CONJUNCTION & MODALS
Introduction–A word that is used to join two clauses, sentences or word is called Conjunction. Conjunction join the words or clauses to make them compact and contracted. Instead of saying "India is a poor country and Pakistan is a poor country"–we can say it in a more contracted way. Example : (a) Both India and Pakistan is a poor country. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSUNCTION Conjunction are classified as (a) Co-ordinating Conjunction and (b) Subordinating Conjunction.
(a) Co-ordinating Conjunction–The conjunctions that join two independent statement are called co-ordintating conjunction; such as-and, but, for, or, only. Example : (a) I received home and it begins to rain. (b) Subordinating Conjunction–The conjunctions which joins the dependent clause to the main clause is called subordinating conjunction. Some main subordinating conjunctions are after, because, if that, till. Example : (a) As he is my neighbour, I respect him. Co-ordinating conjunctions are of four types– (a) Alternative to express choice as. Example : (a) You come here to read or go to school. (b) Cumulative–It only adds one statement to another. Example : (a) I arrived the station and the train left. (c) Adversative–It is used for expressing contrast or opposition. Example : (a) She came here still she did not spoke a word with me. (d) Illative–It gives inference. Example : (a) MCD must have ignored all sanitary measures for dengue has spreaded over the entire city in just two weeks. We must remember some points to avoid error in usage : 1. ‘As soon as’ is used to denote two actions taking place at the same time. This conjunction is used in three tenses. 2. ‘No sooner’ is always followed by than and not by but takes a verb in the interrogative in the principal clause. It is the negative of ‘As soon as’. It also denote simultaneous actions and is used in Present and Past tense. 3. ‘Hardly’ and ‘scarcely’ never take ‘than’ in the adjoining clauses. They are always followed by ‘when’.
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Interesting facts about Modals– Use of Can (a) (b) (c)
4. The word ‘unless’ conveys the meaning ‘if not’ and is not followed by a negative form in any case. 5. ‘Zest’ is a subordinate conjunction and express a negative purpose. It take ‘should’ after it and in no case is followed by ‘not’. 6. ‘Until’ means ‘so long as not’ so it never must be followed by ‘not’. 7. ‘Though’ and ‘although’ is followed by ‘yet’ and in some cases ‘yet’ is omitted. 8. ‘Supposing’ and ‘if’ never go together in a sentence. 9. Word ‘either’ and ‘neither’ must be followed by ‘or’ and ‘nor’ respectively. 10. Correlative should be carefully and they are followed by the same part of speech.
Introduction–The helping verbs that express the mode of action denoted by the main verb are called modals. Following are the modals– can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must, ought to, used to, need, dare. 1. Modals have no ‘S’ in the third person singular number. For this reason they are also called as ‘defective verbs’. 2. They have no participle forms, they do not have the use of ‘ing’. They usually rely upon principal verb to convey meaning. 3. Modals are used to express action like ability, power, permission, request, possibility, willingness etc. Can means to be able to or know how to and possibility of something to take place. It is used as follow– To express ability– Example : (a) I can solve any problem of Algebra. (b) He cannot speak English fluently. To express permission– Example : (a) You cannot go home without doing your work. (b) Can I take your pen? To express possibility and strength– Example : (a) Can you come to help me? (b) Anyone can do the job. (c) He can jump over the boundary wall. In the form of phrase– Example : (a) We cannot help laughing when she came in. (b) He cannot but obey his boss.
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(b) Government should wake up people to prevent pollution. (b) Will is used with the second and third person to express simple future tense. (b) They can’t believe him because he can tell a lie.www. a threat. It is possible in only assertive sentence. Example : (a) Will he go for the expedition? Use of Should Should is the past tense form of shall. (b) I could not but do the work. Past tense phrase– Example : (a) He could not help weeping when he heard the bad news.eduachievers. a command and a determination in sentences. I would give you some instructions. Expressing request– Example : (a) I should like to say that we have not done this mischief. Duty or obligation– Example : (a) Everybody should obey their elders. Use of Will (a) Will is used with the first person to express as follows–
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(d) (e) (f) (g)
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Would is the past tense form of will. (b) Shall is also used with second and third persons to express a promise.com © eduachievers 2012
. Surprise or unexpectedness– Example : (a) It is really sad that I should pass in the second division. Example : (a) You will be twenty two tomorrow. (b) I asked Ritu if she could sing modern songs. (iv) The sense of a determination– Example : (a) I shall do what you command. (ii) The sense of a threat– Example : (a) He shall be punished if he gives me any excuse. Cannot or can’t is one word and is used in the sense of prohibition. (iii) The sense of a determination– Example : (a) He will not help you in reading. The future in the past tense– Example : (a) He told me that he should secure first division. (ii) The sense of a treat– Example : (a) I will break your hand if you still beat him. Expressing advice or suggestion– Example : (a) Ritika should go out for a morning walk daily. Use of Could Could is the past tense of can and is used in the indirect forms as follows– Past tense of power– Example : (a) He asked me if I could play in guitar. Polite request– Example : (a) Could you lend me some money to buy a book? (b) Could you please go with me for the interview? Possibility– Example : (a) If I had some money. Feeling of Impatience– Example : (a) How could the accident happen? (b) How could I do the work in this situation? Use of Shall
(i) The sense of a promise– Example : (a) He will surely half you in the examination. It is used in the following ways– (a) To denote suggestion– Example : (a) Would you take care for your study? (b) To express polite request– Example : (a) Would you take a cup of coffee? (c) To express determination–
www. With ‘lest’ in order to express purpose– Example : (a) Walk fast lest we should miss the train. I could buy a Baluchari saree which costs five thousand rupees (b) You could succeed if you tried. Use of Would
(a) Shall is used simply to express simple future tense. It is used in the sense of– A supposition or condition– Example : (a) Should you come here before the interview. (i) The sense of a promise– Example : (a) You shall be given a prize from me for your ability. (iii) The sense of a command– Example : (a) You shall have to take action against the issue. Example : (a) I shall meet you tomorrow. (iv) The sense of willingness– Example : I will do a high profile job.com.wincmat. (c) Will is used with the third person in interrogative sentences.EDUACHIEVERS ACADEMY
(e)To express disposition– Example : (a) She can speak truth this time.
(g) To denote future tense of past in the indirect speech– Example : (a) She said that she would not marry. (e) Possibility– Example : (a) I think that my sister must have received my letter today. Doubtful possibility– Example : (a) We might go to Haridwar on next Sunday.www. Purpose– Example : (a) She is dieting now-a-days so that she may loss her weight. (i) Emphatic advice– Example : (a) Every student must learn their lessons regularly.
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Use of Used to
‘Used to’ expresses a habit or routine in the past but discontinued in the present. In the past tense we use perfect infinitive. Use of May (a) (b) ‘May’ is used generally to express– Possibility– Example : (a) I may get a government service.com.eduachievers. Future condition– Example : (a) If we work hard our efforts might not go in vain. A wish– Example : (a) He hoped that you might win the match. (b) Determination– Example : (a) You must go for Delhi today. (c) Interrogative sentence– Example : (a) Used he to smoke when he was young? Use of Ought to In the present tense we use present infinitive to after ought and use first form of the verb. (c) Moral duty or obligation in the present tense–
The word ‘must’ is used to express– (a) Obligation–
www. (g) Prohibition– Example : (a) You must touch the flowers in the flower exhibition. (f) Expectation– Example : (a) There must be a mistake in my writing. Permission in past tense– Example : (a) My mother said that we might go for marketing. (h) Likelihood– Example : (a) He must be the principal of our school. Wish or prayer– Example : (a) May God bless you with successfulness! Use of might (a)
(b) (c) (d)
Might is the past tense form of may. It is used in the following types of sentences– (a) Affirmative sentence– Example : (a) I used to pluck flowers for ‘puja’ at dawn.com © eduachievers 2012
. (e) To denote wish or desire– Example : (a) Would that I were a very-very rich man! (f) To express preference– Example : (a) I would prefer poverty to dishonesty. (b) Advice– Example : (a) You ought to get ready fast. (d) To denote past habit– Example : (a) She would take bath in the Ganges daily. Permission– Example : (a) May I come into your party. It is used to denote– Purpose– Example : (a) Laxmi is working hard so that she might get a better job. (b) Negative sentence– Example : (a) My brother used not speak the truth.EDUACHIEVERS ACADEMY
Example : (a) He would do a job which suits him only. (h) To denote unreal condition– Example : (a) If we were rich. Use of Must
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Example : (a) Parents must give attention to their children. (d) Compulsion– Example : (a) Everybody must follow the rules of roads.wincmat. to have after ought and then use third form of the verb. (c) Necessity– Example : (a) You must work hard to defeat him. (j) Necessity or obligation in future tense– Example : (a) Ashish must save some money for his sister’s marriage. Ought to is used to express in– (a) Strong probability– Example : (a) Jaya is a very good runner he ought to win a championship. Possibility of past tense– Example : (a) The doctor said that the patient might face death. we would buy a flat.
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www. Example : (a) I need your help.www. (d) Moral duty or obligation in the past tense– Example : (a) You ought to have sing more clearly. Dare is used to express– (a) Challenge– Example : (a) We dared him to fight with ourselves. (a) I need hardly any rupees.wincmat. (b) Need you go there? It is sometimes used with semi-negatives like ‘hardly’ ‘scarcely’ etc. negative. Use of Dare Dare conveys the meaning. Need When it is used as the principal verb it means to stand ‘in need of’. of the feeling ‘have the courage enough to’ and is used especially when sentences are interrogative.com. (b) Courage– Example : (a) I dare not go there alone. conditional and expressive of doubt or hesitation. please.eduachievers.EDUACHIEVERS ACADEMY
Example : (a) Everybody ought to respect aged persons. (c) Probability– Example : (a) The doctor dare say the cancer patient will live for three months more.