This book surveys Britain’s foreign policy since 1870. Conventional accounts emphasise the rulers’ benevolent rhetoric: I present the evidence that refutes this liberal view. Britain’s economy is the key to understanding its foreign policy: capitalism generates a conflict-ridden foreign policy. The rulers’ focus has been external. This has damaged relations with other countries, and produced the two recurring types of wars: wars between empires and wars against national liberation.British governments have represented the minority who own the means of production and opposed the great majority who have to work for a living, who constitute Britain.