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**Kaplan's SAT Math Prep provides the realistic practice, key concepts, and expert advice you need to master the most important math topics on the test. This focused guide includes in-depth content coverage and effective score-raising strategies from Kaplan's top math experts to help you face the SAT with confidence.**

16 comprehensive practice sets with detailed explanations More than 250 practice questions with expert explanations Methods and strategies to help you build speed and improve your score Techniques for tackling multiple choice, grid-in, and extended thinking questions Review of the most important math concepts, from basic algebra to advanced trig

The previous edition of this book was titled

Publisher: Kaplan PublishingReleased: Jul 4, 2017ISBN: 9781506228747Format: book

**8 Practice Tests for the SAT **

**SAT Reading and Writing Prep **

**PSAT Prep with 2 Practice Tests **

**SAT Total Prep **

**SAT Prep Plus with 5 Practice Tests **

**SAT Prep with 2 Practice Tests **

**SAT® Math Prep **

**Cover **

**Related Titles **

**Title Page **

**Copyright **

**How to Use This Book **

**Introduction to the SAT Math Test **

**Test-Taking Strategies **

**Common Testing Myths **

**Section One: Foundational Skills and Kaplan Methods & Strategies **

**Prerequisite Skills and Calculator Usage **

**Algebra and Arithmetic **

**For Extra Efficiency **

**Graphing **

**Geometry **

**Calculators and the SAT **

**Which Calculator Should You Use? **

**When Should You Use A Calculator? **

**To Use or Not to Use? **

**The Kaplan Method for Math **

**The Kaplan Strategy for Translating English into Math **

**The Kaplan Method for Multi-Part Math Questions **

**Section Two: SAT Math Practice **

**Practice Set 1: Linear Equations **

**Practice Set 1 **

**Practice Set 1: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 1: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 2: Systems of Linear Equations **

**Practice Set 2 **

**Practice Set 2: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 2: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 3: Inequalities **

**Practice Set 3 **

**Practice Set 3: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 3: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 4: Rates, Ratios, Proportions, and Percentages **

**Practice Set 4 **

**Practice Set 4: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 4: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 5: Scatterplots **

**Practice Set 5 **

**Practice Set 5: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 5: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 6: Two-Way Tables, Statistics, and Probability **

**Practice Set 6 **

**Practice Set 6: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 6: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 7: Exponents, Radicals, Polynomials, and Rational Expressions **

**Practice Set 7 **

**Practice Set 7: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 7: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 8: Advanced Techniques for Polynomials and Rational Equations **

**Practice Set 8 **

**Practice Set 8: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 8: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 9: Functions and Function Notation **

**Practice Set 9 **

**Practice Set 9: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 9: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 10: Quadratic Equations and Their Graphs **

**Practice Set 10 **

**Practice Set 10: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 10: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 11: Imaginary Numbers **

**Practice Set 11 **

**Practice Set 11: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 11: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 12: Lines, Angles, and Triangles **

**Practice Set 12 **

**Practice Set 12: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 12: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 13: Similarity, Congruence, and Proofs **

**Practice Set 13 **

**Practice Set 13: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 13: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 14: Circles **

**Practice Set 14 **

**Practice Set 14: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 14: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 15: 3-D Shapes **

**Practice Set 15 **

**Practice Set 15: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 15: Answers and Explanations **

**Practice Set 16: Trigonometry **

**Practice Set 16 **

**Practice Set 16: Answer Key **

**Practice Set 16: Answers and Explanations **

**Section Three: Practice Test **

**How to Score Your Practice Test **

**Sat Practice Test Answer Sheet (Math—Sections 3 And 4 Only) **

**Math Test—No-Calculator **

**Math Test—Calculator **

**Math Test—No-Calculator: Answer Key **

**Math Test—Calculator: Answer Key **

**Math Test—No-Calculator: Answers and Explanations **

**Math Test—Calculator: Answers and Explanations **

**Cover **

**Table of Contents **

**Start of Content **

**SAT® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. **

**Learn the structure of the SAT Math Test—what kinds of questions are on it, how it’s scored, and how best to approach it. Knowing what to expect will set you up for success as you prepare. You’ll find all the information you need in the next few pages of Kaplan’s SAT Math Prep. **

**Section One of the SAT Math Prep contains instruction related to prerequisite math skills that you need to master before taking the SAT. Studying or reviewing this material is a great way to warm up. You’ll also want to master the methods and strategies we offer: the Kaplan Method for Math, the Kaplan Strategy for Translating English into Math, and the Kaplan Method for Multi-Part Math Questions. These methods and strategies will help you maximize your efficiency and strengths—both of which will go a long way on Test Day. **

**This book contains 16 practice sets, arranged by topic. Each practice set begins with a brief instructional review, which includes useful definitions, theorems, formulas, and other relevant information. Before you begin each practice set, read through the review to refresh your memory. As you work through the questions, you’ll notice that some have a calculator icon—this means that similar questions have appeared in the Calculator Section of the Practice Tests released by the College Board. It does not, however, mean that you must use a calculator to answer the question. **

**Following each practice set, you will find detailed answers and explanations. Use these to determine why you answered a question incorrectly and how to avoid the same mistakes on similar questions in the future. Each explanation includes both advice on how to approach similar questions and a detailed step-by-step solution. You should also read the explanations for questions you answered correctly to ensure that you took the most efficient route to those correct answers. **

**When you have completed the practice sets, take the Practice Test under test-like conditions, using the timing indicated for each section of the test, which is just a little over an hour long. Make sure to check your answers, calculate your score using the conversion chart provided, and read the answers and explanations to reinforce what you’ve learned. **

**Each section of the Math test begins with a reference page. Take some time before Test Day to get acquainted with the formulas and other information that is provided on this page. **

**The sum of the degree measures of the angles in a triangle is 180. **

**The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. **

**The number of radians of arc in a circle is 2π. **

**The SAT Math Test is broken down into a no-calculator section and a calculator section. Questions across the sections consist of multiple-choice, student-produced response (Grid-in), and more comprehensive multi-part questions. **

**The SAT Math Test is divided into four content areas: Heart of Algebra, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, Passport to Advanced Math, and Additional Topics in Math. **

**A few math questions might look like something you’d expect to see on a science or history test. These crossover questions are designed to test your ability to use math in real-world scenarios. There are a total of 18 crossover questions that will contribute to subscores that span multiple tests. Nine of the questions will contribute to the Analysis in Science subscore, and nine will contribute to the Analysis in History/Social Studies subscore. **

**The SAT is different from the tests you are used to taking in school. The good news is that you can use the SAT’s particular structure to your advantage. **

**For example, on a test given in school, you probably go through the questions in order. You spend more time on the harder questions than on the easier ones because harder questions are usually worth more points. You probably often show your work because your teacher tells you that how you approach a question is as important as getting the correct answer. **

**This approach is not optimal for the SAT. On the SAT, you benefit from moving around within a section if you come across tough questions because the harder questions are worth the same number of points as the easier questions. It doesn’t matter how you arrive at the correct answer—only that you bubble in the correct answer choice. **

**You do not need to complete questions on the SAT in order. Every student has different strengths and should attack the test with those strengths in mind. Your main objective on the SAT should be to score as many points as you can. While approaching questions out of order may seem counterintuitive, it is a surefire way to achieve your best score. **

**Just remember, you can skip around within each section, but you cannot work on a section other than the one you’ve been instructed to work on. **

**To triage the test effectively, do the following: **

**First, work through all the easy questions that you can do quickly. Skip questions that are hard or time-consuming **

**Second, work through the questions that are doable but time-consuming **

**Third, work through the hard questions **

**If you run out of time, pick a Letter of the Day for remaining questions **

**A Letter of the Day is an answer choice letter (A, B, C, or D) that you choose before Test Day to select for questions you guess on. **

**Even though there is no wrong-answer penalty on the SAT, Elimination is still a crucial strategy. If you can determine that one or more answer choices are definitely incorrect, you can increase your chances of getting the right answer by paring the selection down. **

**To eliminate answer choices, do the following: **

**Read each answer choice **

**Cross out the answer choices that are incorrect **

**Remember: There is no wrong-answer penalty, so take your best guess **

**Each multiple-choice question on the SAT has four answer choices and no wrong-answer penalty. That means if you have no idea how to approach a question, you have a 25 percent chance of randomly choosing the correct answer. Even though there’s a 75 percent chance of selecting the incorrect answer, you won’t lose any points for doing so. The worst that can happen on the SAT is that you’ll earn zero points on a question, which means you should always at least take a guess, even when you have no idea what to do. **

**When guessing on a question, do the following: **

**Always try to strategically eliminate answer choices before guessing **

**If you run out of time, or have no idea what a question is asking, pick a Letter of the Day **

**Since its inception, the SAT has gone through various revisions, but it has always been an integral part of the college admissions process. As a result of its significance and the changes it has undergone, a number of rumors and myths have circulated about the exam. In this section, we’ll dispel some of the most common ones. As always, you can find the most up-to-date information about the SAT at the College Board website ( **

**https://www.collegeboard.org **

**). **

**Special thanks to those who made this book possible including Arthur Ahn, Laura Aitcheson, Becky Berthiaume, Michael Boothroyd, Matthew Callan, Potoula Chresomales, Dom Eggert, Kate Fisher, Katy Haynicz-Smith, Adam Hinz, Kate Hurley, Brandon Jones, Rebecca Knauer, Celina Lasota, Terrence McMullen, James Radkins, Justin Starr, Bob Verini, Lee Weiss, Devon Wible, Daniel Wittich, and many others who contributed materials and advice. **

**SAT® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. **

**This publication is designed to provide accurate information in regard to the subject matter covered as of its publication date, with the understanding that knowledge and best practice constantly evolve. The publisher is not engaged in rendering medical, legal, accounting, or other professional service. If medical or legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. This publication is not intended for use in clinical practice or the delivery of medical care. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the Editors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of the material contained in this book. **

**© 2017 by Kaplan, Inc. **

**Published by Kaplan Publishing, a division of Kaplan, Inc. **

**750 Third Avenue **

**New York, NY 10017 **

**Section One **

**Foundational Skills and Kaplan Methods & Strategies **

**This book focuses on the math skills that are tested on the SAT. It assumes a working knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. Before you dive into the Practice Sets where you’ll try test-like questions, there are a number of concepts—ranging from basic arithmetic to geometry—that you should master. The following pages contain a brief review of these concepts. **

**Order of operations is one of the most fundamental of all arithmetic rules. A well-known mnemonic device for remembering this order is PEMDAS: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. This translates to Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication/Division, Addition/Subtraction. Note: Multiplication and division have the same priority, as do addition and subtraction. Perform multiplication and division from left to right (even if it means division before multiplication), and treat addition and subtraction the same way. **

**Three basic properties of number (and variable) manipulation—commutative, associative, and distributive—will assist you with algebra on Test Day. These properties are outlined next. **

*Commutative*: Numbers can swap places and still provide the same mathematical result. This is valid only for addition and multiplication.

*Associative*: Different number groupings will provide the same mathematical result. This is valid only for addition and multiplication.

*Distributive*: A number to be multiplied by a quantity inside a set of parentheses can be rewritten as the first number multiplied by each term inside the parentheses. This does *not *work with division.

**Note: When subtracting an expression in parentheses, be particularly careful to distribute the negative sign. **

**Make sure you are comfortable working with negative numbers and that you understand the additive inverse property: Subtracting a positive number is the same as adding its negative. **

**You should also practice manipulating both proper and improper fractions. To add and subtract fractions, first find a common denominator, then add the numerators together. Multiplication is straightforward: Multiply the numerators together, then repeat for the denominators. Cancel when possible to simplify your answer. Dividing by a fraction is the same as multiplying by its reciprocal. Once you’ve rewritten your division problem as multiplication, follow the rules for fraction multiplication to simplify. **

**addition/subtraction: **

**multiplication: **

**division: **

**Know what absolute value is: the distance a number is from 0 on a number line. Because absolute value is a distance, it is always positive or 0. Absolute value can never be negative. **

**Follow the properties of equality: Whatever you do to one side of an equation, you must also do to the other. For instance, if you multiply one side by 3, you must multiply the other side by 3 as well. **

**The ability to solve straightforward one-variable equations is critical on the SAT. See the following example: **

**You’ll need to be able to translate word problems, like the one that follows, into mathematical expressions or equations. **

**Annabel bought eight pairs of shoes during a sale at her favorite boutique. If this purchase tripled the number of pairs of shoes she had before she went shopping, how many pairs of shoes did Annabel own before she visited the sale? **

**Let p represent the number of pairs of shoes Annabel had before the sale. She adds eight pairs (+ 8) to this value, which is equal to triple her original number of pairs (= 3p). Your equation should read p + 8 = 3p. Solving for p reveals p = 4, so Annabel had four pairs of shoes before she went shopping at the sale. **

**You will encounter irrational numbers, such as radicals and π, on Test Day. You can carry an irrational number throughout your calculations as you would a variable (e.g., ****). If a question asks for an approximate value, convert the irrational number to a decimal only after you have finished any intermediate steps. **

**Save time on Test Day by reviewing multiplication tables so that you don’t have to use your calculator for simple computations. At a bare minimum, work up through the 10s. If you know them through 12 or 15, that’s even better! **

**You can save a few seconds of number crunching by memorizing perfect squares. Knowing perfect squares through 10 is a good start; go for 15 or even 20 if you can. **

**The ability to recognize a few simple fractions masquerading in decimal or percent form will also save you time on Test Day. Memorize the content of the following table. **

**Basic two-dimensional graphing is performed on a coordinate plane. There are two axes, x and y, that meet at a central point called the origin. Each axis has both positive and negative values that extend outward from the origin at evenly spaced intervals. The axes divide the space into four sections called quadrants, which are labeled I, II, III, and IV. Quadrant I is always the upper-right section, and the rest follow counterclockwise. **

**To plot points on the coordinate plane, you use coordinates. The x-coordinate is where the point falls along the x-axis, and the y-coordinate is where the point falls along the y-axis. The two coordinates together make an ordered pair written as (x, y). When writing ordered pairs, the x-coordinate is always listed first. When plotting ordered pairs, you should always move horizontally first, and then vertically. Four points are plotted in the following figure as examples. **

**When two points are vertically or horizontally aligned, calculating the distance between them is easy. For a horizontal distance, only the x-value changes; for a vertical distance, only the y-value changes. Take the positive difference of the x-coordinates (or y-coordinates) to determine the distance. Two examples are presented here. **

**Two-variable equations have an independent variable (input) and a dependent variable (output). The dependent variable (often y) depends on the independent variable (often x). For example, in the equation y = 3x + 4, x is the independent variable because each y-value depends on what you plug in for x. You can construct a table of values for the equation, which can then be plotted. **

**You can be asked to infer relationships from graphs. In the first of the following graphs, the two variables are time and population. Clearly, the year does not depend on how many people live in the town; rather, the population increases over time and thus depends on the year. In the second graph, you can infer that plant height depends on the amount of rain; thus, rainfall is the independent variable. Note that the independent variable for the second graph is plotted along the vertical axis; this can happen with certain nonstandard graphs. However, on a standard coordinate plane, the independent variable is always plotted along the horizontal axis. **

**When two straight lines are graphed simultaneously, one of three possible scenarios will occur: **

**The lines are parallel and will not intersect at all (no solution). **

**The lines will intersect at one point (one solution). **

**The lines will lie on top of each other (infinitely many solutions). **

**Adjacent angles can be added to find the measure of a larger angle. The following diagram demonstrates this. **

**Two distinct lines in a plane will either intersect at one point or extend indefinitely without intersecting. If two lines intersect at a right angle (90°), they are perpendicular and are denoted with ****. If the lines never intersect, they are parallel and are denoted with ****. **

**Perimeter and area are basic properties that all two-dimensional shapes have. The perimeter of **

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