Who Cares? by Joan C. Tronto by Joan C. Tronto - Read Online

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Who Cares? - Joan C. Tronto

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An imprint of


Ithaca and London




When We Understand Care, We’ll Need to

Redefine Democracy

Care, Inc.

Making the Caring-With Revolution Happen



About the Author


I have written this essay on the occasion of receiving the Brown Democracy Medal from Penn State University. The medal, presented annually by the McCourtney Institute for Democracy in Penn State’s College of the Liberal Arts, was endowed by Larry and Lynne Brown, Class of 1971 (history) and Class of 1972 (education) respectively, to spotlight ideas to improve democracy in the United States and around the world. I am deeply honored to receive the Brown Medal this year, and I am grateful to the Browns for endowing the medal and to the McCourtney Institute for Democracy at Penn State for administering it. John Gastil, the director of the Institute, and editor Sarah Cypher also provided invaluable editorial advice and support in writing this essay. I also want to acknowledge Raymond Duvall of the University of Minnesota, Mary Dietz of Northwestern University for supporting my application for the award, and Jim Stanger of Channel Z in Minneapolis for his assistance in preparing the application.

Over the past thirty years or so, I have discussed care as an ethical and political ideal with countless scholars, students, activists, and care practitioners, and I am grateful to all for what I have learned from this growing care ethics community. Berenice Fisher and I devised the original definition of caring that has served as the foundation for all of my subsequent work, and I remain in her debt. My students, often skeptical about these ideas, have provided valuable assistance. And my life would not be as rich as it is without all of the family members, friends, and colleagues with whom I share and care. I am also grateful to NYU Press for publishing Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality, and Justice (2013).

Finally, I draw inspiration every day from seeing so much caring and democratic energy all around me. From protests around Black Lives Matter to support for food banks, citizens are pressing our democracy to become more caring. To care well and to orient our daily concerns to improve the prospect of democratic life often require heroic daily efforts. I hope this essay calls attention to an existing reality of ongoing care and commitments to equality that I see every day. And I hope it inspires others to help to transform our current politics to make democratic caring into a central value.


Usually we think of the worlds of care and of politics as far apart. This is partly because we wrongly think that care is all about compassion and kindness, and that politics is all about one-upmanship. Indeed, what world seems less caring than the rough-and-tumble one of backstabbing competition that we think of as politics? This way of thinking has a long pedigree in political thought; even Aristotle believed that first you are cared for, and then you are ready to enter politics. To Aristotle, caring is a realm of unequal relations irrelevant to wielding power as a political actor.

But there is another way to think about the link between care and politics. These two worlds are deeply intertwined, and even more so in a democracy. Only at the expense