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Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything

Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything

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Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything

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4/5 (60 ratings)
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490 pages
6 hours
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Released:
Oct 17, 2017
ISBN:
9781523501854
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Book

Description

What won’t we try in our quest for perfect health, beauty, and the fountain of youth?

Well, just imagine a time when doctors prescribed morphine for crying infants. When liquefied gold was touted as immortality in a glass. And when strychnine—yes, that strychnine, the one used in rat poison—was dosed like Viagra.

Looking back with fascination, horror, and not a little dash of dark, knowing humor, Quackery recounts the lively, at times unbelievable, history of medical misfires and malpractices. Ranging from the merely weird to the outright dangerous, here are dozens of outlandish, morbidly hilarious “treatments”—conceived by doctors and scientists, by spiritualists and snake oil salesmen (yes, they literally tried to sell snake oil)—that were predicated on a range of cluelessness, trial and error, and straight-up scams. With vintage illustrations, photographs, and advertisements throughout, Quackery seamlessly combines macabre humor with science and storytelling to reveal an important and disturbing side of the ever-evolving field of medicine.


 
Publisher:
Released:
Oct 17, 2017
ISBN:
9781523501854
Format:
Book

About the author

Lydia Kang, MD, is a practicing internal medicine physician and author of young adult fiction and adult fiction. Her YA novels include Control, Catalyst, and the upcoming The November Girl. Her adult fiction debut is entitled A Beautiful Poison. Her nonfiction has been published in JAMA, the Annals of Internal Medicine, and the Journal of General Internal Medicine.


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Quackery - Lydia Kang

Quackery

• A •

Brief History

of the

Worst Ways

to Cure

Everything

Lydia Kang, Md

Nate Pedersen

Workman Publishing • New York

•• Dedication ••

This one is for April for clearing the way.

—NP

To my father and brother, two of the best and most un-quacky physicians I know. And to my mother, whose love can heal just about anythin.

—LK

Contents

Introduction

Elements

Prescriptions from the Periodic Table

Mercury

Antimony

Arsenic

Gold

Radium & Radon

The Women’s Health Hall of Shame

Plants & Soil

Nature’s Gifts

Opiates

Strychnine

Tobacco

Cocaine

Alcohol

Earth

The Antidotes Hall of Shame

Tools

Slicing, Dicing, Dousing, and Draining

Bloodletting

Lobotomy

Cautery & Blistering

Enemas & Clysters

Hydropathy & the Cold Water Cure

Surgery

Anesthesia

The Men’s Health Hall of Shame

Animals

Creepy Crawlies, Corpses, and the Healing Power of the Human Body

Leeches

Cannibalism & Corpse Medicine

Animal-Derived Medicines

Sex

Fasting

The Weight Loss Hall of Shame

Mysterious Powers

Waves, Rays, and Curious Airs

Electricity

Animal Magnetism

Light

Radionics

The King’s Touch

The Eye Care Hall of Shame

The Cancer Cure Hall of Shame

Acknowledgments

Credits

About the Authors

For shocks and giggles: a Russian electric shower.

Introduction

Humbug. Charlatan. Quack. Con artist. Swindler. Trickster.

For a long time, words like these were used to describe those who preyed on our fear of death and sickness by peddling wares that didn’t work, or hurt us, or sometimes killed us.

But quackery isn’t always about pure deception. Though the term is usually defined as the practice and promotion of intentionally fraudulent medical treatments, it also includes situations when people are touting what they truly believe works. Perhaps they’re ignoring­—­or challenging—scientific fact. Or perhaps they lived centuries ago, before the scientific method entered civilization’s consciousness. Through a modern-day lens, these treatments can seem absolutely absurd. Weasel nuts as a contraceptive? Bloodletting to help cure blood loss? Burning hot irons to fix the lovelorn? Yep.

But behind every misguided treatment—from Ottomans eating clay to keep the plague away to Victorian gents sitting in a mercury steam room for their syphilis to epilepsy sufferers sipping gladiator blood in ancient Rome—is the incredible power of the human desire to live. And this drive is downright inspiring: We are willing to ingest cadavers, subject ourselves to boiling oil, and endure experimental treatments involving way too many leeches, all in the name of survival.

This drive also leads to incredible innovation. After a long battle to achieve lower death rates (and reduce screaming), doctors now perform surgery when we’re blissfully anesthetized. As an added bonus, their hands aren’t dripping with pus from the prior surgery case. We can fight cancer on a molecular level, in ways our ancestors never dreamed. Diseases like syphilis and smallpox are no longer an enormous burden on society. It’s easy to forget that along the way to this progress, innovators were scoffed at and shamed; patients suffered through their doctors’ mistakes, and sometimes even died. None of today’s medical achievements would have occurred without challenging the status quo.

But there is, of course, a dark side. That desire to heal and live longer is about as addictive as opium itself. Scientists, impersonating Icarus, try to best one another in making drugs more effective and more potent. Emperors send their alchemists on ridiculous quests to unlock immortality. Charlatans decide that you need a new pair of implanted goat testicles. Sometimes, we’re so desperate for a cure, we’ll reach for anything.

Even radioactive suppositories.

Let’s be honest. Being healthy isn’t enough for many of us. We want more—eternal youth, perfect beauty, boundless energy, the virility of Zeus. And herein the quack truly thrives. This is where we start to believe that arsenic wafers will give us that peaches-and-cream complexion and that elusive gold elixirs will fix broken hearts. Hindsight makes it easy to laugh at many of the treatments in this book, but no doubt Dr. Google has assisted you in searching for a simple cure to a pesky problem. None of us are immune to wanting a quick fix. A hundred years ago, you might have been the person buying that strychnine tonic!

Clearly, we needed to be saved from quacks—and from ourselves. The rise of patent medicines in the nineteenth century drove America to its turning point. With the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, the United States cracked down on false and misleading labels, unsafe ingredients in food, and the adulteration of medical and food products. In 1930, the watchdog bureau became known as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Later laws in 1938 covered medical devices and cosmetics, and a 1962 law added scientific rigor to the drug industry.

Did regulations cure America of its quackery? Of course not. Despite modern scientific breakthroughs, the FDA, and a pretty damn good understanding of how the human body works, quackery’s tentacles still touch almost every aspect of the healthcare and cosmetics industry. This is why you’ll read a present-day update in many of our chapters. In a surprising twist, some quack cures, like leeches, have transformed into real, working treatments. But in many cases (like eating tapeworms for weight loss), quackery simply lingers on and on . . . and on.

To continue battling charlatans, we need a more complete understanding of how the human body functions and how disease works. We also need to keep open minds about ways to combat disease and improve longevity. Finally, we need to keep our guard up. There will always be quacks out there ready to take full advantage of human desperation before science and medicine can find solid solutions.

So how does one become a wary, discerning consumer with an open mind? Beware that quack medicine often relies on anecdotal evidence, or the endorsement of a celebrity physician, to convince us something works. Also, look deeper into claims made that studies show XYZ is amazing. These studies should have been rigorously performed, peer-reviewed, and repeatedly tested by various entities to show effectiveness. And they rarely are. Our own biases—confirmation bias, ingroup bias, postpurchase rationalization, and a host of others—all have heady effects on our ability to systematically evaluate treatments as varied as herbal cough drops, electronic cancer zappers, or pricey plasma-injected facials.

In the end, it comes down to a few simple questions. Do you believe there’s solid evidence that it’s going to work? Are you willing to risk the side effects? And we mustn’t forget—how deep are your pockets?

After all, this book really is just a brief history of the worst ways to cure everything. No doubt, there are more worst ways yet to come.

Authors’ Note

This book is by no means an exhaustive encyclopedia of all treatments we now deem to be ridiculous—for that reason, you’ll notice we focus mostly on past treatments rather than current ones. Furthermore, there were many topics we would have liked to cover in depth, but which we believe belong in their own book with a completely different tone, including religious-based medical quackery and the gross injustices of gay conversion therapy and racism-based treatments.

Elements

Prescriptions from the Periodic Table

1

Mercury

Of Roman Gods, Toilet Archeology, Drooling Syphilitics, an Immortal Wannabe, and Erroneous Snakes

The baby’s hands and feet had become icy, swollen, and red. The flesh was splitting off, resembling blanched tomatoes whose skins peeled back from the fruit. She had lost weight, cried petulantly, and clawed at herself from the intense itching, tearing the raw skin open. Sometimes her fever reached 102 degrees.

If she was an adult, her mother had noted, she would have been considered to be insane, sitting up in her cot, banging her head with her hands, tearing out her hair, screaming, and viciously scratching anyone who came near.

Later on, her condition would be called acrodynia, or painful tips, named so for the sufferer’s aching hands and feet. But in 1921, they called the baby’s affliction Pink’s Disease, and they were seeing more and more cases every year. For a while, physicians struggled to determine the etiology. It was blamed on arsenic, ergot, allergies, and viruses. But by the 1950s, the wealth of cases pointed to one common ingredient ingested by the sick kids—calomel.

Parents, hoping to ease the teething pain of their infants, rubbed one of many available calomel-containing teething powders into their babies’ sore gums. Very popular at the time: Dr. Moffett’s Teethina Powder, which also boasted that it Strengthens the Child . . . Relieves the Bowel Troubles of Children of ANY AGE, and could, temptingly, Make baby fat as a pig.

We, too, are freaked out by the baby-pig hybrid monster.

Spelling is everything if you’re going to poison your kids correctly.

Beyond the creepy promise of Hansel and Gretel–esque results, there was something else sinister lurking within calomel: mercury. For hundreds of years, mercury-containing products claimed to heal a varied and strangely unrelated host of ailments. Melancholy, constipation, syphilis, influenza, parasites—you name it, and someone swore that mercury could fix it.

Mercury was used ubiquitously for centuries, at all levels of society, in its liquid form (quicksilver) or as a salt. Calomel—also known as mercurous chloride—fell into the latter category and was used by some of the most illustrious personages in history, including Napoleon Bonaparte, Edgar Allan Poe, Andrew Jackson, and Louisa May Alcott. Why? That’s a longer story.

Calomel: Purging It All Away

Drawing from the Greek words for good and black (named so for its habit of turning black in the presence of ammonia), calomel was the medicine from the sixteenth to the early twentieth century. Despite what it sounds like, calomel is nothing like caramel, though it sometimes carried the stomach-churning monikers worm candy and worm chocolate for treating parasites. By itself, calomel seems fairly innocuous—an odorless white powder. But don’t be fooled: It’s as harmless as your khaki-clad next-door neighbor who hides a basementful of bone saws. Taken orally, calomel is a potent cathartic, which is a sophisticated way of saying it will violently empty out your guts into the toilet. Constipation had long been associated with sickness, so opening the rectal gates of hell was a sign of righting the wrongs.

Dose: One tablet repeated (until all hell breaks loose in your toilet).

Some believe the black part of its name evolved from the dark stools ejected, which were mistaken for purged bile. Allowing bile to flow freely was in harmony with keeping the body balanced and the humors happy, a theory that harkened back to the time of Hippocrates and Galen. And if the insides of the bowels were dark and slimy, wasn’t it better to rid the body of such toxins?

The purging occurred elsewhere, too—in the form of massive amounts of unattractive drooling, a symptom of mercury toxicity. A calomel consumer could give a rabid dog a run for its money. If the bad stuff was expelled via copious salivation, that was good, right? In the sixteenth century, Paracelsus believed that effective (i.e., toxic) doses of mercury were achieved when at least three pints of saliva were produced. That’s a helluva lot of spit. And so, at a time when overflowing privies and gallons of loogie were the answer to a multitude of ailments, physicians found their drug of choice in calomel.

Benjamin Rush was one such physician. A founding father who signed the Declaration of Independence, Dr. Rush advocated for women’s education and the abolition of slavery. He pioneered the humane treatment of psychiatric patients, but unfortunately thought that mental illness was best treated with a dose of calomel. He suggested this for the treatment of hypochondria:

Mercury acts in this disease, 1, by abstracting morbid excitement from the brain to the mouth. 2, by removing visceral obstructions. And, 3, by changing the cause of our patient’s complaints and fixing them wholly upon his sore mouth. The salivation will do still more service if it excite some degree of resentment against the patient’s physician or friends.

Resentment against your doctor and BFF is a fantastic side effect! But in truth, Rush was replacing hypochondria with heavy metal toxicity. Another side effect was mercurial erethism, a neurological disorder that includes depression, anxiety, pathological shyness, and frequent sighing. Together with tremors of the limbs, these symptoms were often called mad hatter’s disease or hatter’s shakes (for the hat-making workers who used mercury in the felting process). In addition, toxic patients could suffer from lost teeth, rotting jaw bones, and gangrenous cheeks that produced facial holes, exposing ulcerated tongues and gums. Okay, so what if success meant that Rush’s patients turned into extremely moody Walking Dead extras?

Benjamin Rush, founding father, wants you to poop excessively.

When the mosquito-borne Yellow Fever virus hit Philadelphia in 1793, Dr. Rush became a passionate advocate of extreme amounts of calomel and bloodletting (heroic depletion therapy). Sometimes, ten times the usual calomel dose was employed. Even the purge-loving medical establishment found this excessive. Members of the Philadelphia College of Physicians called his methods murderous and fit for a horse. Earlier, in 1788, author William Cobbett had labeled Rush a potent quack.

At the time, Thomas Jefferson estimated the Yellow Fever fatality rate at 33 percent. Later, in 1960, the fatality rate of Rush’s patients was found to be 46 percent. Not exactly an improvement on the status quo.

Ultimately, it was Dr. Rush’s influence on improving Philadelphia’s standing water problem and sanitation—plus a good, mosquito-killing first frost of autumn—that ended the epidemic. Alexander Hamilton, a friend of Dr. Rush, had become ill himself, but turned to another doctor who employed gentler methods. In his theory of bleeding and mercury, Hamilton wrote, I was ever opposed to my friend . . . whom I greatly loved; but who had done much harm, in the sincerest persuasion that he was preserving life. Hamilton survived, but Dr. Rush’s reputation didn’t. By the turn of the century, his medical practice dwindled to nothing.

Still, calomel continued to be used. It wasn’t until the mid-twentieth century that mercury compounds finally fell out of favor, thanks to a solid understanding that heavy metal toxicity was actually, you know, bad.

Quicksilver: A Beastly Beauty

Most people know of elemental mercury as that slippery, silvery liquid once used with ubiquity in glass thermometers. If you were a child before helicopter parenting or organic anything, you might have had the opportunity to play with the contents of a broken thermometer. The glimmering balls skittered everywhere and delighted children for hours.

There was always something mystical about quicksilver, as it was often called. Its older Latin name, hydrargyrum, spoke to its astonishing uniqueness—water silver—and gave rise to its Hg abbreviation on the periodic table of elements. The only metal that is liquid at room temperature, it’s also the only element whose common name was taken from its association with alchemy and a Roman god.

So it almost makes sense that people expected magical things from mercury. Qin Shi Huang, First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (246–221 bce), was one of them. Desperate for the secret to immortality, he sent out search parties to find the answer, but they were doomed to fail. Instead, his own alchemists concocted mercury medicines, thinking that the shining liquid was the key.

He died at the tender age of forty-nine from mercury poisoning. But hey, why stop there? In an attempt to rule in the afterlife, Qin had himself buried in an underground mausoleum so grand that ancient writers described it flowing with rivers of mercury, its ceiling decorated with jeweled constellations. It’s also reportedly booby-trapped, Indiana Jones–style, with arrows that fire when disturbed. Happily for him and chillingly for everyone else, Qin made sure his concubines and tomb designers were buried alive right along with him. Brrr. Thus far, the tomb is unexcavated due to the toxic levels of mercury that threaten to release if it’s opened.

Abraham Lincoln, pre-beard, pre-hat, and not yet mercury-free.

Quite a bit later, when Abraham Lincoln was immortalizing himself in history, he too was a victim of liquid mercury. Before his presidency, Lincoln suffered from mood swings, headaches, and constipation. In the 1850s, an aide noted, [W]hen he hed no passages he alwys had a sick headache—Took Blue pills—blue Mass. These sick headaches were also known as bilious headaches and could conceivably be cured by a good cathartic that also allowed bile to flow.

So what was this mysterious blue mass? A peppercorn-sized pill containing pure liquid mercury, licorice root, rosewater, honey, and sugar. Because liquid mercury is poorly absorbed in the intestine, druggists gleefully exercised their repressed aggressions by repeatedly pounding the liquid beads into relative oblivion, a process called extinction. Unfortunately, this violent compounding also allowed the mercury to be more readily absorbed in vapor form within the intestine.

Like a caffeine junkie guzzling down mislabeled decaf, Lincoln only grew worse after taking the pills. There are several accounts of his volatile behavior at the time, with bouts of depression mixed with rage, as well as insomnia, tremors, and gait problems, all of which could theoretically be blamed on mercury toxicity. He, too, may have suffered from erethism.

Lincoln, to his credit, seemed to recognize that the blue mass might be making him worse rather than better, and he apparently decreased his use once he entered the White House. And not a moment too soon. One shudders to imagine a mercury-toxic, pathologically moody leader of our nation calling the shots during the Civil War.

A Night with Venus, a Lifetime with Mercury

Mercury has had an entwined relationship with syphilis for centuries. In the fifteenth century after the French invasion of Naples, Italy, the disease began to make its way across Europe. As Voltaire noted, On their flippant way through Italy, the French carelessly picked up Genoa, Naples, and syphilis. Then they were thrown out and deprived of Naples and Genoa. But they did not lose everything—syphilis went with them.

Soon, the Great Pox became a true nuisance and deadly accompaniment as it spread throughout Europe. That historical strain of Treponema pallidum (which is the responsible bacterium) was particularly virulent. Genital sores sprouted after exposure to an infected sexual partner and progressed to rash and fevers. Later, foul-smelling abscesses, pustules, and sores spread over the body, some so severe that they ate away at face, flesh, and bone. Yes. Out-of-control syphilis is pretty revolting.

People were desperate for a cure. By the sixteenth century, mercury came to the rescue with the help of the rather bombastic and vehement Paracelsus, who argued against Galen’s humoral theory. He believed instead that mercury, salt, and sulfur would bring about all manner of bodily cures, having earth-bound, physiologic, and astrological qualities.

Another salt, mercuric chloride, arrived on the scene. Unlike calomel, mercuric chloride was water-soluble and easily absorbed by the body, making its poisonous results seem all the more effective. It burned the skin when applied (It hurts! Therefore, it works!), and the copious salivation was considered a sign of successful purging.

Syphilitic patients also received what sound like the worst spa packages ever. Elemental mercury was heated for steam baths, where inhalation was considered beneficial (and is a potent route of mercury absorption). Mercuric chloride was added to fat, and the resultant unction rubbed dutifully into sores. Sometimes, bodily fumigations occurred, where a naked patient was placed in a box with some liquid mercury, their head sticking out of a hole, and a fire lit beneath the box to vaporize the mercury. Sixteenth-century Italian physician Girolamo Fracastoro remarked that after mercury ointments and fumigations, You will feel the ferments of the disease dissolve themselves in your mouth in a disgusting flow of saliva.

Treatment for syphilis was vastly unsexy. What was worse, these regimens would often continue for the rest of the sufferer’s life. There was no denying a common saying at the time: A night with Venus, and a lifetime with mercury.

Niccolò Paganini, one of the most famous violinists in history, likely suffered from mercury toxicity after he was diagnosed with syphilis. Besides suffering from hypochondria and excessive shyness from erethism, he also began shaking uncontrollably, contributing to his withdrawal from the stage in 1834. He had tree-trunk legs and coughed gunk up chronically. He complained, I easily expectorate the mucus and pus . . . three or four saucerfuls . . . the swelling in my legs has risen to behind the knees so that I walk like a snail. His teeth fell out, his bladder was constantly irritated, and his testicles became inflamed to the size of a little pumpkin. Damn you, syphilis, for ruining the adorableness of little pumpkins everywhere.

Luckily, or unluckily, poor Paganini’s horrid life of mucus production, mollusk-like speed, and gourd-sized nether regions didn’t last long. Within a month after he stopped performing, Paganini was dead.

Nowadays, we do know that mercury and other metals such as silver can kill bacteria in vitro. All scientists know, however, that what’s good in the petri dish isn’t necessarily good in the human body. It’s unclear if syphilis sufferers were cured by their mercury treatments or if they simply moved on to the next phase of the illness, which could consist of many symptom-free years.

That is, if the mercury toxicity didn’t kill them first.

Syphilis patients being treated. Note the saliva waterfall (top, right) and the grenade-shaped spa treatment.

Lewis and Clark and the Thunderbolts (No, It’s Not a Band)

Benjamin Rush’s influence had more far-reaching effects beyond Philadelphia, in the form of Dr. Rush’s Bilious Pills. The pills, a proprietary blend of calomel, chlorine, and jalap (a potent herbal laxative), were fondly referred to as Dr. Rush’s Thunderbolts or Thunderclappers. On Rush’s recommendations, Lewis and Clark took them on their famous expedition. Rush wrote, When you feel the least indisposition . . . gently open the bowels by means of one, two, or more of the purging pills. Also, constipation is often a sign of approaching disease . . . take one or more of the purging pills. In addition, lack of appetite is a sign of approaching indisposition and it should be obviated by the same remedy.

In summary, if anything felt off? Purge. Purge like hell.

So Lewis and Clark brought no less than 600 of Dr. Rush’s Thunderbolts. Modern historians determined that on their historic journey, Lewis and Clark had squatted in Lolo, Montana—literally. As their expedition was a military one, they relied on military guidelines that ordered their latrines be located 300 feet from the main camping area, which had been found using dated lead samples. Lo and behold, mercury was detected 300 feet away. It was an excremental bingo winner. Rush’s Thunderbolts may or may not have cured their ills, but they certainly left their mark, in a scatalogically historical way.

To boldly purge where no man has purged before.

The Caduceus: A Snake Switcheroo

Calomel fell from favor gradually, as safer and more effective treatments replaced the heroic medicine of purging. In the United States and around the world, mercury was banned from felting in the 1940s and gold and silver mining in the 1960s. Calomel wasn’t removed from the British pharmacopoeia until the 1950s because it took that long to finally realize mercury was the cause of acrodynia. Even now, you can still find mercury thermometers (they’re more accurate than the red-colored alcohol ones), but regulations are phasing them out worldwide.

Though the element is no longer used in mainstream medicine, mercury has managed to slither its way into many a doctor’s office. It is perhaps oddly appropriate that the symbol for the god Mercury was the caduceus—two snakes entwined on a winged rod. The symbol is commonly and incorrectly associated with the medical establishment, due to a mistake when the US Army Medical Corps adopted the symbol in 1902. Soon after, it became a ubiquitous sign of healing. But in fact, the caduceus represents Mercury—the god of financial gain, commerce, thieves, and trickery.

The Rod of Asclepius, which has a single serpent entwined on a simple rod, was held by the Greek god Asclepius, the patron of health and healing. This was the rod mistakenly missed in 1902 and is currently used by most academic medical establishments today.

In 1932, Stuart Tyson argued about the misuse of the caduceus in The Scientific Monthly, stating that Mercury was the patron of commerce and of the fat purse . . . his silver tongued eloquence could always make ‘the worse appear the better cause.’ . . . Would not his symbol be suitable for . . . all medical quacks? Indeed.

Mercury, holding his caduceus and a fat purse, while stomping on everyone.

2

Antimony

Of Oliver Goldsmith’s Last Folly, the Fake Basil Valentine, Captain Cook’s Cup, and Everlasting Poop Pills

In 1774, Oliver Goldsmith was feeling rather

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What people think about Quackery

4.1
60 ratings / 18 Reviews
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Reader reviews

  • (5/5)
    A laugh every paragraph despite the grim subject matter. Highly recommended!
  • (4/5)
    If you like Mary Roach’s works, you’ll probably enjoy this compendium of wacky, revolting, and occasionally dangerous “cures” from the past.

  • (4/5)
    Very educational, very entertaining, and quite eye-opening in a "they can't have seriously thought that would work, could they" kind of way.

    Recommended simply for the great writing!
  • (5/5)
    As soon as I saw Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything by Lydia Kang I knew that I had to get it in my hands. If the name alone doesn't intrigue you then I don't know what will. This book is full to bursting with historical facts about crazy medical practices through the ages. It is an excellent resource about the history of the medical profession as well as education and social change. Much like when I read Soonish, I felt that it was a little heavy with the 'relatable' humor but this was easily overlooked. (I think Kang pulled it off better anyway.) As someone who has read quite a bit about the history of medicine, I was surprised by just how much I didn't know. For example, did you know that leeches have 3 stomachs, 3 jaws, and 100 teeth in each of those jaws?! Kang sets up the different medical practices and procedures by first giving a history of the person that started it off (generally a 'medical practitioner' or someone at least purporting to be one). She then shares accounts from the patients who endured such crazy routines (like bloodletting or ingesting arsenic) paired with diagrams of the medical equipment used to accomplish such feats. (I hope you have a strong stomach for the bloodletting chapter.) I especially enjoyed the little asides about what we now know about the concoctions put together long ago to 'cure' and how the vast majority of them were either complete hokum or actually increased the chances of the patient suffering an agonizing death. It makes you wonder how the future generations will view our supposedly 'innovative' medicines and treatments of the sick. Will we be seen as medical charlatans and blind fools or will they take into account the socioeconomic and political climate that we live in and how that shapes our view on medicine as a whole? As you read this book (and I hope you will) ponder that very question because then perhaps you won't judge past generations quite so harshly...unless it's the guys who took Strychnine in order to increase their sex drive. Always judge those guys. 9/10
  • (3/5)
    Not particularly light reading material, though some of these topics are so out there almost laughable. But then you think how many took these remedies seriously and it's not all that laughable. One impression I was left with was wondering, what we are doing today in medicine that will be written in a similar book years from now.
  • (2/5)
    2.5
    The information was interesting, the layout was pretty good (nice cover!)... The writing was rather juvenile - but what should I expect from a book on quack cures?
    My husband, who is an RN, enjoyed it.
  • (5/5)
    humanity, snark-fest, nonfiction, medical I got this book from the publisher via Netgalley shortly after reading another horrific nonfiction book on radium poisoning, so reading this one took longer than it should have. Especially as this one is designed to be a reality check, not inflame the reader to anger. In this very well researched compendium of the idiocy of mankind through the ages, the varied negative results of attempts to cure man's ills is balanced with bad puns and snarky asides. That is a good thing, in my opinion. From Roman and Egyptian times until now, treatment practices have both remained similar (especially in the snake oil sense) and built upon earlier trials and errors. There are multiple examples of misguided usage under each heading and subheading. Did you know that "mad as a hatter" refers to mercury poisoning due to the process of making a hat? What about the well known business of selling radium toothpaste? And then there are all those treatments for "wandering womb". The various herbals included strychnine and the opiates. The one thing that was a positive in the 1860s was that medical opiate use most likely reduced the mortality from cholera and dysentery. I certainly did not know of the lingering misuse of strychnine in athletics. And here I thought it was only popular in murder mysteries! Then it moves along to the ever popular use of tools for bloodletting. This practice continued far longer than sense would indicate, being used even for battle wounds! It was also the real cause of death for George Washington, not the pneumonia! Bloodletting using leeches was also used in cases of stroke. Todays medical knowledge and pharmaceuticals use a bio similar product to dissolve clots in occlusive strokes. Another resurrected treatment is the use of (now sterile) maggots to remove dead tissues from wounds. And how could the practice of Trephining be ignored? The drilling of a hole in the skull to relieve pressure or stop seizures or cure madness has been going on since before the Aztecs. Not a good thing before sterile technique, but archeology has proved that some did live afterwards. We do continue to be a gullible species, but with the advent of some of the anti psychotic meds, at least we have stopped doing lobotomy. But there has been a resurrection of the use of electroshock therapy in some areas. There's a lot more in this book, but the authors (and me, too) hope that the readers will learn not only history from this book, but to use more uncommon sense when faced with todays nostrums and panaceas (don't get me started on drug advertising! ).This book is well worth the money, and the illustrations and references were very interesting (even in PDF format).Disclaimer. In addition to being a history geek, I have been a registered nurse for more years than I care to admit.
  • (4/5)
    3.5 Regardless of the less than ideal state of the world today, this is one of those books that at least medically, make one grateful that we were born in today's medical world. This book is incredibly comprehensive and we'll researched. I know most of us have heard of the use of leeches, cold water cures, opium, electro shock therapy and the use of these have made us shudder with the knowledge we have now.Some of the things in this book I had never heard before. Such as the use of skulls and brain parts of the dead to cure epilepsy, and mummy infused poultices to cure many different ailments. Mercury infusions for syphilis, oil from human fat for pain and also as a cancer treatment. There is so much in this book, even past sex toys and animal derived cures. Nasty, nasty! The background of these things, how they came to be, how they were packaged and sold is part of this thorough book. One thing though that bothered me when it seemed to be overdone is the authors pithy comments, which in the beginning seemed amusing, but began to wear. How did people survive some of these things? Well of course many didn't, but those that did were amazingly lucky or smart enough to stop taking these things when they seemed to be doing more harm. Probably like many of us did in the world before safe playground equipment, seatbelts and bike helmets.ARC from Netgalley.
  • (4/5)
    Very interesting read and the author is very funny. If medicine intrigues you this book is a great source of entertainment.
  • (3/5)
    Do not try to heal yourself with the methods described in this book. Worst case, it will be deadly - best case, it will do nothing at all. Very entertaining, and interesting read. The authors managed to make me laugh out loud with their humor spiked reports on the worst way to cure everything, when moments before I was disgusted by descriptions of some healing practices, that thankfully have gone out of fashion. You can read it relativily quick and easy and gain some insight into medicinal practices of the past (or at least I hope nobody tries this anymore today).
  • (5/5)
    Informative and entertaining, great read overall, love books on this subject
  • (3/5)
    YA in style. Light-hearted easy read, funny in places and gross in others.
  • (5/5)
    Very informative enjoyable reading, I highly recommend this entertaining book!
  • (4/5)
    Delightful and saddening simultaneously. By a doctor (Kang) and journalist (Pedersen), Quackery runs through the catalog of “cures” from the past, including mercury and arsenic, strychnine and tobacco, phlebotomy and lobotomy, and various machines that were supposed to diagnose and/or cure. For example, the Web is now full of memes about the dreadful (but usually exaggerated) toxicity of mercury; in previous times the reverse was true, and mercury was considered an appropriate treatment for all sorts of things – especially for childhood ailments. I reviewed Mistress of the Elgin Marbles, a biography of Mary Nesbit, Countess of Elgin; among the items quoted were letters from Countess Elgin to her nanny, exhorting her to make sure the children got their proper mercury dosage. Warning: spoiler for Strong Poison


    Arsenic was seen as a cosmetic (even if ingested, rather than applied to the skin). In a link to literature, the supposed beneficial properties of arsenic figure in Dorothy L. Sayer’s first Vane/Wimsey novel, Strong Poison. (To further the link with literature, Wimsey solves the mystery by reading Housman’s A Shropshire Lad). Kang and Pedersen, alas, suggest the key idea (that it’s possible to develop an immunity to arsenic by gradual small doses) is spurious.


    end spoilerThat’s just some of the chemical elements; there are plenty of other examples.Although funny and an easy read, the book is marred by some inadequate fact checking on some of the illustrations. In their discussion of “hysteria”, Kang and Pedersen note that Victorian doctors treated various “female ailments” by genital massage (see the movie Hysteria). However, two of the illustrations they use are suspect; one is a supposed ad from the “Beaver Moon Vibrator Company” and the other is for “Dr. Swift” and the health benefits of “gentle massage”. I can’t track down the “Beaver Moon Vibrator Company”, but the name is pretty suspicious; the illustration accompanying Dr. Swift and his massage has been traced on the internet and actually comes from an early French gynecology manual. (Both are credited to “Public Domain” in Quackery). It’s certainly true that the history of medicine produces plenty of examples of mistreatment of women at the hands of male doctors, ranging from unpleasant to heinous, but fake illustrations don’t help things any. Worth a read for the humor and for a reminder that the best and brightest in medicine were sometimes disastrously wrong. Alas, no footnotes, references or suggestions for further reading. Extensive illustrations but as mentioned above two of the illustrations I tried to find a source for seem to be spurious. In addition to being a practicing MD, author Lydia Kang is a successful novelist; I’ll have to track down some of her books.
  • (3/5)
    Written by a medical doctor (Kang) and a freelance journalist (Pedersen), this book is part medical history, part cautionary tale, and part stand up comic’s routine. As the title suggests, the main focus is on the various nostrums, panaceas, and procedures that certain unscrupulous individuals have foisted on a credulous public over the centuries. These charlatans, also known as quacksalvers, or simply “quacks,” at best sold worthless remedies. At worst, their potions were laced with toxic chemicals that killed, rather than cured, the ill and desperate. Taking a topical approach, the authors divide their book into five sections, each one covering a range of questionable approaches to the treatment of human maladies. Within each section, a single chapter is devoted to a specific drug, substance, instrument, or what have you. Therefore, the section on “Elements” contains separate discussions on the uses and abuses of Mercury, Antimony, Arsenic, Gold, and Radium & Radon. Succeeding sections are entitled “Plants & Soil” (Example: tobacco), “Tools” (bloodletting), “Animals” (leeches), and “Mysterious Powers” (electricity). The text is further enlivened with sidebar articles, historic photographs and other illustrations of items discussed and end-of-chapter “Hall of Shame” synopses of various medical fads, such as weight loss schemes. What is to be admired with this text is the underlying message of caveat emptor, the ancient Roman saying that in plain English means, “let the buyer beware.” A little critical thinking goes a long way towards avoiding dangerous rip-offs. There is also much interesting historical medical trivia, such as the theory of the four humors, one of which was blood. It was long thought that an imbalance of any one was the cause of disease, hence bloodletting, or the opening of a vein, to release an “overabundance” of that substance, and thus to restore equilibrium and a state of health. The problem, of course, is that such theories were based on conjecture, rather than sound medical reasoning or, indeed, any kind of clinical evidence. This leads to a not so admirable feature regarding this tome, namely, painting the disreputable and greedy along with the caring and legitimate with the same black brush. There is a huge difference between ignorance and deceit. At least some of the practitioners that the authors take to task, such as Paracelsus, a Sixteenth Century alchemist, and Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, did not have the benefit of an education at a modern day medical school. These men did the best they could with the meager tools and knowledge at their disposal. Review by Michael F. Bemis
  • (4/5)
    In Quackery, Lydia King provides a hilarious look at some of the most outrageous medical practices throughout history. Teething baby? Mercury cream will calm them right down. Want a pill you can take and still hand down to your kids? Try antimony tablets! IPA too bland for your tastes? Strychnine will provide the bitter buzz you crave! From cocaine tooth drops to lobotomies to irradiated water to tobacco smoke enemas, this book covers an amazing amount of snake oil, some touted by the medical minds of their day and some not.The book is incredibly entertaining and liberally sprinkled with photos and drawings (some truly nightmare inspiring). This is one of those science books you can read and not even realize how much information you’re learning. Want to find out which cutting edge medical treatment contributed to the deaths of Byron, Mozart, and George Washington? Which animal’s testicles you should wear around your neck to prevent pregnancy? Or why corn flakes are part of an anti-masturbation diet? Look no further!Any one who likes a good dose of humor with their nonfiction will enjoy this book. If you like Mary Roach‘s writing, Unmentionable by Therese Oneill, or any other books in that vein, this book was meant for you.An advanced copy of this book was provided by the publisher via NetGalley in exchange for an honest review.
  • (4/5)
    Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything by Lydia King is a 2017 Workman Publishing Company publication. A jaw dropping collection of gruesome and ghastly concoctions and procedures guaranteed to cure whatever ails you… if it doesn’t kill you first. Before there was an FDA to weed out potentially dangerous ‘snake oil’ curse, the market was open to all manner of experimental potions and concoctions sold to an unsuspecting public. This is a fascinating look at some of the most horrifying cases where strychnine and arsenic found its way into tonics designed to cure specific ailments or used for beauty treatments. As the title suggests this is a very brief history of incredible cure-alls, medical treatments and procedures. It is unbelievable and shocking at times, and could make some readers a little uncomfortable. While some may have been well intentioned, none of these so -called cures were proven, studied, analyzed or deemed safe for human use, especially in such large doses. But, even when proof of the danger some of these chemicals posed, cover-ups were not unheard of- such as with the tobacco industry, which cleverly employed doctors to advertise their products.The chapter on tobacco was particularly interesting on several levels, as was the chapter on cocaine. But, the second half of the book was dedicated to procedures such as performing a lobotomy, bloodletting, leeches, which was akin to using torture devices. Thank goodness, the author chose to use humor as a way of off- setting the more cringeworthy areas of the book. In fact, I found myself chuckling a few times at the author’s dry comments and jokes, which took gallows humor to a whole new level. Even though we do have agencies that test products for long term side effects and safety, and one could go on a long diatribe about the frustrations the FDA can cause when erring on the side of caution, slowing down the process for potentially life- saving drugs, or on occasion they miss potential dangers, or allow carefully worded descriptions on food labels that are very misleading, there are still many products lining shelves today that promise quick weight loss, miracle cures, and don’t even get me started on the claims many beauty aids try to sell you- (although those usually safe to use). When you see a disclaimer on a bottle of vitamins declaring it is not backed by the FDA, you may want to do a little research. Many of these over the counter pills, herbs, and tonics could interact with medication, or they just don’t work- period. I’ve used these natural herbs many times with various degrees of success, but I do urge caution. My point, is that charlatans, swindlers and con artists are still as plentiful as they were back centuries ago, often catering to and taking advantage of people who are desperate, looking for a quick beauty or weight loss fix. So, despite our many advances some things never change.However, I for one, am glad it is a bit harder to poison people with Arsenic, Antimony, or Strychnine. I am also happy we know the dangers of tobacco use and that cocaine is addictive, and surgeons wash their hands and wear surgical gloves, and that their tools are sanitized- so there is that. Overall, this is a fascinating look back at practices, rituals, and chemicals we once thought were okay to use, but as it turns out- not so much. It also makes me appreciate how far we’ve come medicinally, and thankful we don’t use bugs, snakes, or animals based medicine- (or use them for testing), or depend upon the touch of a King to cure us. This is a quick read, replete with photographs and drawings, and sketches. This book will appeal to history buffs, science and medicine enthusiasts, or anyone who likes to read educational material. The book is well organized and utterly fascinating!
  • (5/5)
    Ratings: ?????Quackery is a tour through the most unusual, wacky, and downright bizarre medications, tinctures, and medical tricks used down the years. Odd as most may seem, many of these were the paving stones along the road to medical innovation. There are five different sections looking at the various tools, tinctures, bizarre animal-based cures and tricks such as radionics that our ancestors used over the course of time. At the end of each section is a brief “Hall of Shame” focusing on different topics such as Women’s Health, Men’s Health, Antidotes, and Eye Care.Section One covers the use of elements such as mercury and antimony in treating ailments. Section Two deals with plant derived ‘medicines’ such as tobacco, cocaine, and opiates, and how their use evolved. Also includes the use of dirt.Section Three looks at 'tools’ like surgery techniques, lobotomies, and anesthesia. Section Four is all about animal medicine including leeches, anthropophagy, and animal derivative meds.Section Five covers 'mysterious powers’, such as electricity, mesmerism, and radionics.This book is packed with so much neat information! It's fascinating the things humanity has believed through the ages. We’ve gone through many trials, and made many errors to get to where we are today medical-wise. It's so hard to believe we once thought ingesting things like mercury, strychnine, and radium were beneficial, or that cocaine and opium were in medications casually given to children. Or the various means and methods leading up to modern anaesthesia. Things I particularly enjoyed were learning about the Lewis and Clark Expedition, and how they found mercury in the latrine pits, verifying the members had used a particular medicine en route, Phineas Gage and the history of mesmerism that evolved to modern hypnotherapy. Other things of interest and amusement were butt bellows, and the theory that blowing smoke up the ass was helpful in drownings, the evolution of vibrators as medical tools that turned into sex toys, Frankenstenian experiments with electricity, and using mummies as a cure for, well, anything. If you love history, and medical trivia, this is the perfect book for you!***Dos mere to Workman Publishing for providing an egalley ARC in exchange for a fair and honest review.