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Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Multiferroic Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications

Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Multiferroic Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications

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Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Multiferroic Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications

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505 pages
4 hours
Released:
Feb 22, 2019
ISBN:
9780128145005
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Book

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Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Multiferroic Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications presents the latest information in the emerging field of multiferroic materials research, exploring applications in energy conversion and harvesting at the nanoscale. The book covers crystal and microstructure, ferroelectric, piezoelectric and multiferroic physical properties, along with their characterization. Special attention is given to the design and tailoring of ferroelectric, magnetic and multiferroic materials and their interaction among ferroics. The fundamentals of energy conversion are incorporated, along with the requirements of materials for this process. Finally, a range of applications is presented, demonstrating the progression from fundamentals to applied science.

This essential resource describes the link between the basic physical properties of these materials and their applications in the field of energy harvest. It will be a useful resource for graduate students, early career researchers, academics and industry professionals working in areas related to energy conversion.

  • Bridges the gap between the fundamentals and applications of ferroelectric and multiferroic materials for energy harvesting
  • Demonstrates how a range of nanomaterials play an important role in the creation of efficient energy harvesting systems
  • Provides new solutions for the fabrication of electronic devices for various applications
Released:
Feb 22, 2019
ISBN:
9780128145005
Format:
Book

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Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Multiferroic Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications - Elsevier Science

Nanoscale Ferroelectric-Multiferroic Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications

First Edition

Hideo Kimura

Zhenxiang Cheng

Tingting Jia

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Preface

1: Domain switching in bismuth layer-structured multiferroic films

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Magnetoelectric effect in multiferroics

1.3 Domain and domain walls

1.4 Aurivillius phase Bi-layer structured films

1.5 Multifield-induced domain switching

1.6 Summary

2: Strain tuning effects in perovskites

Abstract

Acknowledgments

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Experimental

2.3 Results and discussion

2.4 Summary

3: Aurivillius layer-structured multiferroic materials

Abstract

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Sample preparation methods and experimental procedures

3.3 Aurivillius layered nanomaterials

3.4 Aurivillius layered BTFO18 and BTFO21 thin film

3.5 BTFO27 crystals

3.6 Summary

4: Fabrication of (K, Na)NbO3 films by pulsed laser deposition and their domain observation

Abstract

Acknowledgments

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Fabrication and crystal structure of (K, Na)NbO3 ceramic targets

4.3 Fabrication of (K, Na)NbO3 films

4.4 Microstructure and chemical composition of (K, Na)NbO3 films

4.5 Electric properties of (K, Na)NbO3 films

4.6 Domain observation by laser scanning microscopy

4.7 Domain observation of (K, Na)NbO3 films

4.8 Conclusions

5: Microscale materials design using focused proton-beam writing

Abstract

Acknowledgments

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Experimental procedures

5.3 Monte Carlo simulation

5.4 Lead-free ferroelectric film fabrication and comparison of electron-beam and focused proton-beam irradiation

5.5 Thick-film fabrication

5.6 Microscale thick-film patterning

5.7 Conclusions

6: Thin film fabrication using nanoscale flat substrates

Abstract

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Experimental

6.3 Observations of atomically flat surfaces with atomic steps and terraces by atomic force microscopy

6.4 Evaluation of PbTiO3 thin films by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

6.5 Observations of PbTiO3 nanocrystals by atomic force microscopy

6.6 Effects of growth rate on PbTiO3 nanocrystals

6.7 Evaluation of crystal structure of PbTiO3 nanocrystals

6.8 Fabrication of platinum nanocrystals for use as electrode nanolayer

6.9 Conclusion

7: Ferroic domain observation using transmission electron microscope

Abstract

Acknowledgments

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Ferroelectric domain

7.3 Ferromagnetic domain

7.4 Multiferroic domain

7.5 Conclusion and future outlook

8: First-principles study of the ferroelectric phase of AgNbO3

Abstract

Acknowledgments

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Possibility of soft-mode phonon-related ferroelectric-phase transition

8.3 Possibility of defect-related ferroelectricity

8.4 Electric-field induce ferroelectric phase transition

8.5 Summary

9: Structural optimization of piezoelectric thin-film vibration energy harvesters based on electric equivalent circuit model

Abstract

Acknowledgments

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The equivalent circuit model and formulations

9.3 Numerical calculation result and discussion

9.4 Conclusions

10: Ferroelectric nanofibers and their application in energy harvesting

Abstract

10.1 Synthesis and characterization of ferroelectric nanofibers

10.2 Fabrication of energy harvesters based on ferroelectric nanofibers

10.3 Energy harvesting and storage

10.4 Conclusions

11: Microenergy harvesting using BiFeO3 films

Abstract

Acknowledgments

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Energy harvesting from vibration

11.3 Model of piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

11.4 Piezoelectric films for vibration energy harvesting

11.5 Direct piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3

11.6 Characteristics of piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems vibration energy harvester using BiFeO3 films

11.7 Conclusion

12: Thermal energy harvesting of PLZT and BaTiO3 ceramics using pyroelectric effects

Abstract

Acknowledgments

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Pyroeletricity

12.3 Samples and characterization

12.4 Energy harvesting using linear pyroelectric effect

12.5 Energy harvesting using nonlinear pyroelectric effect

12.6 Summary and perspective

Index

Copyright

Elsevier

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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notices

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.

Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-0-12-814499-2

For information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals

Publisher: Matthew Deans

Acquisition Editor: Simon Holt

Editorial Project Manager: Lindsay Lawrence

Production Project Manager: Debasish Ghosh

Cover Designer: Greg Harris

Typeset by SPi Global, India

Contributors

Kang Cai     Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Zhenxiang Cheng

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Nanobiomechanics, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen, China

National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan

Institute for Superconducting and Electronics Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng, People's Republic of China

Craig A.J. Fisher     Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan

Desheng Fu     Division of Global Research Leaders, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan

Ichiro Fujii     Department of Materials Chemistry, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Japan

Fang Hong     Institute for Superconducting and Electronics Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Zhao Hu     Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Tingting Jia     Research Laboratory for Nano-Biomechanics, Institutes of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, CAS, Shenzhen, China

Isaku Kanno     Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

Hideo Kimura

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Nanobiomechanics, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen, China

National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan

Ayako Konishi

Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan

Department Center for Materials research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan

Akihide Kuwabara     Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan

Huadong Li     Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Hiroshi Maiwa     Department of Materials and Human Environmental Sciences, Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa, Japan

Yoichiro Masuda     Department of Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Hachinohe City, Japan

Takao Matsumoto     The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Hiroki Moriwake

Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan

Department Center for Materials research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan

Takashi Nishida     Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan

Takafumi Ogawa     Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan

Kiyoshi Ozawa     National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan

Toshihito Umegaki     Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

Takahiro Wada     Department of Materials Chemistry, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Japan

Zengmei Wang     School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Lab. of Construction Materials, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China

Yuanxu Wang     Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng, People's Republic of China

Huan Wang     Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Kazuki Watanabe     Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Masaki Yamaguchi     Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan

Takeshi Yoshimura     Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Japan

Xiaodan Zhang     Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Hongyang Zhao

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Nanobiomechanics, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen, China

National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan

Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Ruijian Zhu     School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Lab. of Construction Materials, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China

Preface

Hideo Kimura, Magnetoelectric Crystal Group, Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan

Zhenxiang Cheng, Ferroic Material Group, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM), Australian Institute of Innovative Materials (AIIM), University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Tingting Jia, Research Laboratory for Nano-Biomechanics, Institutes of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, CAS, Shenzhen, China, Magnetoelectric Crystal Group, Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan

Ferroelectric materials have been widely used for a long time due to their electrical and optical properties. Piezoelectric materials and pyroelectric materials are sometimes also included under the concept of ferroelectric materials. Useful forms of all these materials in the past have been ceramics. In recent years, however, the research trend on these materials is moving from ceramics to single crystals and thin films. Ferroelectric materials currently in use are usually lead-based materials such as Pb(ZrTi)O3 and its solid solutions. The keyword in current research, however, is lead-free, largely because of Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive of the European Union. Furthermore, some ferroelectric materials show ferromagnetic properties in addition to ferroelectric polarization, such as some of the so-called multiferroic materials. In this book, we will discuss current research topics on lead-free ferroelectric and multiferroic materials. Ferroic domain switching using magnetoelectric effects is also an important focus of research, along with interactions among ferroics. Multiferroic materials are important not only from the standpoint of fundamental physics, but also because of their potential for engineering applications, although there are not many reports in the literature on materials for such applications. There are many application possibilities for ferroelectric, magnetic, and multiferroic nanomaterials, notably in energy harvesting and conversion from vibration or other environmental low-grade energy sources. In this field, we editors have been actively involved in studying ferroic domain switching and energy harvesting.

In particular, we have been engaged in a 5-year program of the Japanese government entitled Piezoelectric power generation using lead-free piezoelectric materials. This program is one of the subthemes in the big program entitled Creation of the Network of Excellence for Human Resource Development and Advanced Environmental Materials, and Devices toward Environment and Energy Technology supported by the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) project of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan from December 2011 to March 2016. In this program, the editors of this book were engaged in organizing research groups from eight institutes and universities (National Institute of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Shonan Institute of Technology, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Ryukoku University, Kobe University, and Fukuoka University). At the end of the project, we conducted the International Symposium of Piezoelectric Materials Toward Energy Harvesting in Kyoto on February 24, 2016.

Some authors of chapters in this book were engaged in this energy-harvesting project promoted by one of the editors (HK), although unfortunately, one professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology had to withdraw due to his other commitments. We have also invited authors from Osaka Prefecture University, the University of Tokyo, the University of Wollongong (Australia), Wuhan Institute of Technology (China), and Southeast University (China), based on the editors’ close collaboration with these organizations.

In this book, we have summarized the research achievements of the program and asked other coworkers to fill in further related topics for the book.

This book is suitable for readers such as early-career researchers and engineers working as both academics and in industry. It fills a need because no book has been published as yet on the energy-harvesting materials, despite the many books that have been published on ferroelectrics and the mechanics of energy harvesting. So, we will focus on energy conversion materials on the nanoscale in this book.

We will report on works that range from fundamental to applied studies. We hope that this arrangement can help the readers to easily understand the role of materials for energy conversion and harvesting.

The editors express our thanks to Dr. Lindsay C. Lawrence, from Elsevier for her excellence cooperation during the chapter preparation, and to Dr. Sheela Bernardine Josy and Dr. Debasish Ghosh for the production. We also express our thanks to Prof. Ashutosh Tiwari and Dr. Sophie Thompson, who invited us to edit this book.

1

Domain switching in bismuth layer-structured multiferroic films

Tingting Jia¶;

Hideo Kimura⁎,†; Zhenxiang Cheng⁎,†,‡; Hongyang Zhao⁎,†,§    ⁎ Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Nanobiomechanics, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen, China

† National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan

‡ Institute for Superconducting and Electronics Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia

§ Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

¶ Research Laboratory for Nano-Biomechanics, Institutes of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, CAS, Shenzhen, China

Abstract

Multiferroicity has now become one of the hottest research topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. The magnetoelectric (ME) properties and coupling behavior of single-phase multiferroics are dominated by their domain structures. However, multiferroic materials exhibit very complicated domain structures. Studies on domain structure characterization and domain switching are a crucial step in the exploration of approaches to the control and manipulation of magnetic (electric) properties using an electric (magnetic) field or other means. In this chapter we summarize some of the important research activities in the recent years on domain switching in single-phase multiferroic materials in the form of single crystals and thin films, especially the domain switching behavior involving strain and the related physics. The effects of a series of stimuli such as electric field, magnetic field, and stress effects on domain switching will be shown.

Keywords

Multiferroics; PLD; TEM; SEM; SPM

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0201001), the Leading Talents Program of Guangdong Province (2016LJ06C372), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51702351, 51402327, 51571083, 11627801), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee (JCYJ20170413152832151, JCYJ20170307165829951, KQJSCX20170331162214306), and the Shenzhen Programs for Science and Technology Development (JSGG20160229204218661).

1.1 Introduction

Multiferroics are a wonderful research topic in respect to their outstanding application potential in the information industry, for example, multistate information storage devices and new types of sensors [1, 2]. Although studies on the ME effect became more prominent in the 20th century, its boom was witnessed in the first decade of the 21st century, and it has become one of the hottest research topics in physics and materials science [3–5]. Numerous efforts have been made to investigate the coupling phenomena among ferroic orders such as ferroelectricity, (anti-)ferromagnetism, ferroelasticity, etc. (Fig. 1.1), especially the coupling between electric and magnetic orderings that would account for the ME effect in multiferroic materials [7–11]. From the point of view of material constituents, multiferroic ME materials can be divided into two types: single-phase and composite. The ME effect has been observed as an intrinsic effect in some single-phase natural material systems, which have been under intensive study recently, motivated by their potential applications in information storage-related spintronics [10, 12]. BiFeO3 (BFO) has become one of the most popular and well-studied materials in the multiferroic research field because at room temperature (RT) not only does it simultaneously display ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism, but it also demonstrates intrinsic ME coupling [13–15]. However, the coupling in BFO is too weak to be applied in devices. Thus the search for promising room-temperature, single-phase multiferroic material is ongoing.

Fig. 1.1 Interaction among polarization, magnetization, and the strain in multiferroic thin films under external stimuli: magnetic field ( H ), electric field ( E ), and stress ( σ ) [6]. Figures and captions are reproduced with permission from Scientific Report 6, 31867 (2016). Copyright 2016 Nature Publishing Group.

Domains are regions with a uniform orientation of the relevant order parameter: for example, polarization or magnetization. At least two orientations of the order parameter (domain states) are allowed for any ferroic material; thus, a typical ferroic material consists of multiple domains, each representing one of the allowed domain states. The interfaces between the domains are called the domain walls (DWs). They can have a width ranging from < 1 nm to > 100 nm. They denote the region across which the order parameter reorients between adjacent domains. The ordered phase has a lower symmetry compared to the parent phase, but the domains (and consequently DWs) capture the symmetry of both the ferroic phase and the paraphase. For example, a cubic phase undergoing a phase transition into a rhombohedral ferroelectric phase will exhibit a polar order along the eight equivalent 111-type crystallographic directions, and DWs in such a system separate regions with diagonal long axes that are 71, 109, and 180 degrees apart.

In this chapter, following a concise outline of our basic knowledge on the ME effect, we summarize some of the important research activities in domain switching in single-phase multiferroic thin films, especially domain switching behavior involving strain. We also introduce recent developments in the characterization techniques for the domain structures of ferroelectric or multiferroic materials, which have significantly advanced our understanding of domain switching dynamics and interactions. The effects of a series of issues, such as electric field, magnetic field, and stress effects on domain switching are discussed as well. It is intended that an integrated viewpoint on these issues, as provided here, will further motivate synergistic activity between the various research groups and industries towards the development and characterization of multiferroic materials [16].

1.2 Magnetoelectric effect in multiferroics

The ME effect, as it is generally defined, relates to the coupling between electric polarization (P) and magnetization (M) that is induced by the magnetic field (H) and or the electric field (E) in a solid. A systematic progression of contributions to the ME effect is obtained from the expansion of the free energy of a material [17], that is,

   (1.1)

with E and H as the electric field and magnetic field, respectively. Differentiation leads to the polarization:

   (1.2)

and to the magnetization:

   (1.3)

. The vast majority of research on the ME effect is devoted to the linear ME effect, it is therefore generally acceptable to omit the prefix linear and simply to refer to the linear manifestation as the ME effect. It is further shown that the ME response can be described by the following [18]:

   (1.4)

where χiie and χjjm are the electric and magnetic susceptibilities. This means that the ME effect can only be large in a ferroelectric and/or ferromagnetic material.

1.3 Domain and domain walls

Since ferroic (ferroelectrics, ferromagnets, ferroelastics) phases contribute to at least two distinct orientations of the order parameter, they result in the formation of domains, which are divided by DWs (Fig. 1.2). Domains are defined as representing a long-range order with respect to at least one typical property of the material. When orientation states are changed the interfaces (DWs) move; thus, the domain structure can be manipulated by external fields, which is a central feature of ferric materials [19].

Fig. 1.2 Schematic diagram of the geometry of 180 degrees stripe domains in a ferroelectric or a ferromagnet with out-of-plane polarity.

The domain size is determined by the competition between the energy of the domains (itself dependent on the boundary conditions, as emphasized above) and the energy of the DWs. The energy density of the domains is proportional to the domain size:

   (1.5)

where U is the volume energy density of the domain and w is the domain width.

Smaller domains therefore have smaller depolarization, demagnetization, and elastic energies. But the energy gained by reducing the domain size is balanced by the fact that this requires an increasing the number of DWs, which are themselves energetically costly. The DWs’ energy density per unit area of thin film is:

   (1.6)

where σ is the energy density per unit area of the wall and d is the thickness of the film. Adding up the energy costs of the domains and DWs, and minimizing the total with respect to the domain size, leads to the famous square root dependence, which is also called the Landau-Lifshitz-Kittel scaling relation [20]:

   (1.7)

The exact mathematical treatment of the perfect stripes model assumes that the DWs have zero or at least negligible thickness compared to the width of the domains. In reality, however, DWs do have a finite thickness δ, which depends on material constants. Scott rewrote the square root dependence as:

   (1.8)

where G is a dimensional parameter. This equation is useful to estimate DW thickness. When the square of the domain size is divided by the wall thickness as in Eq. (1.3), all ferric materials look the same, and researchers calculated the value as follows [21, 22]:

   (1.9)

where χx and χz are the in-plane susceptibility and out-of-plane susceptibility, respectively. Actually, the dependence on material properties is weak because they are inside a square root. The square root law will break down in certain circumstances where the size of the domains becomes comparable to the thickness of the film, so that the depolarization field is beyond the threshold [23].

1.4 Aurivillius phase Bi-layer structured films

The Aurivillius-phase ferroelectrics were first discovered in the late 1950s by Smolenskii's group, who studied a large number of the family members. The structure is a sandwich construction that consists of ABO3 perovskite blocks

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