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Royal Marines Historical Time Line, Volume One. Third Edition.

Royal Marines Historical Time Line, Volume One. Third Edition.

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Royal Marines Historical Time Line, Volume One. Third Edition.

1,388 pages
21 hours
Dec 1, 2018


Upon explaining to a fellow Royal Marine that my latest project was to try and put together an article about the Royal Marines history. His first response was to tell me that it's been done many many many times before. His reply caught me off guard and made me even more determined to carry on with my project. I went on to explain that I believe I have something a little different. I then went on to explain that I was trying to record every single day of our 354 year history. I had this idea that as the Royal Marines have served in all parts of the world. Especially during the World Wars. While some Royal Marines were serving in Europe, others were serving in the Far East. I wanted to bring it all together on an enlarged 'Historical Time Line'. Although I do realise that this is a mammoth task, and will probably take several years to complete. If in fact it can be completed. Here is the first Edition. I hope to publish up dated editions whenever possible, or at least on a yearly basis.
My first attempt was to build a website to start gathering as much information as possible. I will try and keep it running as long as possible. Although my long term idea was to try and hand it over to a Royal Marine organisation, which I still hope is possible?

Dec 1, 2018

About the author

I was born during the Second World War while my father was chasing Rommel out of North Africa and Italy, for this reason I never saw him until late 1946. I grew up in the sleepy little Suffolk country side town of Stowmarket, and underwent an education that to me seemed an absolute waste of time. Although with that wonderful tool known as hindsight, my reading and writing skills would have served me well in the writing of this book. I should have taken the trouble and given the teachers my full undivided attention and not the girls sitting next to me, while behind me was always the wall. Yes I was a back of class type of guy who was always getting into trouble and talking during class. Upon leaving school I became what was known as a Teddy boy and hung around with the Ipswich town local gangs. Once the novelty began to wear off, and I realised that if I carried on along the path I had chosen, it would only lead me into trouble with the law, so I decided on a complete life style change and joined the Royal Marines. My growing up during this period of time can certainly be attributed to my Royal Marine training, something that is still part of my life to this day. I tell of my service years and of being on active service in Borneo. Upon my release I became very interested and involved in the Rock n Roll music of the day, and helped form a local band in the town of Leiston in Suffolk. I also became involved in the then new sport of hang gliding. Which later lead me to strapping an engine on to my glider, and being amongst the first in the UK to pioneer the sport of Microlighting, and to set a record that still stands to this day. Eventually while working for Bernard Matthews I upped my family and immigrated to New Zealand, to help build a new factory in a small county town of Waipukurau on the North Island. Where I experienced a complete new style of living that my family and I all enjoyed, and took to it like ducks to water. It was a taste of what was to come when after three years I once again up rooted my family and move over the ditch as they say to Australia, but that’s another story?

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Royal Marines Historical Time Line, Volume One. Third Edition. - Terry Aspinall

Royal Marines Historical Time Line

© Copyright 2012 by Terry Aspinall

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means electronic, mechanical, photographic (photocopying) recording, or otherwise without prior permission in writing from the author.

ISBN: 9781370340576

Published by Terry Aspinall

Smashwords Edition

This book is available in E-book format at most online retailers.

It is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This E-book may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each recipient. If you're reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to and purchase your own copy. Thank you for respecting the work of this author.


I would like to dedicate this book to all Royal Marines both past and present.

We are all members of one big family and treat each other with great respect.

We are always ready to help each other, no matter what.

We have all helped shape the Corps into what it is today.

Having all contributed to our glorious 354 year history.

Terry Aspinall 2018.


"As I enter my twilight years I remember my modest service with the Royal Marines with great affection. As they say; Once a Marine always a Marine. (RMV 202910 - 20/06/1956-Mne.)

In our compulsive, consumer - oriented society, which is fast losing its direction, the Green Beret of the Royal Marines Commandos stands alone as being a rare pearl of great price. It is a true symbol of excellence, dedication and professionalism; an accolade for those who push themselves beyond the limits of human endurance. In an age when standards are crumbling, the Green Beret is as British as the Union Jack, for it represents true grit and dogged individual determination. The Green Beret is not for sale -though some may have been won by more sweat and assiduity than others. Thousands have sought to attain it, but along the way many have wilted and failed. It is a classless symbol of fortitude and achievement."

Charles Lovelace RM 2018.


I would like to thank all who have sent material for me to add to this Time Line.

Amber. John

Anderson. (Andy) Edward

Archer. Dan

Aspinall. Terry

Bentinck. Mark

Brooks Ian

Burstow. Roger

Cairns. Pete

Challis. Tom

Cude. Tony

Donald Alistair

Eaves. Jack

Edward. John

Forster. George

Gilbert. John

Gitsham. Sid

Goodwin. Graham

Leaney Roy

Little M.G

Moffat. Jon

Pennell Ritchie

Pinchen. Mike

Porter. James

Rawlinson. John

Reece. Micheal

Seed. Roger

Spiers. Bridget

Smith. Micheal

Stevenson. Matt

Swales. Roy

Taylor. Mike


Westwood Ann

Whitworth. Cleve


Upon explaining to a fellow Royal Marine that my latest project was to try and put together an article about the Royal Marines history. His first response was to tell me that it's been done many many times before. His reply caught me off guard and made me even more determined to carry on with my project. I went on to explain that I believe I have something a little different. I then went on to explain that I was trying to record every single day of our 354 year history. As the Royal Marines have served in all parts of the world, something was happening every single day. While some Royal Marines were serving in Europe, others were serving in the Far East. I wanted to bring it all together on an enlarged 'Historical Time Line'. Although I do realise that this is a mammoth task and will probably take several years to complete. If in fact it can be completed. Here is the first Edition. I hope to publish up dated editions whenever possible, or at least on a yearly basis.

My first attempt was to build a website to start gathering as much information as possible. I will try and keep it running as long as possible. Although my long term idea was to try and hand it over to a Royal Marine organisation, which I still hope is possible?

It’s a possibility that some of the early dates might be wrong owing to the changes made during the 1600's and early1700's.

The Old Style (O.S.) way of dating events and documents known as the Julian Year was changed in most Catholic countries in 1582. It was replaced with a New Style (NS) known as the Gregorian Year that was adjusted to start on the 1st January. This change was also implemented in Protestant and Orthodox countries some time later. In England, Wales, Ireland and the British colonies, the change of the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar (New Style) Act of 1750. In Scotland, the legal start of the year had already been moved to 1st January (in 1600), although Scotland continued to use the Julian calendar until 1752. Many cultures and countries now using the Gregorian calendar have different old styles of dating, depending on the type of calendar they used before the change.

During the first couple of hundred years the use of the English Language was different from today. As most of our early history is gained from books and letters of the time, I have used quotes, please allow for that.

sic; The Latin word meaning thus, so, as such, or in such a manner. It is used when writing quoted material to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, or meaning in the quote has been reproduced verbatim from the original and is not a transcription error (that is, it appeared thus in the original). It is normally placed within the quoted material, in square brackets and often italicised [sic]. Alternatively, it can appear after the quote in parentheses (round brackets) (sic). Where the quoted material is a known error, and the correct word or phrase is known, it may be included, preceded by recte, Latin for rightly; this is common in palaeography.

Where possible I will use the (sic) at the end of a quote to show it’s an original quote. Although it might not happen overnight as I have already added over 250,000 words, and it will take time going through the complete article.

Reference Material

Bibliography of the Royal Marines.

A list of Reference books used in the making of this Time Line.

Having been a historic researcher for several years, I would just like to explain how hard it is to find the truth. About ten years ago I was honoured to be a member of a small group of five aviation historians from around the world. Our challenge was to try and prove that John Dickenson an Australian was the person who invented the modern day Hang Glider. The biggest problem we had was that every single book that had been wrote on the subject had all got it wrong. As with all researchers we rely on books to help us. However, whenever the early books were published with wrongful information. Other researchers use that wrongful information, and so all the readers of later books believe what they read. Although I can report that our little group were very lucky and were able to contact the actual people who helped the sport of Hang Gliding grow worldwide. We were also very lucky that most of them were still alive. The book on the subject is called 'Correcting History'.

Likewise, with the Royal Marines very early history, from the 1600's to the middle 1900's. All we have are several books on the subject, and we have to believe them as we have no other source of information? I have a lot more information and data on the Royal Marines that is sadly not dated. However, I do hope to add it to the Time Line at some time.


Front cover photo from ''

A History of the Island of St. Helena by T. H. Brooke Esq Published in 1824.

An Historic Review of the Royal Marine Corps: from its original institution down to the present era, by Alexander Gillespie. Printed and Sold by M. Swinney Birmingham 15th November 1803.

A Heroic Record of the British Navy by Archibald Hurd and H. H. Bashford. A Short History of the Naval War during 1914-1918. Garden City New York Doubleday, Page and Company 1919.

A List of the Officers of the Army and of the Corps of Royal Marines. From the War office January 1826.

British Battles Volume I. by James Grant. Published by Cassell Petter & Galpin. London 1891.

Britain's Sea Soldiers: (Volume 1) A history of the Royal Marines and their predecessors and of their services in action, ashore and afloat, and upon sundry other occasions of moment, by Cyril Field RMLI, Foreword by Admiral of the fleet, Earl Beaty G.C.B. The Lyceum Press, Handover Street Liverpool 1924.

Britain's Sea Soldiers: (Volume 2) A history of the Royal Marines and their predecessors and of their services in action, ashore and afloat, and upon sundry other occasions of moment, by Cyril Field RMLI, Foreword by Admiral of the fleet, Earl Beaty G.C.B. The Lyceum Press, Handover Street Liverpool 1924.

Britain's Sea Soldiers: A record of the Royal Marines during the War 1914-1919, compiled by General Sir H.E. Blumberg K.C.B. Royal Marines. Devonport, Swiss & Co. Naval and Military Printers and Publishers. 111 and 112Fore Street. [1927).

Brother Surgeons by Garet Rogers, Transworld Publications 1957.

By Sea and Land, Some Naval Doings. By E. Hilton Young, MP, Lieutenant Commander R.N.V.R. T. C. & E.C. Jack Ltd. 25 &36 Paternoster Row, London, E.C. and Edinburgh.

Captain R.G.S. Lang’s Report, Plymouth Argyll box and Peter Dunstan’s documentation of both Royal Marine Detachments can be viewed by appointment at the Royal Marines Museum Archive, Southsea.

CLARET Operations and Confrontation, 1964-1966 by Raffi Gregorian.

Cleve Whitworth (RMAQ President) personal Royal Marine library.

Commando 1942 - 45, Britains Secret Commando by Osprey Publishing.

Cyprus Crisis - 1955-56. The Story of 'B' Troop 45 Commando Royal Marines by Charles Hart. The Royal Marine Historical Society. Printed by Holbrook printers Norway Road Portsmouth Hants, PO3 5HX.

Dictionary of Battles by Thomas Benfield Harbottle. Published by Swan Sonnenschein & Co Ltd, London 1904.

Echoes of Old Wars. The personal and unofficial letters and accounts bygone Battles, both by land and on sea: by those that were there. 1513 – 1854. A Marine Anthology. Compiled and annotated by Colonel C. Field, R.M.L.I. Herbert Jenkins Ltd 2 York Street St. James’s London S.W.1

'Globe & Laurel' Royal Marines magazine.

Grey Funnel Line' Face Book Page.

History of the Royal Marines 1837-1914. by H.E. Blumberg, with Minor Editing by Alaster Donald.

Historical Record of the Marine Corps. An account of their formation and service from 1664 to 1748. Cannon Richard 1779 – 1865.

Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces; Volume 1 (1755 to 1805). By Paul Harris Nicolas Lieutenant Royal Marine. Published by Thomas and William Boone 29 New Bond Street London 1845.

Historical Record of the Royal Marine Forces by Nicolas Paul Harris Lieutenant Royal Marines Volume 1. London: Thomas and William Boone. 29 New Bond Street.

Historical Record of the Royal Marine Forces by Nicolas Paul Harris Lieutenant Royal Marines Volume 2. London: Thomas and William Boone. 29 New Bond Street.

Historical Record of the Thirty First or the Huntingdonshire Regiment of Foot. by Richard Cannon Esq,

In Many Parts Memoirs of a Marine. By Lieutenant Colonel W. P. Drury, C.B.E. Royal Marines. Joint author of ‘The Flag Lieutenant’, Author of the Peradventures of Private Pagett. By Fisher Unwin Ltd London: Adelphi Terrace, First Published in 1926.

Inside the Commandos by James D. Ladd.

Jack Wardle, formerly HMS Repulse, has produced a nominal roll of the HMS Repulse RM Detachment. 

John Nicol, 'Memoirs of John Nicol Mariner' (1822).

The Last Coleraine Militia

Malaya and Borneo, Counter Insurgency Operations:1 by E.D. Smith.

Memoirs. The Late Major General Andrew Burn, The Royal Marines, a collection from his journals. Second Edition. London Printed and sold by Messer’s W. Winchester and Son, 61 the Strand 1861.

Memorial Bunker Hill. By Oliver Wexdell Holmes (Grandmother’s Story of Bunker-Hill Battle.) Copyright, 1775 by James R. Osgood & Co. 'No Picnick' (The Falklands War) By Julian Thompson. Published in the UK in 1985 by Leo Cooper in Association with Secker and Warburg Ltd. ISBN: 0-436-5202-4.

Moon Over Malaya: A Tale of the Argyll's and Marines by Jonathan Moffat and Audrey Holmes McCormick (revised edition published by Tempus Publications of Stroud October 2001).

Nelson’s Marines at Malta’ by Brian N. Tarpey RMHS 1995.

Nothing Impossible. General Editor Lieutenant Colonel Ewen Southby-Tailyour OBE RM Publication: October 2010, ISBN: 978 1 906507 237.

On Four Fronts with the Royal Navy: By Geoffrey Sparrow MC and J N MacBean Ross MC. (Surgeons RN). Published by Hodder and Stoughton, London, New York and Toronto 1918

Per mare Per Terram, Reminiscences. Thirty two years military, Naval, and constabulary service. By Major W. H. Poyntz. Late Royal Marine Light Infantry. Chief Constable of Nottingham and County of Essex. The Economic Printing & Publishing Co. Ltd. 30 Bouverie Street. 1802.

Researchers on the 2nd Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders will find a wealth of material in the Regimental Museum and Archive, Stirling Castle. Particularly interesting is the Battalion Record Book of QMS Aitken.

Royal Marine Commando, the History of Britains elite fighting force by James D. Ladd

Royal Marine Commando 1950 - 83. From Korea to the Falklands by Will FowlerI. Published by Osprey 2009 SBN: 978-184603-372-8.

Royal Marines Historical Society. Royal Marines Museum.

Royal Marines History & Traditional Facts. Alpha Company Royal Marines Cadets website.

Royal Navy Exhibition 1891. The Offical Catalogue and Guide. W.P. Griffith & Sons, Limited. Official Printers Prujean Square Old bailey E.C.

Rupert Brooke, 'The Soldier', The Complete Poems of Rupert Brooke, London, 1933, p.148

S.B.S. The Invisible Raiders by James D. Ladd.

Telegraph Newspaper UK. Thursday 5th July 2016.

The British Commandos in the Second World War. In Defeat Defiance! By Alex Williams B.A.

The British Raid on Essex 1814. By Jerry Roberts, Executive Director, Connecticut River Museum.

The Filibusters, The Story of the Special Boat Service. By John Lodwick.

The Green Beret. The Story of the Commandos 1940 – 1945 by Hilary St. Gerorge Saunders

The Historical Records of the Royal Marines. Compiled and edited by Major L. Edye RMLI Barrister at law. Middle Temple. Volume 1 1664 – 1701. London: Harrison and Sons 50 Pall Mall Book sellers to her Majesty and the Prince of Wales. 1892.

The Knife Man by Wendy Moore, Published by Braodway Books 2006

The Lobsters Are Entirely Unfit...... The Life of the Royal Marines Detachment of Somerset, Cape York Australia. By Cleve Whitworth 1996.

Cape York Australia. By Cleve Whitworth 1996.

The Leicester Chronicle Saturday 18th January 1812.

The Maidstone Journal and Kentish Advertiser.

The Maidstone Gazette and the Kentish Courier.

The Papers of Major C.D. Aylwin RM can be viewed at the Imperial War Museum Reading room by appointment. This includes a nominal roll of the Prince of Wales RM Detachment and a detailed captivity diary.

'The Royal Marines 1919-2000' by J.D. Ladd.

The Last Coleraine Militia 1970 - 2007.

The London Gazette first report published of the Raid on the Medway16th June1667.

The London Gazette re Captain Halliday No. 27262. p. 3. 1st January 1901.

The London Gazette re Major Francis Hardy published September 1915

The London Gazette re L/C Parker published on 22nd June 1917.

The London Gazette re Major Lumsden No30122 published September 1915.

The London Gazette re Captain Bamford published 23 July 1918.

The Marine Corps: An historical record of the Marine Corps, an account of their formation and service’s from 1664 to 1748. Compiled by Richard Cannon, Esq. (1779-1865).

The New Zealand Wars: A history of the Maori campaigns and the pioneering period by Cowan, James (1922). Volume I 1845–1864.

The Royal Marines 1919-2000 by J.D. Ladd.

The Royal Marines 1956 - 84 (Ospre Men-At-Arms series) by William Fowler

The Royal Marine Artillery 1804 – 1923 Volume 1 1804 – 1859. By Edwart Fraser and Charles L. G. Carr-Laughton. London the Royal United Service Institution Whitehall, S. W. 1930.

The Royal Marine Artillery 1804 – 1923 Volume 2 1859 – 1923. By Edwart Fraser and Charles L. G. Carr-Laughton. London the Royal United Service Institution Whitehall, S. W. 1930.

The Royal Marines Chronology 1664 - 2010.

The Royal Naval Catalogue for 1891.

The Royal Marines Band Service by John Ambler.

The Royal Marines by Sea by Land by John S. Murray. South African Military History Society.

The Royal Navy: A history from the earliest times to the present. Markham Clements R. (Clements Robert).

The SBS, The Full Story by Philip Warner.

The Skepton Mallett Home Words. January 1876 'Reminiscence of the Crimea Campaign' from S.G. Blacker.

The Thin Red Line: 2nd Argyll's in Malaya by Brigadier I. M. Stewart (Thomas Nelson 1947).

Who Dies Fighting by Angus Rose (Jonathan Cape, London 1944).







Chapter 1 – 1664 t0 1674.

Chapter 2 – 1675 to 1699.

Chapter 3 – 1700 to 1724.

Chapter 4 – 1725 to 1749.

Chapter 5 – 1750 to 1774.

Chapter 6 – 1775 to 1799.

Chapter 7 – 1800 to 1824.

Chapter 8 – 1825 to 1849.

Other books by this Author

Chapter 1

1664 -1674

From an early period, a practice has prevailed in many of the continental armies, for each regiment to keep regular records of its services and achievements but it is only of recent date that this emulative principle has been encouraged in the British service, and hence arises the difficulty of obtaining any authentic account of their origin, or of their subsequent proceedings.

This defect has long been felt, and although efforts have been made by individual corps to accomplish so desirable an object, it was not generally enforced until the 13th January 1836, when the following order was issued from the Horse Guards by general lord Hill, commanding in chief:

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that with a view of doing the fullest justice to regiments, as well as to individuals, who have distinguished themselves by bravery in action with the enemy, an account of the services of every regiment in the British army shall be published under the superintendence of the adjutant-general, and that this account shall contain the following particulars; viz. The period and circumstances of the original formation of the regiment; the stations at which it has been from time to time employed the battles, sieges, and other military operations in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any achievement it may have performed, and the colours, trophies, &c. it may have captured from the enemy. The names of the officers, and number of non-commissioned officers and privates, killed or wound- ed by the enemy, specifying the place and date of the action. The names of the officers who, in consideration of their gallant services and meritorious conduct in engagements with the enemy, have been distinguished with titles, medals, or other marks of his Majesty's gracious favour. The names of all such officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in action; and the badges and the devices which the regiment may have been permitted to bear, and the causes on account of which such badges or de- vices, or any other marks of distinction, have been granted.

Impressed with this consideration, and influenced by a strong attachment to the welfare and reputation of the corps, in which I had the honour to serve, I felt persuaded that an impartial account of the services of the Royal Marines would not only reflect additional lustre on their distinguished character, but encourage a spirit of emulation, which is the strongest impulse to great and gallant actions ; and as nothing can so fully tend to this desirable object as a faithful record of their glorious career

I was induced to use my best exertions to promote a cause for which I entertained the most lively interest. Although I may have failed in accomplishing that object with the ability due to its importance, I trust that the fidelity and zeal which has been exercised in the present compilation will obtain for me the in- dulgent consideration of those who are aware of the difficulties with which I have had to contend. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.

1664. Thursday 16th October. The first order in Council which has reference to this subject, is dated the 16th of October 1664, authorizing 1200 soldiers to be raised and formed into one regiment.

The Royal Marines were formed in 1755 as the Royal Navy's infantry troops. However, the Marines can trace their origins back to the formation of ‘the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot’ at the grounds of the Honourable Artillery Company on 28th October 1664.

1664. 11.58am Tuesday 28th October.

The formation of the Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot by Order at which King Charles all was present, also known as the Lord High Admirals Regiment or, simply The Admiral’s Regiment. The King directed at The Court of Whitehall on 28th October 1664: That twelve hundred Land Soldiers be forthwith raised, to be in readiness, to be distributed into His Majesties Fleets prepared for Sea Service which said twelve hundred Men are to be put into One Regiment under One Colonel, One Lieutenant Colonel and One Sergeant Major and to be divided into Six Companies. Each Company to consist of Two Hundred Soldiers, and to have One Captain, One Lieutenant, One Ensign, One Drummer, Four Sergeants and Four Corporals, and all the Soldiers aforesaid to be armed with good Firelocks. All which Arms, Drums and Colours are forthwith to be prepared and furnished out of His Majesty's stores? The care of all was recommended to the Duke of Albermarle his Grace Lord of His Majesty's Forces.

Attending the court at Whitehall on Tuesday 28th of October 1664 was the Kings most excellent Majesty. His Royal Highness the Duke of York. Lord Chancellor. Lord Treasurer. Duke of Albemarle. Duke of Ormond. Lord Chamberlain. Earl of Anglesey. Earl of Lauderdale. Earl of Middleton. Lord Bishop of London. Lord Ashely. Mr. Vice-Chamberlain. Mr. Secretary Morice. Mr Secretary Bennet. Mr. Chancellor of the Dutchy. Sir Edward Nicholas. It was this day ordered (His Majesty present in Council) that his Majesties declaration, for encouragement of sea men and mariners employed in the present service, be forthwith printed by his Majesties printer, &. Richard Browne. His Majesties declaration for encouragement of Seamen and Mariners employed in the present service.

As the Duke of York was the Lord High Admiral, they soon became known as the Admiral's Regiment, and were paid by the Admiralty. They and their successors being the only long service troops in the Navy during the 17th and 18th century. They were therefore not only soldiers but also seamen, who were part of the complement on board all warships. The Honourable Artillery Company had earlier been formed by Royal Charter under King Henry Vlll on Wednesday 25th August 1537. The second oldest military organisation in the world.

Recruitment was from the 'London Trained Bands', the City of London’s militia, composed of house holders who fulfilled their statutory obligation to maintain arms and serve in the defence of their City. They were under the jurisdiction of the Lord Mayor and were commanded by officers appointed by him and the Aldermen. Members of the Trained Bands met regularly at the Artillery Garden in Bishopsgate and the Military Garden in St Martin’s in the Field to practice weapon handling, drilling and other military activities under the guidance of officers from the Honourable Artillery Company. These officers made the Trained Bands an effective force, providing professional training for its part time members.

They were the fourth European Marine unit formed, being preceded by the Spanish Marines who were formed on Saturday 27th February 1537, the Portuguese Marines in 1610, and the French Marines who were formed in 1622.

The Admiral's Regiment consisted of six 200 man companies and was initially commanded by Colonel Sir William Killigrew with Sir Charles Lyttleton as Lieutenant-Colonel. Killigrew had commanded an English Regiment in Dutch service and many of the Regiment's initial complement of officers had served there as well.

Until the year 1664 the British Navy was manned by means of the system of impress, or by enlisting landsmen; but the commerce of England at that period was so limited, that those measures were found inadequate to procure sufficient seamen for the public service, and this difficulty suggested the formation of an establishment of Marines. The men were raised with the object of forming a nursery to man the fleet and being quartered in or near the principal sea-ports, their great utility in the equipment of squadrons soon made it desirable to augment their strength. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines)

Initially all Marine field officers were taken from the Royal Navy, not liking that the Marine field officer was nearly all honorary. This meant that until then Marine officers could only advance up to the rank of Captain, or possibly a Major. A situating that continued into the1800s.

During King William III rein, each company of Infantry (except the Fusiliers and Grenadiers) consisted of 14 Pikemen and 46 Musketeers, the Captains carried Pikes, Lieutenants and Partisans, Half-Pikes, while Sergeants carried Halberds.

Marines served on board all Royal Navy ships and have been involved in all of the sea battles that have taken place around the world right up to the modern day.

1664. Wednesday 5th November. Colonel Killigrew was duly appointed to the command of the Regiment, His Majesty; reposing special trust and confidence in your loyalty & have thought fit to constitute and appoint you to be Colonel of the Admirals Regiment of Foot now forthwith to be raised for our service consisting of six companies, receiving also, as was the custom at that period, a second commission of the same date to command a company in his own Regiment.

As will be seen in Colonel Killigrew’s commission no mention is made that the Regiment is raised for sea service, but merely for our service. The remaining officers appointed on the same day were Sir Chichester Rey a Lieutenant Colonel, Sir Charles Littleton a Major, John Griffin a Captain, John Legge a Captain, Nath Dorrell a Captain, Thomas Bennet a Lieutenant, and Richard Dennis a Lieutenant. And all ye commissions were styled by ye Adms Regt. 1664. Sunday 61th November. The first muster was as follows:

Colonel - Sir William Killigrew, Vice Chamberlain to the Queen

Lieutenant Col - Sir Chichester Wrey

Major - Sir Charles Littleton


Sir William Killigrew. Sir Chichester Wrey. Sir Charles Littleton. John Griffith. John Legge. Nathaniel Dorrell.


Thomas Bennet. Martin Gardiner. Edward Talbot. Godfrey Dennis. Charley Cole. Henry Steward.


Phillip Bickerstaff 1. Francis Hoblin. John Snelling. Arthur Ingram 2. David Hume. Robert Thompson.

Quartermaster John Symonds.

Chirugeon Simon Boninga.

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Chaplain Rev John Evans.

1 Clerk for all the particular offices. 2 Supernumerary Groom of the Privy Chamber.

The Regiment consisted of twelve companies, without any grenadiers, had yellow coats lined with red, and their colours were a red cross, with rays of the sun issuing from each of its angles. It stood the third in seniority in the line of that day, and it may be presumed, from its subsequent reduction that a step was obtained in it by the 4th, then the Regiment of Holland, Commanded by John, the second Lord Mulgrave, and now entitled The Old Buffs.

1664. Wednesday 19th December. The attack on the Dutch Smyrna fleet in the straights bt allin.

1664. Wednesday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates.

Colonel - Sir William Killigrew, Knt. and Bart.

Lieutenant Col - Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt.

Major - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.

Adjutant - Mat Locke.


Sir William Killigrew 5th November 1664. Sir Chichester Rey 5th November 1664. Sir Charles Littleton 5th November 1664. John Griffiths 5th November 1664. John Legge (Colonel) 5th November 1664. Nathaniel Dorrell 5th November 1664.


Thomas Bennet. 5th November 1664. Martin Gardiner 11th November 1664. Edward Talbot 11th November 1664. Godfrey Dennis 11th November 1664. Charles Cole 11th November 1664. Henry Steward 11th November 1664.


Phillip Bickerstaffe 11th November 1664. Francis Hoblin 11th November 1664. John Snelling 11th November 1664. Arthur Ingram 11th November 1664. David Hume 11th November 1664. Robert Thompson 11th November 1664.

Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664).

Chirugeon - Simon Boninga (11th November 1664).

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

Note - an officer of the name of Collins appears to have been appointed as a Lieutenant to Captain Dorrell, dated 11th November, but not to have joined the Regiment.

1664. During this period any reference can be found to an establishment of soldiers embarked on board the ships of the royal navy which can be traced in the records of the Admiralty, is the following Order in Council of His Majesty King Charles II., dated 26th October, 1644: — Upon Report from the Lords Commissioners for the Affayres of His Majesty e's Navy Royall and Admiralty of this Kingdom, this day read at the Board, His Majesty was pleased to order and direct (amongst other things) that twelve hundred land soldiers be forthwith raised, to be in readiness to be distributed into His Majestye's Fleets, prepared for sea; which said twelve hundred men are to be put into one Regiment, under one Collonell, one Lieutenant-Collonell, and one Sergeant-Major, and to be divided into six Companies, — each Company to consist of two hundred souldiers, and to have one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensign, one Drum, ffoure Serjeants, and Toure Corporalls, and all the souldiers aforesaid to be armed with good firelocks ; all which arms, drums, and colours are forthwith to be prepared and furnished out of His Majestye's Stores : the care of all which is recommended to the Duke of Albemarle His Grace, Lord General of His Majestye's Forces.

An order in Council, dated Whitehall, 1st April, 1668, sets forth — It is this day ordered by His Majesty in Council, that his Grace the Duke of Albemarle, Lord General of His Majestye's Forces, bee, and he is hereby authorized and desired, to draw and furnish such numbers of souldiers out of His Majestye's Foot Guards for His Majestye's service at sea this summer as His Royal Highnesses the Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England, &c. shall from time to time desire ; to be delivered at Tower Wharfe on board such vessells as His Royal Highnesses shall appoynt to receive them, and thereupon his Grace doo cause the said Guards to be recruited as there shall be occasion.

Detachments from other regiments were occasionally embarked; and we find, in 1672, a company of the Holland regiment under Captain Sidney directed to proceed on board such ships as the Duke of York shall appoint. But the first regiment especially raised for sea service, was that of the Lord High Admiral of England, His Royal Highness the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, raised in 1664; and it is so described in the return of the general review on Putney Heath on the 1st of October 1684, and was thus commissioned: Colonel. — Sir Charles Littleton.

Lieutenant- Col. — Olrver Nicolas.

Major. — Richard Baggett.

Captains. — George Littleton, Sir Thomas Custer, Edward Nott, Francis Ezod, Edward Harris, Samuel Scuddamore, Chichester Wray, Charles Herbert, Edmund Plowden. Lieutenants. — Robert Crawford, Edmund Yarborough, Thomas Blechenden, Edmund Wilson, Robert Lloyd, Francis Hoblen, Francis Butler, John Thorn, George Rooke, Henry Hewys, Thomas Whaley, William Oglethorpe. Ensigns. — Philomel Powell, Arthur Townshend, William Pearson, James Man, John Hill, Alexander Ewin, Thomas Man, William Somers, George Littleton, Francis Ezod, Joseph Whaley.

Staff- Officers. — Richard Beauvoir, adj utant; Tobias Legross, quarter-master; Samuel Tathan, chirurgeon; John Tathan, chirurgeon's mate.

This regiment, which consisted of twelve companies, without grenadiers, had yellow coats lined with red; and their colours bore the Red Cross of St. George, with the rays of the sun issuing from each of its angles.

About this time, titles of distinction were given to several regiments: Dumbarton's (the 1st Foot) was styled the Royal Regiment; the 1st Tangier (now 2nd Foot) the Queen's Regiment; and the 2nd Tangier (now 4th Foot) the Duchess of York's. The 3rd was the Admiral's, or Duke of York's Maritime Regiment, which was sent to Holland in 1689, and incorporated with the 2nd Foot Guards. The Holland regiment, then designated the Prince George of Denmark's, and the 4th in the British line, gained a step by the reduction of the 3rd, or Maritime regiment; and in 1708, on the death of His Royal Highness Prince George of Denmark, it took the name of the 3rd, or u Old Buffs, whilst the 31st regiment, raised in 1702, clothed in scarlet, with buff waistcoats, breeches, and stockings, was styled the Young Buffs ; but the latter title has been long since laid aside. There is an exclusive privilege conferred, on the Old Buffs by the city of London, which was acknowledged so recently as 1840, when the minister intimated his intention of passing troops through the, city, and which is still retained by its descendants the Royal Marines, and the 3rd regiment of Foot. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to trace the origin of this honour, as most of the archives of the city were destroyed in the great fire in 1666 but it is very evident that the privilege was granted to the Old Buffs, (who, we may presume, were so designated from their being clothed in yellow) and probably from their beingraised from the train-bands of the city. Moreover, the 4th regiment is described as having jlesh-colour facings in the army list of Nathan Brooks in 1684 and in the Antiquarian Repertory of 1686, red, lined with ash-colour. Now neither of these descriptions give the Holland, or Ath regiment, a claim to the appellation of Buffs, nor do we find it so styled until 1708, when it assumed that distinction, and discontinued the title of Prince of Denmark's. Another circumstance confirms the claim of the Royal Marines to the precedence of the present 3rd regiment in the British line, which is here transcribed from the military memoirs of Major Donkin, published 1777. The 3rd regiment of Foot, raised in 1663, known by the ancient title of the ' Old Buffs,' have the privilege of marching through London with drums beating, and colours flying, which the city disputes — not only with all other corps, but even with the king's Guards going on duty to the Tower. It happened in the year 1746, that a detachment of Marines beating along Cheapside, one of the magistrates came up to the officer, requiring him to cease the drum, as no soldiers were allowed to interrupt the civil repose. The captain commanding, (an intimate friend of mine) imme- diately said, ' We are Marines.' ' Oh, sir,' replied the alderman, ' I beg pardon; I did not know it. Pray continue your route as you please.' ' Here it is clearly defined to be the 3rd regiment of Foot raised in 1665, and not the Holland regiment, which became its successor in 1689, and which did not assume the designation of Old Buffs until 1708; nevertheless, as the Holland regiment was also raised by the city of London, the present 3rd regiment claims a similar privilege. The system of having soldiers exclusively for sea service, does not appear to have prevailed until 1693, when a draft for raising two marine regiments was presented to King William III. who, by his order in Council of 22nd February 1694, authorized their formation, subject to the following regulations — The number of officers, as well as their pay and that of the men, (with some trifling exceptions,) to be the same as those for the land forces.

The two regiments to be under the direction of the Lord High Admiral, or the Commissioners for executing that office.

None of the officers to be sea commanders, except the two colonels. When serving afloat, to be wholly under the command of the naval officers of the ships. Their cost and maintenance, &c. to be borne on the ordinary estimates of the navy.

Both regiments not to be on shore together: the regiment on shore to be quartered at or in the neighbourhood of the naval yards, in the following proportions: — four companies at Portsmouth, one at Sheerness, five at Chatham, two at Woolwich, two at Deptford, and one at Plymouth.

The men to be employed at the call of the commissioners of Chatham, Portsmouth, and Plymouth, and at the desire of the master attendant, or master-shipwright of the other yards where no commissioner resides; in heaving in or out of ballast, manning the cranes, removing goods and stores, laying cables and various other dock-yard duties: for which they were to receive sixpence a-day in addition to their pay. The captain of the ship in which they served was required to send yearly to the Admiralty a list of the names of such soldiers as shall in any measure be made seamen, and how far each of them is qualified towards being an able seaman.

Whilst serving on board, the men were to be borne on the books in a distinct list, and to be paid, as likewise on shore, by the captains of their respective companies, who were to receive the pay from their colonels.

There were several maritime regiments embodied between the years 1687 and 1698 subject to these regulations, but they were disbanded during the currency of 1697 and 1698. The expenses incurred by the maintenance of the maritime troops were classed with the estimates of the navy, and money was issued, from time to time, by warrant from the Lord High Treasurer to the Treasurer of the Navy, who placed it in the hands of a person especially appointed to receive it.

On the 18th of January 1697, an order in Council granted half-pay to the officers of Marines but it was not defined if intended as a retaining fee, or as a reward for past services, nor has it been clearly ascertained up to the present day. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1664. Equipment. A difference was also made in the equipment of the force, and it stands out pre-eminently as the first Regiment under the crown which was armed throughout with firelocks and not, as was the rule of the service at this period, with a considerable proportion of pikes. Instructions were accordingly issued for delivering to our trusty and well beloved Sir William Killigrew, Knt, Colonel of the Admirals Regiment of Foote now to be raised for our service Twelve Hundred Good Firelocks, with the like number of good Bandoleers, Twenty Fower Halberts and six Drumes being for the use of the said Regiment. A footnote to this Warrant adds that 1200 Snaphaunch Musquettes were Delivered by virtue of the Warrant above written".

There is however no note stating at what station or port, or to whom these stores were to be delivered, although by a Warrant of a similar nature bearing the same date and completing the armament of the Regiment, we find that there is to be forthwith issued out of our Tower of London for the Admirals Regiment, 1200 Swords and Belts, thirty barrels of bullets, and two Hogsheads of flints which together with the arms formerly by us directed to be delivered for your use of your Regiment you are with all diligence to cause to be conveyed by such way as you shall find most convenient on board our fleet to be there delivered to Sir Charles Littleton, Knt, Major of the Admirals Regt being for your use thereof. (sic) 

1664. Friday 19th December. Sir Thomas Allin, 1st Baronet (1612 - 1685) attacks the Dutch Smyrna fleet in the Straits of Gibraltar. Allin had been nominated to succeed Sir John Lawson as the commander in the Mediterranean. On Thursday 26th June 1664 he sailed to take up his command aboard HMS Plymouth in company with HMS Crown. Upon their arrival they initially operated out of Tangiers, and while operating in the Straits of Gibraltar he and his fleet intercepted and engaged the Dutch Smyrna fleet, capturing and sinking several of the Dutch ships. He was born and grew up in the Lowestoft area, becoming a merchant and ship owner. Upon the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, Allin sided with the Royalists, in common with most of his fellow town’s folk. On Saturday 13th June 1665 he took part in the sea battle off Lowestoft. (sic) 

1664 - 1689. The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot the Lord High Admirals Regiment Crest. (taken from 'History of the Royal Marine Forces 1664 - 1701' by Major l. Edye 1893.)

Officers and Soldiers Uniforms of the 1600's. (taken from 'History of the Royal Marine Forces 1664 - 1701' by Major l. Edye 1893.)

Officer and Soldier

1665. Monday 16th February. Shortly after the return of the fleet to England, the Regiment was moved from Southampton, the several companies being stationed as follows: Sir William Killigrew’s Company at Southampton except 50 men of which are at Winchester and 150 at Ramsey.

Sir Chichester Wray’s Company at Southwarke.

Sir Charles Littleton’s Company at Dover and Canterbury. Sir John Griffith’s Company at Rochester and Gravesend.

Colonel John Legg’s at Harwich, although by the 3rd April they were at Ipswich.

Captain Dorrel’s Company on the Isle of Wight.

The change of Commanding Officer, the actual date of the death of the first Commanding officer of the Admirals Regiment, Sir William Killigrew, is not known, but he was buried in the north aisle of Westminster Abbey on 17th July 1665. On the following day (18th July 1665) Sir Chichester Wrey was appointed to the command of the Regiment. (sic)

1665. Wednesday 4th March - Friday 31st July 1667. Owing to the commercial rivalry between the English and Dutch the Second Anglo-Dutch War took place after hostilities had begun earlier the previous year after the English had captured New Amsterdam (New York).

1665. April. The Black Death struck London, killing at least 68,596 people as some two-thirds of the 460,000 inhabitants fled to the country side. One of the last outbreaks in England, which also contributed to Britain’s problems and manpower in Europe.

1665. Wednesday 3rd June (OS). Defeat of Obdam van Wassenaer by the Duke of York. The Admiral's Regiment first saw action at sea against the Dutch in the Battle of Lowestoft (Suffolk). Both fleets are reported to have been about 100 strong. However, the English claimed to have won a victory over the Dutch. So fierce was the engagement that both fleets were incapable of further operations. Unlike some land Regiments equipped with pikes and matchlocks, the Admiral’s Regiment fought with better flintlock muskets. The Dutch paid a heavy price in its large loss of ships, and of officers and men totalling 4000 killed and 2000 captured. While the British losses were 250 men killed, about 340 wounded, and about 200 taken prisoner. (sic)

1665. Saturday 11th July. The Holland Regiment (later the Buffs) was also raised to serve at sea and both of these two Naval Regiments were paid for by the Treasurer of the Navy by Order of Council of 11th July. They were also different in that they had no pike men every man being issued a musket. The Holland Regiment remained on the naval establishments until May 1667. The name 'Marines' first appeared in official records in 1672. (sic)

1665. Wednesday 3rd September. Lord Sandwich captures the Dutch East India Fleet.

1665. During the Battle of Lowestoft one of England’s ally’s the small principality of Munster sent some of its troops into Dutch territory to assist the English.

1665. Just after the Battle of Lowestoft the Dutch were so impressed by the performance of the British Marines that they formed their own Royal Netherlands Marine Corps.

1665. Thursday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates. Colonel - Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt.

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.

Major - Colonel Sir John Legge.


Sir Chichester Wrey 18th July 1665. Sir Charles Littleton 18th July 1665. John Legge (Colonel) 18th July 1665. Sir John Griffiths 18th July 1665. Nathaniel Dorrell 18th July 1665. Thomas Bennet 18th July 1665.


Martin Gardener 18th July 1665. Edward Talbot 18th July 1665. Charles Cole 18th July 1665. Henry Steward 18th July 1665. Francis Hoblin 2nd December 1665. Phillip Bickerstaffe 18th July 1665.


Arthur Ingram 2nd December 1665. John Snelling 18th July 1665. David Hume 18th July 1665. Robert Thompson 18th July 1665. John Griffith 2nd December 1665. Robert Carvey 18th July 1665.

Adjutant - Mat Locke (11th November 1664).

Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11 November 1664).

Chirugeon - Simon Boninga (11th November 1664).

Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1666. January. The principality of Munster was forced out of the war by France, who eventually took the Dutch side.

1666. Most Battles during 1666 were won by the Dutch.

1666. Tuesday 1st June - Friday 4th June (OS). The Four Days Fight off North Foreland. The English commanded by George Monk and the Dutch Commanded by Michael de Ruyter were involved in a four day battle near North Foreland off the English coast. In which the Dutch were the victors. It remains one of the longest naval engagements in history. The English casualties were 1,500 killed, 1,400 wounded, 1,800 captured and 10 ships lost. While the Dutch suffered 1,500 killed, 1,300 wounded and 4 ships lost. (sic) 

1666. Sunday 25th July (OS). An engagement with the Dutch known as the ‘St. James Fight’. Prince Rupert of the Rhine and George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle won a victory over the Dutch Commanded by Michael de Ruyter during the St James’s day Battle off the coast of North Foreness, (later to be known as Orfordness). It is also known as the Second Battle of North Foreness. The Battle altered the balance of power at sea in favour of the English. The Dutch fleet lost 2 ships and around 800 men were killed or injured. The English suffered 300 killed and the loss of one ship the ‘Resolution’ However, it demonstrated its new dominance in the area. (sic)

1666. Sunday 8th August (OS). Sir Robert Holmes and his English fleet destroyed more than 160 Dutch merchantmen vessels on the Vile River in the Nederland’s. It became known as Sir Robert Holmes Bonfire.

1666. Thursday 2nd September - Sunday 5th September: The Great Fire of London destroyed four-fifths of the city within the walls and sixty-three acres outside. Including the Gothic Cathedral of Saint Paul’s, eighty-six other churches, the Guildhall, the Custom House, the Royal Exchange, and many other buildings, including more than thirteen thousand houses. The fire also destroyed many files, documents, books and other historical information including that of the Marines. It also contributed to England’s problems within Europe.

1666. Saturday 18th September. The capture of the French Ruby by Sir Thomas Allin.

1666. December. Captain Herbert and HMS Pembroke engaged a Dutch Frigate.

1666. December. A British Squadron defeated the Dutch in the North Sea.

1666. Friday 31st December. The Nominal State of Officers of the Admirals Regiment with commission dates:

Colonel - Sir Chichester Wrey, Knt and Bart.

Lieutenant Colonel – Sir Charles Littleton, Knt.

Major - Colonel Sir John Legge.


Sir Chichester Wrey 18th July 1665. Sir Charles Littleton 18th July 1665. John Legge (Colonel) 18th July 1665. Sir John Griffiths 18th July 1665. Nathanial Dorrell, 18th July 1665. Thomas Bennet 18th July 1665. Sylas Titus 2nd July 1666. George Cartwright 3rd July 1666. Sir Edward Carleton 4th July 1666. Edmund Molroyen 5th July 1666. Hercues Lee 6th July 1666. Thomas Bromley 7th July 1666.


Martin Gardiner 18th July 1665. Edward Talbot 18th July 1665. William Legge 22nd March 1666. Francis Hoblin 2nd December 1665. John Snelling 21st March 1666. Phillip Bickerstaffe 18th July 1665.Moyal 2nd July 1666. William Morice 3rd July 1666. John Wise 4th July 1666. Francis Izod 8th July 1666. Bourchier Wrey 6th July 1666. John Grove 7th July 1666.


Richard Baggott 24th March 1666. David Hume 18th July 1665. John Griffith 2nd December 1665. Robert Thompson 18th July 1665. 

Robert Carey 18th July 1665. Francis Vincent 2nd July 1666. Edward Harris 3rd July 1666. Richard Sheldon 4 Jul 1666. William Heydon 5th July 1666. James Webb 6th July 1666. Percy Kirk 7th July 1666. Adjutant - William Pierson (June 1666).

Quartermaster and Marshall - John Symonds (11th November 1664).

Chirugeon - Samuel Tatham (14th September 1666). Lieutenant.

Lieutenant Colonel - Sir Chaplin - Rev. John Evans (11th November 1664).

1667. Monday 17th January. An order was given to Sir Chichester Wrey to direct 'the officers of the Admirals Regiment to collect and send to the stores in the tower their supernumerary Armes the Regiment now consisting of 12 companies 100 men in each instead of 6 companies, 350 men in each as formerly'.

1667. Tuesday 3rd May. Mention is made of two companies of the Regiment changing their quarters. One paper, dated, Yarmouth 3rd May, says that, Capt. Thomas Brumbly RN is paying his sowagers quorters and as soon as they can (will) march to Langley fort. A second dated West Cowes, 4th May, say that at about 3 or 4 o clock afternoon departed from hence to Guernze the Deptford catch with Sir Edward Charleton and 100 brave soldier's yellow coats, of HRH Regiment who were one night here on shore for refreshment and I hope are now safely landed at Guernze (Note all spelling correctly copied).

The ship in which these men took passage appears to have been HMS Paradox and not the Deptford Catch, although the latter vessel accompanied them, for in a letter of Mr John Lyle to Mr Secretary Williamson, dated also from West Cowes, it is said The Paradox, carrying over a company of the Duke of York’s yellow coats to Guernsey, had a hot dispute with a French fly boat of 14 guns, and drove her on the French coast, and another letter of the 12th May declares that The Paradox which ye Ketch that carried soldiers for the islands of Jersey and Guernsey are returned, the first had an encounter with a doger French of warre but the wind blew so hard and the sea was some high could not board her, the Paradox had 100 soldiers besides their owne company and they played their small shot lustily , one of them was killed and six more wounded. This is the first occasion on record of any of the men of the Regiment having been specifically mentioned either as killed or as wounded. (Note all spelling copied correctly)

Whilst Sir Charles Littleton’s company was quartered at Harwich, a misfortune occurred to his Ensigne. Of this Sir Charles himself gives the following quaint account, My ensigne went to London with my leave, about a week after I came hither, for 8 days, and is not yet returned. The last post I had a letter to excuse it, because he was sick; but since, I am well informed, he has married a dirty tapstresse, and, this being known, have an opinion he is ashamed to return among us. For other reasons I am not much in love with his companie, and would be glad to be ridde of him; yet am not resolved to add to his misfortune by turning him out against his will The young officer referred to was Ensign David Hume, who was, on 28th August superseded in Sir Charles company by Ensign Charles Palmer so that the Colonel had not long to wait to bee ridde of him (sic)

1667. Thursday 24th May - 2nd May 1668. War of Devolution. Came about after Louis XlV’s French army over run the Habsburgh controlled Spanish Netherlands and French Comte but were forced to give most of it back by the triple alliance of England, Sweden and the Dutch Republic. Although the alliance never engaged in combat against France, but it was enough of a threat to force Louis XlV to halt his offensive and sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle with Spain on Wednesday 2nd May 1668 in Aachen North Rhine-Westphalia Germany.

1667. It was directed that men absenting themselves from vessels that were fitting, should have 2 shillings and 6 pence for each day of absence deducted from their pay, and that the fines should be given to the men who remained on duty.

1667. Wednesday 11th May. Uniform. A letter from John Lyle to Mr Secretary Williamson, we find HMS Paradox carrying over a company of the Duke of York’s yellow coat had a hot dispute with a French fly boat."

1667. Thursday 9th - 14th June (OS). The destruction of the English fleet while docked in Chatham by the Dutch, sometimes miss known as a Battle of the Medway. Two years earlier during 1665, the Dutch fleet under the command of the same Dutch Admiral de Ruyter, had almost completely destroyed the English navy in a murderous four day long battle that neither would break off the action. Now, almost two years to the day, on 7th June, De Ruyter was back and this time there was no British Navy to face him, for England was almost bankrupt and there was no money to pay for a navy. Instead King Charles II had gambled on an early peace that was not to be. For three days the 70 Dutch ships of the line prowled the English coast as if taunting their foe. For the first and only time since Britain had been a world power, an enemy appeared inside within country’s borders. On both sides of the river Thames, scratch forces brought up to fight could only stand and watch as the Dutch sailed past. Muskets could not even reach the jeering Dutchmen on board, and the English land cannons were silent after their small stock of powder had run out. Having humbled British sea pride and proved the English Channel was a Dutch controlled waterway, De Ruyter turned his attention to the toothless English fleet. His men had already stormed and captured Sheerness, then a castle on the isle of Sheppey. Twenty Dutch ships sailed into the Medway, and when they left, five great English ships of the line were in flames and HMS Royal Charles, the British flagship was towed away captive. De Ruyter withdrew having accomplished what he had set out to do, and that was to prove that Holland was still capable of fighting and a country not to be messed with. (sic)

1667. Thursday 16th June (O.S.) The London Gazette, this is the first report published of the Raid on the Medway.

"The Dutch fleet having the tenth instant in the evening made themselves master of Sheerness. On the eleventh they advanced up the river of Medway, and though with much difficulty, passed by several vessels which had been sunk about Muselebank, which was the narrowest part of it, the better to put some stop to them in their passings and with 22 sail came up towards the chain, where the Lord General was in person with considerable force to oppose them; but the enemy taking advantage of an Easterly wind and the tide, which both served them, pressed upon; and though their first ship stuck upon the chain, the second broke through it; and notwithstanding a stout resistance, in which our men showed infinite courage, with considerable loss to the enemy, yet they clasped their fire ships aboard the Matthias and the Unity, that lay at an anchor, as a guard to the chain, and then upon the Charles the fifth, all three of them Dutch ships, that had been formerly taken from them. The same day they possessed themselves of the Royal Charles, which was twice fired by our men, and as often quenched by the enemy.

On Thursday the 13th instant, about one o'clock, taking their advantage of the wind and tide, they advanced with six men of war, and five fire ships, and came up towards Upnor Castle, but were so warmly entertained by Major Scot, who commanded there, and on the other side by Sir Edward Spragg, from the battery at the shore, that after very much damage received by them in the shattering of their ships, in sinking several of their long boats manned out by them, in the great number of their men killed, and some prisoners taken, they were at the last forced to retire, having in this attempt spent in vain two of their fire ships, which attempted HMS Royall Oake, but were forced off, and burned down with effect; but a third had its effect, the two others coming also aboard HMS Royall James, and HMS Loyal London, which are much injured by the fire, but in probability may be again made serviceable, having been sunk before their coming up, and the greater part of the laid under water.

Since this they have not made any considerable attempt, and by some prisoners we have taken, we find that the loss we have received, has been hitherto so fully returned upon them, that they can have but little reason to brag of their success, and less encouragement to make any further attempts on these parts.

Part of the enemy's fleet had since this action continued about Musele-Bank, where on Friday were seen 24 sail, on Saturday only 14, which 'tis believed stay there only to get off HMS Royall Charles which is on shore. (sic)

1667. Friday 17th June (O.S.). About 30 more of their fleet were discovered between the Buoy of the Nore, and on Saturday only 12 in the Buoy of the Nore, the rest being fallen down, and it is thought will attempt no farther this way. However, our batteries are all in the necessary places, both in the Thames and Medway, very well perfected and furnished with cannon.

This day we are confidently told by a person arriving here from Chatham, that yesterday two Dutch men of war, whereof one of 80 guns, endeavouring to pass up towards Upnor Castle, ran ashore and were by a fire ship of their own party burnt, to prevent their falling into our hands. He says further, that eight of their man of war were yesterday endeavouring to tow off HMS Royal Charles from the Musele-Bank and are their run aground; upon which news twenty of their men of war are returning to lie in the river, to prevent out fire ships, till they can find some way to bring them off,

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