PROJECT REPORT ( N.T.P.C.

BADARPUR, NEW DELHI )
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT OF THE COURSE OF B.TECH.) UNDERTAKEN AT

N.T.P.C. BADARPUR, NEW DELHI FROM: 18th JUNE to 11th August, 2007

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mrs. RACHNA SINGH Ashutosh Kumar N.T.P.C. Badarpur B.Tech 3rd Year Electrical Engineering JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION (NOIDA) TABLE OF CONTENT Certificate Acknowledgement Training at BTPS 1. Introduction ¨ NTPC ¨ Badarpur Thermal Power Station 2. Operation 3. Control & Instrumentation ¨ Manometry Lab ¨ Protection and interlock Lab ¨ Automation Lab ¨ Water Treatment Plant ¨ Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System ¨ Electronic Test Lab 4. Electrical Maintenance Division-I ¨ HT/LT Switch Gear ¨ HT/LT Motors, Turbine & Boilers Side ¨ CHP/NCHP 5. Electrical Maintenance Division-II

¨ Generator ¨ Transformer & Switchyard ¨ Protection ¨ Lighting ¨ EP CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that------------------------- student of Batch Electrical & Electronics Branch IIIrd Year; Sky line Institute of Engineering & Technology Noida has successfully completed his industrial training at Badarpur Thermal power station New Delhi for eight week from 18th June to 11th august 2007 He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him.

Training Incharge BTPS/NTPC NEW DELHI

Acknowledgement

With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Mrs. Rachna Singh for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS/NTPC for their co-operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working

under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training in charge of Skyline Institute of Engineering & Technology Gr. Noida and all the faculty member of Electrical & Electronics department for their effort of constant co-operation. Which have been significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.

Training at BTPS I was appointed to do eight-week training at this esteemed organization from 18th June to 11th august 2007. In these eight weeks I was assigned to visit various division of the plant which were 1. 2. 3. 4. Operation Control and instrumentation (C&I) Electrical maintenance division I (EMD-I) Electrical maintenance division II (EMD-II)

This eight-week training was a very educational adventure for me. It was really amazing to see the plant by your self and learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements of life, is produced. This report has been made by self-experience at BTPS. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbooks, senior student report, and trainer manual provided by training department. The specification & principles are at learned by me from the employee of each division of BTPS.

ABOUT NTPC

NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. A public sector company, it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others hold the balance 10.5%. With in a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

POWER GENERATION IN INDIA

NTPC‟s core business is engineering, construction and operation of power generating plants. It also provides consultancy in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 27,904 MW through its 15 coal based (22,895 MW), 7 gas based (3,955 MW) and 4 Joint Venture Projects (1,054 MW). NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd. (SPSCL). This JV Company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur (120 MW), Rourkela (120 MW) and Bhilai (74 MW). NTPC also has 28.33% stake in Ratnagiri Gas & Power Private Limited (RGPPL) a joint venture company between NTPC, GAIL, Indian Financial Institutions and Maharashtra SEB Co Ltd. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country.. NTPC is committed to the environment, generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utilization. In 1991, it set up Ash Utilization Division A "Centre for Power Efficiency and Environment Protection (CENPEEP)" has been established in NTPC with the assistance of United States Agency for International Development. (USAID). Cenpeep is efficiency oriented, eco-friendly and eco-nurturing initiative - a symbol of NTPC's concern towards environmental protection and continued commitment to sustainable power development in India. As a responsible corporate citizen, NTPC is making constant efforts to improve the socioeconomic status of the people affected by its projects. Through its Rehabilitation and Resettlement programmes, the company endeavors to improve the overall socio economic status Project Affected Persons. NTPC was among the first Public Sector Enterprises to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Government in 1987-88. NTPC has been placed under the 'Excellent category' (the best category) every year since the MOU system became operative.

Therefore. Amongst the guiding principles adopted in the document are company's proactive approach to environment. the Ministry of Environment and Forests had prepared a draft Environment Policy (NEP) and the Ministry of Power along with NTPC actively participated in the deliberations of the draft NEP. all NTPC power stations have been certified for ISO 14001 & OHSAS 18001 by reputed national and international Certifying Agencies. In order to ensure that NTPC comply with all the stipulated environment norms. Pollution Control systems: While deciding the appropriate technology for its projects. Electrostatic Precipitators: The ash left behind after combustion of coal is arrested in high efficiency Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP‟s) and particulate emission is controlled well within the stipulated norms. occupational health and safety areas. adoption of latest technologies and continual environment improvement. The organization has pursued the Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001 and the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment System OHSAS 18001 at its different establishments. NTPC integrates many environmental provisions into the plant design. optimum utilization of equipment. As a result of pursuing these practices. Environment Policy & Environment Management System Driven by its commitment for sustainable growth of power. thereby minimizing waste. The policy also envisages efficient utilization of resources. maintenance of ecological balance and a pristine environment has been of utmost importance to NTPC. maximizing ash utilization and providing green belt all around the plant for maintaining ecological balance. Occupational Health and Safety Systems: NTPC has actively gone for adoption of best international practices on environment. NTPC brought out a comprehensive document entitled "NTPC Environment Policy and Environment Management System". The ash collected in the ESP‟s is disposed to Ash Ponds in slurry form. The NEP 2006 has since been approved by the Union Cabinet in May 2006. various state-of-the-art pollution control systems / devices as discussed below have been installed to control air and water pollution. It has been taking various measures discussed below for mitigation of environment pollution due to power generation. NTPC Environment Policy: As early as in November 1995. National Environment Policy: At the national level. NTPC has evolved a well defined environment management policy and sound environment practices for minimizing environmental impact arising out of setting up of power plants and preserving the natural ecology.Harmony between man and environment is the essence of healthy life and growth. Flue Gas Stacks: . Environment Management.

Low-NOXBurners: In gas based NTPC power stations. NTPC has set up a unique system for dry ash collection and disposal facility with Ash Mound formation. The ash water recycling system has already been installed and is in operation at Ramagundam. Rihand. as a proactive measure. This helps in savings of fresh water requirements for transportation of ash from the plant. the effluent from ash pond is circulated back to the station for further ash sluicing to the ash pond. Portland pozzolana cement. etc. The scheme has helped stations to save huge quantity of fresh water required as make-up water for disposal of ash. coal dust and oil are removed from the effluents emanating from the Coal Handling Plant (CHP).). in a number of NTPC stations. concrete. Ash Dykes & Ash Disposal systems: Ash ponds have been provided at all coal based stations except Dadri where Dry Ash Disposal System has been provided. The discharged effluents conform to standards specified by CPCB and the same is regularly monitored. coal yard and Fuel Oil Handling areas before discharge into ETP. DE & DS Systems: Dust Extraction (DE) and Dust Suppression (DS) systems have been installed in all coal fired power stations in NTPC to contain and extract the fugitive dust released in the Coal Handling Plant (CHP). This helps in reduction in thermal pollution and conservation of fresh water. Cooling Towers: Cooling Towers have been provided for cooling the hot Condenser cooling water in closed cycle Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) Systems. At its Dadri Power Station. Neutralisation Pits: Neutralisation pits have been provided in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) for pH correction of the effluents before discharge into Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for further treatment and use. Ash Ponds have been divided into lagoons and provided with garlanding arrangements for change over of the ash slurry feed points for even filling of the pond and for effective settlement of the ash particles. Dry Ash Extraction System (DAES): Dry ash has much higher utilization potential in ash-based products (such as bricks. DAES has . Coal Settling Pits / Oil Settling Pits: In these Pits. Ash Water Recycling System (AWRS) has been provided. NOX etc) into the atmosphere. Kahalgaon. In the AWRS. NOx emissions are controlled by provision of Low-NOx Burners (dry or wet type) and in coal fired stations. Talcher Kaniha. This has been envisaged for the first time in Asia which has resulted in progressive development of green belt besides far less requirement of land and less water requirement as compared to the wet ash disposal system. Ash Water Recycling System: Further. Korba and Vindhyachal. by adopting best combustion practices.Tall Flue Gas Stacks have been provided for wide dispersion of the gaseous emissions (SOX. aerated autoclaved concrete blocks. Talcher Thermal. Ash in slurry form is discharged into the lagoons where ash particles get settled from the slurry and clear effluent water is discharged from the ash pond. Simhadri.

Jhanor Gandhar. the company has constituted different groups at project. Faridabad.been installed at Unchahar. the effluents are sent to the ETP for further treatment. treated effluents of STPs are being used for horticulture purpose. At several stations. Vindhyachal. Environmental Reviews are carried out at all operating stations and remedial measures have been taken wherever necessary. In a number of NTPC projects modern type STPs with Clarifloculators. Talcher Thermal. Dadri. service water drains etc. Talcher Kaniha and BTPS. Ramagundam. After primary treatment at the source of their generation. Singrauli. The effluent quality is monitored regularly and treated effluent conforming to the prescribed limit is discharged from the station. sludge drying beds. floor washings. Condensate Polishing Unit (CPU) effluent. look after various environmental issues of the individual station. Singrauli. . Simhadri. The Environment Management Group. regional and Corporate Centre level to carry out specific environment related functions. Environment Management and Ash Utilisation Groups established at each station. Gas Collection Chambers etc have been provided to improve the effluent quality. Simhadri. Environment Reviews: To maintain constant vigil on environmental compliance. Mechanical Agitators.g. NTPC has implemented such systems in a number of its power stations such as Ramagundam. Coal Handling Plant (CHP) effluent. Rihand. Vindhyachal. Farakka. Kahalgaon. a number of retrofit and up-gradation measures have been undertaken at different stations. Ash Utilisation Group and Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection (CENPEEP) function from the Corporate Centre and initiate measures to mitigate the impact of power project implementation on the environment and preserve ecology in the vicinity of the projects. Korba. Environmental Institutional Set-up: Realizing the importance of protection of the environment with speedy development of the power sector. These plants have helped to control quality and quantity of the effluents discharged from the stations. Kayamkulam. Kahalgaon and Talcher Kaniha. As a feedback and follow-up of these Environmental Reviews. Liquid Waste Treatment Plants & Management System: The objective of industrial liquid effluent treatment plant (ETP) is to discharge lesser and cleaner effluent from the power plants to meet environmental regulations. Such periodic Environmental Reviews and extensive monitoring of the facilities carried out at all stations have helped in compliance with the environmental norms and timely renewal of the Air and Water Consents. Farakka. Korba. The scheme involves collection of various effluents and their appropriate treatment centrally and re-circulation of the treated effluent for various plant uses. The composite liquid effluent treatment plant has been designed to treat all liquid effluents which originate within the power station e. Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Sewage Treatment Plants & Facilities: Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) sewage treatment facilities have been provided at all NTPC stations to take care of Sewage Effluent from Plant and township areas.

NTPC is conscious of its role in the national endeavour of mitigating energy poverty. lead acid batteries. oil & clarifier sludge. BioMedical wastes get generated in power plant areas. Lay out of Employee‟s . electricial scrap. C&I wastes. These wastes fall either under hazardous wastes category or non-hazardous wastes category as per classification given in Government of India‟s notification on Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 1989 (as amended on 06. With the massive expansion of power generation. higher capacity Units of size of 660 MW and advanced Steam Generators employing super critical steam parameters have already been implemented as a green field project. fused lamps & tubes. other lead bearing wastes (such as garkets etc.2003). asbestos packing. Higher efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Power Plants are already under operation at all gas-based power projects in NTPC. canteen (bio-degradable) wastes. plant hospital and the townships of projects. rubber products. used photo-chemicals.). paper. metal scrap. glass wool. At Sipat. The wastes generated are a number of solid and hazardous wastes like used oils & waste oils. silica gel. fire resistant fluids etc.2000 & 20. NTPC has initiated a techno-economic study under USDOE / USAID for setting up a commercial scale demonstration power plant by using IGCC technology. Advanced / Eco-friendly Technologies NTPC has gained expertise in operation and management of 200 MW and 500 MW Units installed at different Stations all over the country and is looking ahead for higher capacity Unit sizes with super critical steam parameters for higher efficiencies and for associated environmental gains.Up gradation & retrofitting of Pollution Control Systems: Waste Management Various types of wastes such as Municipal or domestic wastes. These plants can use low-grade coals and have higher efficiency as compared to conventional plants. Advanced clean coal technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) have higher efficiencies of the order of 45% as compared to about 38% for conventional plants.05. Handling and management of these wastes in NTPC stations have been discussed below. buidling material wastes. e-waste. empty cylinders (refillable). used resin.01. hazardous wastes. NTPC is committed to provide affordable and sustainable power in increasingly larger quantity. there is also growing awareness among all concerned to keep the pollution under control and preserve the health and quality of the natural environment in the vicinity of the power stations. grease. heralding economic prosperity and thereby contributing towards India‟s emergence as a major global economy.

Overall Power Generation Installed Capacity Generation No.14 2006-07 26. ABOUT BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION .6 84.16 159.7 130.1 133.8 81. OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COAL BASED NTPC STATIONS Unit 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 Generation BU 106.20 76.34 86.54 89.43 Availability % 85.54 81.86 149.2 109.06 88.585 4.4 87.36 90.09 Factor The energy conservation parameters like specific oil consumption and auxiliary power consumption have also shown considerable improvement over the years.11 170.51 87.74 % of increase 56.350 1.375 7.5 118.88.2 140.8 91. of employees Generation/employee Unit MW MUs No.29 3.95 The table below shows the detailed operational performance of coal based stations over the years.88 188.60 80.8 88.1 83.609 23.39 81.7 88.20 89.03 89. MUs 1997-98 16.674 24.40 93.847 97.91 90.67 PLF % 75.

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These fuel gases heat energy to the various super heaters and finally through air pre heaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. This ash is mixed with the water to from slurry is pumped to ash period. This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold mixture P. this coal is taken to the raw coal bunkers with the help of conveyor belts. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is super heated (540 degree Celsius) and finally it goes to the turbine. This fan takes atmospheric air. Water from the drum passes through the down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. The second ring turns the shaft as a result of force of steam. Coal is then transported to bowl mills by coal feeders where it is pulverized and ground in the powered form.A fan. Stop valves and controls valves are located in steam chest and governor driven from main turbine shaft operates the control valves the amount used. a part of which is sent to pre heaters while a part goes to the mill for temperature control. where it passes through the ring of blades fixed to the cylinder wall.H. The stationary and moving blades together. . Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Steam from controlled valves enter high pressure cylinder of turbines. The steam from boiler is conveyed to turbine through the steam pipes and through stop valve and control valve that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on the disc secured in the turbine shaft. Atmospheric air from F.I was assigned to do training in operation division from 18th June 2007 to 23rd June 2007 ELECTRICITY FROM COAL Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded with the help of wagon tipplers in the C.P. which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F. Fuel gases from the furnace are extracted from the induced draft fan. This steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is sent to super heaters for super heating.D fan.D fan in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Due to heat density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum .

85 lag 2600 A 310 V 3000 rpm 50 Hz 0.MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection Number of terminals brought out 24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A 0.49 98.4% Anti Clockwise Double Star 9( 6 neutral and 3 phase) MAIN TURBINE DATA Rated output of Turbine Rated speed of turbine Rated pressure of steam before emergency Stop valve rated live steam temperature Rated steam temperature after reheat at inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition 210 MW 3000 rpm 130 kg/cm^2 535 degree Celsius 535 degree Celsius 670 tons/hour .

65.49. like nuclear energy.24.645.55. Such power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. gravitational potential energy or heat energy (derived from the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy. Three-phase transmission line 3.Rated quantity of circulating water through condenser 1. While POWER STATION prevails in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom. For cooling water temperature (degree Celsius) 1. Cooling water pump 2.99.662 19.5.9.67.33 23.Reheated steam pressure at inlet of interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2.24.82 68.21.7 THERMAL POWER PLANT A Thermal Power Station comprises all of the equipment and a subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an electrical generator. Some prefer to use the term ENERGY CENTER because such facilities convert forms of energy. Step up transformer .Steam flow required for 210 MW in ton/hour 3.652. However.24.27.4. POWER PLANT is the most common term in the united state. Typical diagram of a coal fired thermal power station 1.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine in mm of Hg 27000 cm/hour 24.30.

Coal pulverizer 15. boiler steam drum 16. petroleum refineries. A Three phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single phase. or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities . Smaller towers are normally factory built. Chemical plants. Induced draught(draft) fan 25. Cooling towers Cooling Towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambivalent web-bulb air temperature. Reheater 20. Super heater 18. The tower vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter.4. Combustion air intake 21. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used to power motors and many other devices. Economizer 22. Bottom ash hoper 17. . Boiler feed water pump 7. Fuel gas stack The description of some of the components written above is described as follows: 1. The primary use of large . Forced draught(draft) fan 19. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. 2. while larger ones are constructed on site. Air preheater 23. Coal hopper 14. Low pressure steam 6.Three phase transmission line Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forced-draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants. Electrical Generator 5. Precipitator 24. for example. Coal conveyor 13. High pressure steam turbine 11. Intermediate pressure steam turbine 9. Steam control valve 10. Surface condenser 8. industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants . petrochemical and chemical plants. power plants and building cooling. Deaerator Feed water heater 12.

to 2.500. At the power station. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. which produce electricity. the “household” voltage).Electrical generator An Electrical generator is a device that converts kinetic energy to electrical energy. Electrical power station use large stem turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 86%) of the world‟s electricity.e. three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes . all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. In a three phase system the phases are spaced equally. the output of this transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase-neutral voltage.As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents. compressors and other shaft driven equipment . the other two current are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of one cycle of the electrical current. Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators. . This allows for 240 V three phase as well as three different single phase voltages( 120 V between two of the phases and neutral .000.two phase. and have a 4-pole generator rather than the more common 2-pole one. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in „Boilers‟ or „steam generators‟ as they are sometimes called. At the power station. The current are sinusoidal functions of time. water falling through the turbine are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. Another system commonly seen in North America is to have a delta connected secondary with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral. transformers: step-up” this voltage to one more suitable for transmission. 208 V between the third phase ( known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240 V between any two phase) to be available from the same supply. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (i.000 hp(1. or direct current system at the same voltage.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. Most large nuclear sets rotate at half those speeds. This delay between “phases” has the effect of giving constant power transfer over each cycle of the current and also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. giving a phase separation of one-third one cycle. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems. These centralized stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. Taking one conductor as the reference. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their-generators . 3. The task of converting the electrical energy into mechanical energy is accomplished by using a motor. generally using electromagnetic induction.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. Where the step-down is 3 phase.000 volts. In a three phase system. The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be three phase.

which produces the electrical energy. In either case. to force the water into the boiler. Most of the heat liberated due to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser. As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage. or its discharge is blocked). Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. the pump is activated. which increases the amount heat available for conversion to mechanical power. its supply has been cut off or exhausted. the second stage will be triggered. In this situation. In thermal plants. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator. which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. trigger an alarm. The turbine normally consists of several stage with each stages consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy into forces. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating). the primary purpose of surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. the pump was often powered using a small steam engine that ran using the steam produced by the boiler. . By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.Boiler feed water pump A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into a steam boiler. of course. 5. I f the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed.through the turbine. Construction and operation Feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. A means had to be provided. to put the initial charge of water into the boiler(before steam power was available to operate the steam-powered feed water pump). This is usually accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. no crankshaft was required. though. or both. the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered liquid level in the boiler is substantially increased.the pump was often a positive displacement pump that had steam valves and cylinders at one end and feed water cylinders at the other end. caused by pressure drop. 4. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. the steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased. Steam-powered pumps Steam locomotives and the steam engines used on ships and stationary applications such as power plants also required feed water pumps.

Deaerator A Dearator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases (an alternate would be the use of water treatment chemicals) from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. hydraulic or pneumatic systems 7. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. feed water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. The pulleys are powered. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility‟s associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water). Conveyor belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material. If operated properly. and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases. 9. Control valves Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature. In a steam power (usually modeled as a modified Ranking cycle). The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. Feed water heater A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. A Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam. coal. such as grain.flow. with a continuous loop of material.pressure. ores etc.[4] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduces back into the steam cycle.and liquid Level by fully partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a “set point” to a “process variable” whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys. . A dearator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration boiler feed water tank. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversible involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. most deaerator vendors will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.the level by regulating condensate flow and the pressure by regulating steam flow.the conveyor Belt – that rotates about them. Pulverizer A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant.6. Under some conditions it may give to stress corrosion cracking. particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. condensate.005 cm3/L) 8.

The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super heater. A steam drum is used in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. Air Preheater . Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection. Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine. and heating. 11. and so stationary steam engines including power stations.4MPa). water level indicator and fuse plug. up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the “hotter”-water/and saturated –steam into steam drum. Modern day boilers. 12. ventilating and air conditioning. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam. power plant. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390‟C and pressure well above 350psi (2. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam. or in the UK economizer. are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Green‟s original design. such as those in cold fired power stations. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boiler‟s efficiency. Economizers Economizer. economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids . Boiler Steam Drum Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). Boiler. while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud-drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve. In boilers. are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption. Super Heater A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input . Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. usually water. 13.10. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . and were widely adopted. to most steam vehicles.

nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESP‟s to stay in operation for years at a time. restaurants . hotels or other stacks are referred to as chimneys. today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached . wood or any other large combustion device. 14. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed. including smoke from electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired). As a consequence. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing. Fuel gases are produced when coal. so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations. channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. Precipitator An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall. . combustion in a boiler). the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. carbon mono oxide. Fuel gas stack A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney.Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices. salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills. Transformer –rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. 15. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack. The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. oil. ESP‟s continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions. up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more. When the fuel gases exhausted from stoves. fireplaces or other small sources within residential abodes. maximizing corona production. a vertical pipe. and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application. and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates matter. avoiding damage to the components. ovens. natural gas.

6. MANOMETRY LAB PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB AUTOMATION LAB WATER TREATEMENT LAB FURNACE SAFETY SUPERVISORY SYSTEM(FSSS) ELECTRONICS TEST LAB This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by . 4. 3.C&I (CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION) I was assigned to do training in control and instrumentation from 25th June 2007 to 14th July 2007 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. 2. 5. It has following labs: 1.

1 PROTECTION AND INTERLOCK LAB 5. Its one end is fixed. current. 2. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. all fall under this. (b) Helical Type: for High pressure measurement. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit. It is filled with a liquid.3 BOURDEN PRESSURE GAUGE It‟s an oval section tube. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs.the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry. When a fault occurs and any one of the tripping is satisfied a signal is sent to the relay. 5. 5. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Some of the instrument uses for protection are: 1. phase angle and velocity. in U shape.2 MANOMETER It‟s a tube which is bent.1 TRANSMITTERS It is used for pressure measurements of gases and liquids. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale.1 INTERLOCKING It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. 5. which melts when heavy current flows . Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE.1. RELAY It is a protective device. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage. It is of 2 types: (a) Spiral type: for Low pressure measurement. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. which trips the circuit.0 MANOMETRY LAB 5. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC.0. its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. 5.0.0.

SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP 5. In consists of current carrying contacts. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault.THERMAL TRIP . c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.415 KV A. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.C supply. 2.1. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails.2 MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER They are used with combination of the control circuits to. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping.3 ROTECTION AND INTERLOCK SYSTEM 1.C supply. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0. 5. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. one movable and other fixed. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them.MANUAL TRIP . As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time.1. .through it and thus breaks the circuit. There are three types of .

The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. the laws of electronic state that it can be any where between 12V and 35V in the plant. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. Earlier. 5. However. (2) ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. Another point is the universality of the supply.2 AUTOMATION LAB This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. This is an important part in the plant. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. the old technology dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. (3) THERMOCOUPLES This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. (4) RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR) It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. All the control instruments are excited by 24V supply (4-20mA) because voltage can be mathematically handled with ease therefore all control systems use voltage system for computation. The latest technology is the use of „ETHERNET‟ for control signals.4 FURNACE SAFETY AND SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders . the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks.3 PYROMETER LAB (1) LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices). 5. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Then the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. It is made up of mild steel. pressure the control circuits can easily be designed with single chips having multiple applications. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills.5. Once the measured is common i. In this lab. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured.e.

6 ANNUNCIATIN CARDS They are used to keep any parameter like temperature etc. to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace. It gets a signal if parameter goes beyond limit. which changes with its energy content. This Chapter Seeks to provide a basic understanding of the prevalent instruments used for measuring the above parameters. Rise of temperature in a substance is due to the resultant increase in molecular activity of the substance on application of heat. 2. which threatens to blast it. Pressure. Level and Flow. Transmitter converts mV to mA. It has a switching transistor connected to relay that helps in alerting the UCB. Temperature Measurement The most important parameter in thermal power plant is temperature and its measurement plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. The change may be observed with substance itself or in a subsidiary system in thermodynamic equilibrium. Temperature. It extracts the magnetic portion. 5. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes.Controlling device may be designed incorporating in its construction the principle that some metals expand more than others .but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. Expansion Thermometer Solid Rod Thermometers a temperature sensing . It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes. within limits. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation. Therefore there exists some property of the substance. which is called testing body and the system itself is called the hot body. Control and Instrumentation Control and Instrumentation Measuring Instrumentsments In any process the philosophy of instrumentation should provide a comprehensive intelligence feed back on the important parameters viz. cards auto analyzers etc. integrated circuits. which increases the internal energy of the material.5 ELECTRONICS LAB This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. 39. 5.

for the same temperature range. . Such a device is the thermostat used with water heaters (Refer Fig. 69).

"Float Operated Dial" is used for small tanks and congested areas. (Refer Fig No. is then filled with nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas at a sufficiently high pressure to prevent boiling at the highest temperature to which the thermometer may be used. This bulb plus the bore above the mercury. This fact is obvious by the delicate nature of glass also the position of the measuring element is not always the best position to read the result. Types of Hg in Steel Thermometers are: Bourdon Tube Most common and simplest type (Refer Fig. The liquid level will be the same as that in the vessel. thus eliminating backlash and lost motion? Linkages. Mercury in Steel the range of liquid in glass thermometers although quite large.-69 Rod Type Thermostat The mercury will occupy a greater fraction of the volume of the container than it will at a low temperature. The float arm is connected to a quadrant and pinion which rotates the pointer over a scale. Under normal atmospheric conditions mercury normally boils at a temperature of (347°C). Valves are provided for isolation and blow down. Pointer may be mounted direct on end of helix Which rotates. "Float with Gauge Post" is normally used to local indication on closed or open vessels. 71) Spiral type More sensitive and used where compactness is necessary Helical Type Most sensitive and compact. To extend the range of mercury in glass thermometer beyond this point the top end of a thermometer bore opens into a bulb which is many times larger in capacity than the bore.Fig No.77) Dewrance Critical Pressure Gauge Measurement of Level Direct Methods 'Sight Glass' is used for local indication on closed or open vessels. does not lend itself to all industrial practices. . which only allow the pointer to operate over a selected range of pressure to either side of the normal steam pressure. A sight glass is a tube of toughened glass connected at both ends through packed unions and vessel.

Bourden Pressure Gauge a Bourdon pressure gauge calibrated in any fact head is often connected to a tank at or near the datum level. The working principle is the same as that of a manometer one limp of a U-tube is connected to the tank. A pressure change created by the movement of a diaphragm is proportional to a change in liquid level above the diaphragm. the static head must be allowed in the design of the manometer. the other being open to atmosphere. and where the manometer is at a different level to the vessel. 'Diaphragm Type' is used for remote level indication in open tanks or docks etc. The manometer liquid must not mix with the liquid in the vessel. "Mercury Manometer" is used for remote indication of liquid level.the liquid pressure on the diaphragm increases . This consists of a cylindrical box with a rubber or plastic diaphragm across its open end as the level increases .

a fluid passing a given point at a given . quantity of flow and rate of flow. 'Quantity of flow' is the quantity of fluid passing a given point in a given time. at a reasonable distance and above or below. a capsule filled with an inert gas under a slight pressure is exposed to the pressure due to the head of liquid and is connected by a capillary to an indicator. The pressure exerted inside an open ended tube below the surface of a liquid is proportional to the depth of the liquid The Measurement of Flow Two principle measurements are made by flow meters viz. i. a spring loaded valve automatically shutting off the tapping point. gallons or pounds. Air Purge System This system provides the simplest means of obtaining an indication of level.e. In this type. the liquid being measured. Sealed Capsule Type The application and principle is the same as for the diaphragm box. „Rate of flow' is the speed of. This pressure is transmitted via a capillary tube to an indicator or recorder incorporating a pressure Measuring element.and the air inside is compressed. or volume. In some cases the capsule is fitted external to the tank and is so arranged that it can be removed whilst the tank is still full.

e. Usually of pipe sizes 3" to 10" Typical example is the Kent Torrent Meter. containing a piston made of ebonite. Rotating Oscillating Piston Type This is also a positive type device and is used for measuring low and medium quantity flows. which measure flow by transferring a measured quantity of fluid from the inlet to the outlet. domestic water supplies. It consists of Two fluted rotors mounted in a liquid tight case fluid flow and transmitted to a counter.000 gallons per hour can be measured. or the bottom of the notch will be a measure of the rate of flow. which measures the velocity of the flow and the volume passed is inferred. Flow is directed into either the main or bypass according to the quantity of flow by an automatic valve. This consists of a turbine or drum revolving in upright bearings.instant and is proportional to quantity passing at a given instant. i. The helix chamber may be vertical or horizontal and is geared to a counter. it being equal to the velocity times the cross sectional area of the flow. The cross sectional area of the meter throughout is equal to the area of the inlet and outlet pipes and is commonly used on direct supply water mains. The inferential type is the most widely used. There are two groups of measuring devices: Positive. petroleum and other commercial liquids. e. retaining at the top by a collar. turbine or fan) in the main with a small rotary meter or suitable type in a bypass. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Pipes: "The Rotating Impeller Type" is a positive type device which is used for medium quantity flow measurement i. This piston acts as a moving chamber and transfers a definite volume of fluid from the inlet to the outlet for each cycle. Helical Vane Type For larger rates of flow. This consists of a brass meter body into which is fitted a machined brass working chamber and cover. Inferential. Combination Meters this is used for widely fluctuating flows. . Turbine Type this like the helical Vane type is a inference type of device used for large flows with the minimum of pressure drop. The height of the liquid above the still of the weir. It consists of a larger meter (helical. gallons per minute or pounds per hour.g. Measurement of Fluid Flow through Open Channels: The Weir If a fluid is allowed to flow over a square weir of notch. By this means flows of 45 to 40.. Water enters the drum from the top and leaves tangentially casings to rotate at a speed dependent upon the quantity of water passed.e. a helical vane is mounted centrally in the body of the meter. or volumetric.

79). (Refer fig. therefore the flume is sometimes used. It is only necessary to measure the depth of the upstream section which is a measure of the rate of flow.A formula relates the rate of flow to the height and is dependent upon the design of the Venturi Flumes The head loss caused by the weir flow meter is considerable and its construction is sometimes complicated. The principle is same as that of venture except that the rate of flow is proportional to the depth of the liquid in the upstream section. It consists of a local contraction in the cross section of flow through a channel in the shape of a venturi. Fig. No-79 Pressure Differential Flow meters Primary elements Bernoulli's theorem states that the quantity of fluid or gas flowing is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. This is generally used for medium and high quantity fluid flow and it consists of . There are four principal types of primary elements (or restrictions) as enumerate below: Venturi. ^he magnitude of which is proportional to the square of the rate of flow and a secondary element which measures this differential pressure and translates it into terms of flow. They consists of a primary element inserted in the pipeline which generates a differential pressure. Pressure Difference Flow meters These are the most widely used type of flow meter since they are capable of measuring the flow of all industrial fluids passing through pipes. This may be done by pressure tapping at the datum point or by a float in an adjacent level chamber.

In its simplest form it consists of a thin metal plate with a central hold clamped between two pipe flanges.-80 Typical Orifice Plate Pressure Tapping EMD I Electrical Maintenance division I .two hollow truncated cones. In the metering of dirty fluids or fluids containing solids the hole is placed so that its lower edge coincides with the inside bottom of the pipe. (Refer Fig. (the throat.80) It is essential that the leading edge of the hole is absolutely sharp rounding or burring would have a very marked effect on the flow. Fig No. Orifice Plate This is the oldest and most common form of pressure differential device. the smallest diameter of the tube formed by this length of parallel pipe is known as the throat section and the lower of the two pressures. or downstream pressure) is measured here. the smaller diameters of which are connected together by a short length of parallel pipe.

units 1. Turbine side motors 3.Mill Fans 5.RC feeders 7. 3 in no. 2 in no.HT/LT Motors. Outside motors 4. 5 in no. Boiler side motors 2.D Fans 3. 2 in no.Ball mill fans 6. Boiler side motors: For 1. 3 in no. Turbine &Boiler side · 26th to 28th July 2007.P.I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division I from 17th July 2007 to 28th July 2007. 3 1.Fans 4. . Switchgear 1. · 17th to 19th July 2007.HT/LT switchgear · 21st to 24th July 2007 .Slag Crushers 8.F. This two week of training in this division were divided as follows.DM Make up Pump 2 in no.1D Fans 2.CHP/NCHP Electrical Electrical maintenance division 1 It is responsible for maintenance of: 1. 2. 2 in no. 3 in no.A.

Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour.P.P) The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2.3. 4 in no. 2 in no. Few conveyors are double belt. 415V. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees.H. which in turn tilts the conveyor. Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled. Motors employed for conveyors has a capacity of 150 HP. 3 cm thick and made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber. The process is performed by a slip –ring motor of rating: 55 KW. Wagon Tippler: .C Feeders 6.There are 14 conveyors in the plant.Hydrazine and Phosphorous Dozing 2 in no.C. NEW COAL HANDLING PLANT (N.A Fans 4.5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V.PC Feeders 10.H.P.D Fans 2. 2 in no. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine. COAL HANDLING PLANT (C. The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights.Scrapper 8. from where it is send to furnace. 2. 1480 RPM. 6 in no. 1. The conveyors are 1m wide.Seal Air Fans 9. Major Components 1. It is titled by weight balancing principle. 2. The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in case of emergency.Furnikets 4 in no. 2 in no.O. . Conveyors are made of rubber and more with a speed of 250-300m/min. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required till is wagon back to its original position. 2/3 in no. 6 in no.Bowl Mills 5.Worm Conveyor 11. supplies coal to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers.C.R. 2 in no.P) 2. Conveyor: . For stage units 1. 2 in no.F.I.H.4. 1 in no. They are numbered so that their function can be easily demarcated. 2 in no. This motor turns the wagon by 135 degrees and coal falls directly on the conveyor through vibrators.Clinker Grinder 7. this is done for imp.D Fans 3.9. 3 1.Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here.

Metal Separators: . Due to impact of ball on coal and attraction as per the particles move over each other as well as over the Armor lines. larger particles are sent to crushes. 4.Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL. per boiler. . Large particles are broken by impact and full grinding is done by attraction. if belt is not moving and the motor is on the motor may burn. It has a magnet and a belt and the belt is moving. The mixture of pulverized coal vapour caters the cyclone separators.The CHP is supposed to transfer 600 tons of coal/hr. RC Feeder: . The capacity of this device is around 50 kg.It separates the pulverized coal from carrying medium.e. Large particles are then transferred to the ball mill. Zero Speed Switch:-It is safety device for motors. the separator drops metal pieces ahead of coal. we use metal separators.It is equipment used to distribute the pulverized coal from bunker of .It serves to transport pulverized coal from cyclone separators to pulverized coal bunker or to worm conveyors. Crusher: . 3. The quantity of raw coal fed in mill can be controlled by speed control of aviator drive controlling damper and aviator change.e. 7. Ball Mill: .As the belt takes coal to the crusher. Worm Conveyor: . practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor. 606 KV. Cyclone Separators: . There are 4 turnikets per boiler. RC Bunker: . 6. but practically only 300-400 tons coal is transfer 5.It transports pre crust coal from raw coal bunker to mill. 4 & ½ tons of coal are fed in 1 hr.It is an equipment which serves separation of fine pulverized coal particles medium from coarse medium. This leads to frequent clogging. The Tturniket: . So to protect this switch checks the speed of the belt and switches off the motor when speed is zero. The crusher is of ring type and motor ratings are 400 HP. To achieve this objective. No metal pieces should go along with coal. The Drying and grinding option takes place simultaneously inside the mill.Raw coal is fed directly to these bunkers. 4. 2. the coal gets crushed. NCHP uses a technique that crushes the larger of harder substance like metal impurities easing the load on the magnetic separators.3. Rotatory Breaker: . Crusher is designed to crush the pieces to 20 mm size i. MILLING SYSTEM 1. the pieces are thrown away. Motors.The ball mill crushes the raw coal to a certain height and then allows it to fall down. The pulverized coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through the lower part. 6. the depth of bunkers is 10m. i. Classifier:. These are 3 in no..OCHP employs mesh type of filters and allows particles of 20mm size to go directly to RC bunker. When coal is dropped to the crusher hoots. 5.

Type-Double suction radial Rating-300 KW Voltage-6. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. Mills Fans: . 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing.7A Speed-980 rpm Frequency-50 Hz No-load current-15-16 A NCHP 1.6 KV Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous 9. Motor specification –squirrel cage induction motor Rating-340 KW Voltage-6600KV Curreen-41. Type-axial Speed-990 rpm Rating-440 KW Voltage-6.Designed to handle secondary air for boiler.Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney.6 KV Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: .Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius.It is of 3 types: Six in all and are running condition all the time. 8. Type-radical Speed-1490 rpm Rating-300 KW Voltage-6.One of the most advanced designs of coal pulverizes presently manufactured. Bowl Mill: . (a) ID Fans: . It can be operated in both directions.one system to bunker of other system.6 KV (c)Primary Air Fans: . Wagon Tippler:- .

18B 4. 12B 13A. Coal feed to plant:Feeder motor specification (i) Horse power 15 HP (ii) Voltage 415V. 13B 14A. Exit The coal arrives in wagons via railways and is tippled by the wagon tipplers into the hoppers. Transfer Point 6 5.P 75 HP (ii) Voltage 415.3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz 3. Conveyors:10A. Rejection House 7. 14B 15A. Breaker House 6. 16B 17A. 3 phase (iii) Speed 1480 rpm (iv) Frequency 50 Hz (v) Current rating 102 A 2. 15B 16A. Transfer Point 7 9. Crusher House 10. If coal is oversized (>400 mm sq) then it is broken manually so that it passes the .Motor Specification (i) H. 10B 11A. Reclaim House 8. 17B 18A. 11B 12A.

200Q. Earth Switches: .A device which breaks an electrical circuit when circuit is switched on to no load. These equipments do not handle any appreciable current at all. . The main application of switching isolation is in connection with transformer feeders as unit makes it possible to switch out one transformer while other is still on load. which renders the coal size to be 100mm sq. The main switch for 3 phase supply is available for tha range 32A.Main switch is control equipment which controls or disconnects the main supply.These are those interrupting devices which can make or break circuits. now the conveyor labors are present whose function is to recognize and remove any stones moving in the conveyors . These are normally on same circuit. From the hopper mesh it is taken to the transfer point TP6 by conveyor 12A . Isolation: .Devices which are used normally to earth a particular system. From breaker house coal is taken to the TP7 via Conveyor 13A. 17B also supplies coal from reclaim hopper. 300A at 500V grade. Apart from this equipment there are a number of relays etc.18B to the rejection house . 3.12B which takes the coal to the breaker house . 2. which are used in switchgear. In crusher before it enters the crusher. SWITCH GEARIt makes or breaks an electrical circuit. if any metal is still present it is taken care of by metal detectors employed in conveyor 10. interrupting line charging current and even perform load transfer switching. Isolation is normally used in various ways for purpose of isolating a certain portion when required for maintenance. Extra coal is to sent to the reclaim hopper via conveyor 16.hopper mesh. which are backed by circuit breakers. Main Switch:. Circuit Breakers: . From TP7 coal is taken by conveyors 14A. the stones which are not able to pass through the 100mm sq of hammer are rejected via conveyors 18A. 63A. 13B. 1. This equipment is the most important and is heavy duty equipment mainly utilized for protection of various circuits and operations on load. Load Break Switches: . Normally circuit breakers installed are accompanied by isolators 4. 100A. LT Switchgear It is classified in following ways:1. After being crushed. 14B to crusher house whose function is to render the size of coal to 20mm sq.One which can make or break the circuit on load and even on faults is referred to as circuit breakers.It is capable of doing things like interrupting transformer magnetized current. Switching Isolation: . to avoid any accident happening due to induction on account of live adjoining circuits. 5. Conveyor 17A.

thermal over relay are best suited for this purpose.It is seen that use of oil in circuit breaker may cause a fire. 800A and 1000A are used. the cold air rushes around the movable contacts and blown the arc. With fuses.These use oil as quenching medium. 4. Type-HKH 12/1000c · Rated Voltage-66 KV · Normal Current-1250A · Frequency-5Hz · Breaking Capacity-3. Air Circuit Breakers: . quick break. When contacts operate.With Avery high generating capacity of the modern power stations extremely heavy carnets would flow in the fault and the fuse clearing the fault would be required to withstand extremely heavy stress in process. 600A.L Starting of motors and protecting the connected motors. It has the following advantages over OCB:- . The pressure may vary from 50-60 kg/cm^2 for high and medium capacity circuit breakers. Contractors: . Rotary switch up to 25A.O.2. They operate due to the action of heat generated by passage of current through relay element. Fuses: .4+KA Asymmetrical · 360 MVA Symmetrical · Operating Coils-CC 220 V/DC § FC 220V/DC · Motor Voltage-220 V/DC 2.4+KA Symmetrical · 3.In this the compressed air pressure around 15 kg per cm^2 is used for extinction of arc caused by flow of air around the moving circuit . 3. The breaker is closed by applying pressure at lower opening and opened by applying pressure at upper opening.For overload protection. This reduces the possibility of sparking. quick make and double break switch fuses for 63A and 100A. So in all circuits breakers at large capacity air at high pressure is used which is maximum at the time of quick tripping of contacts. Minimum oil Circuit Breaker: . It is used for supplying power to auxiliaries with backup fuse protection. It comprises of simple dead tank row pursuing projection from it. The moving contracts are carried on an iron arm lifted by a long insulating tension rod and are closed simultaneously pneumatic operating mechanism by means of tensions but throw off spring to be provided at mouth of the control the main current within the controlled device.AC Contractors are 3 poles suitable for D. switch fuses for 200A. HT SWITCH GEAR:1. 400A. Overload Relay: . Air Circuit Breaker: . 5.

i. Vacuum Circuit Breaker: . the performance of gas . It will quickly reconstitute itself · Circuit Breakers-HPA · Standard-1 EC 56 · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Insulation Level-28/75 KV · Rated Frequency-50 Hz · Breaking Current-40 KA · Rated Current-1600 A · Making Capacity-110 KA · Rated Short Time Current 1/3s -40 A · Mass Approximation-185 KG · Auxiliary Voltage § Closing Coil-220 V/DC § Opening Coil-220 V/DC · Motor-220 V/DC · SF6 Pressure at 20 Degree Celsius-0.This type of circuit breaker is of construction to dead tank bulk oil to circuit breaker but the principle of current interruption is similar o that of air blast circuit breaker.It works on the principle that vacuum is used to save the purpose of insulation and it implies that pr. · Rated frequency-50 Hz · Rated making Current-10 Peak KA · Rated Voltage-12 KV · Supply Voltage Closing-220 V/DC .25 KG · SF6 Gas Per pole-0. SF6 Circuit Breaker: . Operation takes place quickly. Of gas at which breakdown voltage independent of pressure.25 KG 4. ii. When it is broken down under an electrical stress. Fire hazard due to oil are eliminated. iv.6 KV Current-630 A Auxiliary current-220 V/DC 3. Facility for frequent operation since the cooling medium is replaced constantly. It simply employs the arc extinguishing medium namely SF6. There is less burning of contacts since the duration is short and consistent. iii. Rated Voltage-6. It regards of insulation and strength. vacuum is superior dielectric medium and is better that all other medium except air and sulphur which are generally used at high pressure.

This two week of training in this division were divided as follows. .· Rated Current-1250 A · Supply Voltage Tripping-220 V/DC · Insulation Level-IMP 75 KVP · Rated Short Time Current-40 KA (3 SEC) · Weight of Breaker-8 KG EMD II Electrical Maintenance division II I was assigned to do training in Electrical maintenance division II from 31st July 2007 to 11th August 2007.

m. the lines of magnetic flux (viz magnetic field) cut through the stator windings.44 /O FN volts 0 = Strength of magnetic field in Weber‟s.) in the stator windings. From the expression it is clear that for the same frequency. low speed hydro turbine drives generators have 14 to 20 poles where as high speed steam turbine driven generators have generally 2 . The stator housed the armature windings. Therefore.Generator · 4th August 2007 . The rotor houses the field windings. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor.f.f.EP Generator and Auxiliaries Generator and Auxiliaries Generator Fundamentals Fundamentals The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator. The magnitude of this e. When the rotor is rotated.C. Working Principle The A. voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. This Chapter seeks to provide basic understanding about the working principles and development of Generator.· 31st to 2nd August 2007. This induces an electromagnetic force (e.Transformer &switchyard · 7th August 2007 . N = Number of turns in a coil of stator winding F = Frequency = Pn/120 Where P = Number of poles n = revolutions per second of rotor.protection · 9th August2007 .m. F = Frequency in cycles per second or Hertz. number of poles increases with decrease in speed and vice versa. E = 4. is given by the following expression.C. D.Lightning · 11th August 2007 .

glass and asbestos with appropriate bonding material. Although slow speed AC generators have been built for some time. Rotor.were of the order of 30 to 50 MW at 3000 rpm. Pole rotors are used in low speed generators. the development and installation of power plants was delayed and in order to catch up with the delay in plant installation. Development contained until. Development of suitable insulating materials for large turbo-generators is one of the most important tasks and need continues watch as size and ratings of machines increase.000 revolutions per minute. The present trend is the use only class "B" and higher grade materials and extensive work has gone into compositions of mica. In 1889 Sir Charles A.. The changes in design in this period were relatively small. An insulation to meet the stresses in generator slots must follow very closely the thermal expansion of the insulated conductor without cracking or any plastic deformation. most large generator. because the cost advantage as well as easier construction. core & windings. It revolves in most modern generators at a speed of 3. the increased use of solid forgings and improved techniques permitted an increase in generator rating to 20MW at 300rpm. Costs of material and labour involved in manufacturing and erection must be a basic consideration. Generator concept was enunciated by Michael Faraday in 1831. in 1939. Up to the out break of second world war. glass and/or asbestos molded in resin and other synthetic resins are finding wide applications. Development The first A. Coupled very closely with these considerations is the restriction is size and weight imposed by transport limitations. Rotor The electrical rotor is the most difficult part of the generator to design.C. The problem of .poles. a large number of 30 MW and 60 MW at 3000 rpm units were constructed during the years immediately following the war. In any development programme the. During the war. its frame. Generator component This Chapter deals with the two main components of the Generator viz. in 1922. it was not long before that the high-speed generators made its impact. Parsons developed the first AC turbo-generator. Insulation for rotor is subjected to lower dielectric stress but must withstand high dynamic stresses and the newly developed epoxy resins. its winding & balancing and stator.

which means that a check is made to see if it will run up to normal speed without vibration. Centrifugal force tries to lift the windings out of the slots and they are contained by wedges. A mechanically strong insulator such as micanite is used for lining the slots. To do this it would have to be uniform about its central axis and it is most unlikely that this will be so to the degree necessary for perfect balance. and it is further forged and machined. The two ends of windings are connected to slip rings. by shrinking or screwing and supported at the other end by fittings carried by the rotor body.guaranteeing the dynamic strength and operating stability of such a rotor is complicated by the fact that a massive non-uniform shaft subjected to a multiplicity of differential stresses must operate in oil lubricated sleeve bearings supported by a structure mounted on foundations all of which possess complex dynamic be behavior peculiar to themselves. the cross section of the conductor could not be increased but this would introduce another problems. usually made of forged steel. Rotor balancing When completed the rotor must be tested for mechanical balance. Rotor winding Silver bearing copper is used for the winding with mica as the insulation between conductors. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure of welded steel plates. The passage of the current through the windings generates heat but the temperature must not be allowed to become so high. This comprises an inner frame and outer frame. Stator Stator frame: The stator is the heaviest load to be transported. With good design and great care in construction this can be achieved. The major part of this load is the stator core. The rotor is a cast steel ingot. The problem is really to get the maximum amount of copper into the windings without reducing the mechanical strength. Very often a hole is bored through the centre of the rotor axially from one end of the other for inspection. When rotating at high speed. body and this would cause mechanical weakness. otherwise difficulties will be experienced with insulation. The end rings are secured to a turned recess in the rotor body. Later designs of windings for large rotor incorporate combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors. within this shell is a fixed cage of girder . To keep the temperature down. In order to make room for the large conductors. and mounted on insulated sleeves. It is also an electromagnet and to give it the necessary magnetic strength the windings must carry a fairly high current. Slots are then machined for windings and ventilation. Arrangements are therefore made in all designs to fix adjustable balance weights around the circumference at each end.

Stator core: The stator core is built up from a large number of 'punching" or sections of thin steel plates. The water is fed to the windings through plastic tubes. dried under vacuum and hot pressed to form a solid insulation bar. In large generators the frame is constructed as two separate parts. These bars are then place in the stator slots and held in with wedges to form the complete winding which is connected together at each end of the core forming the end turns.built circular and axial ribs. The insulation must be sufficient to prevent leakage currents flowing between the phases to earth. b) The advantage can be taken of the high magnetic permeance of grain-oriented steels of work the stator core at comparatively high magnetic saturation without fear or excessive iron loss of two heavy a demand for excitation ampere turns from the generator rotor. The use of cold rolled grain-oriented steel can contribute to reduction in the weight of stator core for two main reasons: a) There is an increase in core stacking factor with improvement in lamination cold Rolling and in cold buildings techniques. Windings for the stator are made up from copper strips wound with insulated tape which is impregnated with varnish. These end turns are rigidly braced and packed with blocks of insulation material to withstand the heavy forces which might result from a short circuit or other fault conditions. The inner cage is usually fixed in to the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen the double frequency vibrations inherent in 2 pole generators. This Chapter deals with the rotor-hydrogen cooling system and stator water cooling system along with the shaft sealing and bearing cooling systems. The fabricated inner cage is inserted in the outer frame after the stator core has been constructed and the winding completed. Stator Windings Each stator conductor must be capable of carrying the rated current without overheating. The generator terminals are usually arranged below the stator. Generator Cooling System The 200/210 MW Generator is provided with an efficient cooling system to avoid excessive heating and consequent wear and tear of its main components during operation. The ribs divide the yoke in the compartments through which hydrogen flows into radial ducts in the stator core and circulate through the gas coolers housed in the frame. Rotor Cooling System . On recent generators (210 MW) the windings are made up from copper tubes instead of strips through which water is circulated for cooling purposes. The end shields of hydrogen cooled generators must be strong enough to carry shaft seals.

Also. wherein the hydrogen gas in the air gap is sucked through the scoops on the rotor wedges and is directed to flow along the ventilating canals milled on the sides of the rotor coil. in order to prevent escape of hydrogen from the generator casing. Maintaining the gas pressure inside the machine at the desired value at all the times. a drier. this method has an inherent advantage of eliminating the deformation of copper due to varying temperatures. The stator winding is cooled in this system by circulating demineralised water (DM water) through hollow conductors. Due to the rotation of the rotor.e. The cooling water used for cooling stator winding calls for the use of very high quality of cooling water. The system is capable of performing the following functions : Filling in and purging of hydrogen safely without bringing in contact with air. a positive suction as well as discharge is created due to which a certain quantity of gas flows and cools the rotor. Indication of liquid level in the generator and alarm in case of high level. Stator Cooling System The stator winding is cooled by distillate. purging and maintaining its purity inside the generator have to be made. Generator is to be loaded within a very short period if the specific resistance of the cooling DM water goes beyond certain . Provide indication to the operator about the condition of the gas inside the machine i. For this purpose DM water of proper specific resistance is selected. This method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. Also. Hydrogen Cooling System Hydrogen is used as a cooling medium in large capacity generator in view of its high heat carrying capacity and low density. to the bottom of the slot where it takes a turn and comes out on the similar canal milled on the other side of the rotor coil to the hot zone of the rotor. its pressure. But in view of its forming an explosive mixture with oxygen. shaft sealing system is used to provide oil sealing. The hydrogen cooling system mainly comprises of a gas control stand. Continuous circulation of gas inside the machine through a drier in order to remove any water vapour that may be present in it. proper arrangement for filling. an liquid level indicator. hydrogen control panel. Which is fed from one end of the machine by Teflon tube and flows through the upper bar and returns back through the lower bar of another slot? Turbo generators require water cooling arrangement over and above the usual hydrogen cooling arrangement. gas purity measuring and indicating instruments.The rotor is cooled by means of gap pick-up cooling. temperature and purity.

and in most cases.B TRANFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling with out requiring relative motion between its parts.3000 rpm Hydrogen .2600 V Speed .0.50 Hz Hydrogen .6475 A Frequency .5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection . It usually comprises two or more coupled windings. Varying the relative number of .247000 KVA Voltage (stator) .9050 A Voltage (rotor) .117500 KVA Voltage .5 Kg/cm2 Power factor .50 Hz Stator wdg connection . which includes a voltage in the other windings.310 V Current (rotor) .3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity .15750 V Current (stator) . Rating of 95 MW Generator Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL) Capacity . An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core.C.10500V Speed .preset values.85 Frequency . The system is designed to maintain a constant rate of cooling water flow to the stator winding at a nominal inlet water temperature of 40 deg.3.3000 rpm Power factor .0.2.85 (lagging) Stator current .3 phase star connection Insulation class . a core to concentrate magnetic flux.

and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current. The losses vary with load current. and would therefore be 100% efficient. All but a fraction of the world‟s electrical power has passed trough a series of transformer by the time it reaches the consumer. energy is dissipated in the windings. and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. is sometimes termed the back EMF”. The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetizing current. which develops a magneto motive force (MMF) in the core. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. and those arising from the magnetic circuit. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing trough the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. the EMFs are proportional to the rate of change of flux. Winding resistance dominates load losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss can be significant. It has thus shape the electricity supply industry. thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits. the transformer greatly reduces energy losses and so enables the economic transmission of power over long distances. At higher frequencies. Magnetostriction . A small transformer such as plug-in “power brick” used for low-power consumer electronics may be less than 85% efficient. Eddy currents therefore circulate with in a core in a plane normal to the flux. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. core. An electromotive force (MMF) is induced across each winding. some times termed copper loss. Basic principles The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. In accordance with faraday‟s law of induction. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. or at an intermediate loading. and surrounding structures. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originated in the windings. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. For a given core material. Eddy current Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors.turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages. an effect known as mutual inductance. meaning that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply. permitting generation to be located remotely from point of demand._low-current form and back again. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines with ex the most efficient of electrical machines with experimental models using superconducting windings achieving efficiency of 99. although its presence is still required to drive flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn trough out its entire length. The primary EMF. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses and would have no energy losses. and may furthermore be expressed as “no load” or “full load” loss. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%. sometimes termed iron loss. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage.85%. the loss is proportional to the frequency.

any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive material such as the transformers support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. Apr 1 2010.84325 Kg Phase . an effect known as magnetostriction.2 A Temp rise . adding to the buzzing noise.147725 Kg Core & winding . This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers.3 Frequency . the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic field between primary and secondary windings.50 Hz Latest page update: made by ashujss . and consuming a small amount of power. such as the core. causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle.315. Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself loss less.Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material.2 A Line current (lv) . Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction.229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10. Power used to operate the cooling system is typically considered part of the losses of the transformer Rating of transformer Manufactured by Bharat heavy electrical limited No load voltage (hv) . oil pumps or water-cooler heat exchangers design to remove heat.5 KV Line current (hv) . However. Cooling system Large power transformers may be equipped with cooling fans. These incite vibration with in near by metal work.873. 11:08 PM EDT (about this update complete history) Keyword tags: None ashujss More Info: links to this page Share on emailShare this .45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg Total weight . and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores.

P.L. Do you?  Post reply 3 0 May 26 2012. 12:54 PM EDT by Anonymous Thread started: Jun 15 2012. BADARPUR. LTD.K SONGS (RECORDED) PROJECT REPORT ( N. 12:54 PM EDT Watch i wish two know that hw 2nd year students can apply for training at ntpc badarpur 3 out of 4 found this valuable. NEW DELHI ) start a free website    Wikis on Wetpaint Contact Us Help .view all  Home o o o o o o o o A Project Report On P.T.C. 3:20 AM EDT by Anonymous Jan 30 2012. 1:35 PM EST by Anonymous Anonymous Anonymous training at ntpc dadri how to get trining Start a New Thread as Anonymous (Get credit for your thread) Subject: Message: Tags: Category: Showing 3 of 14 threads for this page . MATLAB Introduction My collage Profole R.Threads for this page Started By Anonymous Thread Subject training at ntpc badarpur Replies 0 Last Post Jun 15 2012.C (Programable Logic Controller) Ashutosh Friends Ashutosh Profile BHARAT WAGON & ENGINEERING CO.

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The stunning turnaround of the Company brought about by him has enabled NBCC‟s turnover grow about 10 times and net-worth over 500 times during his tenure of nine-and-a-half years at the helm. Shri Choudhury brings to NTPC the dynamism of a leader with proven abilities to achieve transformational changes. strategic management and business leadership. both national and international. transparency and global- . NTPC.Board of Directors Shri Arup Roy Choudhury. Its entry into power project development dovetails very productively with his new role as CMD. he is currently pursuing a doctorate in „Select Study of Project Performance Metrics in Indian Construction Industry‟ from IIT-Delhi. He pulled NBCC out of the abyss and catapulted it into the distinguished league of „Top Ten CPSEs‟. Chairman & Managing Director since September 01. when he started his career. A keen learner of the latest professional developments. Shri Choudhury has the distinction of becoming the youngest Chief Executive Officer of a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) at the age of 44 years when he joined as Chairman & Managing Director. which was a sick company with negative net-worth and salary back-log in 2001. National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited (NBCC) on April 03. He is a Graduate in Civil Engineering from Birla Institute of Technology. into a blue-chip enterprise having Schedule „A‟ and „Miniratna‟ status bestowed upon it by the Government of India. has an illustrious career spanning over 32 years of outstanding contribution in the fields of engineering. Prior to that he had worked in prominent public and private sector companies since 1979. As Chairman. general management. Mesra and a Post-Graduate in Management and Systems from IIT-Delhi. Shri Choudhury‟s rich and varied contribution of over 32 years has been recognized by prestigious professional. Shri Choudhury has been effectively leading policy advocacy for greater empowerment of these enterprises. societal commitment. the apex body of central public sector enterprises (CPSEs). competitiveness. His vision. 2001. Under him. Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE). He is also promoting the cause of greater professionalism. leadership and industriousness transformed NBCC. NBCC broadened its business horizons. 2010. He seeks to position the Maharatna enterprise on course to become the largest and best power producer in the world. academic and Government institutions.

you are bound to succeed.e. .benchmarking among the CPSEs. Shri Choudhury believes in growth and excellence through proactive approach and his dictum is “Sankalp Shuddha Hi Siddha” i. if your intentions are pure. Shri Choudhury has a strong commitment for the well-being of the society at large. His sharp focus on corporate governance and environmentally sustainable growth has been demonstrated in concrete actions and substantial benefits.

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