Communism collapsed in Russia in December, 1991 and was replaced by a rambunctious democracy overseen by Boris Yeltsin. Yeltsin achieved a great deal as a wrecker of the old order, but lacked the temperament and good health to bring about a successful economy and workable democracy demanded by Russian citizens. Since becoming President of Russia through appointment, Vladimir Putin has brought order out of chaos and prosperity for increasing numbers out of penury. This book explores the steps Putin and Medvedev have taken to reach this mark in the Russian journey towards peace and prosperity; and whether and to what extent they have sacrificed democracy along the way. Perhaps there is no direct path from Russia in its present state to the Russia of peace and prosperity. The Author has reviewed new and developing ideas floated by the Russian leaders to mark their proposed path forward. Putin wants to make Russia a modern country and in doing so provide a successful fight against crime and corruption. He and Medvedev, both of whom are graduate lawyers, say they want to strengthen the rule of law. Putin also is seeking acceptance of a new political concept called sovereign democracy which is a form approved by a country’s own internal electorate, but not necessarily by any other country. They want to continue to wrest control of national assets from the oligarchs which they propose to operate for the benefit of the nation as a whole under a system call State Capitalism. Many of the objectives sought by Putin and Medvedev sound a lot like communism and a command economy. This book will discuss the significance of these totalitarian detours from the road toward democracy.