The new and powerful methodology of participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) is gaining wide use amongst international development agencies and research institutions around the world. PM&E brings together both researchers and stakeholders, such as farmers, government officials, and extension workers, to monitor and assess development activities. This book is the first to reflect upon the introduction, implementation, and assessment of a PM&E training program. It documents a PM&E training process in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, China, illustrating how PM&E can strengthen the learning and accountability of research teams and, consequently, the effectiveness of their research work. Using concrete examples, this book shows that it is not only what is being assessed that matters, but also who is doing the assessment and for whom the assessments are intended.