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Hematuria, (Blood in Urine) A Simple Guide to The Condition, Related Diseases And Use in Diagnosis of Diseases

52 pages46 minutes


Hematuria is blood in the urine.
Two types of blood in the urine exist:
1. Gross hematuria. - Blood that can be seen in the urine
2. Microscopic hematuria - Blood that cannot be seen in the urine, except when examined with a microscope,.
Red discoloration of the urine can have various causes:
1. Red blood cells
Microscopic hematuria (small amounts of blood, can be seen only on urinalysis or light microscopy)
Macroscopic hematuria (or "frank" or "gross") hematuria
2. Hemoglobin (only the red pigment, not the red blood cells)
3. Myoglobin in myoglobulinuria
4. Porphyrin in porphyria
5. Betanin after eating beets
6. Drugs such as Rifampicin and Phenazopyrine
Diagnosis of Blood in the Urine:
Most people with microscopic hematuria do not have symptoms.
People with gross hematuria have urine that is pink, red, or cola-colored due to the presence of red blood cells (RBCs).
Even a small amount of blood in the urine can cause urine to change color.
In most cases, people with gross hematuria do not have other symptoms.
However, people with gross hematuria that includes blood clots in the urine may have pain.
The urinary system is made up of:
1. 2 Kidneys
2. 2 Ureters
3. Bladder
4. Urethra
The normal urinary system has one goal only and that is to filter the 200 liters of blood so that its waste material is discharged through the outside though the 2 kidneys as 1.5 liters of urine and its distributing system of 2 ureters to the bladder.
The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination.
When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra at the bottom of the bladder.
Mild Hematuria can be caused by:
1. Menstruation,
2. Vigorous exercise,
3. Sexual activity,
4. Viral illness,
5. Trauma,
6. Infection, such as a urinary tract infection (UTI).
More serious causes of hematuria include
1. Ureteric or kidney or bladder stones
2. Cancer of the kidney or bladder
3. Inflammation of the kidney, urethra, bladder, or prostate—a walnut-shaped gland in men that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen
4. Polycystic kidney disease—an inherited disorder characterized by many grape-like clusters of fluid-filled cysts that make both kidneys larger over time, taking over and destroying working kidney tissue
Some causes of blood clots in urine:
1. Blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia
2. Sickle cell disease—an inherited disorder in which RBCs form an abnormal crescent shape, resulting in less oxygen delivered to the body’s tissues, clogging of small blood vessels, and disruption of healthy blood flow
Hematuria is diagnosed with:
1. Urinalysis
2. Blood kidney function
3. Biopsy
4. Cystoscopy
5. Kidney imaging tests
Hematuria is treated by treating its underlying cause.
If no serious condition is causing hematuria, no treatment is needed.
Hematuria caused by a UTI is treated with antibiotics.
Chapter 1 Hematuria
Chapter 2 Disease Diagnosis
Chapter 3 Kidney Stone
Chapter 4 Cystitis
Chapter 5 Cancer of Kidney
Chapter 6 Cancer of Bladder
Chapter 7 Glomerulonephritis
Chapter 8 Polycystic Kidneys
Chapter 9 Hemophilia

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