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Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Testing
Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Testing
Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Testing
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Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Testing

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Covering both upstream and downstream oil and gas facilities, Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks delivers a must-have reference guide to maximize efficiency, increase performance, prevent failures, and reduce costs. Every engineer and equipment manager in oil and gas must have complete knowledge of the systems and equipment involved for each project and facility, especially the checklist to keep up with maintenance and inspection--a topic just as critical as design and performance. Taking the guesswork out of searching through a variety of generalized standards and codes, Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks furnishes all the critical regulatory information needed for oil and gas specific projects, saving time and money on maintaining the lifecycle of mechanical integrity of the oil and gas facility. Including troubleshooting techniques, calculations with examples, and several significant illustrations, this critical volume within the Surface Production Operations series is crucial on every oil and gas engineer’s bookshelf to solve day-to-day problems with common sense solutions.

  • Provides practical checklists and case studies for selection, installation, and maintenance on pressure vessels, heat transfer equipment, and storage tanks for all types of oil and gas facilities
  • Explains restoration techniques with detailed inspection and testing procedures, ensuring the equipment is revitalized to maximum life extension
  • Supplies comprehensive coverage on oil and gas specific American and European standards, codes and recommended practices, saving the engineer time searching for various publications
Release dateJul 22, 2021
Surface Production Operations: Volume 5: Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Testing
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Maurice Stewart

Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, a Registered Professional Engineer with over 40 years international consulting experience in project management; designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating, optimizing, retrofitting and troubleshooting oil, water and gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities; designing plant piping and pipeline systems, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, process equipment, and pumping and compression systems; and leading hazards analysis reviews and risk assessments.

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    Surface Production Operations - Maurice Stewart


    Surface Production Operations

    Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, and Aboveground Storage Tanks: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Testing

    First Edition

    Maurice Stewart

    Table of Contents

    Cover image

    Title page





    1: Engineering principles


    1.1: General overview

    1.2: Basic principles

    1.3: Stress analysis

    1.4: Discontinuity stresses

    1.5: Fatigue analysis

    1.6: Thermal stresses

    2: History and organization of codes


    2.1: Overview and objectives

    2.2: Pressure vessels and equipment

    2.3: History of pressure vessel codes in the United States

    2.4: Organization of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

    2.5: Organization of Code Committee

    2.6: Updating and interpreting the Code

    2.7: ASME Code stamps

    2.8: Organization of the ASME B31 Code for pressure piping

    2.9: Some other pressure vessel codes and standards in the United States

    2.10: Worldwide pressure vessel codes

    2.11: ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1 versus Division 2

    2.12: Design criteria, ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 1

    2.13: Design criteria, ASME Code, Section VIII, Division 2

    2.14: ASME Code, Section IX: Welding

    2.15: ASME Code, Section I, Power boilers

    2.16: Additional requirements employed by users in critical service

    3: Materials of construction


    3.1: Overview

    3.2: Material selection

    3.3: Nonferrous alloys

    3.4: Ferrous alloys

    3.5: Heat treatment of steels

    3.6: Brittle factors

    3.7: Hydrogen embrittlement

    4: Materials selection for pressure vessels


    4.1: Overview

    4.2: Selection of materials for service conditions

    4.3: Selection of materials to prevent brittle fracture

    4.4: Guidelines for preventing brittle fracture in existing equipment

    5: Mechanical design of pressure vessels


    5.1: Overview and objectives

    5.2: General considerations

    5.3: Owner’s, user’s, and manufacturer’s responsibilities

    5.4: Determining design conditions

    5.5: Mechanical design

    6: Fabrication, welding, and in-shop inspection


    6.1: Overview

    6.2: Plate materials

    6.3: Forming of shell and head components

    6.4: Nozzles

    6.5: Fabrication welds

    6.6: Welding processes and procedures

    6.7: In-shop inspection

    7: In-service inspection by nondestructive examination (NDE)


    7.1: Overview

    7.2: General considerations

    7.3: Design for inspection

    7.4: Code and jurisdiction requirements

    7.5: Forms of deterioration

    7.6: Analysis of in-service inspection data

    7.7: Fitness-for-service analysis

    7.8: Nondestructive examination techniques

    8: Repair, alteration, and re-rating


    8.1: Overview

    8.2: Code and jurisdiction requirements

    8.3: Repairs

    8.4: Alteration

    8.5: Re-rating

    9: Heat transfer theory


    9.1: Overview

    9.2: Objectives

    9.3: What is a heat exchanger?

    9.4: Fouling

    9.5: Process specification

    9.6: Information needed for specifying work

    9.7: Deliverables from the supplier

    9.8: Evaluating designs

    9.9: Economic pressure drop and velocity

    9.10: Basic heat transfer theory

    10: Heat exchanger configurations


    10.1: Overview

    10.2: Shell-and-tube exchangers

    10.3: Double pipe exchangers

    10.4: Plate-fin exchangers

    10.5: Plate-and-frame exchangers

    10.6: Indirect-fired heaters

    10.7: Direct-fired heaters

    10.8: Air-cooled exchangers

    10.9: Cooling towers

    10.10: Other types of heat exchangers

    10.11: Heat exchanger selection guidelines

    11: Tubular heat exchanger inspection, maintenance, and repair


    11.1: Overview

    11.2: Asian, European, and North American Nondestructive Testing Societies and related organizations

    11.3: Evaluating and inspecting heat exchangers

    11.4: Tubular exchanger inspections

    11.5: Most likely locations of corrosion

    11.6: Shop work

    11.7: Shop inspection

    11.8: Nondestruction examination

    11.9: Minor repairs

    11.10: Major repairs

    11.11: Hydrostatic leak testing

    11.12: Hydrostatic leak testing

    11.13: Baffles and tube sheets

    11.14: Heat exchanger bundle removal

    11.15: Bundle removal procedures

    11.16: Tube bundle removal

    11.17: Shell repair

    11.18: Heat treatment

    11.19: Double-pipe exchangers

    11.20: Inspection and repair of exchanger parts

    11.21: Exchanger alteration

    11.22: Quality control inspections

    12: Heat exchanger materials considerations


    12.1: Component materials

    12.2: Minimum pressurizing temperature

    12.3: Sacrificial anodes

    12.4: Insulation

    13: Above ground storage tanks


    13.1: Objectives

    13.2: Functions of an oil terminal

    13.3: Storage tanks

    13.4: Other storage facilities

    13.5: Measurements of above ground storage tanks

    13.6: Samples (Refer to Fig. 13.78)

    13.7: Common tank problems and possible solutions

    14: Selection of tank materials


    14.1: Overview

    14.2: Selection of materials for service conditions

    14.3: Typical tank materials considerations

    15: Tank design


    15.1: Objectives

    15.2: General design considerations

    15.3: Basic data

    15.4: Tank sizing

    15.5: Safe oil height (SOH) and LPO determination

    15.6: Bottom design

    15.7: Shell design

    15.8: Seismic and wind design

    15.9: Roof design

    16: Foundations


    16.1: Objectives

    16.2: Soil considerations

    16.3: Foundation design and secondary containment

    17: Fabrication and construction


    17.1: General considerations

    17.2: Foundation

    17.3: Site construction

    17.4: Erection considerations

    17.5: Bottom construction

    17.6: Shell construction

    17.7: Roof considerations

    17.8: Site construction

    17.9: Erection sequence

    17.10: General considerations

    18: Inspection and testing


    18.1: Inspection philosophy

    18.2: Inspection frequency

    18.3: Inspection and testing techniques

    18.4: Records

    18.5: Tank inspection checklists

    19: Fire protection


    19.1: General considerations

    19.2: Common causes of fires

    19.3: Design considerations for fire fighting

    19.4: Location and spacing

    19.5: Drainage and impounding

    19.6: Fire suppression systems

    19.7: Design requirements

    20: Maintenance and repairs


    20.1: General considerations

    20.2: Out-of-service replacement or repairs

    20.3: In-service repairs

    20.4: Specific considerations

    Appendix A: Design calculations for an aboveground welded steel storage tank

    A.1: Aboveground welded steel storage tank design

    Appendix B: Design of a concrete ringwall foundation

    B.1: Concrete ringwall foundation design example

    Appendix C: Design of a crushed stone (gravel) ringwall foundation

    C.1: Crushed stone ringwall foundation design

    Appendix D: Design of a pile supported concrete slab foundation

    D.1: Pile-supported concrete slab design



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    Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

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    ISBN: 978-0-12-803722-5

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    Publisher: Joe Hayton

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    Typeset by SPi Global, India


    This book is dedicated to my wife, Eli, and son, Chad, for their enduring support, patience, and tolerance throughout the preparation of this book; and in memory of my parents Maurice and Bessie Stewart.

    Maurice I. Stewart Jr., PE, PhD


    Maurice I. Stewart, Jr., PE, PhD

    I wrote this book with the intention of providing facility engineers, process engineers, petroleum engineers, senior field operations personnel, and managers with a starting point for addressing pressure vessel, heat exchanger, and aboveground storage tank selection, design, construction, testing, troubleshooting, and repair tasks.

    Engineering curricula for mechanical and chemical engineers provide students with a basic understanding of the thermodynamics, thermal design, fluid mechanics, and stress analysis of surface production equipment. However, for the most part, the curricula doesn’t deal with the day-to-day needs of the practicing professional. This book is an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap by providing the necessary information for the day-to-day needs of the practicing engineer. This book begins by covering fundamental principles and then proceeds to address more advanced principles, such as the effects of wind and seismic loads in susceptible areas.

    Practicing engineers responsible for selecting/designing surface production equipment frequently have information scattered among numerous books, periodicals, journals, and old notes. Then, when faced with a particular problem, they spend hours researching its solution only to discover the execution may have been rather simple. This book is an attempt to eliminate those hours of research by providing guidance as to the problems most frequently encountered in the selection, design, troubleshooting, testing and repair of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and aboveground storage tanks.

    This book makes no claim to originality other than that of the format. The material is organized in the most concise and functionally useful manner. Whenever possible, credit has been given to the original sources. Although every effort has been made to obtain the most accurate data and solutions, it is the nature of engineering that certain simplifying assumptions be made. Example problems should be viewed in this light, and where judgments are required, they should be made with due consideration.

    Many experienced facility engineers will have already performed many of the calculations outlined in this book but will find the approach herein slightly different. All procedures have been developed and proven, using actual design problems. The procedures are easily repeatable to ensure consistency of execution. They also can be modified to incorporate changes in Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and requirements of the Authorities having Jurisdiction. Everything required for the solution of an individual problem is contained in the procedure.

    This book may be used directly to solve problems, as a guideline, as a logical approach to problems, or as a check to alternative design methods. If more detailed solutions are required, the approach shown can be amplified where required. The user of this book should be advised that any code formulas or references should always be checked against the latest editions of Codes, that is, ASME Section VIII, Division 1 and Division 2, API 510, API 650, API 653, API 620, and API 2000. These codes are continually updated and revised to incorporate the latest available data.

    1 am indebted to my many friends and colleagues for their help and advice to make this book possible and invite any suggestions readers may make concerning corrections or additions.


    Maurice I. Stewart, Jr., PE, PhD, Stewart Training and Consulting (STC), LLC

    This book is essentially a summary of the knowledge accumulated by the author with more than 45 years as a facility engineer practicing in the upstream and midstream oil and gas industry. I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation and gratitude to my many friends, colleagues, and mentors for providing invaluable learning opportunities.

    In 20