1,2]]. or, if you are using Version 10, by selecting and copying.

**Clear[ y]sol=DSolve[y′[x]==Cos[x]y[x], y[x], x] **

{{*y*[*x*]→*e*Sin[*x*]*C*[1]}}

Observe that the output in sol is a *list*. Parts of lists are extracted with Part, [[…]]. Thus, sol[[1]] returns the first part of sol, sol[[1,1]] returns the first part of the first part of sol, and sol[[1,1,2]] returns the second part of the first part of the first part of sol.

**sol[[1]]sol[[1, 1]]sol[[1, 1, 2]] **

{*y*[*x*]→*e*Sin[*x*]*C*[1]}

*y*[*x*] → *e*Sin[*x*]*C*[1]

*e*Sin[*x*]*C*[1]

To graph the solution for various values of *C*, we use ->ReplaceAll to replace the values of C[1] by *i *for *i *= −5, −4, …, 4, 5 and name the resulting list toplot. We then use Plot to graph the functions in the resulting list and show the results in **Figure 1-4. **

**Figure 1-4 **for various values of *C *

**toplot=Table[sol[[1, 1, 2]]/. C[1]→i, {i, −5, 5}];Plot[toplot, {x, 0, 4Pi}] **

Verify that *y*″ + *y *= 0 has infinitely many solutions.

We use DSolve to solve this second-order linear equation and name the resulting list sol. We interpret the result to mean that if C[1] and C[2] are any numbers, a solution to the equation is *y *is a solution of *y*″ + *y *= 0 for any constant values of *C*1 and *C*2.

**Clear[ y, sol]sol=DSolve[y"[x]+y[x]==0, y[x], x] **

{{*y*[*x*] → *C*[1]Cos[*x*] + *C*[2]Sin[*x*]}}

is a solution of *y*″ + *y *= 0 for any value of *C *(set *C*is a solution of *y*″ + *y *= 0 for any value of *C *(set *C*1 = 0). Some of the members of the family of solutions graphed with Plot. First, we use Table to generate a set of eleven functions obtained by replacing *C *, 1.5, 2, and 2.5, naming the resulting set toplot1 and then a set of eleven functions obtained by replacing *C *, 1.5, 2, and 2.5, naming the resulting set toplot2.

**toplot1=Table[sol[[1, 1, 2]]/.{ C[1]→i, C[2]→0}, {i, −2.5, 2.5, .5}];toplot2=Table[sol[[1, 1, 2]]/.{C[2]→i, C[1]→0}, {i, −2.5, 2.5, .5}]; **

Then, the set of functions toplot1 and toplot2 are graphed with Plot for 0 ≤ *x *≤ 4*π*. Neither graph is displayed as it is generated because we include a semicolon at the end of each Plot command. Instead, we show the graphs side-by-side using Show together with GraphicsRow in **Figure 1-5. **

**Figure 1-5 **for various values of *C *

**q1=Plot[toplot1, { x, 0, 4Pi}, AxesLabel→{x, y}, PlotLabel→**

Plot 1];q2=Plot[toplot2, {x, 0, 4Pi}, AxesLabel→{x, y}, PlotLabel→

Plot 2];Show[GraphicsRow[{q1, q2}]]

In many applications, we are not only given a differential equation to solve but we are given one or more conditions that must be satisfied by the solution(s) as well. For example, suppose that we want to find an antiderivative of the function *f*(*x*) = 3*x*² − 4*x*. Then, we solve the differential equation *dy*/*dx *= 3*x*² − 4*x *by integrating.

**step1=Integrate[3 x ∧2−4x, x]+c **

*c *− 2*x*² + *x*³

Because the solution involves an arbitrary constant and all solutions to the equation can be obtained from it, we call this a **general solution**. On the other hand, if we want to find a solution that passes through the point (1, 4), we must find a solution that satisfies the *auxiliary condition y*(1) = 4. Substitution into *y *= *x*³ − 2*x*² + *c *yields *y*(1) = 1³ − 2 ⋅ 1² + *c *= 4⟹*c *= 5. Therefore, *the *member of the family of solutions *y *= *x*³ − 2*x*² + *c *that satisfies *y*(1) = 4 is *y *= *x*³ − 2*x*² + 5. The following commands illustrate how to graph some members of the family of solutions by substituting various values of *c *into the general solution. We also graph the solution to the problem

First, we use Table to generate a table of functions *x*³ − 2*x*² + *c *for *c *, 18, 20, naming the resulting set of functions toplot. Note that we use c to avoid conflict with the built-in symbol C. The set of functions toplot is not displayed (for length reasons) because a semi-colon (;) is included at the end of the command.

**toplot=Table[step1, { c, −20, 20, 2}]; **

To graph the functions contained in toplot we use Table. Then, we graph toplot with Plot in **Figure 1-6 (a). **

**Figure 1-6 **(a) Plot of *y *= *x *³ − 2 *x *² + *C *for various values of *C *. (b) Plot of *the *solution that satisfies *y *(1) = 4

**q1=Plot[toplot, { x, −2, 3}, AxesLabel→{x, y}, PlotLabel→ **

Various Plots, PlotRange→{−25, 25}];

The solution that satisfies the initial condition is graphed in **Figure 1-6 (b). **

**q2=Plot[ x ∧3−2x ∧2+5, {x, −2, 3}, AxesLabel→{x, y}, PlotLabel→**

A Particular Solution, PlotRange→{−25, 25}, PlotStyle→Black];

**Show[GraphicsRow[{q1, q2}]] **

Notice that this first-order equation requires one auxiliary condition to eliminate the unknown coefficient in the general solution. Frequently, the independent variable in a problem is *t*, which usually represents time. Therefore, we call the *auxiliary condition *of a first-order equation an **initial condition**, because it indicates the initial-value (at *t *= *t*0) of the dependent variable. Problems that involve an initial condition are called **initial-value problems**.

If DSolve cannot find an exact solution to an initial-value problem or if numerical results are desired, the command NDSolve[{y’[x]==f[x,y[x]],y[x0]==y0},y[x],{x,a,b}]

valid for *a *≤ *x *≤ *b*. We use the **Help Browser **to obtain information about NDSolve and its options as well as several examples illustrating its use.

Notice that the syntax of the NDSolve command is almost identical to that of the DSolve command, except what we must specify an interval [*a*, *b*] on which we want the numerical solution to be valid.

on the interval [0, 10]. Evaluate *y*(5).

In this case, we see

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