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Written for those who need an introduction, *Applied Time Series Analysis* reviews applications of the popular econometric analysis technique across disciplines. Carefully balancing accessibility with rigor, it spans economics, finance, economic history, climatology, meteorology, and public health. Terence Mills provides a practical, step-by-step approach that emphasizes core theories and results without becoming bogged down by excessive technical details. Including univariate and multivariate techniques, *Applied Time Series Analysis* provides data sets and program files that support a broad range of multidisciplinary applications, distinguishing this book from others.

Publisher: Academic PressReleased: Jan 22, 2019ISBN: 9780128131183Format: book

**Applied Time Series Analysis **

**A Practical Guide to Modeling and Forecasting **

Terence C. Mills

*Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom *

**Cover image **

**Title page **

**Copyright **

**Introduction **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 1. Time Series and Their Features **

**Abstract **

**Autocorrelation and Periodic Movements **

**Seasonality **

**Stationarity and Nonstationarity **

**Trends **

**Volatility **

**Common Features **

**Time Series Having Natural Constraints **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 2. Transforming Time Series **

**Abstract **

**Distributional Transformations **

**Stationarity Inducing Transformations **

**Decomposing a Time Series and Smoothing Transformations **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 3. ARMA Models for Stationary Time Series **

**Abstract **

**Stochastic Processes and Stationarity **

**Wold’s Decomposition and Autocorrelation **

**First-Order Autoregressive Processes **

**First-Order Moving Average Processes **

**General AR and MA Processes **

**Autoregressive-Moving Average Models **

**ARMA Model Building and Estimation **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 4. ARIMA Models for Nonstationary Time Series **

**Abstract **

**Nonstationarity **

**ARIMA Processes **

**ARIMA Modeling **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 5. Unit Roots, Difference and Trend Stationarity, and Fractional Differencing **

**Abstract **

**Determining the Order of Integration of a Time Series **

**Testing for a Unit Root **

**Trend Versus Difference Stationarity **

**Testing for More Than One Unit Root **

**Other Approaches to Testing for a Unit Root **

**Estimating Trends Robustly **

**Fractional Differencing and Long Memory **

**Testing for Fractional Differencing **

**Estimating the Fractional Differencing Parameter **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 6. Breaking and Nonlinear Trends **

**Abstract **

**Breaking Trend Models **

**Breaking Trends and Unit Root Tests **

**Unit Roots Tests When the Break Date Is Unknown **

**Robust Tests for a Breaking Trend **

**Confidence Intervals for the Break Date and Multiple Breaks **

**Nonlinear Trends **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 7. An Introduction to Forecasting With Univariate Models **

**Abstract **

**Forecasting With Autoregressive-Integrated-Moving Average (ARIMA) Models **

**Forecasting a Trend Stationary Process **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 8. Unobserved Component Models, Signal Extraction, and Filters **

**Abstract **

**Unobserved Component Models **

**Signal Extraction **

**Filters **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 9. Seasonality and Exponential Smoothing **

**Abstract **

**Seasonal Patterns in Time Series **

**Modeling Deterministic Seasonality **

**Modeling Stochastic Seasonality **

**Mixed Seasonal Models **

**Seasonal Adjustment **

**Exponential Smoothing **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 10. Volatility and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic Processes **

**Abstract **

**Volatility **

**Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic Processes **

**Testing for the Presence of ARCH Errors **

**Forecasting From an ARMA-GARCH Model **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 11. Nonlinear Stochastic Processes **

**Abstract **

**Martingales, Random Walks, and Nonlinearity **

**Nonlinear Stochastic Models **

**Bilinear Models **

**Threshold and Smooth Transition Autoregressions **

**Markov-Switching Models **

**Neural Networks **

**Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos **

**Testing for Nonlinearity **

**Forecasting With Nonlinear Models **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 12. Transfer Functions and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Modeling **

**Abstract **

**Transfer Function-Noise Models **

**Autoregressive Distributed Lag Models **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 13. Vector Autoregressions and Granger Causality **

**Abstract **

**Multivariate Dynamic Regression Models **

**Vector Autoregressions **

**Granger Causality **

**Determining the Lag Order of a Vector Autoregression **

**Variance Decompositions and Innovation Accounting **

**Structural Vector Autoregressions **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 14. Error Correction, Spurious Regressions, and Cointegration **

**Abstract **

**The Error Correction Form of an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model **

**Spurious Regressions **

**Error Correction and Cointegration **

**Testing for Cointegration **

**Estimating Cointegrating Regressions **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 15. Vector Autoregressions With Integrated Variables, Vector Error Correction Models, and Common Trends **

**Abstract **

**Vector Autoregressions With Integrated Variables **

**Vector autoregressions With Cointegrated Variables **

**Estimation of Vector Error Correction Models and Tests of Cointegrating Rank **

**Identification of Vector Error Correction Models **

**Structural Vector Error Correction Models **

**Causality Testing in Vector Error Correction Models **

**Impulse Response Asymptotics in Nonstationary VARs **

**Vector Error Correction Model-X Models **

**Common Trends and Cycles **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 16. Compositional and Count Time Series **

**Abstract **

**Constrained Time Series **

**Modeling Compositional Data **

**Forecasting Compositional Time Series **

**Time Series Models for Counts: The IN-AR(1) Benchmark Model **

**Other Integer-Valued ARMA Processes **

**Estimation of Integer-Valued ARMA Models **

**Testing for Serial Dependence in Count Time Series **

**Forecasting Counts **

**Intermittent and Nonnegative Time Series **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 17. State Space Models **

**Abstract **

**Formulating State Space Models **

**The Kalman Filter **

**ML Estimation and the Prediction Error Decomposition **

**Prediction and Smoothing **

**Multivariate State Space Models **

**Endnotes **

**Chapter 18. Some Concluding Remarks **

**Abstract **

**Endnotes **

**References **

**Index **

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**0.1** Data taking the form of time series, where observations appear sequentially, usually with a fixed time interval between their appearance (every day, week, month, etc.,), are ubiquitous. Many such series are followed avidly: for example, the Dow Jones Industrial stock market index opened 2017 with a value of 20,504, closing the year on 24,719; a rise of 20.6%, one of the largest annual percentage increases on record. By January 26, 2018, the index had reached an intraday high of 26,617 before declining quickly to close on February 8 at 23,860; a value approximately equal to that of the index at the end of November 2017 and representing a fall of 10.4% from its peak. Five days later, it closed on February 13 at 24,640; 3.3% above this local minimum.

By the end of May 2018, the index stood at 24,415; little changed over the ensuing 3 months.

This volatility,

which was the subject of great media and, of course, stock market attention, was surpassed by the behavior of the price of the crypto-currency bitcoin during a similar period. Bitcoin was priced at $995 at the start of 2017 and $13,850 at the end of the year; an astonishing almost 1300% increase. Yet, during December 17, just a fortnight before, it had reached an even higher price of $19,871; an almost 1900% increase from the start of the year. The decline from this high point continued into the new year, the price falling to $5968 on February 6 (a 70% decline from the peak price less than 2 months prior), before rebounding again to close at $8545 on February 13. Since then the price has increased to $11,504 on March 4 before falling back to $6635 on April 6. At the end of May 2018, the price stood at $7393.

**0.2** While financial time series observed at high frequency often display such wildly fluctuating behavior, there are many other time series, often from the physical world, which display interesting movements over longer periods. **Fig. I.1 shows the decadal averages of global temperatures from the 1850s onward. The behavior of temperature time series, whether global or regional, have become the subject of great interest and, in some quarters, great concern, over the past few decades. Fig. I.1 shows why. Global temperatures were relatively constant from the 1850s to the 1910s before increasing over the next three decades. There was then a second hiatus between the 1940s and 1970s before temperatures began to increase rapidly from the 1980s onward. Such behavior, in which trends are interspersed with periods of relative stability, is a feature of many time series. **

**Figure I.1 **Average decadal global temperatures, 1850–2010.

**0.3** How to model time series statistically is the concern of this book, in which, as its title suggests, I emphasize the practical, applied, aspects of statistical time series modeling. While a formal theoretical framework is, as we shall see, an unavoidable necessity, I do not overburden the reader with technical niceties

that have little practical impact—my aim is always to provide methods that may be used to analyze and understand time series that occur in the real world

that researchers face.**¹ Examples are, therefore, drawn from a variety of fields that I am familiar with and have indeed researched in. **

**0.4** **Chapter 1, Time Series and Their Features, initiates our analysis by considering some of the features that may be exhibited by an individual time series or a group of time series, and this leads naturally to Chapter 2, Transforming Time Series, where a variety of transformations are introduced that enable observed time series to become more amenable to statistical analysis. Chapter 3, ARMA Models for Stationary Time Series, introduces the basic formal concepts of stochastic processes and stationarity that underpin all statistical time series models. It then develops the basic class of univariate time series models, the autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process, which is the core model used throughout the book. Not every time series is stationary, however: indeed, many require transforming to stationarity. Integrated processes, which may be made stationary by differencing, are an important class of nonstationary processes and Chapter 4, ARIMA Models for Nonstationary Time Series, thus extends ARMA models to the AR-integrated-MA (or ARIMA) class of processes.² **

An important aspect of applied modeling is that of determining whether a time series is stationary or nonstationary and, if found to be the latter, of determining what form of nonstationarity it takes. **Chapter 5, Unit Roots, Difference and Trend Stationarity, and Fractional Differencing, considers this problem within the context of testing for unit roots, discriminating between difference and trend stationarity, and investigating whether fractional differencing is required. The analysis is extended in Chapter 6, Breaking and Nonlinear Trends, to consider models having breaking and nonlinear trends. **

An important use of time series models is in forecasting future, and hence unobserved, values of a series. **Chapter 7, An Introduction to Forecasting With Univariate Models, thus introduces the theory of univariate time series forecasting based on the range of models introduced so far. Chapter 8, Unobserved Component Models, Signal Extraction, and Filters and Chapter 9, Seasonality and Exponential Smoothing, both focus on other types of univariate models, the former on unobserved component models, the latter on exponential smoothing techniques, which are particularly useful when seasonality, which is also discussed in this chapter, is a feature of the time series. **

**Chapter 10, Volatility and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic Processes, considers volatility, characterized by a time-varying variance, and consequently introduces the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic (GARCH) process to model such volatility. A time-varying variance may be regarded as a form of nonlinearity, but there are many other types of nonlinear processes and these are reviewed in Chapter 11, Nonlinear Stochastic Processes. **

The remainder of the book deals with multivariate models, beginning in **Chapter 12, Transfer Functions and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Modeling, with an introduction to transfer functions and autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) models, in which an endogenous time series is influenced by one or more exogenous series. The endogenous/exogenous distinction may be relaxed to allow a group of time series to all be considered endogenous. This leads to the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and the related concept of (Granger) causality which is the topic of Chapter 13, Vector Autoregressions and Granger Causality. **

These two chapters are restricted to analyzing groups of stationary time series, but when integrated series are allowed, some important new concepts need to be introduced. The inclusion of integrated series in an ARDL model requires consideration of the related concepts of error correction and cointegration, as outlined in **Chapter 14, Error Correction, Spurious Regressions, and Cointegration. Chapter 15, VARs With Integrated Variables, Vector Error Correction Models, and Common Trends, extends these concepts to a VAR setting, which leads to the vector error correction model (VECM) and the concept of common trends. **

**Chapter 16, Compositional and Count Time Series, focuses on both the modeling of time series that come as counts, that is, small integer values for which the usual assumption of a continuous measurement scale is untenable, and the implications of modeling a set of time series that form a composition. These are series that are shares of a whole and must, therefore, satisfy the twin constraints of taking only values between zero and unity and of summing to unity for every observation, constraints which must, for example, be satisfied by forecasts of future shares. Chapter 17, State Space Models, introduces a general setup known as the state space form, which enables many of the models introduced in the book to be cast in a single framework, which may be analyzed using a powerful technique known as the Kalman filter. Chapter 18, Some Concluding Remarks, provides some concluding remarks about the nature of applied time series modeling. **

**0.5** Each chapter contains applied examples, some of which are developed

over several chapters. All computations use the *Econometric Views, Version 10 *(**EViews 10) software package and full details on how the computations were performed are provided in the computing exercises that accompany each chapter. EViews 10 was used as it is an excellent and popular package developed specifically for the time series techniques discussed in the book. However, I am aware that many researchers outside the economics and finance area use the statistical programming language R, and EViews 10 contains links between EViews routines and R routines, which those researchers may wish to consult. **

**0.6** It is assumed that the reader has a background in introductory statistics (at the level of **Mills, 2014, say) and some basic knowledge of matrix algebra (Mills, 2013a, Chapter 2, provides a convenient presentation of the material required). **

**0.7** A brief word on notation. As can be seen, chapter sections are denoted **x.y**, where **x **is the chapter and **y **is the section (this chapter is numbered **0**). This enables the latter to be cross-referenced as **§x.y**. Matrices and vectors are always written in bold font, upper case for matrices, lower case for vectors wherever possible. The latter are regarded as column vectors unless otherwise stated: thus, **A **denotes a matrix while **a **is a vector.

**¹There are several highly technical treatments of time series analysis, most notably Brockwell and Davis (1991) and Hamilton (1994), which the interested reader may wish to consult. **

**²Acronyms abound in time series analysis and have even prompted a journal article on them (Granger, 1982), although in the almost four decades since its publication many, many more have been suggested! **

**Chapter 1 **

**Time Series and Their Features **

Time series, although ubiquitous, require analysing with special statistical concepts and techniques, for without them erroneous inferences and conclusions may all to easily be drawn. Autocorrelation is the key feature of an individual time series or a group of time series. Related to this measure of internal correlation

are further features, such as stationarity, nonstationarity, often involving the presence of trends, cycles, and periodic movements, seasonality, and volatility. Time series may also exhibit natural constraints, such as nonnegativity, integer values, and series that are defined as proportions, or compositions, of a whole. All these key features are introduced and discussed using examples of observed time series taken from a variety of fields.

**Autocorrelation and Periodic Movements 2 **

**Seasonality 4 **

**Stationarity and Nonstationarity 4 **

**Trends 6 **

**Volatility 8 **

**Common Features 9 **

**Time Series Having Natural Constraints 10 **

**Endnotes 12 **

**1.1** As stated in the Introduction, time series are indeed ubiquitous, appearing in almost every research field where data are analyzed. However, their formal study requires special statistical concepts and techniques without which erroneous inferences and conclusions may all too readily be drawn, a problem that statisticians have found necessary to confront since at least Udny Yule’s Presidential Address to the Royal Statistical Society in 1925, provocatively titled Why do we sometimes get nonsense-correlations between time series? A study in sampling and the nature of time series.

**¹ **

**1.2** In general, a time series on some variable *x *, where the subscript *t *being the first observation available on *x *will often be referred to as the *observation period. *The observations are typically measured at equally spaced intervals, say every minute, hour, or day, etc., so the order in which observations arrive is paramount. This is unlike, say, data on a cross section of a population taken at a *given *point in time, where the ordering of the data is usually irrelevant unless some form of spatial dependence exists between observations.**² **

**1.3**, where *h *is referred to as the *forecast horizon*.

**Fig. 1.1 shows monthly observations of an index of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) between 1950 and 2017. The NAO is a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean and measures fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level between two stable air pressure areas, the Subpolar low and the Subtropical (Azores) high. Strong positive phases of the NAO tend to be associated with above-normal temperatures in eastern United States and across northern Europe and with below-normal temperatures in Greenland and across southern Europe and the Middle East. These positive phases are also associated with above-normal precipitation over northern Europe and Scandinavia and with below-normal precipitation over southern and central Europe. Opposite patterns of temperature and precipitation anomalies are typically observed during strong negative phases of the NAO (see Hurrell et al., 2003). **

**Figure 1.1 **NAO index: monthly, January 1950–December 2017. *NAO*, North Atlantic Oscillation. Data from Climate Prediction Center, NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction.

Clearly, being able to identify recurring patterns in the NAO would be very useful for medium- to long-range weather forecasting, but, as **Fig. 1.1 illustrates, no readily discernible patterns seem to exist. **

**1.4** Such a conclusion may, however, be premature for there might well be internal correlations within the index that could be useful for identifying interesting periodic movements and for forecasting future values of the index. These are typically referred to as the *autocorrelations *. The *lag-k (sample) autocorrelation *is defined as

**(1.1) **

where

**(1.2) **

and

**(1.3) **

, respectively. The set of sample autocorrelations for various values of *k *is known as the *sample autocorrelation function *(SACF) and plays a key role in time series analysis. An examination of the SACF of the NAO index is provided in **Example 3.1. **

**1.5** A second physical time series that has a much more pronounced periodic movement is the annual sunspot number from 1700 to 2017 as shown in **Fig. 1.2. As has been well-documented, sunspots display a periodic cycle (the elapsed time from one minimum (maximum) to the next) of approximately 11 years; see, for example, Hathaway (2010). The SACF can be used to calculate an estimate of the length of this cycle, as is done in Example 3.3. **

**Figure 1.2 **Annual sunspot numbers: 1700–2017. Data from WDC-SILSO, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.

**1.6** **Fig. 1.3 shows the temperature of a hospital ward taken every hour for several months during 2011 and 2012 (see Iddon et al., 2015, for more details and description of the data). Here there is a long cyclical movement—an annual swing through the seasons—superimposed upon which are short-term diurnal movements as well as a considerable amount of random fluctuation (known as noise), typically the consequence of windows being left open on the ward for short periods of time and more persistent movements which are related to external temperatures and solar irradiation (sunshine). **

**Figure 1.3 **Hourly temperatures in °C of a ward in Bradford Royal Infirmary during 2011 and 2012. Data from Iddon, C.R., Mills, T.C., Giridharan, R., Lomas, K.J., 2015. The influence of ward design on resilience to heat waves: an exploration using distributed lag models. Energy Build., 86, 573–588.

**1.7** When a time series is observed at monthly or quarterly intervals an annual *seasonal pattern *is often an important feature. **Fig. 1.4 shows quarterly United Kingdom beer sales between 1997 and 2017 that have a pronounced seasonal pattern that has evolved over the years: first quarter sales are always the lowest, fourth quarter sales are usually, but not always, the highest, while the relative size of second and third quarter sales seems to fluctuate over the observation period. **

**Figure 1.4 **United Kingdom beer sales (thousands of barrels): quarterly, 1997–2017. Data from the British Beer & Pub Association.

**1.8** An important feature of **Figs. 1.1–1.3 is the absence of any sustained increase or decline in the level of each series over the observation period; in other words, they fluctuate around a constant mean level which is clearly to be expected from the physical nature of each series. A constant mean level is one, but not the only, condition for a series to be stationary. In contrast, beer sales in Fig. 1.4 show a decline throughout the observation period, most noticeably from 2004 onwards. Clearly beer sales have not fluctuated around a constant mean level; rather, the mean level has fallen in recent years which has been a well-documented concern of UK brewers. **

**1.9** If the mean level cannot be regarded as constant then a series is said to be *nonstationary*. Nonstationarity, however, can appear in many guises. **Fig. 1.5 plots daily observations on the US dollar–UK sterling ($–£) exchange rate from 1975 to 2017, a period in which this exchange rate fluctuated widely. The rate fell from around $2.50 at the start of the 1980s to almost parity by the middle of that decade, before rebounding to about $2 at the beginning of the 1990s. In the past 25 years it has undergone three further steep declines, known as depreciations, corresponding to the United Kingdom’s exit in October 1992 from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, the onset of the global financial crisis during 2008, and the Brexit referendum of June 2016, interspersed by a major appreciation from around $1.4 to over $2 between 2003 and 2008. **

**Figure 1.5 **$–£ Exchange rate: daily observations, January 1975–December 2017. Data from Bank of England.

Clearly, the assumption of a constant mean level for the exchange rate would not be appropriate either statistically or, indeed, economically, for this would imply an equilibrium level for the exchange rate which would, consequently, provide a one-way bet

for dealers whenever the rate got too far from this level, either above or below. The exchange rate thus exhibits a form of nonstationarity that can be termed *random walk *or *unit root *nonstationarity, terms that will be defined and discussed in detail in **Chapter 4, ARIMA Models for Nonstationary Time Series, and Chapter 5, Unit Roots, Difference and Trend Stationarity, and Fractional Differencing. **

**1.10** Just as clearly, the exchange rate does not exhibit an overall *trend *throughout the observation period, this being informally thought of as a generally monotonic upward or downward movement, which would here imply either a perpetual appreciation or depreciation of the currency; a movement that could not happen in practice as it would, again, offer a one-way bet to dealers in what is perhaps the most efficient of financial markets.

**1.11** Trends, however, are to be found in many time series.**³ Fig. 1.6 shows per capita wine and spirits consumption for the United Kingdom from 1950 to 2015. Both show positive trends; that for wine being stronger than that for spirits with, to a first approximation, both trends having reasonably constant slopes. The two series, thus, appear to exhibit linear trends. **

**Figure 1.6 **Annual consumption of wines and spirits in the United Kingdom: liters of alcohol per capita, 1950–2015. Data from megafile_of_global_wine _data_1835_to_2016 _031117.xlxs. Available from: <**www.adelaide.edu.au/wine-econ/databases>. **

**1.12** Many trends, though, do not have constant slopes and hence are *nonlinear*. Monthly observations from 1948 to 2017 on the UK retail price index are shown in **Fig. 1.7, and the index clearly has a nonconstant slope. Since the slope measures the change in the index, it is related to, but is not identical with, inflation and the shifting slopes thus reveal the evolution of price increases in the United Kingdom during the postwar period (how measures of inflation might in practice be constructed from a price index is discussed in Chapter 2: Transforming Time Series). Note the sequence of falling prices in the latter half of 2008 at the height of the global financial crisis which produced a brief period of deflation; a rare event in developed economies in the postwar era. **

**Figure 1.7 **UK RPI: monthly, January 1948–December 2017. *RPI*, Retail price index. Data from U.K. Office of National Statistics.

**1.13** Ascertaining whether a time series contains a trend may be quite difficult. Consider **Fig. 1.8 which shows monthly global temperatures from 1850 to 2017. While there is certainly a general upward movement during the observation period, it is by no means monotonic, with several sustained periods of relative constancy and even decline, thus seeming to rule out a linear trend for the entire observation period. For the anthropogenic global warming hypothesis to hold, this series must exhibit random walk nonstationarity with a positive drift. Whether the drift is significantly positive will be considered in Example 4.3. **

**Figure 1.8 **Global temperature: monthly, January 1850–December 2017. Data from Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Science and Services.

**1.14** A second condition of stationarity is that of constant variance. **Fig. 1.9 shows the daily percentage change in the $–£ exchange rate plotted in Fig. 1.5. Although the plot of the percentage changes is dominated by the 8% point decline in sterling on June 24, 2016, after the announcement of the Brexit referendum result, the entire sequence of changes is characterized by periods of relative calm interspersed by bursts of volatility, so that the variance of the series changes continuously. Thus, **

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