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*Fractional Order Systems: Optimization, Control, Circuit Realizations and Applications* consists of 21 contributed chapters by subject experts. Chapters offer practical solutions and novel methods for recent research problems in the multidisciplinary applications of fractional order systems, such as FPGA, circuits, memristors, control algorithms, photovoltaic systems, robot manipulators, oscillators, etc. This book is ideal for researchers working in the modeling and applications of both continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics and chaotic systems. Researchers from academia and industry who are working in research areas such as control engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, and information technology will find the book most informative.

Publisher: Academic PressReleased: Aug 16, 2018ISBN: 9780128163085Format: book

First Edition

Ahmad Taher Azar

*Faculty of Computers and Information, Benha University, Benha, Egypt *

*School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nile University, Giza, Egypt *

Ahmed G. Radwan

*Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt *

*Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center (NISC), Nile University, Cairo, Egypt *

Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan

*Research and Development Center, Vel Tech University, Chennai, India *

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright **

**Contributors **

**Preface **

**About the Book **

**Objectives of the Book **

**Organization of the Book **

**Book Features **

**Audience **

**Acknowledgments **

**Chapter 1: Dynamics, Circuit Design, Synchronization, and Fractional-Order Form of a No-Equilibrium Chaotic System **

**Abstract **

**Acknowledgments **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Description and Dynamics of the System Without Equilibrium **

**3 Antisynchronization of Two Identical Systems Without Equilibrium **

**4 Circuit Design of the System Without Equilibrium **

**5 Fractional-Order Form of the System Without Equilibrium **

**6 Conclusions **

**Chapter 2: FPGA Implementation of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Fractional-Order Derivative **

**3 Implementation of Fractional-Order Derivative on FPGA **

**4 Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems **

**5 Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems FPGA Implementation **

**6 Conclusion **

**Chapter 3: A Survey of Numerical Simulations for Multistrain Tuberculosis Models of Fractional-Order and Their Optimal Control **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 A General Multistrain TB Model of Fractional-Order Derivatives **

**3 Numerical Methods for Solving a General Multistrain TB Model **

**4 Optimal Control of Fractional Multistrain TB Model **

**5 Conclusions **

**Chapter 4: Fractional-Order Models for HIV Viral and Epidemiological Dynamics **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Literature Review **

**3 HIV Viral Dynamics **

**4 AIDS Epidemiological Dynamics **

**5 Conclusion **

**Chapter 5: Biologically Inspired Optimization Algorithms for Fractional-Order Bioimpedance Models Parameters Extraction **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Fractional-Order Bioimpedance Models **

**3 Problem Identification **

**4 Overview of Bioinspired Optimization Algorithms **

**5 Simulations and Results **

**6 Conclusion **

**Acknowledgments **

**Chapter 6: Fractional-Order Integrated Circuits in Control Applications and Biological Modeling **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminaries **

**3 Method for Realizing Fractional-Order Building Blocks **

**4 Design of Integrated Fractional-Order Controllers **

**5 Fully Integrated Fractional-Order Emulators in Biology **

**6 Discussion **

**7 Conclusions **

**Chapter 7: Bioimpedance Analysis Using Fractional-Order Equivalent Electrical Circuits **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Fractional-Order Circuit Models **

**3 Measurements **

**4 Determination of Fractional-Order Model Parameters **

**5 Example: Human Forearm Impedance **

**6 Alternative Measurement Techniques **

**7 Conclusion **

**Appendix: MATLAB Code **

**Chapter 8: On the Approximation of Fractional-Order Circuit Design **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Approximation of Fractional Transfer Functions **

**3 Fractional-Order Element Emulator **

**4 Fractional-Order Oscillator **

**5 Fractional-Order Filters **

**6 Conclusion **

**Chapter 9: On the Fractional-Order Circuit Design: Sensitivity and Yield **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Related Work **

**3 Sensitivity Analysis on Circuits With Fractional-Order Elements **

**4 Yield Estimation **

**5 Yield Optimization **

**6 Trust Region Optimization Methods **

**7 Examples **

**8 Discussion **

**9 Conclusions **

**Chapter 10: Survey on Two-Port Network-Based Fractional-Order Oscillators **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Prototype of Two-Port Network Three-Impedance Fractional-Order Oscillators **

**3 Prototype of Two-Port Network Two-Impedance Fractional-Order Oscillators **

**4 Conclusion **

**Chapter 11: On Linear and Nonlinear Electric Circuits: A Local Fractional Calculus Approach **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminary **

**3 The Nondifferentiable Elements Within LFD **

**4 The Linear LC Electric Circuit via LFD **

**5 The Linear RC Electric Circuit via Local Fractional Derivatives **

**6 The Nonlinear LC Electric Circuits via LFD **

**7 The Nonlinear RC Electric Circuits via LFD **

**8 Conclusion **

**Acknowledgments **

**Chapter 12: Fractional-Order Filter Design **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Fractional-Order Filters Design **

**3 Fractional-Order Filters With a Delay Parameter **

**4 Conclusion **

**Chapter 13: Analog Filters With Arbitrarily Adjustable Frequency Response **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Parameter Adjustability of Integer-Order Filters **

**3 Fractional-Order Filter Transfer Functions **

**4 Synthesis of the Fractional-Order Filter **

**5 Conclusion **

**Acknowledgments **

**Chapter 14: Memristive Fractional-Order Nonlinear Model for Circuit Design **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Memristor: A New Circuit Element **

**3 Memristor Structure **

**4 Window Function and Nonlinear Model **

**5 Comparison of Window Function **

**6 Conclusion **

**Chapter 15: Estimation Methods for Fractional-Order Systems: Asymptotic Versus Nonasymptotic Approaches **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Preliminaries on Fractional Calculus **

**3 Robust Adaptive Observer Design for Nonlinear Systems: Asymptotic Approach **

**4 Modulating Functions-Based Estimation Algorithm: Nonasymptotic Approach **

**5 Conclusion **

**Chapter 16: Control of a Three-Link Manipulator Using Fractional-Order PID Controller **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Literature Review **

**3 Dynamic Model of a Three-Link Planar Manipulator **

**4 Fractional-Order Calculus **

**5 Optimization of Controller Gains **

**6 Simulation Results **

**7 Conclusion **

**Chapter 17: Development of a Fractional-Order PID Controller Using Adaptive Weighted PSO and Genetic Algorithms With Applications **

**Abstract **

**Nomenclature **

**1 Introduction **

**2 The Proposed Controllers **

**3 The Proposed Optimization Techniques **

**4 The Tuning Procedure **

**5 The Ninteger Software **

**6 Model 1: Temperature Control for CSTR **

**7 Model 2: Car Active Suspension System **

**8 Conclusion **

**Chapter 18: Fractional-Order PI Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor: A Design-Based Comparative Study **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Mathematical Preliminaries: A Brief Description of Fractional-Order Calculus **

**3 Dynamic Modeling of PMSM **

**4 Introduction to Fractional-Order Control **

**5 Design of FOPI Controller Using Intersection Method **

**6 Design of FOPI Controller Using Robustness Index **

**7 Design of Oustaloup’s Filter **

**8 Comparative Analysis of Design Methods **

**9 Simulation Results and Discussion **

**10 Conclusion **

**Chapter 19: Description of the Control Strategies by A-Fractional-Order Backward Difference **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Mathematical Preliminaries **

**3 Justification for the Definition of a Novelty Difference/Sum **

**4 A-Fractional-Order Backward Difference/Sum **

**5 A-Fractional-Order Backward Difference/Sum Properties **

**6 Dynamical System Description by a DE With the A-FOBS **

**7 A-FOSSE Numerical Solution **

**8 Numerical Example **

**9 Control Strategies Described by the A-FOBD **

**10 Conclusions **

**Acknowledgment **

**Chapter 20: Conventional, Intelligent, and Fractional-Order Control Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic System: A Review **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 Mathematical Modeling of PV System **

**3 Conventional MPPT Control Algorithms **

**4 Intelligent and SC MPPT Techniques **

**5 Basic Concepts of Fractional Calculus **

**6 Fractional-Order-Based MPPT Control Techniques **

**7 Discussion and Future directions **

**8 Conclusion **

**Chapter 21: A BSA Tuned Fractional-Order PID Controller for Enhanced MPPT in a Photovoltaic System **

**Abstract **

**1 Introduction **

**2 PV System Modeling **

**3 MPPT Control Techniques **

**4 Controller Tuning Using BSA **

**5 Results and Discussions **

**6 Conclusion **

**Index **

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*Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors’ contributions begin. *

**Hany L. Abdel-Malek ** (271) Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**Amr M. AbdelAty ** (33, 125, 239) Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University, Al Fayoum, Egypt

**M.M. Abdelwahab ** (89) School of Engineering, Nile University, Cairo, Egypt

**Magdy A.S. Aboelela ** (511) Faculty of Engineering, Electrical Power and Machines Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**S.M. Al-Mekhlafi ** (63) Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen

**A.M. Attia ** (89) School of Engineering, Nile University, Cairo, Egypt

**Ahmad Taher Azar **

(1, 421, 477) Faculty of Computers and Information, Benha University, Benha

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Zehor Belkhatir ** (451) Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

**Karabi Biswas ** (357) Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

**Carlo Cattani ** (329) Engineering School, DEIM, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy

**Ilias Dimeas ** (163) Department of Physics, Electronics Laboratory, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

**Vo Hoang Duy ** (1) Modeling Evolutionary Algorithms Simulation and Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

**Jan Dvorak ** (383) Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka, Czech Republic

**Shaimaa E.K. Ebid ** (271) Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**Ahmed S. Elwakil ** (163) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

**Omar Elwy ** (239) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Todd J. Freeborn ** (205) The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States

**Feng Gao ** (329) School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering; State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China

**Esraa M. Hamed ** (239) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Rania Helmy Mansour Hennas ** (511) Faculty of Engineering, Electrical Power and Machines Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**Ahmed M. Ibrahim ** (603) Electrical Power and Machine Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

**Jan Jerabek ** (383) Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka, Czech Republic

**Vrunda Joshi ** (553) Department of Electrical Engineering, Pune Vidyarthi Grihaś College of Engineering and Technology, Parvati, Pune, India

**Nashwa A. Kamal ** (603) Electrical Power and Machine Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

**Tribhi Kathuria ** (477) Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

**Dhruv Kler ** (673) Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

**Jaroslav Koton ** (383) Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka, Czech Republic

**David Kubanek ** (383) Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka, Czech Republic

**Vineet Kumar ** (477, 673) Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

**Taous Meriem Laleg-Kirati ** (451) Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

**J.A. Tenreiro Machado ** (329) Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, Portugal

**A.H. Madian **

(33) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

Radiation Engineering Department, NCRRT, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

**Ahmed H. Madian **

(305) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

Radiation Engineering Department, NCRRT, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

**Utkal Mehta ** (553) School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji

**Ahmed S.A. Mohamed ** (271) Applied Mathematics and Information Science Department, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 6th of October City; Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**N.A. Mohamed ** (89) School of Engineering, Nile University, Cairo, Egypt

**Ibrahima N’Doye ** (451) Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia

**Piotr Ostalczyk ** (579) Institute of Applied Computer Science, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland

**Viet-Thanh Pham **

(1) Division of Dynamics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland

School of Electronics and Telecommunications, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam

**Costas Psychalinos ** (163) Department of Physics, Electronics Laboratory, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

**Ahmed G. Radwan **

(33, 125, 239, 305, 357) Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo

Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Balwinder Raj ** (421) Department of Electronics and Communication, National Institute of Technology, Punjab, India

**K.P.S. Rana ** (477, 673) Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

**Somia H. Rashad ** (239) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Lobna A. Said ** (33, 125, 239, 305, 357) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Pallavi Sharma ** (673) Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

**Ahmed M. Soliman ** (305) Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**N.H. Sweilam ** (63) Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

**Ujjwala Thakar ** (553) Department of Electrical Engineering, Pune Vidyarthi Grihaś College of Engineering and Technology, Parvati, Pune, India

**Mohammed F. Tolba ** (33) Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center, Nile University, Giza, Egypt

**Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan ** (1, 421) Research and Development Center, Vel Tech University, Chennai, India

**Costas Vastarouchas ** (163) Department of Physics, Electronics Laboratory, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

**Christos Volos ** (1) Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

**Vishwesh A. Vyawahare ** (553) Department of Electronics Engineering, Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India

**Xiong Wang ** (1) Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P.R. China

**Xiao-Jun Yang ** (329) School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering; State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China

**D.A. Yousri ** (125) Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

**D.M. Zahran ** (89) School of Engineering, Nile University, Cairo, Egypt

*Ahmad Taher Azar ahmad.azar@fci.bu.edu.eg ahmad_t_azar@ieee.org , Faculty of Computers and Information, Benha University, Benha, Egypt , School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nile University, Giza, Egypt *

*Ahmed G. Radwan agradwan@ieee.org agradwan@nu.edu.eg , Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt , Nanoelectronics Integrated Systems Center (NISC), Nile University, Egypt *

*Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan sundarvtu@gmail.com sundar@veltechuniv.edu.in , Research and Development Center, Vel Tech University, Chennai, India *

Fractional calculus has proven to be a valuable tool in the modeling of many physical phenomena and engineering problems. Fractional derivatives provide an excellent instrument for the description of memory and hereditary properties of various materials and processes.

Many scientists believe that there is a need to revise the conventional circuit theory to include fractional-order elements as well as the new fundamental nano-size nonlinear memristive elements that have been realized since 2008. There are hundreds of recent publications during the last decade in different fractional-order circuits as well as their applications.

Many generalized theorems have been introduced in the circuit theory where the conventional theorems are considered as special cases. Although the fractional circuit element (or constant phase element) is not commercially available yet, there are huge efforts toward its realization as a feasible device based on different technology such as fractal structures, electrode surface, and mixed graphene. As an example, the realization of fractional-order chaotic systems in the analog and digital domains has been introduced with control, synchronization, and encryption as well as in bioengineering applications.

Moreover, the new fundamental nonlinear elements that were postulated mathematically in 1971 by Leon Chua have become an attractive research topic since the first physical realization of the memristor was announced in 2008 by HP Lab. After the nature paper of HP-memristor, numerous papers have been introduced in different research directions to discuss the effect of these new nonlinear elements on the systems’ performance. One of the major advantages of the memristive elements is the pinched hysteresis, which reflects its ability to memorize the previous state of memory dependence.

In addition, the size of the HP-memristor is in the order of 10 nm, which reflects the high demands to replace the conventional transistors as well as its ability for low-power low-voltage applications. These nonlinear elements have been involved in various circuits, physics, and mechanical and bioengineering applications, including chaotic systems.

The contributions in this book cover a broad range of interdisciplinary topics such as circuit design, filter design, FPGA implementation, tuberculosis models, epidemiological systems, bioimpedance models, integrated circuits, oscillators, memristive circuits, robot manipulators, PID controllers, bioinspired algorithms, synchronous motors, photovoltaic systems, etc.

The new Elsevier book, *Fractional-Order Systems: Optimization, Control, Circuit Realizations, and Applications*, consists of 21 contributed chapters by subject experts who specialize in the various topics addressed in this book. The special chapters have been brought out in this book after a rigorous review process in the broad areas of various control applications of fractional-order systems. Special importance was given to chapters offering practical solutions and novel methods for the optimization, control, circuit realizations, memristive devices, and other applications of fractional-order systems. This book discusses trends and applications of nonlinear circuits, control, optimization, and various applications of fractional-order systems in science and engineering.

This volume presents a selected collection of contributions on a focused treatment of mathematical techniques for fractional-order systems. The book also discusses multidisciplinary applications in electrical engineering, control engineering, mechanical engineering, and computer science. Both novice and expert readers should find this book a useful reference in the field of fractional-order systems.

**Organization of the Book **

This well-structured book consists of 21 full chapters.

•The book chapters deal with the recent research problems in the applications of fractional-order systems.

•The book chapters present interdisciplinary topics such as circuit design, FPGA implementation, tuberculosis models, epidemiological system, bioimpedance models, integrated circuits, oscillators, filter design, memristive circuits, robot manipulators, PID controllers, bioinspired algorithms, synchronous motors, photovoltaic systems, etc.

•The book chapters contain a good literature survey with a long list of references. The book chapters are well written with a good exposition of the research problem, methodology, block diagrams, circuit designs, and control techniques.

•The book chapters are lucidly illustrated with numerical examples and simulations.

•The book chapters discuss details of engineering applications and future research areas.

The book is primarily meant for researchers from academia and industry who are working on fractional-order systems in the research areas—electrical engineering, control engineering, mechanical engineering, and computer science. The book can also be used at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level as a textbook or major reference for courses such as power systems, control systems, electrical devices, scientific modeling, computational science, and many others.

As the editors, we hope that the chapters in this well-structured book will stimulate further research in optimization and control and circuit designs of fractional-order systems and utilize them in various real-world applications.

We sincerely hope that this book, covering so many different topics, will be very useful for all readers.

We would like to thank all the reviewers for their diligence in reviewing the chapters.

Special thanks go to Elsevier, especially the book editorial team.

*Viet-Thanh Pham *,†; Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan‡; Christos Volos§; Xiong Wang¶; Vo Hoang Duy|; Ahmad Taher Azar**,†† * School of Electronics and Telecommunications, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam *

*† Division of Dynamics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland *

*‡ Research and Development Center, Vel Tech University, Chennai, India *

*§ Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece *

*¶ Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P.R. China *

*| Modeling Evolutionary Algorithms Simulation and Artificial Intelligence, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam *

*** Faculty of Computers and Information, Benha University, Benha, Egypt *

*†† School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nile University, Giza, Egypt *

Systems without equilibrium such as electromechanical models with rotation and electrical circuits with cylindrical phase space were studied a long time ago. However, chaotic systems without equilibrium have received significant attention recently after the introduction of hidden attractors. Interestingly, an attractor of a no-equilibrium system is hidden because its basin of attraction does not intersect with any neighborhood of an unstable fixed point. This chapter presents a 3D no-equilibrium system with hidden chaotic attractors. The fundamental qualitative properties of the proposed no-equilibrium system are discovered by using phase portraits, Poincaré map, bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponents. We have designed an electronic circuit to confirm the physical implementation of the theoretical no-equilibrium system. In addition, global chaos antisynchronization of the proposed system is investigated and confirmed by numerical simulations. Finally the fractional-order form of the proposed no-equilibrium chaotic system is studied in detail.

The authors acknowledge Prof. GuanRong Chen, Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, for suggesting many helpful references.

There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of chaos in nature, environmental science, economics, and engineering (**Lorenz, 1963; Strogatz, 1994; Sprott, 2003; Chen and Yu, 2003; Azar et al., 2017a; Azar and Vaidyanathan, 2015a,b,c, 2016; Zhu and Azar, 2015; Vaidyanathan et al., 2017a,b,c; Pham et al., 2017; Moysis and Azar, 2017; Lamamra et al., 2017; Ouannas et al., 2017b,c,d,f; Wang et al., 2017; Singh et al., 2017; Munoz-Pacheco et al., 2017). Over the past two decades, a considerable amount of chaotic systems has been reported such as Lorenz’s system (Lorenz, 1963), Rössler’s system (Rössler, 1976), Chen’s system (Chen and Ueta, 1999), elegant chaotic flows (Sprott, 1994, 2010), memristive chaotic systems (Wu et al., 2016; Wu and Wang, 2016; Radwan et al., 2017), multiwing butterfly chaotic attractors (Yu et al., 2010), multiscroll chaotic oscillator (Lin et al., 2015), electro-mechanical oscillator (Buscarino et al., 2016), fractional incommensurate order financial system (Hajipour and Tavakoli, 2016), five-term chaotic attractor (Munmuangsaen and Srisuchinwong, 2009), time-delay chaotic systems (Ahmad et al., 2016), and so on. It is now well established from a variety of studies that complexity of chaos has been used in engineering applications. Some chaos-based applications can be listed as image watermarking (Wang et al., 2015), asymmetric color pathological image encryption (Liu et al., 2016a), chaotic video communication scheme (Lin et al., 2016), secure data transmission (Mata-Machuca et al., 2012; Aguilar-Lopez et al., 2014; Min et al., 2015), weak signal detection (Gokyildirim et al., 2016), audio encryption scheme (Liu et al., 2016b), etc. **

Previous research has established that equilibrium points play an important role in our understanding of chaos (**Lü and Chen, 2006; Wang and Chen, 2012, 2013). It has previously been observed that conventional chaotic systems have unstable equilibria. As a result, it is possible to confirm chaos in conventional systems with the Shilnikov criterion (Shilnikov, 1965; Shilnikov et al., 1998). However, recently investigators have examined chaotic behavior in 3D systems without equilibrium (Jafari et al., 2013). **

It is worth noting that the study of no-equilibrium systems has a long history. No-equilibrium systems described numerous electromechanical models with rotation and electrical circuits with cylindrical phase space. One of the first such examples was reported by Sommerfeld in 1902 (**Sommerfeld, 1902). While studying the oscillations caused by a motor driving an unbalanced weight, Sommerfeld investigated the resonance capture, named the Sommerfeld effect. Sommerfeld effect presents the failure of a rotating mechanical system to be spun up by a torque-limited rotor to a desired rotational velocity due to its resonant interaction with another part of the system (Evan-Iwanowski, 1976; Eckert, 2013). In 1984–85, dynamical systems without equilibrium were continued discovering by Nosé (1984) and Hoover (1985). The work of Nosé and Hoover motivated other studies in which hidden chaotic oscillations can be found (Posch et al., 1986; Sprott et al., 2014; Sprott, 2015; Wang and Yang, 2015). **

Some chaotic systems without equilibrium have been reported. A systematic search routine was implemented to find simple quadratic flows without equilibrium (**Jafari et al., 2013; Wang and Chen, 2013). Wang and Chen introduced a no-equilibrium system with seven terms when they constructed a chaotic system with any number of equilibria (Wang and Chen, 2013). A new no-equilibrium chaotic system was proposed by Wei by modifying the Sprott-D system (Wei, 2011). Maaita et al. (2015) investigated the dynamics of a no-equilibrium system with cubic nonlinearity. Multiple attractors were observed in a 3D system without equilibrium (Zuo and Li, 2016), while multiscroll chaotic sea was obtained from a simple no-equilibrium system (Jafari et al., 2016). By introducing nonlinear functions into the Sprott-A system, multiscroll hidden attractors were achieved (Hu et al., 2016). A random number generator was realized with an autonomous chaotic system without equilibrium (Akgul et al., 2016a). Moreover, hyperchaos in 4D systems with no equilibrium was studied in Wang et al. (2012, 2016) and Wei et al. (2014). It is worth noting that chaotic systems without equilibrium exhibit hidden attractors, which cannot be localized by applying common computational procedures (Leonov et al., 2011a,b; Kapitaniak and Leonov, 2015; Dudkowski et al., 2016). Thus, hidden attractors are vital in various areas (Leonov et al., 2012, 2014, 2015; Leonov and Kuznetsov, 2013; Li et al., 2015; Brezetskyi et al., 2015). **

The aim of this chapter is to explore a new 3D autonomous chaotic system without equilibrium. In the next section, the description and dynamics of the no-equilibrium system are presented. Antisynchronization of new chaotic systems without equilibrium is studied in **Section 3. An electronic circuit of the theoretical no-equilibrium system is discussed in Section 4. Section 5 introduces the corresponding fractional form of the 3D system. Finally, conclusions are drawn in the last section. **

Recently, **Jafari et al. (2013) have proposed an approach for discovering new no-equilibrium chaotic systems. Authors constructed general models based on expected features, especially having no equilibrium. By applying a systematical search routine, 17 simple flows with no-equilibrium have been reported in Jafari et al. (2013). **

In this work, we use the same approach by considering the following general form:

in which state variables are *x*, *y*, and *z *while eight parameters are denoted as *ai *(*i *= 1, …, 8) with *a*8≠0. It is simple to find the equilibrium of the general model (**1) as follows **

**(2) **

**(3) **

By substituting Eq. (**2) into Eq. (3), we get **

**(5) **

Similarly, by substituting Eqs. (**2), (5) into Eq. (4), we obtain **

**(6) **

Eq. (**6) is inconsistent because of a8≠0. As a result, there is no equilibrium in general model (1). **

We have applied the systematic search procedure (**Jafari et al., 2013) into the proposed general model (1) in order to find chaotic cases. A simple case has been found for the following set of parameters: **

**(7) **

In other words, we have a new 3D system

**(8) **

in which three state variables are *x*, *y*, and *z *while three positive parameters are *a*, *b*, and *c *(*a*, *b*, *c *> 0). It is noted that system (**8) has no equilibrium. In other words, system (8) belongs to rare systems with hidden attractors, which play vital roles in numerous scientific and engineering processes (Chudzid et al., 2011; Sharma et al., 2015; Zhusubaliyev et al., 2015; Zhusubaliyev and Mosekilde, 2015). **

It is interesting that system (**8) displays chaos although it has no equilibrium. For example, when a = 0.5, b = 7, c = 0.55 and initial conditions (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0), chaotic behaviors of system (8) are shown in Figs. 1 and 2. Calculated Lyapunov exponents of a system without equilibrium (8) are L1 = 0.066, L2 = 0, L3 = −0.3321. The Kaplan-York dimension of the no-equilibrium system is **

**(9) **

A small change in initial conditions of a no-equilibrium system (**8) results in large differences of outcomes for such a system, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Thus, a system without equilibrium (8) is highly sensitive to initial conditions. When we made a small change in the initial conditions of the system (from ( x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0) to (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.501, 0, 0)), it is easy to see that outcomes of the system are highly different. **

**Fig. 1 **Chaotic attractors of a system without equilibrium ( **8) in (A) x−y plane, (B) x−z plane, and (C) y−z plane for a = 0.5, b = 7, c = 0.55 and initial conditions (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0). **

**Fig. 2 **Chaotic attractor of a system without equilibrium ( **8) in x−y−z space for a = 0.5, b = 7, c = 0.55 and initial conditions (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0). **

**Fig. 3 **Presentation of the variable *x *in a system without equilibrium ( **8) for two different initial conditions ( x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0) (blue solid) and (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.501, 0, 0) (red dashed). **

In addition, Poincaré maps of a no-equilibrium system (**8) are presented in Fig. 4 while the frequency spectra of the system are shown in Fig. 5. It is clear from Figs. 4 and 5 that a no-equilibrium system (8) is chaotic. **

**Fig. 4 **Poincaré map of a system without equilibrium ( **8) in (A) x−y plane, (B) x−z plane, and (C) y−z plane. **

**Fig. 5 **The frequency spectra generated from the system without equilibrium (A) single-sided amplitude spectrum of *x *, (B) single-sided amplitude spectrum of *y *, and (C) single-sided amplitude spectrum of *z *.

We have discovered the dynamics of system (**8) by changing the value of the bifurcation parameter a. Figs. 6 and 7 present the bifurcation diagram and the diagram of maximal Lyapunov exponents of the no-equilibrium system when varying the parameter a from 0 to 1.25. From Figs. 6 and 7, we see that system (8) displays periodical and chaotic oscillations. Limit cycle attractors without equilibrium are shown in Fig. 8. **

**Fig. 6 **Bifurcation diagram of a system without equilibrium ( **8) for b = 7, c . **

**Fig. 7 **Maximum Lyapunov exponents of a system without equilibrium ( **8) for b = 7, c = 0.55 when changing the value of the parameter a from 0 to 1.25. **

**Fig. 8 **Two views of limit cycles in a system without equilibrium ( **8) for (A) a = 0.31 and (B) a = 1.1. **

The study of Pecora and Carrol about synchronization in chaotic systems (**Pecora and Carroll, 1990) promoted a great deal of works related to chaos synchronization (Vaidyanathan and Pehlivan, 2012; Zhao et al., 2011; Jeong et al., 2013; Yang, 2013; Pai, 2014). Because the possibility of synchronization of chaotic systems plays a vital role in practical applications, various chaos synchronization schemes have been investigated in the literature (Abdullah, 2013; Aguilar-Lopez et al., 2014; Azar and Vaidyanathan, 2015a,b, 2016; Azar and Zhu, 2015; Azar et al., 2017a,b, 2018; Banerjee, 2010; Boccaletti et al., 2002; Boulkroune et al., 2016a,b; Cicek et al., 2016; Fortuna and Frasca, 2007; Grassi et al., 2017; Mata-Machuca et al., 2012; Ouannas et al., 2016, 2017a,e,g,h,i,j,k,l; Soliman et al., 2017; Sun et al., 2015; Vaidyanathan and Azar, 2015a,b,c, 2016a,b,c,d,e,f,g; Vaidyanathan and Sampath, 2017; Vaidyanathan et al., 2015a,b,c,2017a,c; Volos et al., 2013). **

In this section, we investigate how to antisynchronize two new no-equilibrium systems, called the master and slave systems, by designing an adaptive controller.

We consider the master system without equilibrium described by

**(10) **

where three state variables are *x*1, *y*1, and *z*1. In the master system (**10), the unknown system parameters are a, b, and c. **

The slave system without equilibrium has the form

in which *x*2, *y*2, and *z*is an adaptive control.

To get the antisynchronization, the state errors are defined by

**(12) **

It is simple to see that the state error dynamics are given by:

**(13) **

By taking the difference between the unknown system parameters (*a*, *b*, *c*), we have the parameter estimation errors:

**(14) **

We obtain the parameter estimation error dynamics by differentiating Eq. (**14), which means: **

**(15) **

The main aim of this section is to design an adaptive control to antisynchronize the slave no-equilibrium system (**11) and master no-equilibrium system (10). Therefore, the adaptive control has been constructed as follows: **

It is noted that in Eq. (**16), three positive gain constants are kx, ky, kz. In addition, we have designed the following parameter update law: **

**(17) **

In the next step, we confirm the antisynchronization of the slave system (**11) and master system (10) when there is the presence of the designed adaptive control (16). We select the Lyapunov function: **

From Eq. (**18), the differentiation of V is described as: **

It is simple to verify that we get synchronization error dynamics by combining Eqs. (**10), (11), (16): **

Similarly, we rewrite the differentiation of the Lyapunov function by substituting Eqs. (**15), (20) into Eq. (19): **

**(21) **

It is easy to confirm that the differentiation of *V *is a negative semidefinite function. According to Barbalat’s lemma (**. In other words, the antisynchronization between the slave no-equilibrium system (11) and master no-equilibrium system (10) is achieved. **

We take an example to illustrate the correction of the constructed synchronization scheme. In this example, the parameter values of the master system and slave system are:

**(22) **

We assume that the initial states of the master system without equilibrium are given by

while we choose the following initial states for the slave no-equilibrium system

The positive gain constants are selected as:

**(25) **

The initial condition of the parameter estimate is:

Numerical results are shown in **Figs. 9 and 10. Fig. 9 displays the phase portraits of states in the master and slave systems. Fig. 10 presents the time series of the master and slave systems. As can be seen from Figs. 9 and 10, the antisynchronization of the slave system and the master system has been obtained. **

**Fig. 9 **Phase portraits show the antisynchronization of the master system and the slave system (A) *x *1 vs. *x *2 , (B) *y *1 vs. *y *2 , and (C) *z *1 vs. *z *2 .

**Fig. 10 **Time series of the master system ( *blue solid *) and the slave system ( *red dashed *): (A) *x *1 and *x *2 , (B) *y *1 and *y *2 , and (C) *z *1 and *z *2 .

Chaos-based applications have been developed based on realizations of theoretical chaotic models (**Yalcin et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2008; Volos et al., 2012, 2013; Valli et al., 2014; Akgul et al., 2016b). For example, chaotic models have been used in random bit generation (Yalcin et al., 2004), robots (Volos et al., 2012), or image encryption (Volos et al., 2013; Akgul et al., 2016b). Therefore, physical implementations of chaotic systems have received considerable critical attention. **

Previous studies have established that we can realize chaotic systems by two approaches: the analog approach and the digital approach (**Akgul et al., 2016b; Koyuncu et al., 2014; Dong et al., 2016). Analog realizations of chaotic systems include discrete active devices or mixed-mode active devices (Munoz-Pacheco and Tlelo-Cuautle, 2010; Duarte-Villasenor et al., 2012; Trejo-Guerra et al., 2010; Sanchez-Lopez et al., 2010). Because the amplitudes of the state variables are possible to scale, the designers implemented chaotic systems conveniently by integrated circuits (Trejo-Guerra et al., 2012, 2013). When applying the digital approach, we can use the microcontroller or the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) (Pano-Azucena et al., 2017; Tlelo-Cuautle et al., 2016; Tolba et al., 2017). Especially, FPGAs provide a fast tool for realizing theoretical chaotic systems (Tlelo-Cuautle et al., 2015). **

In this section, we propose an electronic circuit design of a no-equilibrium system (**8). Fig. 11 presents the schematic of the designed circuit, including common electronic components. As can be seen in Fig. 11, we have used four operational amplifiers ( U1–U4), nine resistors, three capacitors, and four multipliers. Three integrators were implemented with operational amplifiers (U1–U3) while we configured the operational amplifier U4 as an inverting amplifier. Here the nonlinear terms were realized by multipliers. **

**Fig. 11 **Schematic of the circuit designed with nine resistors, four operational amplifiers, four analog multipliers, and three capacitors.

The circuital equation is derived from the designed circuit by applying Kirchhoff’s circuit laws. Thus, we get

are the voltages in the outputs of three integrators (*U*1–*U*3). We normalize Eq. (**and by selecting the values of electronic components: **

**(28) **

As a result, we get the dimensionless system:

**(29) **

in which

**(30) **

It is noted that in system (**29), three variables X, Y, and Z , respectively. In other words, system (29) is equivalent to the proposed the no-equilibrium system (8). **

In order to implement no-equilibrium system (**8) for a = 0.5, b = 7, and c = 0.55, the values of electronic components have been chosen as follows: **

The circuit has been implemented in OrCAD in which the power supplies of all active devices are ±15 *V*DC. Circuital results are reported in **Fig. 12. From Figs. 1 and 12, it is easy to see that there is good agreement between the PSpice results and the numerical results. **

**Fig. 12 **PSpice chaotic attractors of the designed circuit in (A) *X *− *Y *plane, (B) *X *− *Z *plane, and (C) *Y *− *Z *plane.

Different definitions of the fractional-order derivative have been introduced. However, the Grünwald-Letnikov, Riemann-Liouville, and Caputo definitions are commonly used (**Podlubny, 1999; Diethelm, 2010; Monje et al., 1999; Petras, 2011). In this section, we utilized the Caputo definition, which is defined by **

In the Caputo definition (**32), m is the first integer that is not less than q . Here Γ is the Gamma function: **

**(33) **

By considering the effect of the fractional-order derivative on an introduced system without equilibrium (**8), its fractional-order form is given by: **

**(34) **

where the three state variables are *x*, *y*, and *z *while *q *is the fractional order (0 < *q *< 1). Here the three positive parameters are *a*, *b*, and *c *(*a*, *b*, *c *> 0). It is trivial to confirm that there is no equilibrium in the fractional-order system (**34). **

The fractional-order system (**34) has been studied by using the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton algorithm (Diethelm and Ford, 2002; Diethelm et al., 2004). Thus, the fractional-order system (34) is rewritten as: **

It is worth noting that the predicted variables are defined by:

In Eq. (**36), αj, n+1 and βj, n+1 are described as follows **

and

It is interesting that for *q *= 0.995, the fractional-order system (**34) displays chaotic behavior (see Fig. 13). In order to verify the chaoticity of the fractional-order system without equilibrium (34), we have calculated its largest Lyapunov exponent by applying the practical method reported in Rosenstein et al. (1993). In this case, the largest Lyapunov exponent of the fractional-order system (34) is 0.126. **

**Fig. 13 **Chaotic attractors of the fractional-order system without equilibrium ( **34) in (A) x−y plane, (B) x−z plane, and (C) y−z plane for q = 0.995, a = 0.5, b = 7, c = 0.55 and initial conditions (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0). **

An efficient test for chaos, called the 0–1

test, has been introduced by **Gottwald and Melbourne (2004, 2009). In such a test, Gottwald and Melbourne constructed a random walk-type process from the data and investigated the variance of the random walk scales with time (Cafagna and Grassi, 2008; Gottwald and Melbourne, 2009). Therefore, there are advantages in the test such as it that does not require phase space reconstruction. We have also applied the 0–1 test to verify the chaotic behavior of the fractional-order system (34) for q are constructed as follow: **

**(39) **

and

**(40) **

is defined by

**(41) **

. From Eqs. (**39), (40), the mean square displacement M(n) is computed by: **

As a result, the asymptotic growth rate is given by

**(43) **

Fractional-order system (**34) for q = 0.995 has the value of the asymptotic growth rate K = 0.9657. Thus, in this case, the fractional-order system (34) is chaotic because K is close to 1. **

When reducing the value of *q*, we have observed the intermittency, as illustrated in **Fig. 14. Fig. 14 indicates the time series of intermittent behavior for q = 0.99. When q = 0.98, the fractional-order system without equilibrium (34) generates nonchaotic behavior, as shown in Fig. 15. **

**Fig. 14 **State variable *x *of a no-equilibrium system ( **34) for q = 0.99, a = 0.5, b = 7, c = 0.55 and initial conditions (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0). **

**Fig. 15 **Nonchaotic behavior of the fractional-order system without equilibrium ( **34) in (A) x−y plane, (B) x−z plane, and (C) y−z plane for q = 0.98, a = 0.5, b = 7, c = 0.55 and initial conditions (x(0), y(0), z(0)) = (0.5, 0, 0). **

In this chapter, we have studied a chaotic system that has no equilibrium. Because of the absence of equilibrium, we can consider it as a special system with hidden attractors. The complex dynamics of such a new system have been investigated via phase portraits, the Poincaré map, the bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponents. By proposing an adaptive control, antisynchronization of chaotic systems without equilibrium has been discussed. To study the feasibility of the system without equilibrium, we have designed its electronic circuit and reported PSpice results. The practical application of the new system will be assessed in our future works.

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Vaidyanathan S., Azar A.T. Hybrid synchronization of identical chaotic systems using sliding mode control

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