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The Book of Creation


/In Theory .and IPractice

, Revised IEdition



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The Book of Creation
Revised Edition



60s ton, MN'Yo rk Buc h, ME

edition pobl» ' ~ i. 1m by Reel \\'h«L/'WeiMr, u.c VOlt. Beach, ME \\-l1li otrk:a l1li 368 eo.,r- s_ il'n,., MAOUI O


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Aboul Ihe Tronslolor
Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan was a world-renowned Tonh ""hoIar ...110 pnr ·
duced ,,"cr 50 bQob in hi~ brief lifetime. including Meditation and 1M Bible. Mt'dilal;on and Kabbaltllr and Tilt Bahir. Kaplan 's wOfb cncompasw1 COlIlmcnW)' and translation of ancien! and ob$cure works
by Bible IChoiar1 and Kabbali su, :md "",,",$ advi$ing young Jews OIl tile merits of study and 01: " ""ano;e, For a wbile he ""'lU an editor of I t wish Life magazillC. translated an UI..... IiIUUS rornmentary on !he Torah by the &plwdic rabbi. Yaakov CUli . and prodlKcl an original tr&n$lation-commenW)' of Ihe Five Booh of, which he called "The Uving TOOIh:' published by Moznaim. Israel. A~h Kaplan was born in the Bronx. ,,\!died at Ioxa! yeshivO(, and oontinued his education al yesttiVOl: in Israel. For a while he entered the field of ,.::icnce and was. for a tn.( period, tho youngeS! physicist employed by !he Uni ted States gO\'emment before devocing hi5 1ifc 10



He died a1 the . ge of 48 in 1983.

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Thr T e ll


Aulhol'$hi l! The Ta lmudic Pcrjrx!

3 93

Tnl$ I nd Commentaries

YE77fRAH Cbaptcr One


Cbap!" Two
Chapter lbrtt Chapter Four Chapter Five Chapter Six

''" "

'" '"


Other Boob Containin, Sefu ¥ rnirab
Ma nu5C!'ipU CnmmrD1arirs





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oldest and most mysteriOIlS of all Kabbalislic le~l5. The fi rsl comment;uies on Ihis boot we~ wril1en in the 100h cenlu1)'. and the lUI itself is QUOIN as early as the si1th. Rtfe~1ICC'5 to the work appear in the first century. while traditio"' rtprdinl ils ux allnt 10 ils existence c"cn in Biblical times. So ancienl is Ihis book Ihat its orisi ns a~ no LonjeT accessable 10 hiSlori.ns. We a~ lotally dependent on tradi tions with reprd 10 ils aulho~i p.
Equally mysterious is the meaninl of Ihis book. If the I U 11>or meant 10 be obsc ure:. he ..-a. cm ;""nlly 5uCttqfuL Ii is only Ihm ... '" the most arefuI analys;$, sn.d yinl every word with ils parallels in Biblical and Talmlldic literalure, Ihat its hau of ~ri l y bqins 10 be ~nCll1ued.



Yrt:l'rah. is w;thoU! question


There have been many inlcrpreunions oflhe &1" YMz;roh. The
earliest commentators tried 10 in lcl'J'lret it as a philosophical 'll'llise.

but their efron. lhed mOK light on their 0" -'" ,y.tems than on th~ te~t. The same: is true of efrons to fit it into tM systems of the Zobar or Iller Kabbalistl. Efrons 10 view it IS a book on srammu or plio""tio I~ even more unsUCttSsfui. In ICr>eral, the Kabbalah is divided into three cat~ri<"$. lhe theom ical. the mtdi tative, and the magicai. ' The theoretical Kabbal ah, ..'hich in it. prncnt form is based larzely on the Zobar. is oon.cemed frIOStly with Ihe dynamics of th~ spiriuu.l domlin, np«ially the worlds of the Srfirot, souls and Inlt'll. This branch of Kabball h reached ils zenith in the wrilinp of the Safed 1ChooI in the 16th century. Ind Ihe Vast majority of publ ishM texIS bdOOI in this catqory, Med illtive Kabbalah deals with Ihe use of divine names, letter permutation., and similar methods 10 reach hiiher Slates of oonsciousness, and as suclt. rompriw::! a kind of yap, Most of the main te~t s have never been published, but remlin K1ltterro in manuscriplS in the JIl:II libraries and museum •. Some of these methods enjoyed I brief renaiWln.ce in Ihe mid 1700', "'i th th~ rise of the Hasidic mo"em~nl . but within a half century Ihey were 00« apin Ja'lely fOl'lOtten,




The third caleaory of Kabbalah-Ihe maJiul-is dO:sely ~lalcd \0 the medilatlve. 11 consisls of "anous si",,, ina.nlalion. and divi"" names, through whitll onc nn influence or alter nlnmd C\"Cnll. Many of Ihe techniques clos.ely res.emblc meditative Tm1hods. and their succt'SS may depend o n tllei. ability \0 indllCC' mental states where telekinetic Or spi ritual IJQWff can effectively M channeled. As with the second cllelOr)'. the most important lext, have never been printed. altlloUJh WInC' (",,,,,ents have boen published. ()n.e of the besl ulmples of tlleK is Ihc book Razicl. Careful study ind ic.tes thaI Sefer Yel1.irah is. mcdilalive ICI\, wilh stron, mqical overtones. This pOSit ion il suppOfted by the carliest Talmudic Imil ions, which indicate lhal it could be uK<;! \0 CR-

ate livin, creatuT Espttial1y sianificant are IIIe many 6.



k&ends in wh.ich the Serer Yell;rah is used 10 ernie. GoIrm, it oon of myst ical android. The mnllods of the Sefer Yetzil'1lh ap~ar to in" olve meditation; and it i. hiJ,hly possible that it ....,,1 ori,i naOy ",rineo .I• • meditative manual. A major 12th cenlury philosopher Ihus stain thai it don not contain philosophy. di vine mystery.' This comes across vrry clearly in the commentary of one of the ,..,.Int K.abbalil1s, Isaac the Blind ( 116().1216), who stresses the meditative asp«u of the teXl. II i. also p;lnicularly evidenl in a very al\(~n l manll$Cript of Sefer Yellil'1lh, dalin, from the lOih century Of earlier. The introduc:tory colophon stites. ~This is the book oflhe ~lIel1l of Abraham Our flther. which i. called Sefer Ydzirah, and when one pzes (1:0./0.11) inlO it. Ihere is no limit 10 his wisdom.~' As .... e shall discuss in our commentary (on 1:6), the Hebrew word luifalr does not denote mere physicil pzina. but mystical meditative insiJ,h1. Thi. very early $O\Irte would therefore luppan Ihe position Ihal Sefer YelZirah wll ml'ant \0 be used as a meditative tUI. The commentaries which treat Sefer Yellil'1lh as a tMQretiaJ lext. read much of it in the third ~rIOn : ~ He oombined,~ ~ He formed,~ and Ih like. Aooordin. to th is readina. the lUI i. referrin. to God's creation. In many cases. however, the vammuical form more closely resembles the im~ralive.· The author is telli n. the reader to ~oombine~ and ~fonn' as if he was aCluaily ,ivin, ;nilructioos. In many other cases, tile lU I is unambiauously inslruc1ive, as in ouch passal6 as, ~if your hean runs, retum 10 the pl.ce.~ and. ·understand with wisdom. and be wise with understand in... Rather Ihan have Ihe teX! oscillate bet",..,.n the third perlOn IDd Ihe imperative, it would tcrt.ainly be more Iosicallo read il all in Ihe imper1ltive. The Sefer Yelzirah thus becomes an instruction manual for a very Ipttilll)'pe of medi lation . Oul of deferen« \0 the lIIIjority of «>mmemaries we ha" e refrained from translatin, il in the imperative, but



implications commentary_

of such







What ""C therefore have In Sefer VelIitah 'pIXat$ 10 be an
instructional manual, describin& tenain mediUlt;ve exercise>. Then:

is some evidence Ihal these exercises were melnt 10 strenJlhen the
initiatc's oon«ntralion. and were panicuLtrly helpful in Ihe development of telekinetic and telepathic pOWer$. It ""as with these pOwers Ihal onc ,",'OuLd Ihen be able 10 pcri"onn feats Ihal outwardly appeared 10 be maJjcal. This is su pponed by the T almudical ref~nca, which appea r \0 compare Ihe UK ofSefer Vctrirah \0 I kind o(wllite ma&ic.' An imponant 13th "nuury commentator wrilCS thaI students of Serer Velzirah were liven a man~pt of tile book Ruiel, a mlgia! text containing seals, mqic:al ftgUTeS, di ... ine names and incantationl.·

The Text
The Sd"er Yeuilllh is a vny lI11all and concise boot. In its Shon Version, it is only """'" 1JOO ""'Of'tIs Ion" "nile the I..on& Venion (lOII\.ains approximately 2500 words. The Gra Version used in this lransblioo cornairu; IIrQIJnd 1800 ..."Qrds. So lhort is the text. thaI one of the earliffi fragments appean 10 have 1M entire book "";t1efl on • si"lle pqe. ' Tbc'n: is speculation that the oriainal souroe may have oonuoined as few

240 worm.'

The present tut contains six chapten, and in I()me editions. I~ Ire said to paraUtlthe six orden of 1M Miiiblllh.' Some an<;~nt soum:s. howe"er. state that the book contains five chap~1'$, and it $Cclli,likely thai the pl'tXflt fifth and si~th chaplI~n ~ combined as OM in t~ texts. '0 The earliCSI commentator. Saadil Gaon, in I somewhat diffeml1 """ion, divides lhe book into ciaht chapterS. " The text is pn:5Cnln.l dogmatiaolty. without substantiation or e~pla­ na\ion. [n the fint chapter in particular. it il solemn and IOII<)fOU$, rf3d. inllikc blank""",, pOcIry. Vny few Biblical P'''''Ign all' quot«!. and with the uccplion of Abrallam. no namt or aulhority is menl~. The book oeeTnltO be divided inlO four buic porU. The lim chapIn in\roduccs the Sefinx, spealin, of them . 1 Ien&th. Aftn thi~ howevn. lhere is no mention whatsocvcr rcprdina the Sefinx in sub$equccnl chap!en. This had Ird to oomc speoIlation that the Scfn Yeu;irah miahl actually be a combinalion of lWO (or~) earlier lUll. The scamd chapter oonsists of a acncral discussion about the 1cnen of the alphabet. II dearly appe. n to be inlroo:illCinl their use in a meditative oontul. AJso inlrod..:al in this chapler an: the fhc pbonetic ramiJie5 and lhe 231 Gates. Apin, ncilhcr the phonetic families nor the Gat .. are cver apin mentionrd in the lcxt.

Chapters three to fi,l' di!C\l!oS the three divisions of the letters, "mothe", doubIQ. a lld elementab. ~ ~ are related 10 the ~uni\'tTSC, soul and ) pl . .ntinl_ fairly <kwled 11'5trologiC1ll s~em. In thc:se clutpten.. the entire Ihrusl of lhe \look is o:I!ancflI, and they c:ontmi vir, whatsoe~er of its meditative aspect.. llIally no hint Thi.. 1'oovo"VC1'. an he explained by a principle fOlind in many later KabbaiiSlic le~1S. In order In focus spiritual and mental J'iO"'eo .. one must take ;nlo acrotInlthe lime and 11'5trolotiaol environment " The .i.• th doapter apin doe! not appear 10 haw: a '*ar c:onnection 10 the earlier pam of the book.. altbou&h in the Lona Version , it is jlIbtemed a1JTi(l51 11'5 a commentary. Here. for tl>cc first time. are introduced theroncepts of the "vis. C)~ and hean.~ ideas which are not discus5ed any plac:.: e!oe in HebQ.i(: or Kabbalistic liteniilure, with the e,'CCplion oft"" Bah ir." Ofall the chapt~ this one ~s the II>05t obscure. and il is diffICUlt to decide if its emphasis i~ theotrtical or meditiltiw:. Th is chapter ODnd~ with _ stanza linking the &fer Yo:u.i~ 10 Abraham. It is this Quote that serves as a source to the I~ition lIut the book w authortd by the Patriarch. ""

Yetzirah is anributed is the Patriardt Abraham. As early as the 10th century, Saadia Gaon writes thai. "the ancknts say thaI Atnham WT<)(e it.~" This Opinion is supponed by alrroost all of the early commentaton.. " Such ancient Kabbalistic texts 1$ the Zohar and Razid al$(l a\tribute Sefer yetziBh to Abraham. " A number of very old manuscripts of Serer Ycuirah likewioe be&in with • ooIopbon calli"8 it "tl>cc letten of Abraham O\Ir Father. whidl i. called Sefer Yctzirah.~" Thi, does not mean. however. tMt the entire boot; as we haw: it no .... waS wriuen by AbQham. As Sudi. Gaon ClIpiain •. the principles ClIpotInded in Sefer Yctzirah .."re first taUJht by Abraham, but the)' ""re not aaually asxmbled in booIo:: form wlIil much lat~r. " Another autllorit), OOIes that it could 001 ha,'e aauaUy been ...Titlen II)' Abr1ham, 5ino-e if it had. it 5hou1d haw: been incorporated into the Bible. or at le<ut be mentioned on ICriptllre." Similarly. ",hen the Zohar speah of boob antroatinl the Torah. il does not inc-lude the Sefer Yel2inh il/tiQJII them. 1O T he attribution of Abraham is supported by the final stanza of Sefer Yetzirah: "When Abraham ... looI<ed and probed ... he "'as ~ ful in cn:ation .._~ This PO'"'" clearly Sl'aesl! that Abraham aauaUy made use of the methods fO\lnd in Ih is text.

The arlic!.t sounx to which

If"" ' ......

. 11;

[n many ediliom ofSefer Yetzirah, lCliptutal evidence is provided by !be verse. ~Abraham ~m as God had told rum, and Abraham look.._ lbe toUb thai !bey had made in HaruI· (Omes;s 12:S), Acx:>Ji dillJ 10 some 00/TlffiCI]taries, this indicaleS thai Abnaham actually used lbe powen ofSefer Yeuirah 10 tmlte people," This I'oOOld be !be earlint eu.mpk of !be use of SefC1" Yeuirah 10 trelte a CioIem. Aco:xdina 10 thi!, Abraham would h.lve Ieamed bow 10 use !be myster_ ies ofSefer Yetzitah before God loid him 10 leave Hana.n.1> Olher authorities, bowe>-er, say WI "rnaIcinJ souls" ~fers 10 C()ftvertillJ them 10 belid in tbe one true God. and !his is also supported by lbe Zohar.1> Some commentaries altempt 10 reoonciIe this with the lut of Serer Yetzirah, upbinillJ thai "';!h !be mir\1de$ ~t Ihrou&h tbe Sefer Yeuirah, Abraham "'"85 abk 10 OOII~ people of the pow~r of God. and thus C()<Ivert them 10 true belid." The scripuU"l' states, -the toUls thai/My in the plural. Thi1 would ;ndia.te WI Abraham was no{ alone in his usc ofSefer Yeuinh, but had I oompanion. A M idruh states WI if AbrVwn would ~ve enaalf"'! in the st:o:ftlS of aution by himsdf. he would h.ave pt.e 100 far in emulatina his Creator, a nd he \hef"efore ~ ~ with Shem, - ' of Noah.'" Ancienl 1JoOUrtl'S idenlify Shem "';th Maldtiwiel<. "'ho ~ Abraham and tauahl him many of the earliC'l" tnlditionl." The most importanl mysleries ofSefC1" Yettin.h involve the inner li&nif1l"lN'!e of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. He~ too, ~ find Wt Abraham w1l$ a tna5ler of ~ m)~eries. A Midruh WIIS statc=l WI "the lelleB WC1"e civen 10 none OIho:r than Abnham,"" As we dWl_ in the commentary (00 1:3), lhe ~menl of the animal1 when Abraham made his covenanl with Cod, also appears 10 be hew! on the mys.Imes of Serer Yetzirah. Further support tinkina Ablaharn 10 the Sefer Yeuirah is found in tbe Talmll<k \QChillJ that "Abraham had a veal astroIocY in hil heart, and all the kinp 0( the east and west lrose: early II his door."" Serer Yetzirah is one of the primary ancienl astroIoPcal texIS, and it is pees;... bIe thai il illOOl"pOl"'ates Abnaham's ~roIo&ical \eadlinp. The fae! thai this ~n'lIocY was said 10 be "in his hear1- miahl also indicale thai il involved various meditative l«Imiques. as was ind ' Ed lhe case with ancienl uln'lIocY, and is also ~ by Sefer YeuiraIL There is ev;.. dence that lhese mysteries ~ also taUJht 10 Abraham by Shem, aIon& wilh \he mystery of the calendar (Sod Halbbur)." When God revealed himsdfto Atnham one of the first . binp that He tal.llhl him..-as no! to be overdependenl on Istrolo&ical predictions. " Abrlham WII l lso fully Iwa~ of tile rnqicallnd idolltroul usn that could be de veloped from Ihese mysleries. lbc Talmud Ihus says Ih3t Abraham hAd a IBCI dealinl wilh idolatry IhAl OOIIsiSled of 400 chapten." There is also 3 Talmudic leachina Ihll Abraham taushl


SlFE! YETZUI... tt the mysteries involvi nl "unclean names" 10 the children of his concubine..... This is based on Ihe venc. "10 Ihe sons of Ihe concubines Ihal Ab ... ham had, Abraham p ve lifts. and he senl them away ... 1 0 lhe land. of lhe USI" «(;ene5is 25:6). n.e..e &ifts consisled of occull mySlerieS. which then spread in eastern Asia. The allribution of the m)'llte"" of Sefer Yelzi,ah 1 Abn.ham 0 .... ould place its oriJin in the I Sih cen tury W.;n tbe common en.. This is not very surprisill&, since such mystical tU IS as the Vedic scriplures date from this period, and there is every fCa!iOn 10 believe thl1 the mystical tn.d it;on "'..1 fun her .dYanced in Ihe Middle East than it was in India at Ihe time. Sima Abn.ham was the yt"atest myslie and utf'Olot;er of his '&eo it is nalun.llo assume that he was familiar wilh all Ihe myslerk$ of aneienl EIYPI and McsopO\amia. Abr1Iham was born in Mesopolamia. and he also lived in EI Ypt. The ""~I plaoe where ,.,., find the usc of Sefer Yctzirah ;1 in a tradilion reprdin, the older sons of Jacob, .... hich lIales Ihal they used it 10 create animals and maid servants." When lhe Kripture states Ihal "Joseph broudtt an evil repOrt [reprdinl his brothen] 10 his father" (<knnis 31:2 ), ;t is referrinl to thil. Joocph's brothen had Cl.tffl an animal withou l slau&hleri nl il properly, and Joseph did not know thai the animal had ~ created through lhe Sefer Yelzin.h and did not need o.uch s1au&htcr. He t herefore repOn ed that his brothers had eaten - nesh from a livi n, animal.The m)'Slcrin of Scfer Yelzin.h were used "",in after the Exod us, when Ihe I....dit ... were bui ldin8 the Tabernacle in the desen . The Talmud siaies Ihal BcIUIel had been chosen to build this Tabernacle because he "knew how 10 permule Ihe letlers wilh ...·hidt huven .nd ean h "..,re created.-" Such esoterie knowledge was required , 5i~ Ihe T abernacle ..... $ mean l to be I micrQC(lSJTl, paral lelin& both Ihe universe, the spirilual domain. and the human body."lt was 001 enou'" merely 10 conJlruct a ph)'sical buiLdin.. As il WI'I bu ill, the archilect had to medilate o n Ihe meanin, of cadI pan, imb\li nl it wilh Ihe necnsaT)' spiritual propenin. Th~ Talmud dcriv ... t his from the vcnc whe", Ood says, - [ hav~ called in the name of Bctulel ... and I have filled him with the spirit of God, ....ith .... isdom , unders!.1.nd inJ, and knowied,e- (EJ:odUI ) 1 :2-)~ " Wisdom. Unders!.1.ndin, and Knowied&e- (Chakllmah. BiMh and lb:Il) ...,fer 10 5tatn of roniICiousnes$. which " "C "'all d iscuss at kn,lh. 11 is through the mani pulation of Ihe letters Ihal such Stiles of con.ciou~ness can be attained. The sourc:es are silent about the Sefc-r Yct2irah Ihen until the time of Jeremiah the prophet. Here apin ,,'e fi nd a lradition Ihat Jerem iah wished 10 make Use of Sefer Yetzirah. but as in the Clse of Abraham. was admonished nOI to allemPllO do so alone. He Ihere

I"" """,,,,,,,


fore look hi. son. Ben Sinh, and Ih~ 1"'0 eAplorcd I~ rn)'!lerin logether." Throush their effon$, they ,,~re able 10 crute a Gokrn . but they did not pre5l"I>e it. Tllere mishl have lottn rno"" Ihan one ~rson wi th th~ na m~ Ben Sinh. but the OM in this tnditinn ...-as dearL the $On of Jeremiah . y Reprdina his hinh . Ihere is a fascinatins tradilion. Jeremiah had bei-n ~Ied by homoseAuals in Ihe balhhouse. and as a result. had u~riencnl an ejacUlation in Ihe 1ub_ His $Cmen remained viabLe. and when his dauslller L aler the ... m~ lub. 1he ...-as imp""",aled by ii, e\-'entually livin, binh to Ben Sirah.J! Ben Sirah "-as therefore Ihe son of bolh Je~iah and the laller's daushler. Some sourttS ... y that hi, na"", ..,., nrilinaJJy Ben Zera (Son of Seed), but .... hen Ihis na"", proved embar'r.U!lina. he ch.tnp iliO Ben Sirah. - Because of lhe $Cnsilive nature of his binh. he: d id nOi can himodf "$On of Jererniah ." The"" is an aUusion. ho wever, since Sirah (..",,) and Je""miah (~ ... ) both ha"e a numerical value of 271. Later authoritit"S ".-",.., 10 brinl proof from Ihi. incident Ihat anificial inseminat ion does not constitute adultery or incest. " These lraditions are of panicular interest, siIKe Ihere are man y hinl. that Jeremiah lauabt these mySlcri"" 10 a ""nain Yoso:f, II<)n of Utiel. son of Ben Sirah." There is also at leasl one soura: that .tal"" thai Ben Sirah actuall y !aught the Sefer Yettirah 10 Yoscfben U,ieJ." What is even more inlereslin, is the fact Ihal lbere are hints that this vcry same Yos.efben Uziel may have wrinen a mmmentary on Serer Yelzirah, or even possibly one of th~ earli ...t version. of Ih" 1t:%1 ilself." This is imponant because il would dale Ih" finn version ofSefer Yel1!irah 10 lhe early ycars of Ihc Second Templ~, Thi. was aho the time of Ih" Or~at A~rnbly. who put some of the last boob of lhe Bible. such as Ezekiel, into wrilin&. and Ihen d osed lhe Biblical Cannon ." Much of the "'8ular Heb"' .... P"'Ye1' ilervice was aho composed by this Assembly" Like these prayers. the Sefer Yetz;rah was nOt pul into writing, but was !audit from "",mory.

The Talmudic Period
Upon cntcri", tile Talmudic period. ,,-e make a lransition from lradition to history. We find actual mention of Sefer YelZirah in 1M. Tal mud, and e,'en though ;t ;s not absolutely «nain Ihat it is identical with OUt version, there is no n:al ""ason 10 doubt Ihal they an: one and the same. In Talmudical Ii""",. IIIe Sefer YC\2i",h bcaan I S an 0",1 leaching, and "-as eventually incorporaled as a book. which w'" used by Ih" sa&"'-


•• j


Th( fiRI ~ferentt to ",ch 11$0: involves Rabbi Yehos.hua (ben OIan&ll)-'). lludinl uae of the fiRt Ct'n tllf)'. He i, ~ited with the 51A1 cmtnl, ~ I (an take iqllUMs IIId pumpkins, and with thc ~fer Yctrirlh. make lhem inlo beautiful trees. ~ wiU in lum produec: other betiuliflll Irca. ~" Allhou&h Ih( phrr.$e. ~with the SefctYetzirah,- docs noe O«"\Ir in prinled ed ilion, of 1M Jm.Wem Tilmud. it is found ;11 manlHCriplJ. This rd"nmce 10 Rlbbi V(h .. ~ua is hi&hly Ii&rUf~l. Rabbi VdioI.hua was OM of tile fiV( main d;~iples of Rabbi Yoc:hanuI bm i (47 .:..73 a), leader of III Jewry Ifter the datNdion of the T(mpl(, and a ~~ UP"' ;n III occull Irts.· It ""as Rabbi Vehoshua ... ho was Rabbi Vochanan', ma;o dilciplc in thc mystma of thc Marb ... (a..riot). and he 1 .ler pined rime as the IJmllest aP"' 0( his lime in tile occult." Thililto Ibed'li&hl OD anoeller ;mpOrllnl m)"ltical ...,tou.lIl.ily. Al....Mdini 10 OM .ncient 5OIIftt. R.bbi YdIoIhua also received. the tradition from R.bbi NchunUt ben HaKanah, kader of the JChooI IIIaI produ«d lhe Bahir. In S<kr IfIl11win, '*'C' find thai 1M tradition rqardillj 1M myslical lillliflCllJ1a of 1M crown, (lQlin) o n Heblt * leliCR .... , handed down in the follo... iol manner: - Menacbem pvc il over 10 R.bbi Ndlunia ben HaKanah. Rlbbi N(bunia ben HaKanlh pvc it over to Rabbi EInar ben A... kh, Rabbi Elanr ben Arakh 1.1"" i1 over 10 Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Vd"Ioshua pve i1 over 10 R.bbi AkibL~· Rlbbi EInar ben A... kh is ~I known ll ihe ~ale'lt diKiple of Rabbi Vodla n&ll ben Zakkli." II is 1110 known 11111 he learned Ibe Manav, my'len et from Rabbi Vochanln." From tl\( above tradi· lion, we 1110 S« Ihll he lumcd from Rabbi Ncltunia. possibly ,IW" he kf\ Rabbi Voch.Inln. TM Talmud ~ponslltalilihis pOinl, Rabbi EIIUf" ...·enl 10 live by 1M river Dismas, ;n lhe IOwn of Emmaus. " Emmlul, however, i. alto known to be lhe pIKe of Rabbi Neh llnia, &I _II as I .-nera! sell of KablHolill ic leaclti~" II .. qui le possible that Rabbi Elaur bc<1imc 10 invol_"ed. in mYlilicism. lhal, as 1M Til· mud rqIOnl, M 10It his p-.$p of IepHtlio; throry. Alto ,iltlifiClJlt it: lhe fl<:t Ihli Rabbi Ndlun i. is aid \.0 have received. lbe lnodilion from Mcn nh m. It is known thai Rlbbi Nebun;1 "''IS lhe ladi", mystic oftbc fiR! Ql:nIUf)'. 1$ _U &I I c:oIlequc of Rabbi Voc:hallIn ben Zakkai." There are, ~er, no m; .... dJ.u 10 wbotn hi. mallCR ~. Front IM!WP H .. 11wiJ1 we Ium that Rabbi Nthuni,leamcd II Iasa tome oflhe m)"lilmn from MC"ftIdItm. who served.u vice ~idcul of lhe Slnhcdrin (SUjMCllOe Coun) under Hillel. II "''IS ... hen Mmachern ruisn-ed b.iI post thlt Sb.ammai _ appoinled. in his J.lead."

aUlboritin idenlify Ihis individual with Menacbml the Euene, discuMed by JostphU$.u Men.chem had ona: seen Herod 15 a child, and had prop/lelied Ihal he would be kiDa. BccaUK of this, when Herod laler ascended the throne. he hoDOrcd Menacbem as well ali Ihe other Euenn. Due 10 his relationshi p with Herod. MenaelKm could DO Ioncer his posilion in the Sanhedrin. If we acttpt lhe above tradition, Nchunia ben HaKanllh migh t have """,ived 3tleas! some of his mYSI~ knowled&e from Mcnachcm the Esscne. This lO'Ould itldic&le that the Essenrs were oonverKJIl in the myslical ans, and that they laught them to &I least some of the Talmudic masten. Josephus states that Ihe Esscncs made u"" of the names of anaell. and were able 10 forte1J the fUlllTe, usina variolls purifications and methods of the prophelS. " Even more sianifieanl, Josephus also likens Ihe E..scnCli 10 the Pythlaore.ns." Since the Serer Yetzirah apparently contaiDs some elemenll lhal rncmble the Icachinp of Ihe Pythqoreans., it may be tbat Ihe tc;o:t ,,'u pleKI .eIl by the Es""nes durill& the period that preceded the Talmud, Rabbi Fluor taught the traciitmn rcprdiiIJ the crowns on ItlteR to Ra bbi YehoshuI, who in 111m JIve il over to Rabbi Akiba (12-132 a ) , Rabbi Akiba ncel1cd in this area, and the Talmud repOns Ihal he could derive many impOMaDt teachinp from ~ crowns." He also l'CCC'ivcd the Marieava tradition from Rabbi Yeh(lShua, u wdl as other imponanl occllillore," There is no Question that in his time_ Rabbi Akiba ..... considered Ihe areatest of all elIpcns in the myslical realm. '" Rabbi Shiml'On bar YocItai, author of the ZaIIar, ..... also I disciple of Rabbi Akiba. II i. lhe..,fore nOI surprisin, tllat a number of sources anriiMJtc the aulhonhip ofScfer Yeu inth 10 Rabbi Akiba," Masl o f Ihe early Talmudicaltcxts originated lO~lb Rabbi Atiba, who transmined them onllly in a well ddined form." Although thes.e boots we.., not wrillen down , Ibey had ~n worded by Rabbi Akiba. Ind it was his wordinl Ihal was laught Of1l11y. At Ihat time, there was a rule that Ihe onll tradilion be revi~ elIlctly, word for word. pred ""ly IS Ihey bad bem pven over. the rule ""a., "One ohould IIwI)' reveiw Ihe preci"" word;na of lIis mastcr.~" Each master would therefore provide I p r...... am of study, ....hich h i. disci ples wnuld Immariu word for word. In tM Icpliruc fieLd, Ihi, was known as Ihe ~ FiRI Mishnah,-" It is possible Ihat Rabbi Akiba also produced an orallext of Serer Yelzirah for his Iludents of mystical lore 10 mcmarin. BesidC10 this, pcrs.onal notes may also have been kept. In this respect, Ih e Sefer Yeuinth would have been no differeDt from the rest of the orallradi lion. Al thOUgh ;1 was meant 1 be lrans0

SEFER YETZlRA!I min ed by "ud of mouth, and "'as no! aclually published, personal records and manUscriplS Wert kept." This WIS especially true of important teachinas tllat _rt not usually rtviewed in the lcalkmies. as _II as esoleric te~ ts." Similarly. Ihe heads of lhe academies would keep wrinen notn in ordn' 10 itttll l'lllely ... uel ..., lhe tradition •. " Altllouih Ihue notes ,,~ never published. lhey " 'ert tartfully prnerved in the academies. Su~uent leachen often added mar_ Jinal nOles 10 these manu~ri pts, and such notn were even occasionally fou nd in II>e Bibl ical ~1'Q1l . .... hich II>ey used." Since Ihese noles -...:T't PICSUVed by privale ind ivid uals and ne,'Cr distributed, they.....,re cQIl..cti\'cly rno"'lI as ~hidden ""mll.~ (/I.Irgil/al &Iarlm) ..... NOl only such esotcric material as SefU' Yeu irllh " 'IS included in Ihis cateJOl)', but even such leplistic material as the Mishnah, which wu meant to be Il'lInsmined orllll)'. Th is miaht help e~plain " 'hy lhe Sefer Ydzirah exists in SO many \'crsions. Unlike tile Mish nah, which was e'~ntually publi shed in a "~II lkfined edit ion, the Sefer Yelz;l'lIh ne,'er de" ek>ped beyond Ille state of bein, a ~lI idden SCfOII.~ Different venions may have bttn tauJht b~ "arioos teachen, and, sin~ tile te~\ WlS never openly pun. lislled. there .....s no .... ay in wllich these "enions could be COfTlPlln:d and rorrttled. Furtllermore. many ma .... inal nOtes may have bttn inoorporal«l inlO tile lUI , also produdn, d iffertnl version$. All Ihis may provide an ex planation for the fact Ihat then: is no Hebrew classic Il1al is foond with so many ,·enion. and variants as the Sefer Yellirah . II :oeems highl)' probable t hai the Sefer Yetzi rah was aln:ady in its prnenl form .... hen the Mishnah was n:dlKted in the yel r 204 CL The Mishnah "'IS edited by Rabbi Yelll,ldah the Prince ( IH~22Q.-.), usually rrfem:d to simply as "Rebhi. ~ II is indeed possible that there i~ " reference to Sefer Yrtzirah in Ihe Mishnah itself. In one of the few places where it di'ICUsse5 et(lleric lore. the Mishnah states, ~The mysteries of creation (M~ Bt reshil) mlYnot be expounded in the: pll'sen~ of t\V() di5ciples, and the mysteries of the Marklva (M aa.H'h Markin'lll may not be npounded even in the prnence of one, unle" he is wise:. underslandin, with his kno .... Ied'e. ~ .. no.. teTTT'i M~ M t!rluzva n:fns 10 the meditative methods uxd 10 ascend 10 the hillier spiritual n:alms." Although such Jal~ pb.~ phen as Maimonides claimed thaI this in,'QIved philosophical. sprcuJa. lion, the most ancien! ooun:es dearly 5tale tllat Maasth MarIcawJ dealt with the meditati~e methods used !'or spiritual ascent." A. such, it was C'OfIsidcm;! the mosl ...oteric of all ipiritual exercises. Acwrdin, to many aUlhorities, Maa.H'~ 8~il refen \0 the mysteries of Sef~ Yetzirah." Since .... e know Ihlt M(fQ.J<!h MIl,hlva .... 1lIi of mystical II.J.IU"" it would bo ~ to assume Illat the same: Wa1 lrue of Maaw/t lkrnlril. Furthermore. the assumption thai

involvo:s Serrr Ye'!:rirah allO clarifies I nu mbcT of otherwi$e obIcu~ TalmudiCIIIrt:fm:ncn. ~ is aJlO evUkll« lhal Rebbi wu familiar ";Ih 11K mYSlma of the Marbva, and it is loci· cai to auulnC thai he> ..... allO • ....,., o f Scfer Ye\zitlll,>< A &elocution lalu, we: thus filld I II account o f IWO of Rebbj'I diKipies de.rly invol~ in !he m)'lteries O(ScfeT ytUirah.. TheTa!mud Il:lala, ~Rabbi Hani ... and Rabbi Hoshia WOIIId ~ themselva in xfer YnUl"lh C\'tI'y IFrid.ayJ before the Sabt.lh, would create for tMlNClvCl I. prime» air, and would eat il.·,. AnolhcT vcnion of this accounl IIlln thl' they C1IPaN ill Hi/JcJtof ytrzjroA (Ruin 0( Crn.tioll)' rather than We.- Velum." The term Hi/JcJtof, !lowevel', call apply \0 phikMiphK:al ",In I, .-d11U ItpI OIKS." I" I(lme oflM most ancient manllJeripta, Serer YelZirab il actllally til~ HillcJt« Yttrinzh." Then: art: many inle1'pretations as IOuactly wMl thne lWO ..... *XX)il1p1ilMd in cre&lill,llUch I calf. and why !My did it. Some say thai they did 1101 actually creale • ph~'SicaI Qlf. but ern!rd JUCh • clclr medital i,-c imqe Ihll 1M spirilulllilisf.nion was 'he.arne u
ellin,.- Evm luch • K.ibNlis.t at Abraham AhuJar (124().1296) .. maintain. thai I~r ~'Iion ..... mystical rather than physical." Tbc R.m~ (Rabbi Shlomo ben Adem: 123S- III 0) saw pertintLar sipjf"",nee in lhe fad 11111 Ihey would mpar in Ihis on Friday, lhe day ia "'hid! mlmmlls wn-e oriainlUy cn:llt<I.ll Thit enlire que5lion wiD be diKI.L5sed further in OIIr o:ommentary. Evidently, Rebbi lIto Il u&lll Ihete mysleries to hil diKiple R.\v (Abba Arikhta), who in tum Il u,hI Ihem 10 Rlv Yehudlh (220-29'9 a ). founder Ind first mlSleT of lhe Blbylonian academy ia Pumpadita. Th il Rlv Yehudah. 1000lher wi lh Rav Aina. wen:: o;aIIed Ihe - ciders of Pumpedill.-" Tbe Talmud n::llies Ihlt the - elden of Pumpedita wen:: \t tKd (IIlnll) in MII~JrlI Btrnllil ..... From the usc of the word IlInll here. it is evidenl Illal MaaJd! 1Hrnh1' already 9.iOled in • driinile form. mosl probt,bly III • wTillcn book." This ..-ould S"W'I lhat Sef'er Yetzlrah hid Ilready been PUI in writin ... TMIll il ,Iso other evickfta, that Rav Yehudlh learned the mysleriel o f !M:fet Yetzirah from Rl v. TM leach;n&- -Bettald knew how to permule lhe IetlCrs .... ilh whid! bcaven and c:.rth wn-e o;realed; is IIIribulcd to -Rlv Yehvdah in lhe !lime of R.\v.- Alto IItribulCd to him ;1 lhe statemenl !hat God loki Abn.hIm 10 -10 0111 of your aslrokltY."" Thil lhal he had some cv>derIec that Abraham _ vCf1ed in allrolocY. a position clearly round ia !M:fer Ynzirah. There is alto evidence lhal Rav Ydtudah lamed the mymrics of the 42 1et\e1' Nlme from Rav.As In initiale into 1M mysleries otSder Ycuirah, Rav Yehlldah would also ILave a dottp IInckf1l&n,dina of lhe mysticallipiflCallCe of Ihe Hdtrew lIIn,uaac- We Ihul find IILaI he cmpbuiml. the 11K of the
M~ 8~il

SEFER YET7.IIlAIt lan&u.a&e. even in his daily convenal ion." Ray Y~hlldah abo mainl.ined Ihal pr;oy~r ~uld ~ yoiad in H~brew, and nOi in Ihe Aramaic y~mac\llar," Th~ Talmud relal~ Ihal R... Y~f knew Ihe mYSlmn of Ihe Marhva . .... hile the ~elden of Pumpadila" _re versed in the mysleri~ m ereation. Ra,· Y~fgolille elders 10 leach him Ihe mysleries of creal ion. bul would nol enll1lSI them with lhe Marhva mysteries in return." This indicaleS Ihat the my'l~rin of Ihe MarkaYi. Bnd lhose of Sefer Yelz;rah .... e,.., ta""'l by different ..::hools. and lhal members of one school did nOI know tile leachinp ofille olher. "The lWO involved di ff~nt discipline., and nre was taken 1 k~p tllem scparale. This 0 also ans"'iers the Queslion as 10 wh y Ihe Sd"er Yelzirah is ne"er men_ tioned in Ille lIrld!aIOl. lhe classic of Marbva lilerature.Ol The Marhv. lilenllu", !k~1oped in a schoollhal mi&ht have not had .callS to xfer Ye!rirab, even lhough ce"ain of ils members_re definilely ~ersed in it. In Ihe same (:Onlext, xfu Yelzirall is men· tioned hut a vcry fno' timn in IIIe Zohar. and then. not in the main

In Ihat period. Ihere were some saln who nclle",-w thl':lC m~ teries complel~ly. Such an ind ividual was Rabbi Elazar ben Padat. " '1\0 beaded the aeadem)' in Tiberiu. after the dealh of Rabbi Yachanan in Ihe year 279 CL When Rabbi Yachanan h<ld offered 10 leach him lhe Madaya m)'l1erio, Ite defCI'l"Cd on Ille around. Ihat he "'as 100 youn&. After Rabbi Yachanan's death, wilen Rabbi Assi wi5hed 10 impa" Iht'SC mysteries to him, he apin defem:d, sayin&. ~ Ifl would have been ....orthy. I would have learned lkem from R.bbi Yachanan )'Ou r master, Instead. Rabbi Elazar adopted a posilion somewhal opposed 10 Ihe CSO\erk schools. a<:ttplina Ihe "icwpoinl of Rabbi Yosi ben Zimra. Oenyi lli lhat IIIe Serer Yelzirah could be used 10 C~ ale life. he said in the name of Rabbi Y05i. "If aU the prople in Ike world cam~ 1O&Clhcr. they (:Ould not crule a J1IB1 and imbtle it wi th a soul."'" 11 was not that Rabbi Elazar doubted thai weh po_rs e~isled, Rather. he felc llIal tl>ey " 'el"(> no 10lll"r known. 'fhae po ....ers. howe" er. d id CIisl in Ihe Tonh. Rabbi Elanr thus said . ~The I'"u",,,,,"phs of tile Torah II"(> not in order. If Ihey were in [correct[ order. an)'One . '1\0 read lkem would be . bk 10 [cl"(>ate I World.} murreel III-e dead, and perfo"" miradt'S.. A generalion later. "'C find IWO impo"ant sqes aCli~dy enpaed in Iht mysteries of Sefer Yetzirah. The firsl was Rava (29'J-lSJ <'I). founder and fi~1 ma51er of tlte Babylonian ~ad~my in Mechuza • ... ho is crcdiled wi lh oa yin" ~If Ike n,htcous desired. lhe~ could crelie a world,- Hi5 pa"ner was RaY Zein. who was known III the

"yin! of Bab)'lon ..... So great _rc: Ray Zeira's meditative po",-ers Ihat he was able 10 place his feel in fire without buminllh.em. He would test him~lf each month to see if this pOlIo-er Willi unabated. On one ~sion, Ihe other s.a&n distracted him. a nd he failed, where. upon he wlU cailt(!, ~The litlle man witl'lth e burmd f«t ..... An ancient tradition stain that Rava and Rav Zeira worked tQSether for three ye"n, medila!;n, on tile Sefer Yctzirah. When they finally mastered it, Ihey created a calf and 5I.aullncm;! ii , ..,!'Vi"" ;1 at a feast ceJcbralin,lhcir accomplishment. Thcy then 10$1 their pow.

en and had to work for an.otlier th= yean \0 rnion: them. "
Tile Talmud ..,latn that " Rava c""aled a man" and sent bim \0 Rav Zein. When lhe laller S that this android would nOI ans""cr al','

his questions. he realiud thai ;1 was a Golcm, and told ;1 \0 "return 10 Ihe dust.· ··, The Bahi r remarks Ilia! the GoJcm could nOi speak becau"" Rav....... 1>01 completely f= from Ihe !lint of si n. and as long as man sins. he cannot partake of the po""rs of the (realor.'OI Only God can make a man who can speak.. This is tile first mention of the creation of a GoIem in Hebraic literalure , but in the middle ail's. several other jnstan<:... a"" reponed.'''' E'"n the expression. ~ Ra"a created a man," has mystical connolations. [n I~ oriynal. it is RaBM BoRA GaBhRA (I<"UI "1) ,.:n ). and, as an tarly Kabbalist nOI .... Ihe second word is nothin, ot her than Ihe ...,velY of Ihe first.'O< The third word adds a Gimmel. the third lener oflhe alphabet. to lhe word before;1. This yields a ph~ consisting of len letters. with a numerical value of 612. one less than 6 13. t~ number of and blood ,,,*Is in Ihe human body. '" The man crealed by Ran WI'! Ihus somelhinl less Ihan human. In many ways. th ;s exprenion is reminiSCtnl of Ihe word Abracadabra (ABNA K'ADaBRA-II'O'VO >n;III), which lilerally means, " I will create as I speak. -'OO During the Talmudic period. Ihere well' man y sap who rnPlCd in thne mysteri ....'''' With the dose of Illis era, 1I0,",'(v(r, a blankel of silence was cast over all occult aC1 ivitin.. It appears Ihat a number of mystical books were written during Ih e SU~lJoOnt Gaonic period, but Ihe;r orilin. are .hl'OYded in mystery. Still, kno..-IedJt of thne practices clea rly existed as late IS the 10th century, and H.i Gaon (939--103 8) speaks of JXOple cn&ased in tile mystical permulation (1:,...,1(Jl of Ieners.,..

Texts and Commentaries
Jt is not untilll'!e posl-Talmudic period lila! """ find actual quotations from Ihe Sefer Yetzirall. One o r the eal1;.".t .uch reruencn i. in a






Table l. HiSlorical opi nioo§ as to .... hen Srfrr r froirllir .... a~ .... ritten .
Before 100 ....

Lazarus GoIdsmidt. [)as Buch dtT ScMpfimg, FrankJun, 1894. p. 12. Is~el We il1$tocl<, nmiri" I , Jeruill!em , 1972, p. 21 . (for earliest pIOn s).
Adolphe rranck, Oit Kabbdlilh. Leipzi&, 1844, p. 6S. Israel Weinstock. loe.cit. (for IIC'COnd layer). Adolph Jellinek. Inlroduction 10 Oit KabW!"Ir, pp.6-9. Yo hann Friedrich von Meyer, [)as Bwch YnirtJlr, Lcipzi&, 1839, p. v. Heinrich Graetz. GtIIJSliciJmus. Krotoschin. 1846, pp. 102-103. Isadore Kal ish. Stftr Y rllirtJh. New York. 1871. p. 3. David C.sldl i, Commrnli di Don% , Firenze, 1880, p . 14. Abraham Epstrin, Brilragr zlIr Judi:v:hrn A!ltrllrllmsic.ulttir, Vienna. I 887, 1:46 49.

100 ..... 100 0:

1·100 co

100-200 co

!dtm .. Rnchrrrhr


It StftT Y/'('ira. Rro-ur

dn EdlIl n Jlli_ 29:7S-76 (1894). CXrshom Scbolnn, Ur1pnmg und A'Ifil~, Berli n, 1962 . pp. 21 . 2S (note 4 S). Avraham Mcir Habermann. Sinol 10: 141 ( 1114 7).

200-<00 •

- .
600-800 •

Louis Gi n"be .... Jt't<'iJlr EItQ'IOpft/iQ. New York. 1904, 12:60S. CXnhom Scllolcm, EncycIoprdi" Judaial, Berlin. 11132. 9:109.

Leo Baed, Aus drri J"lrrlQusrNir, Berlin. 1938. p. 382.
Hermann L Strack. EI" lr ltllng i" Talmud lI"d M idFlu , Munich. 11121. p . 22 1. Sh. Mo.... Sir"", Kt!,,!OI. BGD KRl'T. !it " ! Th, Si nol. Jerusalem . 1960. pp. 233-236. Nehem ia AlonL H/slOriSt:hr GrammaliJc.. Hali. ]1122 , p. 112. Idt m., nmjrim I , p. 116.


TMI>ie I. Hi\l<)I"ic.1 opinionl as II) ...' ~n Sri" rrl:iruh was wnnen (cofllin...,di leopold Zunz, Dir VOrll"l!ge dn' Judr~, Mo"il Steinschneider. p.40 1. Heinrich GracI!, Grxh«htr dn Judrn (18 75) 5:2 97. Ph . Bloch. MYSlik und KablJ<Jlah, Trier,


1896. p. 244.
Israel WeinstOCk. 1« cit. (for addit ions).

I'OC'm ,",'riuen by Rabbi Eluar Kalir, who li~ed in the fifth or shth centul}'. and perhaps even earlier. He write5: '" Then, from eternity, with Ten Sayinp You IOU,ro With Scribe, SoCript and SoCf(lIl- Ten. You finished them in si~ directi""" Ten words. There are also allusions to the [e.chinp of Serer Yetlirah in Brrrila drShmurl HaKalan, which, acrording to internal e~idence, was wriuen in o r around 776 <:<."" There is also a mention of Ihe -Ten Sefif(lt of Nmhinf,lln;!- in a late Mid rash. wh ich could lIave been rW.acted around this time.' " The absence of any unambilllOus references to Serer Yetzirab in carl ieT' litera lure h.. led some hiotorians to $ptt\llale whether or not the Talmudic citltions are referrin, 10 our teu. Some maimain thai our venion "'III wrilten much laler than 1~ Ta lmud. A lisl of such estimale5 in given in Table I. 'The me:.! carefl,ll analyail. no...~,.t'T. reveals a number of suata in tile teu 'The artiest parts of the book IllIHIT vet)' ancient, )!OUibly antedating tile Talmudic CT1I. III A oomiden.bIc amount of the tnt Ipptlr1 to .... ve been added later 011, ]XlUibly as a &Jossary orrommental}'. As some mtlle earliesl commenIlU:... on SefeT Ycttirah OOIe, c0mmentaries and marJinai notCli _re occasionally inrorporated into lhe Int.'" In 1M 10th ~tury, Rabbi Yaakov ben Nissim wriles. - People wnle Hebrew comments 011 tile book. and 0!ht'T fooli$h people come later and commenl on !he commentary. Between \bern, lrulh is 1o&t.-'" This is not SU!']lrWn" sinr.:e in Talmudic limes, such marginal ootes were even common in Biblical seroUs. a1\ho1l&h eDOU&h W known of ill IMiT text, WI !he comments were not ir.rorporated into it. Se~cral strala are cvi<knl in WeT Yetrirah. some apparenlly added in the late Talmudic p"riod, and OIIier1 in llie G,onic era,



Thus. critical estimates a. to iii "3<: would depend on which pans were st ...died. The earliesl oommemarie. on Sefer YClzirah were ""ritten in the 10th century. Th e lirst was wrinen in 93 1 by Saadia Gaon. one of the mas! important reliJjous leaders and philosopMn of hi. time. The sewnd. Chaktlloofli, ....., wri nen by Rabbi Shabbatai Donnelo in 946, while the: third "'.,., wli nen by Donaih ibn Tlmim I decade hUer.'1> All of these are philosoph ical, rather than mylltical, in oontent. Most $isni licant i. the facl lha t each of the5e commentaries was wrillen o n a d ifferent version of Serer Yettirah. The commentary by Donash ...... wrillen on what i. now ICnerally referTed 10 as Ihe Sl>ort Venion. Wilh minor variations. il ...... Ihis venion that "".1' printed in 1562 in the: Manl ... a edi tion. and it i. dominant in all subtequent printed ed ilion•. The commentary of Shabbat;ai Donnelo ...,., wrilten on ",'hat is now referred 10'" the L<:>"I Version. MIUlY printed edilions included Ihis lon, Venion as.lII)n of appendix. A complete manu5Cripl , run· ina from tl!e 10th century, also uist. of lhis version. A1lhol1&h there are important differences in the .... i",mcnt of values to letten and planets. tile Lon, Version is very much like the Short Venion with an additional commentary. This i1 particularly e~ident in lhe sixth cha pler. ""here we lind a oommentary on the lint stanza oflhe book. Al so .i,niflQnl are some rttaps (4 : 14. 5:W), which are actually revi. sions of the previous te, t. The Histen« of bolh a Short and wn, Venion "'as nOled Il$ early u the 13th cen tury by AbT2ham Ab... lafia.' " The third >"eRion i. that of Saad ia Gaon, which is .1100 found in some early Geniz. fT8Jll1ents. This is very much like the lonl Ver· sion, e..cept that the stanzas Ire in complelel~' different order. This varianl. usually t;1lkd tile Saadia Venion. has been vin ... ally illlOrcd by tile Kabbaliot., even thoush it was appa..,ntly used by Rabbi Ychudah Hau vi in hi. KUnlri . As early as the 10th century, Saadia Gaon remarked abo ... t the many varian ts of Serer Yetzirah. u.yi n&. ~lt is no!. common I>00I<, and mlUlY peOple have been careless in chanailll or trans]105intlhe tnC'" A century latn, Rabbi Yehooah Barceloni like..ise rwles lllat , ~Ihere are many versions, lOme very confuscd.~' " in 1562. the printers of the fint Manlua edition ..,marked ho.... tlley had to sift throush many manuscripts to lind a dependable text. If all the " ariams found in manuscripts are coonted, theTe are literally dozens of different varia nts in the texi of Sefer YelIirah. No other Juda ic text exists in 10 many venions. SOme of these misht

1I.,·e come from different schools, who, becausc t secret, did oot communicate witll eacll otllff. notes and commentaries also apparently became i tile tex t, producinl diffel"C'llt varianll. Furtllcrmore, if text was prescn,ed onUy for a lon, time, variants in its orderinl may have also developC'd, Besides this. there is anotllC!" possibility, sU&&e'ted by tile fact that, in esSClKlC, the Kabbal istl rejected all the abo'·e mentioned Ycr· sions. II is known that durillltile Gaonic period (6th-10th «nturies), the Kabbali lts rntri<;ted tlleir teachinp to very small secret societies. Great stress "-as placed on maintainin, 1«. ccy .0 that their tClchinp should oot fill into improper h.nds. Since Sefer Yctzinll is sucll I small book. it presented Ihe ~atnt danacr. ~ leaden of lhese scllools may h.,·e delibenlely relea5ed spurious versions. SO IQ to confusc Ihose who would be templed 10 ~netrate IMir mysteries. With sevenl venions in circulation, the uninitiated would oot mow wllich 10 choose. II WIS the Kabbalists tllcmsch·es who preserved tile correct lut, inilially concealin, il from outsiders. Around I HO, Rabbi Moshe Cordevero, luder of the Safed school and the I'Utnt Kabba/isl of lhe day, silled Ihrouah Ille len best manuscripls available, choosilll Ihe one mOSt dosrly fittin, Ihe Iradil;OO of the Kabba/islI.1It A acncntion latcr. the te1t "-as further rtfined by tile Ari (Rabbi Yitzchalt !..u.ria). one oflhe Iftatest Kabbalists of aU lime. Th ;s lUI , known IQ the Ari Vei'liion, "'-as published a number of limes. usually IS part of .ome OIlier rollection. It res.embles the SlIon Venion in many way$, but then.- are some very significant diffcrrrten in aui",mcnt. In acncral. Ihe Ari Venion is Ihe only one which is in aveemenl wilh the 2ohar. A number of Ylriations were found even in Illis versiOll, and I final ediled texl was finally produced by th e Gn (Rabbi Eliahu, Gaon of Viloa) in Ihe 18th century.'" This ts koown as the Gn-Ari Ver1;011, or simply, as the Gra Version. Thus, Ihere are four ' ·enions of Sefer Yetzirah, They I) The Shon Venion 2) The lolli Version )) The Saldia Version 4) The Gr;o. Venion. Since the Gra Version was considered Ihe most aUlhentic by Ihe Kabbal Ihis is Ihe one thaI we have eboscn for Ihe initialtran,I __

SEFER \'ETZI IIAI! lion and commentary, l1te other Ihlft vel'1ions are p<cocnted in Appeooix I. (h'er eiJhIY commentariel IIlve been written on Sefer Yelzinll. Some. e5~ially the carliest, ""'~ primarily phiJosophical. With the eme~nee of Kabbalah IQ a publk tea<;hin" a number ofKabbalislie and mystical commentarin we~ also ",rillen. Wilen lilt Bah ir and Ihe ZOOar .... ere pUblilhed. commen talors worked 10 fil Ihe Sefer Yetlinh into Ihe Iysltm of thesoe le" IS. The same was true of the leacllinp of Ille Ari . .... hk h dominatellhe later commentaries. A hi ... lOry of lbe com mentaries on Sefer Ye11-irall reads vel")' much like a history of tbe Kabbalah in &meral. A lisl of the ~ commentaries ;1 found in Ille BibliOll'llpily. Our commentary on Sefer Yetzirah tat ... inlO tK:W\Int mOSt of these. I S well as our othCf raeareh into the method. of the Kabbalim, much of .... hieh has been published in my M hilt12licn 12M Kabbalah. While the various tlleorclicalapproachcs arc important, [ have focused pri marily on the myslical tl'Cliniquei ou llined in Sefer Yetzirah, .. "" ell as the meditalive methods Ihl t Ihty imply.





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tJrt Ii. ing God

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and wilh rommunjCQ/ion (Sippl/r).

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As the nu.t stanu will ex plain, lhesoe 12 paths are mlnifest as the 10 diajts and the 22 kmers ofille Hebrew .lphabet. Tile 10 diails

are . lso manifest in the Ten Sefirol, which are the most basic ron""PiS of U;S1entt. The ~Iers and diails arc Ille basis of tile mO'iI buk i~nll of c",uion. qualily and quantily. ' TlIt: qualities of Iny Jiven Ihinl can be described by words fonmd out of tile letten, whik all of its • .sociated q WLntilies can be expiC ' m by numbers. Numben, however, canDO! be defined until there eJlisu some element of plurality in creation. The Creator Him5l:If il absolutely

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n.c 32 Path,

in Gfnesis l.

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li&h! and darkness

Sefinah I




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Mother I Elemental 4

V ••

God called the liabl day God said. leI there be ...
firma~n l

layin Binah

Elemental) Sefuah 3


•• , " ". ".

God made the finnamcn! God caIled tIM: finnament

God said , le\ th e waten he



SefinLh 4

God called the dry land t anh T" God loa'" lha[ ;1 was ,oad Gimel God !;lid. ki the urth he

God 'laW WI it " 'l IS sood God said. let IbeTe be luminaries God malk lwo lumi naries God placW them in the firmamen t God sa w Ibal ;\ wlS JOOd God gid, lei the walen swarm 20 God crealed veal whales

". ". " ". ". ".


Elemental S Double 2 Sefinh 5



Double J Srfinh 6
MOlher 2 Elemental 6

"= Tod


"'""" Sefirah


Elemental 7


P,b 20. God saw Iha1 ;1 wal sood 22. God blessed them. be f!'\lilfu] No"
and m ultiply 2l. God If,, let the earth brin,

no . . blt s
Elemental 8 Sefirab 8



fonh animals God made the beasts of the

MOtMr 3
Double 6

field 2S. God saw that it was JOOd 26. God SII id, let III make milll H . God created man


T""" Samd:h

Sefilllh 9 Ekmental9


Elerrn:nlal 10

Tattle 2. l'hc. 32 Path '! in (A:nes;, I (cool inued l I

" "

In Ihe fonn of God He ~ .lIed him 29. God blessed them 30. God said. be {",itflll and multiply

Tzadi Malkho,u

Elemental II Scfirah 10

God said, bellold I have Jiven you 12. God saw.1l Ihal He had made

K "'

Elemental 12

Double 7

simple, CQfIlJlininl no plunoli ty wbalsoevcr. He is the mosl absolute

unity imqinable. ThuefOnl:, plurali ty only came into nistmee witb tile advent of (relIt;on. Only tllen C(luld oo.un1)en be defi ned. The lim elemcm. of plurality in creuion involved the Ten SefiI'Ol. Hence, it was the Sefirot tbal defmed tbe numbe", and theref~. tile concept of quantity in SClK ral. Most of Se(cr YetziTllb will deal with these 32 ~Ihs. as they InI: m.., ifes! in the 1ellel'$ and nllmben. The )2 PIIthi. lhemsd'"n. h0wever, win not be mtnlioned apin. The uriy Klbbali.I' ddine Ihc:$e 32 tnths as different states of consciousness. A lisl of Ihest is Jiven in Appendix II . .... ccordin. to the Kabbalisu., these 32 palll. are aIllided to in the TORtI by the 32 limes tha' God's name Elohim appurs in tile aooounl of creIIlion in the fim cliapUr of Genesis.' In this account, lhe eJlpre5~ ~God Aid " app!'B ten limes, and these ~ the Ten Sayinp with wllich tile world ..... CTellted.' These Ten Sayi"" parallel !be Ten Sefinll.· The fim sayi", is said 10 be the verse, ~In the bqilllu", God created the Heaven and the Earth~ (Genesis I: L). Even tbou&h·God ,..,id" does no! I~ar~, il is implied Ind undemood.' The "'her 22 limes thai God's D<lme Ilfpr'B in this .ccounl then paraLlel the 22 letleB of Ihe alphabet. The three times in which Ibe expreuion '"God made" IppeaB paraIIe.l the three Molhers. The seven ~ilions of "God ....... paraLleL the seven Doubles. The ~m.ini n, 1_lve n.mes parallel the IweL Elemenlm. See Tlble 2. ve In ~etal, DOne of Ibe IIlmn of God refer 10 Ille (:rQlor Him· 5("lf. The Clnlor is o nly refeued 10 IS Ain Sof, whicb me.ns the Infinite Bet"" or si mply, the Infinite. The nlmes u~ in SC;riplu~ and el_here me~ly ~rer to the various .... ysthrou&h ...hich God mani· fesls Himself in CTCIlion. The name Elollim, ...hi<;h is used Ihrou&bout the first chapter of Genesis. refeB 10 the man ifest.llion of delineation and definition. Each of the 32 paths therefore served to delineate and define I panic-


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, , " 0


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d.dll h

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DIJ'· /Irlr


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" Lar aspecl of cn:al ion . Man ;$ Sttn .. a mic"x:osm. wilheach thinl in hi5 bod)' p,arlllLel ilII $CK'IIethin, in tile fOfttS o f creation . T hus, for namplc. the 5jx days of creation h....·c pan.llels in man's 'wo arms. IWO lep. \01'10 and suua] <»pn. This is the siani1klln« of the To nlh's 5!alemcnt lhat God fornted man Win Ihe im'leof God w (Genesis 1:27). Note that the word for w OOO· licK ;1 ElQhim. This is b«au!oe man's form parallels Ihe 5lruclure of the dclinealin& forcno that ddine creali,m. Th~ note thu the 32 paths of Wisdom hav~ th~ir par_ an~l in the human neT\'Olls system ,' Thiny-on~ o f tllne pu hs tl!.m



paraJlelthe )1 rIe ...·e!l Ihal emanate from the spin~l cord. The thinyserond and hiJ,hes\ path corrcsponw \0 the entin: complu of cranial, which an: twelve in number. The rlervous s)'stem serves a double pu.pose. Finl , illranomits mesuiCS from the brain 10 all pans of Ihe body, allDwin, Ibe mind \0 oonlrollhc limbs and organs. Secondly, tbe nervous system transmits information from the various s.eme5 to the brain. Four of !he senses. siabt, heariDI. taste and smell, come directly Ihrouch the era0;,11 r\ervn, ""hieh are entirely in the brain. The impulses Ihal come from the 1 0",cr Jl nerves deal primarily wilh Ihe sense of touch and feelin&Like the nerves. each of the )2 p.:Ilhs is a '''"0 way strttt. Fin! it is tile ehanrle]throuJ,h .... hich the Mind euns conrrol over creation. Secondly, ho·...ever. it is also Ihe path through ",hieh man caD Tueh lhe Mind. If an individual wishes 10 allain a mystical experience and approach Ihe Mind, he mUll Ira,-el .tI<)llJ, the )l palh,. In Hebrew, the number 32 is written Lamed Bet (n). This speDI Lev, Ihe Hebrew word for hean. ' [I is in the bean that the action of Ihe Mind i. manifest in Ihe body. A. soon as the influentt of Ihe mind ceases, the hean cea$t:S 1 function, thi, beinl the definilion of 0 death. The heart a[so provides lifdorce 10 the bnin and nervou •• ys.. lem. When the he~n stops pumpin&. Ihe nervous sySlem caD nO Ionler function, and the mind no 10llJCr exem influeno: 00 Ihe body. The heart therefore serves as ~ causal lin k be!w.,.,n mind and body. ' It is for this ...".son Ih31 S.fer Yetzirah calls lhe hean Mlhe kinl over Ihe soul M(6:3). It also dciiCTibe. the m~"lical e1~rknec as a Mrunoing of tbe heart M(1:8). The Torah is seen 1$ Ihe hea rt of creation. The firsl letter of lhe Torah is the Bel ( ~) of BernJri/ (l"n'I<"U}-Mln lhe bqi nni ng. M The llllli letter of Ihe Torah is Ihe Lamed ~j of Yisraei 1'* '" )--Ml5raeL. M Toselher, thew two leuCTl also spell OUI lev (n), meaninl hean.' The 32 patlls are contain ed in lhe TOrah . which is Ihe mraos through which Ihe Mind is revealed. It i. also Ihe link helWttn the Mind and Ihe ph)'skal universe. The Torah is Ihen:fon: e1pO\1nded in 32 differVII wa~. as taughl by Rabbi Vasi ofGali!;. T he lWO letters ('» and Bel (~) also shan: anolher unique IO.M d istinction. As a prefi1. Larned mean. M and Bel means Min.M The Ihrtt letters of the Telragrammaton, Yud ('j, Heh (~j, and VIV N, can Ilso serve IS suffixes for personal pronouns. The .uffix Yud mean. Mme,M Heh means "lIer,M and VIV means Mllim.M




In the entire alphabet, tllere are only two kners to which tbete s"ffi~es can br joined, Ind tht'1e Ire limed and Bet. These tbeo speU out the words:

.., 10 me :n 10 her " 10 him




H'" &>



me in her in him

"The IWO le\1~rs, l:amed and Bet, are the only ones in the entire alphabet which combine wilh the kiters of the d ivine name in Ihis mannn, 1O "The n... mbeT 32 is !be fifth po .....,r of IWO (2'). As tile Serer Yetzirah uplains (1 :5), the Ten Sefirol define a five dimensional space, "The 32 palbs correspond to Ihe number of apexes on a five dimensionAl h)'P"n:ube." This is nol as diffieu.h as it mi&hl 5eem. A line, whiclt has o ne dimension , hll'll two (2 ') lpexes 01" ends. It. ~ .... re, havin, IWO dimen· sionl, has fOll r (2' ) ape~es or.:omen. A cube, which has Ih= dimen· &ions, hiS ei&hl (2') a>rTII'R. We thus see thll wilh the addilion of each dimension, the n... mber of ape~es is doubled. A four dimen· lienal hyprrcube hll'll 16 or 2' apnes., while I fi~ dimenlional h)'P"reube hll'll 32 Of 2' lpeXes.

"The Hebrew word for -paths- here is Nni1lOl (1Ta'/U), a word lhat oocun only rarely in script ... re, M ... ch more common il lhe word fNrddr (1'"'). Allbe Zohar ItalCl, however, there is an importanl dif. ference bet .......:n Illne IWO worth. It. Do~ is I public mild, a route used by all people. A Nali., On Ibe other hand. is I penonal mule, I path blued by the individllli for his penooal usc, " It is. hidden path. wilho ...1 markers or lilllp05tS. wb ich one m .... t discover on his own. nd tread by means of his own devices. TIle J2 patbs of Wisdom are therefore called Netivo\. They Ire privale pathl. wbich must be blued by each individual. There is 00 open hi&bway to the m~teries cadi iodividual must disco~r bis 0...." palb. The numerical value of Noli. (~ru) il 462. Th il iltwice the number of the 23 1 Giles discussc<i below (2:4). Tbesc ptel are I means tbrou&b which One Iscends and descends alan, the 32 pathl.



TI\tte p;uh.s ~ ~id 10 be mystical. hljyot (mr'>.) in Heble • . This comes from the root Pula ('""). which hQ the wnnot.lion of bein, hidden and separated from Ille world 111'!"Je." NOt only are Ihe'l<' paths indivldual. bUI they are hidden, concealed and

This is ~ery closely ...,lalN [0 Ihe won! Pd~ (""-j. mean in, • miracle. A miracle;s uparauri and indeprn<kn l from tile laws orthe physic,l world. It is also influenced by llidd"n (OIttS. As such, il is. link with Ihe myst ical and transcendental plane. The same illllle of Ihe PIIlhs of Wisdom. Accoroin,10 the Zohu. Ihe worn Pdrlr specirl{;a!ly rdales \0 tile palh~ of Wisdom." The tylX of miracle dmoled by the word hlrlr is specifically one lh.1 is acoom plish(,d throuKh the manipulation of these paths. The mt'tllods of manipulatinllhne paths is one of lbe imponanl teachinp of Sc:fer YClZirah. The Sdcr Yeuirah later calls the three Mothen, M iJIl'll mystia cal (mwPhLA) Iottret~ (3:2~ The firs! of tt.e \hree Mothers is Akpb (M). When '1"'1Jed OUI, Akph (.,.,..) has the ume ktten IS Pekh
(M'>D~ "

10 the K.hbalisu, the kUeT Aleph ""'not" Keler (Crown). the hi&hest of the Sefirot.'° lt is wilh reprd 10 Keter Ihll Ben Sirah uid. "In what is mystcrious (muPhU ) for )'0\1, do nol
KCI<.· "

A~rdi nl

The KahbaJisls call Keter the le"el of Nothinsness (Ayill). " It is on Ih is le\'eI thai the la ...·• of nalure teaSC to exist, Ind can lherefore be altered. AS the book Raziri point. out. the Ihree !etten of Prld (..... ) repT1'5Cnt increasin,:iy hidlkn "a/ues." Accordin,to the phooClic famiIi" defined hy Sefer YClZin.h (2:3), the fint leller. Pel! (. ). il pr0nounced wilh lhe lip&, the ~nd kiter. lamed ('I). wilh lhe middle of Ihe too,lIe. Ind the final Akf (II). with tile throat. ThUs. the first kiter is pronounced wilh lhe OUlenDOlt rcYClkd par! of the mouth. I<1 while the L i..... iced with the innermost roncealed part. The word PrlrlI thUI denoles tile lransition from the revealed 10 lhe


Thnc: 32 pal h, arc uid 10 be paths of Wisdom (Cllak)u",m). In I Kahbalislic sense, Wisdom is 5flCn as pure, undifferentiated Mind.It is pure thou&ht . .... hich has not yet been broken up inlO differenti-


" ideas, Wisdom is lIed
is a si mple unity.


1M levet abo"" all division, .... here everyt hinl

II is in r«'OI"ilton n fth is thai the Talmud Itlles, ~Wllo is wise (ClrakIrQmr. He who leams from every m.n.~" It is on the level of Wisdom that aU men arc one . Hence, if one is On th illevel, he mus t

learn from every h umin bein" and indeed. from all ~.Iion . "crordin,io the Ibll Shcrn Toy, this mc,lnS that I ~rson on the levd of Wisdom must even In.m from Evil. " h i. only on level.

lxlo .... Wisdom thaI people Ire sep,aralcd into different individe.b. Ooty On kl_r levels does tM division belWl't'n &ClOd and evil
is wisc? He who pcll:eives the futu"" ~ u This is beaux Wisdom is the pure mind force thaI lranKt'nds lime. On the level of Wisdom. P;Ut, present and futun hive not yet been ",plraIN. Hentt. on this level, one can Sft' Ihe fulure jusl like the pasl and pte ... n\. The anl ilhesis of Wisdom is Undersl.ndiIIJ.. The Hebre .... word for Understandin, is Bi"ah ('U'~). which cornel from lhe root Br}'" (r~). meanin, "be1ween.- " Underslandin, i. lhe level immediately belo...' Wisdom. It i. on Ihe level ofU nlknundin. \h al ideas exist sc:~ratc!y, where lhey can be ICnilin ized and compn:hended. While Wisdom i. pun: undiifen:ntiJted. Miod, Undenlandin. il the level .... here division exists. and ""here Ihinp are delineated Ind defined as separated ob~s. On lhe leve! of Wisdom. all men arc included in J sin..., world soul. Undcntandin, is the level of Nn hamtJII, where the iOUl of eacb ind ividual ... umo. dislinct idenlity. • nd each one i. seen as a separale enlily. The divine name • ..,.".i.ted wilh Understandin, i. Elohim." This is • plural word , since Undentand in. implies a plurality of forces.. It is lhe nlme Elolt im Ih.1 i. used tb!'OllJhOuI the rnli re first chapter of Gennis in dcsaibin,the act of clUtion. The 32 timn that this occun cot. upond to the 32 p.ths of Wisdom. Thi s raoh 'n ;on d ifflC1l.lty. If Wisdom is • simple undifferent iated Mind, how an it be manifest as 32 distinct palhs? Bu t K tually, Wisdom is undifferentiated. and it il only th!'Oll'" the power of Undentandin,th.t it i. divided into sep;ll1lled palhs.. These paths an: lhen:fore dniJIIlled by the name Elohim , the name 'SIOCi.ted with UndCl'1t.ndillJ. An eum ple would be water flowi n, throu'" • S)'Item of pipes. Waler itself is In undi fferentiated fluid. havillJ no ,""""nlil1 (macroKOpic) lInK1un: . Siruciure i. only impOSed on il ....hen ;1 flows IhrOll'" lhe S)'Slem of pipes. In lhe Inlqy. Wisdom i. the water, while UnderstandiiIJ repments Ihe pipes Ihat chJnnd it.
~ Who

ui.\. The Talm ud li kewise Slales.,



The 32 pa1hs an: c1prnscd U Ihe kllers and numbers. Since t~ repr<':Senl division, Ihey a", manife5lalions of Understandin ... " Hence:, Wisdom rtJIrescnu nonvcrballhouJhI, while llDlicntandm, i. ;ts vcrbalizuion. In Ihis mopec1, Wisdom and Undenu.ndin, are _n as hem, male and female res.pecth"c!y. In Ihe Kabbalah, Wisdom is seen as Ihe Falher (AbbI), while UndentandiltJ i. Ihe Mother (Immah). The male rtJIresenl. uncllanneled creali..-e force. Thil elll. only be 1II'(I1I,Iu into fnlitian when delineated, enclosed aDd channeled by Ihe fem.alc womb. II i. for Ihil rusan Ihllthe Sefer Yetzirah (1:2) ~lIllhe pri. mary te11ers - Mothers.This also rnoIvn another difficult y. Earlier. we said IMIIIIe J2 pith. represent the llean , since Ihe Hebrew word for hean, W, actually spt'lls out the number 32. The hu rt , ho_,~r, ;1 normally associ. aled with Undel'3t1lndin&. while Ihex I'&lhl an: said 10 penain to Wisdom." BUI lhe po1ho merdy dianne! Wisdom, while the subsiance of the !lIths Ihem!lelve5 is Understandi ..... '"


ten states thlt the C~lto r used thew 32 paths to M eltJ1l so IS 10 ~reate His universe. ~ H eb~ _rd hC"K is Chn/W:(ppn). This usuaUy has lhe connotltion of moovin, mllmll. IS in lhe velV, "Enpa'·c (clwlwk) yourselfl dwem", in I rock (Isaiah 22:16). Derived from Ihis root M I~ lhe _rds Cirok (tm) and Chuko.h (:om), meanin, " nde and "dttrtt. M since TIlles and la ..~ ~rve 10 ~mo'·c .some of \be individull's frttdom of IClion.'"' ThUl, lhe word Cilnlwk is clo5ely ~Jned 10 M ll-dIak (pn:I), mClni", MIO erase," IS well as to the root La·kDcil (~), mean in, 10 Mremo,·e" Or Mtlke."" The _rd Chakak is very closely ~latrd to the ooncepl of wril_ in .. " The main d;lTc~nce ilclWttn enpvin, (..hakak) I nd wrili", is Ihat when one ,,·ritn, o~ adds material such IS ink to Ihe wrilinJ, surface. while wlleu one cnpaves, one ~'-n mlterial. When the Bible uses lhe _rI< Clwko.k 1 de,i",.!c wrilin .. il is ~fcrrin, to (1 surn Iystem, .s cunc:ifQl"l1l, whe~ Ihe lext was wrilleD by removinJ wedses (If clay from a tahlel. To undentnd ,,·hy the authQl" uses the tenn M enpved" hc~, we mUSI undentlnd the idea of crealion. Bd"QI"e a UniVcrK roukI be created. empty spaoc hid 10 exist;n which it could be made. But ini_ tiaUy, only God exillrd, and.n exi$\cnce was filled wilh Ihe Divine






Ai" Sof). II "":1.5 ()Ut of thi. \lndiffCll'nlialW Euence III" a VllCillM Space had to be envaved. The prOt'e>.S, tno"-" 10 the Kabbali.l. as the T:imlzum (Constriction ). is clearly described in the Zohar. l1

Essen«. 11M: LiIJ/lI of the Infinite


In Ihe bq;nn;nl of tIM: Kin,'. authorit y The Lamp of Dark"" .. Enaraved a hollow in the S... ~mal t..umin=nce ...
The ItoIlo .... e naravr<! in 11M: Supernal Lurn in~nce ""lIS the V.Cllled Space, in which aU c rt'alion sub5eql.lCnlly OtturW. The und ifft'Tt'ntiatcd LiBhI of Ihe Infinite .... hid! existed before Ihe Constriction is on the level of WiMlom, which is pure uAdelin&aled Mind. Tile pO~ o f oonstrietion i. that of Undersulndinl. Ihis beiR' .... hat the Zoo.r nils lhe "Lamp of OaI'kl>rQ.- It i. Mplive li",l. or nq.otiv., a ;i1enoe, which can enara~" hollow in Ihe Divi~ Entnee.

This Constriction or IIoI10w;1II of 11\(0 Di vi ne


did no\

()ttur in physical space , bul rather. in conceptual SPlIce. It i. -hollow· in!lOfu as it rontai ns Ihe possibility for inform~lion, bUI not actual in formation. As such, it is the ~CIlaos and Void~ ( Th/ru and BoIIu) men tioned in the acoount of crealion. wile..., the Scriptu", '\.ates, ~tlle eal1h ,... ou c~ and void" ( 1:2). Chaos is a state .... here info ... mation can exi,., bill where it docs nOi ex;s!. " 1M hollo.... ,,-a5 made Ihroll'" tile 32 path s. sina: klten and dilil' are: the basic bit' o f informal ion. While random kiteR and numben do nOI actually C(>nvey information, as 10niIS Ihey niSI. il i. al!ll) possible for infonnalion 10 (list. The v.tated Spiltl% iSIIlere:fnre lhe stale wllere il i. pOSSible for informat ion 10 uisi. but wllere Ihis possibili ly has nOI yel b«n realiw1. These Jellen were ... bstqlH:ntly combined into words. form;", the Ten Sayinp o f (:realion. Each o r tllne sayings brouPI in format ion into the Vacated Space. throop which ,,"ca tion ooukl lake pliltl% Ihere. The order """1IS Iherrlore fin;! ~engravinJ, ~ and then ~crealion. ~ T he Sder Yelzinth therefore: states thai the Crclllor ~enaraved ... and cre:.ted His unh·enc:.~

Engraw.'d Yah
Many of Ihe KahNhSlic rommen\.ariQ lranslale \hi, as ~ He enaraved Yah . . .. ~ In Hebrew. tile word ~he~ is often not wrillen OUI, but underslood from Ihe \"erbal form. Tlte ~ H e~ here refen 10 lhe Infinite Beinl ( Aill SojJ who is above .lIlhe divine Names. "


Acrordinl \0 Ihis. the Sern- Yetzirah is sa~inllhll the Infinite 8eil\j began creation by envavinJ the d ivine Names throuJ,h the 32 palhs of Wisdom. Tile Names an: .,.,riuen with leiters, and they could
only come inlO ilri"l after tlte kll.,,,, had been created. It is in the same vei n that some of the early KabNtiS\S interpret the first v~ in 0<:,,";, \0 1'Qd, ~ I n the beainnin, He cruled
EIoh im. alon, with the heaven a nd Ihe ean h.- " The fint thin, 1hal Ihe Infinite Bei", created "'U Ihe name EIohim. which is associalt.:l "" itl! Ihe Constriction.


The di vine Names abo parallel Ihe SefirQl. Once Ihe Vaeated S~ had b«n (nva'·W. the Scfirot could br created inside il. The -"n""vin," of Ihi, Space w:a.. therefore intimately rel.led \0 thnc

This Can alII) br rud in the im~ralivc. -Wilh 32 mystical paths of Wisdom, en,,,,vc Yah . _, and creale His world.- The term "ens,r:avc" hen: wwld mean 10 fonn a clear mental image of the Name, 50 as \0 meditate on it, as we ...·ill discuss later ( 1:14). The metl>od is . lluded to in Rav.'s sayin&- ~ I ftlle ri&llleou5 desired, lhey could Cll'ale a world .~ "

Saadia Gaon u"nslates this as. "the Eternal." TIl~ K.lbbalists normatively associate tile name Yah (11') with wiwom (Chakhmah). Actually, ho....e\'cr. only tile firstielter ofilli' name. Ihe Yud ('). desianales WiwOln. The 5eOOnd lener. Heh (~) des. ianates Understand inc, th(, feminine principle, Tile reason .... Ily Ihi. name U a ....Ilole is used to desi,nalC Wi.. dom is bttaus.c Wisdom cannOI be JI"lI.ped ucepi W Mn il is cloLhed in Understand in&- For tllis reason, tile Yud alone is not used I i Ih(, na""" for Wisdom. but rather. tile Yud combined witllth(, Heh. There are a number of rel50flS why Ihex two leiters ~t Wi..rom and Understandin, respect ivdy. Yud hu tM primary form of a si mple point. This alludes to the fact that Wisdom is sim ple and undifferentiated. The numeri<:aJ v.luc of Vud i. 10. indiatinllhat all Ten Sdirot all' included in the simple nature of Wisdom. At the belinnin, of a word. the lener Yud indiClites th(, masculine future. Thi. i. relaled 101M teachinl. "Who is .... is.c? He ....ho perceives the future,"n AI the end o f a word. when used IS a suffi~. t~ leiter Vue! mnns ~mc- or ~my.- Wisdom is the essential nature o f the individual, belon,in, to him alone, As such. il i. the ullimate "my," The same is lrue o f the Sdlrah of Wisdom (ChakhmahJ with resp«110 the Infi, ni le Bring.



Helt has I numerical ""lue of S, aUudin, 10 tbe five fillFn of tlte lIand. AI such, ;1 reprHenl1 Understandin.. Ihe hand thl' holds Wisdon, distributina and ehan nclinl il .At the ~nninl of . word, ~ prefix Hclt nu:an. "tbe.~ It is the dc:finite artide, that specifon and delineales an obj«l. Uke • hand, Ihe definite anick holds and specifies. ronapr thaI is specific rattler than Ic~noL AI t he end of I word, Hclt indicates rhe feminine ~ sessive, ~hff.~ This is because Undentandil\l is tile of tbe Feminine EsKnce. Helt is one OOlite 1_ldters in the Hebrew alphabet thaI is writ. ten as IWO disjunct par'll. This allI.ldes 10 !he fit('[ Ihal Understandins
Ihe bqinninl o f ..,panllion. is some di~nl in Ihe Talmud as 10 wbelher or 1101 Vah i •• divine name. " n.e Sdft" ¥clZirah cJntly takes the position thai it is.

)'ah, lhe Lcrd. ..
[n HebfT'w, Ihis is wrillcn.s YII YIIVII (~:.). It was wi lh these six lellen Ihal God created all thinp. II ;. Ih ..1 """lten , M TruSI in God for elernily of elernilits, for with YII YHVH He formed univet'Se$~ (Is.- iah 26:41."

The Lcrd of Hom
Th is name usually desi..... tn the Sdirot which ace '''"''C'.ted wilh revelalion I nd proph«)' . These are Netzach (victory) and Hod (Splendor)." This name, however, also contains lhe TetrqRmm.lon (YHVH). here IraMlaled 15 M lord.~ The TetrapammlloD d n illhe naln the totalil y of all the Sdirol. HellCC, the phra ..., M YHVH of HOiiIS,~ .ctl1llly rep~nu all Ihe St-firol as Ih-ey are revealed 10 min ." Th is iii Ihe renon Cor the des.."ltion , ~YH VH of HOilS. M II reCers 10 re"elation , the state in whi<::h God associatn Hims,elf"';!h beinp Ihal are ~r Ihln Hims,elf, namely, His ~hOl1S.M Acrordi nllo lhe T almud, lhe first penon to use the del""llion, M lord of Hoots." ",-as Hannall. ""lIen she prayed, -0 Lord of Hosts, if You will look 1\ Ibe . miction of Your ... rvanl" (I Samuel
1:1 1)."

God o[ Israel


This ;s connected to ~ Lord of Hosls.~ While Tevt'lation in ,elleral is to all of God's hosts. in p;lnicular. it is JIlInted \0 hlKl. AI _ shall _ (2:4). the name lsrul is closely associaled ",·;th the 231


The Hebrew word for '"God~ hen: is Elohim. Th is alludes to UndcntandinJ, Ihe oonupl Ihal di"idn and delineates.




The name is ISSI)("iated with the ""vnlial creative foren. "'prevnted by tile Sriirah of Yesod (fourHIation). In man, this foTtt paraJ.. leis the SoUual orpn. In Hebre .... , this phrur i. E/ollim Cha.;m. Thi . Sd'irah Wes all the fon:u, collectively referred 10 .. Elohim, and presents them in an active, procn:llivc mode. life is defined as that which. is activt' and procreates, and hence. Ihis is the oonnoillion of -Livilll


King 0/ the Unh'erse
This is the mode in ,,'bieh God ""lales to Ihe universe as a kin&. and it;s ..'OCt.led wilh Ihe Sefirah o f Malkhu l (Kin&Ship). Of all the s"fil'Ql, this is Ihe only O~ which comes inl0 di=1 contact wilh the lower "1Ct" of crealion. T he fint five desi&nalions. ~ Ylh . 1M Lord of Hostl. God of ' ....d. the Livinl God. Kinl orthc Unh·enc.~ Ihus desilllale the Ten Stfirot in Iheir down",... rd mode, a. Ihey Ire the source of III creali~ foltt.

El Shaddai
These 1....0 names are usuilly lransilled as "Almi&hIY God.~ Saadia Gaon, howe' ·rr. Il1ln$lates them a. ~Omnipolenl Almi&hly.Here the Sc:fer Yetzirah bqins desi&natinl the Stfiml in an upward mO<.k . In lhe Babir. the disciples thus ask. " From above 10 below we know. BUI from below 10 .bo~ ...., do 001 know.-"

TIle dni&nation El Shaddai is also I'dated 10 Ihe pr«l'QItivc repr_me<! by YC'tOd (F01.Indal;on). and rorrapOndilll lO Ihe sauII orpn in man. We therefore have two desianalions for Yesod (Fou ndation). M ivinl God~ (E/ollim ChQlm), a rK! EI Shadd_i. l "Livinl God" i, the desi&nllion of illi. Sefirah from a God's eye view, ,,;hile EI Shaddai i. its desia,nalion from a man', eye view. God thus loki MORS, " I appeared \0 Abraham, hu e and Jacob as EI Sh addai- (Exodus 6:3 ). The fin! five desil/lltions represenled Il'1e downWllrd procc'l1. from God 10 Ihe universe. through which Ihe creative fo= i. elLanneled. The IUlhor, 1m_vcr, i. now"atinllht: lIAnmJ tha i ..,IaIC to the upw;o.rd pl"Ol':eU, thTOUJ,h which man approaches the Divine. "Kinl of the Universe,- the lowest ~e, Ippl ies 10 bolh d irections.




Merciful and Gracious
Thae ~ 1he KWnd and third of the Thin"," AttribUles of Merq. uPrQiIM in the V~. - E!. = rciful and vacious" (b od". 34:6)." On this level, one can compRhend Ihe inner workinp of the SiK 5dirol, o.eoed (Love), Gevurlh (51",nllh), Tiferel (Beauly), Necuch (Victory), and Hod (Splmdor). Ii is IhTOUJb lhese Sefirot lhat God e><presses His men")' 10 lhe world. Thil level WIS pined by Mosn " 'hen God lold him . ~ I .... ill have mere)' upon whom I will have mere)'. Ind I will be aracious 10 whom I will be l~ioiI,~ (Exodus H: 19).

High and Exalted
The nexl deiianalions Ire I II taken from the verae. ~For thus 1&)'1 IGodI. Hiah and &ailed, dwdlinl in Elernily, In d ....hose Name is Holy, I d...,lIlofl y Ind holy ... ~ (Isaiah 57:15 ). M Hiah and Eulted Rfen 10 Ihe Ie"e] ofUn.derslandiltJ (Bin ah). The 10-.- seven Sefirol correspond 10 the Iol'ven da)"s of crelltion. Underslandin, (Dinah) is lbove these Iol'ven Sefirot, Ind hence. it is the level p~inllCliQn and erealion. This i. Ihe le"el ",here God is ~n IS beiltJ ultmy lranscendenlal , separaled from IlIlhe worldl y. and hiah above everylhin, mundane. - l)welJinl in elemilyM spub of the level of Wisdom (o.akllmah). Thil illhe levellhal is above lime. Here one per«ives God a. Ir.lnsccndinl nOt only space, but lime a'l well.



"His Name;s Holy" alludes to Ihe level of the Crown (~Ier), lhe hiJhest of the Sefirot. The Kabbalists nole thaI the expression, " His Name," which ill Hebrew is SI! '''10 ('I;)lI'). has • nllmerical value firma/rill) of 346. This is the ume Ihe value of Ral~on (ri:M). meanilll -will."" Will i. even hi&her than Wisdom. since it is the impluSoe lbal Jives rix to aU lhinp. even thoulhl. In Kabbalistic terms, Will is desi&nlted as Crown (Keler), Just as I crown is worn above Ihe head. so is Ihe Will abo'-f and out$;de all ~nlll p~s, The word Holy (KJuic.1h) deDOles ~liQn, and iu aencnJ KnK impl ies 5epal1l1ion from Iht mundane.- The exprnsion, "His Name is Holy," indicates tbilihe em.." is a levcl that is separated and UlIl<)ved from every imq.ilLlLbie "",""'"'pl. Since it i. a bove Iht mental proccsses , it canOOl be vasped by them. The Last upression, "lofty and 1IoIy" is II(lI f0un4 in many ver· sions of Sefcr Yetzirah. It possibly relates \0 the Infinite Bein, (Ain Sot). ....hich i. lofty a bove all concepts, even Will. Thr lasl five dnianationslhl,lS ,..,fer 11,1 the runp whid! man ml,lsl climb tu ,..,ach the Infinite. These a,.., the Sefirot in their upwan;l



Thr impulse uf cfeatiun first .... ent duwn .... ard thf'OllJb the Sefirot. and ~n il went upward apin. re\l,lmill& 11,1 t~ Infinite. Only thm ool,lld creation I. ke pl~

With three books
Sefer Yettirah now beJins \1,1 define !be .... urd Sefirah, the Hebrew desi&natiun fur Ihe divine emanariOrr$ lUI funn Ihe basis uf creation. The Hebre .... word fur book, ~ph" 1_), bls Ihe urne mol as the word ~irah (,",DO), except that tbe funner is masculine and Ihe IllIer is feminine. These Ihree book. Ire said tu be -texl. number. and communica_ tiun.- The HebWOl word for "text" bere is ~h"(~). whidt literally mQn$ -book," "Number" is ~pllar ("oW). from .... hich the En&1ilh word "cipher- is <krived. "Communication" is SiPPUf (TinO) ..... hich mOre literally is "tdlin .. " These Ihree divisiuns respectively represent quality, quantity. and oommunic:ation. These Ire the lellers, nl,lml>en. Ind Ihe manner in wh ich they are used," The5C three boob <:OITe$pond 11,1 Ihe thm: divisions uf =alion <kfined by Sefer Yetzirah. n.a mely, "Univerx, Year, and Soul." In

Tut (&ph".) Numb« (s,pIrar) Communicttion (Sippur)

World (space)
Y~ar (t i m~)

Form of lett~rs
Nu~rical Valu~

Soul (spirit)

Pronunci"ion and Name of letters

_ modem I~rmi, these ""ould be calk<.! ,paCe, time and '!)irit. -Un;\'tnoe" mrno 1 lhe diftl<'nUoIll of 'IP"~. -year- to time, and 0 -soul- to the '!)irit...1 dimen~. Seo: T.~ ... A5 ..~ shall iItt. the Sder Yeuil'llh speaks of a fi,-e-dimcosional o;ontinuum , Otfined by the Ten &firot. The first thlft .~ the three di~n~ of space, the founh dlllW'nsion iJ time . ..'hile the filth iJ the 'Piritull dimcMion. Si~ ti>(' three IpkiaJ dImensions romprix a sin&lc continuum, ttlt' three of them tostt\>('r c005til\lIe the fim -book.- Time iJ the JmJnd -book,- ... hile the spiritual dimension is the third. The three boob defill(' the three .... )"1 in wllicll the array of the 32 patlls can hc P'(5C'nlrd. First , one can dnow a diqnom ' eplescntina tllem, 15 ont W"OIIld picture tllem in a book, Thil is tile asp«! of -tUL - This is 11$0 the IW«I in whkll IIIc-y ap~ar in tile Book of Ihe TOf'Ih , in ,1Ie fitSl ChlPleT of Oenesis. &oondly, one can ~~prntl tile numerical xquencn and d istri butions of these palll,. Thu$, for eumpk, ., Ihe &fer Yetzirah ,tates (1:2). the 32 paths ronsiS! of ten Srfir01 , and 21 lellCr1, the lalleT which ron$;"5 of Ihree Mother1, seven Doubles, and t"~lve Elemental,. This i, ,he as~t of numbrr in the J2 palhs. This is aho rell1rd to thei r affinily 10 JtOfIH:tncaJ forms. Finally, one can speak of the relation,hips brtwcen Ihcsc: palh. as they ronvey information. Thi' is tile level or-communica tion.- It is dosely relatrd to lhe 32 path' will're thcy repruc:nt SUlteJ of oon5ciousness. as prcxntrd in Appc:ndi~ II. These thm: ISP«1S a~ most apparen t in the letters of lhe alphabet.-There Ire thlft primary ""IYS in .... hich the letters ca.n be intcrp~ted. First. there is the physictl form of the let,ers. H they all: ..Tiuen in a book, This is the 1spfC! of -tn,- (Se-p\>('r). " 'hich literally means hooIr.. S«-ondly, there i. lhe nllmcrieal nlue or FftUItria of the !ettel", this ~i"1 -numbrr.- Finally. ,he~ is the toUnd of the Ie'tteT, as ...'tll H the .... y its name is pronounced, this ~inl -oommunic:a,ion or Wtellina. - Ste Ta~ ~ on pqc 22. ·Te~,- (Sorpt~). the physit"lll form of the IctteT. pcnains 10 the conti nuum of spaa, sina: form only t'1In be okfined in space. This is -U ni"t'nol'.w Numbft (ScopM,), implies 1otqU("Dtt, and thiJ is ,he xquencr of tome, ...·hich iJ the continuum of the -Year.w Finally,

communication (SipPI/' ) appl ies 10 ual conti nuum. whicll is "Soul.~ 111= "''Ord s also define lilt term Sdirah. Firs!, the word & firah sha m the root w;th S4er. meanin& book. Li ke a book, each !>efirall can record information . The Sriirol thus serve as a memory bank in Ihe domain orlhe Di vine. A ~rmaMnt =on! of evet)1hina IlIlI has ever taken place in all creation i. Ih,," made on lite

" the mind. and th is is in lhe spirit-

$«ondly. the word Scfirah shares a 1'001 .... ith Sl'piwr, meanin, numlKr. II is the s"firol thu inlrodu~ a n clement of numlKr and plu rali ty inlo e. iSlclltt. The Creator, the Infin ile ~i,,& is tile mQ$\ absolute unity. and Ihe COnttpt of number does not apply \0 Him in

any manner whalevn-. In

of the Infinite BeillJ, the Sl:fer Yelzirah therefore asks. - Before one. whal do you rouot- ( 1:7)1 1\ is


only .... it h Ihe creation of Ihe Sefirol thaI Ihe OOn«PI of number CQrnn in10 !:>einc. tn this JTJ(l(k, c" cry event and action is measum! and weiJ.hed by Ihe ~firOi . and llie approprial~ ""sponl'! is con~ived and cak1.llaled. Usin, Ihe computer as an analOJ)'. Ihe Sefirol function as tl>e Pl'OCQSinl unil of ,he Divirw: domain in this 1TIOde. Finally, the W(ln.! Scfirah shares a root wi,h SipJnI' . which means "communicalion" and -t~lting. - The Sefirol ."" Ihe muns throu'" ""h id! God communicates .... i'h His c""alion. They a"" al50 the means through which man communicates wilh God . If!lOl for Ihe Sefirot. God . the Infinite Being. W(lul d ~ a~IUldy unknowable and unreachable . It is only through Ihe Scfirol Ihal I>e can be approached. Of course. as alilhe Kabbalisls ...-am. one should n<)l in any " 'ar W(lrmip th~ Sefirot or pray 10 them." One may. however, use t~ as a channel. Thu~ fex ""ample. orw: would not thin k of d irectin, a pelition 10 the postman, but one could use him to dcliv~r. menage to Ihe king. In • mysliC1lI sense. the Sefirol form a ladder ex lree Ihrou&h ....hich one can - dimb- and approach the Infinile. Thus. wilen the Sefer Ydzi rah P"'~t$ Ihe ...ords &pher. &>pIuu and Sippu, h~"". il i. 1>01 doln. 50 .""idcnlaU)" Ratlter. Ihe book i. dciibenllcly presenting TOOtS " 'hieh define the concepl of the Sefirol. Tlti. is all the mO«' obvious. si n~ Ihis cnlire chapter deals with Ihe Sefirol. The Ih rtt aspecls, -text. number and communicalion: arc Ihe keys to Ihe IOCthod. of ~fer Yeuif2h . If one wishes to influelltt anylhin, in the physical universe (space). he must make use of the physical shape of the ictICB. Ifthi. in"ohes a medi la,ive technique. one would conlemplale Ihe IPPropriate k ll crs. as if they "10"" written in '" book. The method involves


Table: S The: numerical "aluc of !euen; .
Lct\er Name




,,, , ''''' "" ", ...
0 0

oilent • ,,,, , B.Bb , OimrMI "' G,Gh , '" D.'" . N,' , ""• V (\\I) , , Zoyin "" ", , 0,,,

.. .. ""'""
~N ~ Gomu~

Val"" Dcoipllion


. - ,,"


.". Y(1l




"" " ,,-" _s" " , " """ '''' ,., , ",.,,, " «QJ




, , ,


, ." SIIin

...., R.Rh


'"" Sh (5)


, ...... • , ."nural • ."'" , "'~'" ""',. • , ... "''''''"lal " ...... " "'-'" '" ... '" "'-'" ., '" ""'''' " "" '" " ""'''' ,., ,., """' .., ""'"

, -~ ,

..... ..... .....

PhoneIM: Family

."nul1Il Iabill

elemmtaJ .1e_RIaI

..... _

ek ....... t,1 .1e....... ta1

lutlural lill&UaJ ",
JinawJ labial


ole_nUll '00 ric_nlal

... ..... -. .....

eIe!n(1ltal elemental




makint each panicular lenn- combination fin the .,mire field of vision. eliminltin,III other thouJ,hts from Ihe mind.
Finally, if one wi5hn 10 infl .. ena th(: spiritual realm, he m",\ make ...e, eit~r of the 5C!und. It.e letltn, or of their namH. This techn iqlK, which _mall descri~. i. lite one thaI is used wilen mak;111 a Golem.



n~1TIK 0'111:>" D'-n:i'S/1 O'tz::l
01 itlV 0'111:'\


m"DO 11711 11:11:11 mIlI't l7~ "nO'



Jion !Mfirot of NOflti"8MSJ Alld 11 FoulldQ/iOll Lmen: TIIr" MQlhm.

Ami rwrlw
£/~m~nr.. b.


Ten Sejirol
Yetzirah no .. dcfinn; Ihe J2 poolhs as conSiSlillj of 10 Sefirot and 22 letten. The word S¢ral! lileT'llUy means Moountin...M II is thus <l i$lin. M lui~ from the word Mispar, meanin, MnumbeT. Altbouab the Sefirol are said 10 repT~nl the len basic diaits. they an: nol act\lal number$. Rather, they are the iiOU~ from whkh the numbers oriaiIUIle. Al\hou&h the Serer Ye\zinh don not name the Ten Sefirot. their IlaJtIeS are _0 known from the da5'lliaol Kabbalah. They are aiven in Tlble 6. The Sefirot are usually p~nled in an array 000sislin, of three columns, IS in the fi,ute. The names of the Sdirot are all derived from scripture. In recounli", Betzakl'. qUalifications, God SII~ -I have filled him wilh the spirit of God, with Wisdom, with Undemandi!\L and with Knowledae- (Exodus 3] :3). As lite Sefer Yelzirah Il ler 'ltales (1 ;9), the ·spirit of God- refers 10 KeItt (Crown). the first of the Sefirot. Wisdom and Untkntandillllhen rder to the next lWO Sefuot. The fint tWO Scfirol are likewise alluded 10 in tbe vc:rx, "With Wisdom, God established the earth, I nd wilb Undentllndin&, He eslablished the he.~n$, . nd wilh His Knowledge, the depth. were broken UpM(Pro~rbs ) ;19,20). II is likewise written. -Wilh Wisdom a houK is b\Jilt, wilh UndcrsUlndin, il is established, Ind with Knowledp: il' room. a re filled~ (Proverbs 24:3,4). The

Tahk6 The ten Sefirol .

,. 2. ,. • """'" , Tirem ,
KeteT Dinah (DIIIJ

Crown Wisdom Undel"5tandin& (Knowled,e]


uw •
SlrtIlJlh Beauly

Gevurah Netucb




Hod y ....

Splendor Foundation Kinphip



/ /

8 i",h


'' • ,,

, '\ " .....







.. - ... ,






, ,



, '\

C ".. h ......





""" /


• "" /


,. ~


Nt1 , oeh



" " ./

I , TM StfirQf .


All of Ihes<: SOI,l!'Cn list three qualities-Wisdom. Undentand-

in&, and KIIO" 'I00,,,. Kno" -k<i&<,, h(IWc'-cr, is not a Sefirah, but merely tile pOint of oonnuentt bctw«n Wi$dom and UnderlitandiJl&. In many ",aya, IIowever. ;1 behaves as a Sdirah. a nd il is thus often included a mong them.') Tile nU l se"en Sdirol ... ", namM in the "c"", M Youn; 0 God arc Ihe Greatness (4), tile Strength (~). Ihe B<:auly (6), lit" Victory (7). and the Splendor (8). for All (9) in llea,-en and in earth; YQUrlj 0 God is lit". Kingdom (10) .. ," (I Cllronicles 29:1 1). " II is lien: Ihal III<:

names of all Ihe lower Sefirol arc defined. See figure 1 on illite 24. In most 5QUK~, ho"'~ver, Ihe firs! of Ihne is calk<! Cb~ (love) inslead o f Gedulall (Greatness). Similarly. Ihe si~th is called Yesod (Foundation) rallter Ihan "AII,M In older Kabbalistic te~IS. hov."e"er. both desi&nalions are used. Acrordingio some Kabbalisls. tile Ten Sefirol also paraJlellhe 10 Hcb~ vowels." n"ether wilh llIe 22leners, Ihey llIen comprise Ihe 10laIiIY of Ihe Hebrew lan,~.

0/ Nothingness
The Hebre,,' ,",on:! lie... is Ikli· mah (~). This word can also be lranslaltd as meaninR dosed. absmaci. absolute Or ineffable. This word occurs onl~ once in scripture. in Ihe verse. ~He SlIl'tches lhe north o n Chaos. He hanp Ihe earth on NOlhin,neu (Brii.maJrr (lob 26:7 ). Accordin, 10 many commentaries. the ..-on:! [kli-malr is derived from Ihe 1,",0 words, Brii. meani", ·wiihout: and Malr, mean ina ~whal~ or -an~thinl-~ The ,",ord Bni·malr would Ihen mean ~wi lllOU I anYlhins. ~ or ~nolhinIflO:SS.~ " Acoordin, 10 Ihis in!e'1'""'1ion, 1M d~i,"alion ~Sefirol o f Noth; n&neSS~ is used 10 indicalc thaI 1M Sefirot are purely ideal oonoePI S, wilho<Jt any lUbslance whalever. Unli ke letlers which have form and sound , Ihe Sefirol have no intrinsic ph)'sical properties. As such. lhey are purel y conceplua l. Other sources state that Btdimalr comes from the root Balam ( ="~), meanin, ~to bridle. ~ This is found in the ' ·erse. ~Do not be lite a h~ Of mule, ",,110 dO 001 understand, ""hose mouth muSI be bridled (/:tQfam) with bit and rei n~ {Psalm. 32:9)." This s«ond inlerpretat ion seems to be indicated by the Serer Yellinlh itself. since ;t laler says, "Bridie (/:tQ/om) your mouth from $peak ing o ftMm~ (1:8). AcoordinR 10 this. 8elimalr would be translated as ~ineffable. " TM Inl is speakin, of ~Ten Ineffable Sefirol,~ indiealing thaI they cannol be described in any manner ...·batever.



Fi,lI" 2. T." poj",.Ii,,~.d by 22 Ii".,~ . TMrr are Ihru iIori:oi!lul• . u,,,.. ""/'fir m • . altd ".,..,.... tJiollOlttJl•.

Similarly, Ille Biblical "ene, " He banI' the earth on the indT.blc,· would mean lhal the fOf'teS which uphold tnalion canllOt be <.kscribed. " Accordi", 10 both inlel"llll:talionl, the Sefirot are d istinlJllilhed from Ihe leiters. While the letten Ill: primarily modes of explftlion. lhe Sefiml are inexpressible by tllei. vel'}' nature. A leadin, KahbaJill, Rabbi ]SAO;: of ACOIO (12SO-1340). pOint. OUI that Bn i lflulr has. nlimeri<.:aJ value of 87. God's namC ELohim, 00 the olhu band. bas a value of 8~. BdimQh thll$ ",pmenls the stqe immedilldy follo...-in, lhe pure cuen.,., of the Divine.. ..

11 Foundalion utters
In Ihe simplest sense, these are called Foundation lelten because il "'-as throop Ihe leiters of Ihe Hebrew alphabe1 \h.l !he u.n ivene _ cre,ned."'T1'Ie Sefer Yelzirah ilself tbem~ "')'1 of the letters, "with them He depi<;ted all thai wllS formed, and aU that would ever be fortJ\ed" (2:2). This is also alluded to in what the Talmlld uys of the builder of the Tabernacle:, -Beuakl knew ho'w to permute lIIe lettel'1 with whic;h helOven aod eIOrth were made.~" With ad! act of <:n:ation, !he Torah reportS Wt ~God uid.Thus, -God uid: let there be li&ht. _ arKI -God uid, let then: be • finnamen!.- ~ decrees throtllh whic;h God brouaht creation into beilll consisted of uyinp. These in tum con5i$\ed of words, IIId these words wen: fanned OIIt of klten. Hence, it wu lIIrou&h the lellen of the alphlbet that the universe W created. it


These Icll~n of ~ation were not only TnJ)Onsible for the inceplion oftm: world, bultm:y .Iso constantly sumin it. It is thus ....Tillen, ~Forevcr, 0 God, Your ""rd siands in the heavens" (Psalms 119:89). The very words and letten with which the universe .... s created are .Iso the ones which constamly suslain il. If Ih~se "'"!)rd • .nd letten were withdl1l...·n for even an instant, Ihe universe would ~ase to uisl." Thus, if one knows how 10 manipulate lhe 1c11~'" OOrT«tly, one can .Iso manipul.te lhe motOt clemental forces ofcuation. The methods of doinJlhis comprise 1M main subje.::IS of &fer Yetzirah. In Hebrew. ~Foundation wten" is OtiDl }f!:sod. This can also be ' B n.lated, "I.ett(n of Found. lion." In tile Kabbalah , Foundation (Yrwd) is the &firah Ih.t corTesponds to tile sexual orpn. It therefore has the connot.tion of ooupli n, Ind pairin" usually for the pUl poK of procreation. The tencn Ire said 1 peruoin to FourKIation (Yo:sod), .ina i1 is 0 only Ihrou&h Ihe klten 1MI Wisdom and Undentlndin, can come losctMr and be coupled. As discuued cartier. Wisdom is pure nonverbal thou&h t. Undcntanding, on the other hand, can only be VeTbal. since if an idea cannot be ~1preosed verbally, it cannot be under· stood. The only link between nonverbal Wisdom, and verbal Unde ... tandina. consists of the klle ... of Ihe alphabet. This is also evidenl from the .bove m~ntioned Talmudic leachin&- The Talmud states that. -Betul el knew how 10 permute the L eIt~n with which hea "en .nd eanh were made," This is derived from the verse wht:re God says of &ttalcl, " I will fill him wilh tbe spirit of God, with Wisdom , wilh Underslandina. and with KnowIedJe" (Exodus 31:3). we th~rore sec that the .bility 10 manipullte the Lelle", of cr-e.tiondepends on "Wisdom,Undentandin" and Knowledp'." Know!ed&e (DIlIll). ho .."(Cver. is lbe point at which Wisdom aDd Unde ... tanding come tOlCtm. If M. the oonnotation of .ioining and intercourse, as in the vene, "Adam kn~his " 'ife E ve~ (Genesis 4:1)." Knowled&e th~fore sen'es in Ihe place of Foundat ion betWttfl Wisdom and Undentand;nl- It il in thil same conl",,1 Ihat Ihe ~fer ¥e,zirah sp!'aks of ~I.etters of Foundation. ~ In a mou I('IICT&I $ClUe, the kiten serve to pair off and connect all the ~firol. This is panicularly lrue in the ~Tree of Life" shown in filure I fpalC 24) , " 'hleh shall be di$Cus~ in detail.

Three Mothers
Thes.e are tile three leiters, Akf(II), Mem (II). and Shin (" ). They will be di'cus~ 11 lenglh in OI.pler Three. These letten are c:aJled


(s..r"... )


H oo h.",) orizo."." (M



(Ut •• " •

" "
In • I


" "




1n - I


In - 2

Nlt~ ... 1 Amy

M ...... I" ,I>< - . . K.bbal,,,. .''''':

cr. I'uTdio lIi""",i", 1:1.

Aa:on:Ii", ' " ,I>< Sof<"l ScbooI. l»1<d OIl .1It Zo/Ia, (I :S9b).


J . Family

of d;" ,rams.

' fl" •
o.. khmah



• ''"'




S ~ FEIi


8 i""h


T,fc •••


• G.,·urah
, ,





Figllrr 5. TM)1 1M/h. acrord;"11


1M Gr...


Ihey arc primary. Essentially. Aid is the first letIn Or lM al phaMI, Me m i. the middle leller. and Shin i. the S«Ond from Ihe laSI." The ~a50n wily Tav (n) - the lut len .... ofllle al phabel - is nm used i. beeau"";1 i. One oft"" Doubles. One nason why thew Idte", a~ ('ailed ~ Mothe.,w is because, in ,eneral, the lellers " "' derived from Understandin& (Dinah). As di'Jcussed Hriier, Undentandi", is the pri mary feminine pri nciple, and

~M o!~.,~ becau~


is therdon ..... lIed MOlher. This ;$ alluded 10 in Ihe verse. "For ~"OU shall call Underslandinl a MOlher" (Proverbs 2:l)." Since these aIT the primary lel1e~ Ihey art calkd the "Mot!>ers. ... ' These iellers are also called mothe", (lmnl) in th e same Sl:n.., 1ha1 a crossrmd is called a "mother of the road" (Ettk ieI21:26)."

These 111.« letlers aIT called · crossroads.. - since Ihey form Ihe horizonta l lin ks between the $(,firol in the T ree of Life d ialram. On it more bui.: level. these are "molhers." because Ihe number of hori. zonlal links defin es the order of the alTlY. as d iscussed below.

Sel'ell Doubles
Th= a ~ the sc"en leiters that can uprns IWO sounds: Bet ()). G imel (I) . Dale! {' ). Kaf (3), Peh (,). Resh (,). and Tav (n). The Elementals a~ Ihe \weh'e ~main in, lellrrs . ....hich ha" .. a .ing1e sound. These ' ....0 IfOUPS .... ill be discussed in chapters four and five. resP'X,i~dy,

6. TM "",'hr dtfill~d b)' Ih~ GT!' , aJ 1M)" aPf"'"r i~ 1M W" •.•dM'. ISSJ tdiliOft. /p. 161> of Pd" r"'"j,


• "



tr""e dr.llw Itn points in three coh.mnl in the sim plest manner. we see that they are automatically linked by 22 lines. Ofthne, Ihltt are horizontal, seven are venical, and twelve are diqonal as sllown in fi,ure 2 on pase 26. The division presented by Serer Yeuirah is therefore .1. nalUral consequcn« of Ihe am y. This fi,u", call lelllIlly be looked upon I i a member of. family of diaantms. The order of the dialram is then determined by Ihe number of I\o"zool.ll liolu. In practice, for re.U(lns deaJ illl wilh the basic nature of lbe Scfirol, Ihe)' are nol arnnJCd in th is lI.I\ura] order, but 1I....e 1M middle li ne Io... ered somewhat. There IfC s.everal different ways IIIaI the Kabbalists assi", Ihe letten in IlIne dial'l'ms.. Th.,.., are "'own in





tr~ 11\1/:11'111: ''01/ "lDCID ~:J I'm"!lCI "WV 11"".0:1 VYC~CI rmC ',"' t1'i:1\ 'Olln 'Ul:l :-nvC.i m-C:11 11'0';"1

un S<jirol 0/ {I/()/hillgMSJ
in I"~ "uml¥r o/WI fi"~1 fi'~ opposite floe
,.,;/h Il J;llgIllar <O.. 'WII/

pr«imy in /~ middlt in /Ir, rimJlncWon ojtlr, tonK'" and in lit, rircllmcisi<m oj/lrt mtmbnlm.


number 0/ ten fing~rs

Cl'fation is said 10 Ilave been accomplished witll God'i finsen. Your lIelvens. tile work of Your fin&en~ as it is wrillen. MWhen [ (Psalms 8:4). Tile 10 nllmerital dilits simibrly pa~ tile tcn finaen in man. Tile five firlJerl of tile hand oonllOin a total offouTt« n bones. This ilthe nllrncrical ,·.lue for Yad (-.), the Hebrew word for lIand.



Fil'e opposite


Altltouch the Scfirot arc: usually di vided into three columns. Ihey can al .... be arn.n,ed in two arrays, one to the ri&hl, and Ihe olher 10 the left. The ~maSC\lJine~ Scfirol On lhe fishl .ilk WQUld Ihen be all tl>osc normally on Ille fisht. as weI! as Ih e upper two ""01.... Scfirot. TItc ·remininc~ Scfirol 011 the left would include the three normally on 1M left. IC'I.,ther wit h the 10.....,' two ernler $dim'"' Tile fhe masculine Sefirot are often refen-ed 10 a. the fl,'" Ulves ( Ch~im). since they are on the side of Chesfti (Love). The live femini ne Sefirol are similarly called the five Stn:ngth.s (G...I/rol) b«au"" \My an: on lite side of Gcvurah (Slren&lh). S« lilure 7 on page l4. When Ihe Scfirot are in lbeir normal stale. arrayed in thrtt 001umns, they lilT- in :0. .Ulte of (quilibrium. BUI when the Sdirot of the central column a re moved to the fi&hl and left, SO as to divide lhe Sefirol inla two array'S, a pO'lmfu[ tension is produced. When they are in such a mode, powerful .piril~a1 foras can hi' directed and chan neled. Therefore. in many placa whc", God interfc"," directly with the ph)'Sical world. the script~re speaks of God's fin&en or hands. The most obvious case OCCUR with reference 10 creation ilself. which Ihe Psaimisl calis M work ofYo~r finsef3. Mas quoted abon. we simi. lhe larly find. KMy (left] hand has founded the earth. and My ri&ht hoand has ",,",ad oUllhe heavensM (Isaiah 4&: 13). Before such a creative act ro~ld take pl.ce.• U the Sefirot had 10 be polarized to male and female sides, sencnotin, tension and fom:. JU$I . S h~man procreation involves male and female, so don Divine creat ion. Very closely related to this.,.., Ihe various actions that use Ihe hands 10 channd spiritual forca. These include Ihe layin, of hands, Ihe lift;n, of Ihe hands in the Printly Blessin" and the spreadin, of the hands in P'1Iyer. In aU lhex cases, the inlent is 10 channd the power of Ihe Ten Selirol through the ten Ii"","." In makiDJ thcm oolTQPOlld 10 lhe IWO hands, the Sefirot are polarized, creatillJ spirit. ~al tension, See liiu", 8 o n "'"'" 34. Once. s~ch tension exists, Ihro~Jh meditation ~n d eoncenl131ion, the po~ of the Selirol taO be focuoed and channeled,

And a singular covenanl
The Hebrew hue is 8ril Yacltid. Some read 8r;1 Yichud, K unifya in, rovcnant,M b\lt the meaninl is similar." A similar concept is found in lhe lasl chapter ";Ih rellrd to AbBh.m (6:1). In JICIIenI. a


co"enanl (brif) is somelhini thn come'S bel"" Hn t""o s.eparale pans. The p~radilm Qfa C(lvenanl i, that .... hich God made .... ith Abraham ""hen he commanded him , ~Tu.e 10 Me a prime heifer. a prime female 1000t, a prime ram , a tunic dove, and a YOUDJ pileon~ ({knesis LS:9). 1O These fi~e animal. paralleled the five fl nll'''' Th...e of the animals .... en: di vided in half, SO lhalthe six halves ...,pn:sentcd Ihe ,ix Scfi,ol that an: nonnally to Ihe ri&hl and left. The four hal~el of the bi rds, ",-hich "",n: not divided, n:pn:senled Ihe fou r Scfirol .... hich • ..., normally in the ttmer line. Stt filun: 9.

\« 1<'

o..u ",h

"'" '''''''


Tif<tt\ Nrt,ach


Figurc 7. Ma:u:u/i"c artdjc,";"i"t Scfirt)l

T il«",

Fig"" 8. Pqia,iri" g


I,,, ScfirOl tirroollir tirt Ic" fi"sUJ.

T urtle Do ••

Fomalt Goal

The two tablets contain;n, II>c Ten Commandments wue al50

callffi the '''r.b1el$ of Ihe Cov.n.n l ~ (Deuteronomy 9:9). 11 was for Ihis IUson thaI they WCIT ,i'"cn IS IWO tablets, rather than as I sillJle one. When Ihe Ten Sefirol af"!: divided inlo lhis double amy, the place in the middle becomes the focus of spiritual tension. This place iSlllen called the -sillJular or ·unifyi", oovenal1l.

Circumcision o[ the Tongue
The Hebrew ann! for M ... mcision Mis Milah. This same word, circ however, also means -word,- as we find, MGod', spirilSpc'"ks in me,

and His word (mUa/r) is on my 10000ue (2 Sam1.lcl 23:2). Hence Ihis can l1so be I",ollated, WI word of tbe IORJU",- The -,im.J,m<;i$ion of

the ton..... - ",fers 10 Ihe ability \0 utiliu the mysteries aft he Hebrew lalliuqe." II also men 10 the ability 10 probe II>c mysteries of the Torah." In I more &eneralilense, sucb circumcision denotes a nuency of speech. One wl\o cannot speak properly is said 10 have ·uncircumcised lips.- Moses Ihus said, ~Ho .. will Pharoah listen to me, when [ have Uncil'l:lImcised lips?" (bodIU 6:12). When one is liven Ihe POWff of proper spe«h, his 1 0nJlle i . said 10 be circumcised. Th is is both Ihe -cil'l:umcision~ and the "wo«1~ of lhe ton",e. A aood eumple of this is found in the Priestly BlcssinJ. H~, the priem ""i"" their hands and pronounce the blessin. outlined in


(Numbers 6:22-27). TIle pritslS must raise thei' hands SO Ihal (hey aK )lrttiKly level with the mouth, as it is wrillnt, "Aamn lifted up his hands toward the people, and he ble!.Kd thcm (leviticus 9:22 )." n.e cohen-priest must oorn:enlralC on tile ract lhat lIis Icn linlers represent Ihe Ten Sdlro(. A•• mull of tile focus of • pin 15Criplu~

\Illl (0= ~ .... ~n hi51WO hand!, hi, tonlue is ·cireumcised." and his blessin, has its proper effccl. 11>e $Arne i. lruc of rai5ina onc', hands in prayer. Here apin. the two hands focus sprilua1 power SO at to "tirC\lmcise w the !0D.&Ut. allowin& the individual 10 pray effectively_ In 50'"" Kabbalistic meditative syslems. th.e raised hand ~tion ...... li kewise uSood 10 focus spiritual (""flY." Ii was for a vcry similar reason Ihat tile cohenpriesls had 1 ...·ash thcir hands and fect before C 0 IIPlinl in !he divi..., service.'" This also provides insiJht inlo the 5it,nifiau>cc oftt>e tWO <:he ...... bim Ihat ,,~ on the Ark of the Covenam in lhe Holy of HoIie •. These two Cherubim were the sour(e of all prophecy. Prophecy involvo a panicuJarly intense focusin, of spiritual ene'D', aIJowint the prophet to actually Sp('ak in God". na"",. Prophecy WU Ihul the ultimate level of ~circumcision of the ton,ue. ~ In dcscribin, the Ark. God Ioid Moses, ~ I will commll ne with you. and I "'ill 5P"ak 10)'011 from abo"e Ihe ari<-a'>ver, from between the two Cherubim. which .'" On th e Ark of Testimony~ (EJtoclUI lS:22)." What was true of Moses was also true of the Other prophets. and the inflll ~ of prophec)- was chan ~1ed primarily IhrouJ.h these two Cllerulls in lhe Holy of Holies. ~'" is some eviden~ lhat II least in so"", cases. tl>e prophetic uperience was Ihe resull of intense medila1ion of Ihese two Cherubim." When the Cherubim we", ",moved fr(lm the Holy of Holies with the destruction of tl>e First Temple, proph«y n such c:uMl!! 10 exist. Accordin, 10 Ihe Zohar. lhe tWO Cherubim reprnenled the Sefirol divided in10 a masculine and feminine array ." These were placM on Ih e Ark, which contained the orilinai Tablets of Ihe Ten Command"",nl$. There ....,re fi ve Commandmenl. on each tablet. SO lhe IWO represenled I .imilar array of the Sefirot. This CTeated. per. manent state of tension. IhrouJ.h which the spiritual force associated wilh prophecy could be focused.

Circumcision oj the Membrum
JuS! as Ihe fin,ers oflhe two hands represem Ille Ten &firot, SO do lhe toes of tl>e t"''O fcel. Betwcen Ihe lep is lhe circumcision of the llelual Ofpn.



In ord~r mu.' realize ",-hy God C(lmmanded Iha\ il

" 10 undel");land the siJllificance o f this circumcision, one

done on the ciablh day.

The Torah stain.. ~On 1M eiihlh day. Ihe llnh of his faustin must ~ circumciioW (uvilicus 12:3)." The ro~cnanl of circumcision "''3S
originally given to Abraham, The world was crealed in si~ days. "'p"""n1ing the six primary dir«tions Ihal exist in a I"""'-<timensional I,Inivene. The seventh day, Ihe Sabbath. is tile perf. dian o f the J>hy~ical ..1')rId, and il ",preSO'lItllhc focal point o flhese six d irttl;Ons. as d iscussed bek>w (4 :4). The eishth day then "'pmenlS • 51ep above tlKo physical , ;1110 tile rcalm of the tran~l>\knla1-" ThroUJ,h the <,Xlvenan! of ci=mcision. God gave Abraham and his desendents po ....." Qver Ihe 'I'1I115Cendemal pla~. The most obvious case in ",-hieh this OCCUr); i. in O(lnception, ...·hell' a solll is brou&hl down inlo Ihe world. Since Ihe mark ..,f tlK covenant is on the oeIual organ, it gi,-es the individual aCttSS to the hisJIest spi ri tual ..,alms, from which he can draw d<.>wn the most lofty souls. By medilatins on the fact Ihal the ten toes represent the Ten Sdirol. one is able to com:.,nl",te spirit ual energy into the sexual 01"1"0 ." Through such methods, one can sain complete control over one'. Inual activilies. even in the mid st o f intercourse." By sancti fyinl oneself in this mann er durin, sexual inten:ourse. o ne is able t.., determine the qualities of Ihe chi ld that will bI. roncciwd. " TI>< covena nt of ciTCumcision also n:pn:sents the ehanntlin, of sexual ene'D. TIK sexual drive is one o f the mOSI poweful psycllolot· ical foKc$ in man. and when il is channeled alon, spiritual li nes, it can help brina One to Ihe hiJhCllt m~tical lIatt-l. In livinl tlK rommandmem of circumcision. God indicated that Ihe emotions and desires associated with se:x C(lukl be u~ for Ihe myslical quesl of the D ivine on a transcendental pla ne. The juxtapMilion bet"'ttn the MtiTCumcision o ft l>< tOlljue Mand the "circumc ision of Ihe rncmbrum expl.ins the prophelic position favored by Elij ah . TI>< scriptun: stales, "Elijah _nl up 10 Ihe lop of tl>< Carmel. enlranced himself On the around. and p1a«:<\ his fae<: between his knees (I Kings 18:42). This posilion was used for tlK intense roncenlratioo of spirit ual energy. Accord inlto the Midrash . th is posilion WIlS used because it placed tl>< head in conjunction wilh Ihe mark of circumcision." Whe n one is in Ihis position. all of these forces an: brouJht l<.>&tther. The len fi~rs. len toes, tonlue and sexual orpn comprise a total of 22 elemen ts. paralleli", the 22 leiters of the Heb,"", alphabet." The individual's body ilself thus beoomes a n al phabel. ",·jth which he can ""'rite" in lhe s pirit ual n:alm.






IC~ ~ V\'.'" IC~ 'WV :vJ'~~ " n'tlO 'Wv
)1l"O :'U':U OJm :'UlJn~ J~:"I .. !lI lJ 1'11"\1( "l)'l' :11:,.:11 t>"ll~ ~v "0' 1l:lV:T1 c ;m "1\"'11 C;O


TrII ~rol

rJ/ N()(hin,MSS

len a/ld /lot /Ii/le

len and It()( IJI!dtnland ..'ilh Wisdom Be ...i~ ..'ilh Ii1IdtnlaMjll$
Exami/le ... ilh Ihem (JIId jHobe from Ihem Mw /tQCItJlhi"l Jland O ill il



AM""",, Ihe Creo.l()r $il on Hif

This section spea ks primaril y of Ihe firsl Ihree Sdiret, Ktter (Crown), Cbakhmab (Wisdom). .nd Binlh (Undersullldin&). Later, we find I similar ditcl,lssion wilh rep.rd 10 lhe lower seveo Scfirot

'Ten and not nine
The: hi&hest faculty in man is will. T his corresponds 10 the first of Ihe ScfirOl, Keter (Crown). If O~ wen: to luempt 10 describe: God, il would be: lempti lll lO 5IIy Ihal He is pun: Will. This would be: vel')' much like 5IIyinl lhal God is Mspiril.M or Ihll He is Mlove,~ since all such dncriptions attempt 10 depict God in lenns of human traitl. If any hwnan lrai t wen: 10 be used, however, il s.bould be wi ll since Ihis is lhe hilltesl of all hl,lman faculties. Jfwe would loIy Ihal God ,,"'U p!.In: Will, Itowe""r, Ihen we would be loIyillJ lhal He is idenlical wilh Keter. Keter. Ito....ever, is mcrdy I Scfirah. and IS such. il is somelhinl crated by God and i.. ferior 10 Him. We Iben:fore tlI l OOI c'·en illY thaI God in Pl'1'e Will. Even Will i. amonl His crealions. and is in ferior 10 Him. Therefore. then: is no word that cln be used 10 dncribe God·s essence. Tbe IUl hor c;onscqucntly Slales Ibal Ihe Scfirol lrC M I nd nol ien ninc:." for if we wen: 10 loIy Ihat God is Will, lhen Keter would be identical 10 God, and only nine Sefirot would n:main. BUIlince tben:


Sefirot. then even Will is notl'li"l more than I Sefilllh, and il is !IOmell'lil\j Ihal is inferior \0 Ihe Crulor. Tile Serer Yelzirah alw warns, ~Ien and 00\ ele\·en.~ This is \0 !Hctl thai God Himself. the lnfinite Brill&. is not 10 be inclll<kd .monllh~ Sefirot. If He WCf'e. then there would be eleven f1I~ IlLan

a~ ' ~n


God bclonp 10 • totally diffcreol c:altl')'-}' than the Sdin: I, and I i. not to be ooumed among ttlem. As a result. ",e cannol even describe Him by such purely abstract qualities as will. '"'isdom. love or nn:llJl h. When the Bible make'S usc of any of Ihex qualit ies in relation \0 God, ;1 is speakin, of the Sefirol crealed by God, and nOI of the Creator Himself. Th is is panicularly impol1ant for Ihe mystic. As a peBOn reachn tile hi&hesl levels. he mi&hl think thaI he is actuaUy reach in, God Himsclf. The Serer Yelzirah therefon: "'"ams Ihal ...'hen one climbs the Ladder orille Sefi ml. 11Ien: are only len steP'. and not elevrn. The Creator is 11"'111),1 bc.yond our iV'IS{I. It is for Ihis reason tlilt God is calkd Ain Sof, literally ~the Infini te.~ One can dimb hi",er and hiB,hcr, "'achin. lo .... ard infini ty, bllt one can neYff aUIin il. Infinily mly remain a 1611, but il is only I p i IIiIt poinls to I direct ion, bul not I . oal that acually can be reached. The ume is ITlIC of Ille Infinite Ain Sof."

Understand with Wisdom
AS disclI~....s earlier, Ulldemandins (Bil\lh) involves verbal IhoosJ'II. whilt: Wisdom (Otakhmah) is jllJre nonverbal IhOll,)II. UndCr:ltandin. rorWsts of the nonnal ",veric, where the ~roon thinb OIIt Ihinp 10 as to Ill1derstand and o.pnize the thouahlS. Wisdom. on lhe other harw:!, is Jlllre thou",!, and in panicular, it refen to I state o f COrtsciollsness " 'I!(,", tl!(, mirw:! is not enpacl in revl:ric. It is very ditflCllh 10 uperience pure. non"erbal thoosJlI , As soon as a ~non auem pts to clear lIis mi nd of thooJllt. he immedialel y bqins 10 think. ~No .... I am not thinkin. of anythin" ~ The state of Wisdom or Cbakhmah ronsciousness i. one of pure nonverbal lltoU"'I, .... hkh is very d ifficult 10 anai n. It i. in a n anempt 10 attain the stale ofCbakhma h consciousnns that the various meditati" e rrl(til<xh are used. ThUs. m antra meditation IUemplS to clear the mind of reverie by filii", it ";Ih the repealed word. of Ihe mantra. Simila rly. con templation PUr:lUCS Ihe ume 1611 by fillin. the mind .... ith Ihe contemplated object. Wisdom i. a....ciated with the lIOnvt'rbal n,nt hemispl!(,re of the brain , while Under:ltand in. is associa ted with the verbal left hemi· ophcre. As the Kabbali.t. e1p1ain, Wisdom is normally only upen·

SEF'ER VHZI R.... 1i

encul wilen il is cfothed in Understandin&- One may be able to e~pe­ rienee the WOrkinlS of the nonverbal a rea, o f the mind, but only when one ek)thes them .... ith vcrballhoughlS. It is here Ihatthe Sefer Yctzirah belins inSlnletion on how 10 I'lISp tile Sdiro1." The firs! SlCp is 10. KUnderstand wilh Wisdom, and to be wise wil h UnderstandinJ. ~ This involves a deliberale oscillilion between Undersllndilll and Wisdom. between verbal Binah rons<:iouSlles$. and nonverbal Chakhmah consciousness. Try for a momenllO Slop Ihinkin&- You remain complelely oonscious, bUI Ihere are no veTbal lhouJhI5 in your mind. If you arc an avera,e person. you may be able 10 mainlain such I stale ror I few ~nds. bul immedialely rour mind bqins 10 verbalize Ihe experience. You mianl say 10 youself. KI am nOl thinki.,. ofanythin&-WBUI as soon as you do Ihis. of rourse. you actually arc Ihink in, of somelhinJ. For Ihose few "",,ndo, however, you havcuperienccd no"vcrbal Ou.khmah consciousneu.lfyou work allhisexercise, rou can &JlI(Iually karn how 10 exlend lbe lime in which you are in Ihi••\aIC. 11 is like a heavy pendulum, Ihe IonlCr you push ;1 hack and fOM, tlH: further il will swil1J. Si milarly, Ihe rn<>T<' rou kam 10 oscillate between verbal Binah consciousocss and nonverbal C"hakhmah consciousness. Ihe deeper you will reach into Ihe laller, and Ihe longer you will be able 10 maintain this stale. Chakhmah consciousness is ~rticularly imponant in reachin, lhe Sefirol. As mentioned earlicr (1 :2), the Sefirot are, and cannot be understood verbally. As Ihe Sefer Yelzin.h itow:lf ""Ys, tbey mUSI be ruched by Kpa.lh. of Wisdom,~ 1hal is. throuan the Piths of nonverbal Oukhmah consciousness.

Examine with them
A si mi lar cxpreuion illater u.ed wi lh reprd 10 the lower Sefirot
(4 :~~

Onee a n individual is .ble 10 e~ perienee Ihe Sefirot, he must make use o flilcm \0 examine and lesl Ihem. lbc author docs not say ~ex.mi ne them,~ bUI ~examine "'jlll Ih~m.W The Hebrew word used llere is Bacllan. and il means Ihal one is 10 tcsllhinlS for their intrin_ sic quality as the immediate momenl. " When a person has an .""""ness of the Sefitol, he can then ~eumjne" .n~"\hin, in (fCl.liOll and determine the Sefirah 10 which it pcnains. A. he becomes proficient in doilll this, he can use various

IlIillJS 10 sll'I:n&then his an.ehment to th~ir associalt'd Sefuah. When tile Sefer Yctzinll wu firn writlen, ncb individual had to do Ibis on hil own. Now, hoWl:ver, thee are many Ii!!. wltich associate various Ihinp 1...:1 ideas witlllheir appropriate SefiI'Ol, I nd \lIne can M used as . ids in bindilli oneself \0 them."

Probe from them
The Hebrew word for M p~M !>ere is Chilkw, which uoually indicates anainin, tbr ultimate knowl~c of I IbillJ." The Sefer Yetzitah says that one should Mprobe from them.- As • ruuh of the spiritual power thai one I I\.Iinl from the Seftrol, ODe should probe each Ihi"l10 ill ultimate depth. Throuab one's ulXrienee of Ille Sdirot, one is 10 pin Ihe deepest possible iosiahl into everythilll in the world. Note cardully that 111., Sefer Yemrah does nolleD us to contemptlle Ihe Sefil'Ol Ihemselvn. Rlther, it instructs us 10 use them in developinlln inner siJht willi which 10 view the ..-und.·'

Mak£ [eachl thing Sland on its l!s.sence
tn Ibis manner, one can learn how 10 pclcei>'t' the CSKnliai nalure of each Ihilll!' The Sefer Yeu:irah laYS, ~make ead mina lIand on its euence- 110 as 10 panllkllhe nexl p~, ~make the Crealar sil on Hi, baK,The Sefer Yeu:irah i5 abo india.tin, here Ihll when a penon perceives !he true spirilual nllure of I lhi .. a. he also elevltel !balmilll spiritually. -Sandina- men; 10 such elevltion.. The expression. -make eacll IlIilll SIOlUr theufore says thaI when one -probes from Ihem,- he denIes !he Ihin", th at he probn.

Make the Creator Sil on His Base
The Hehrew word for - bi"- here is Mlllc1!on., and in a numbeT of places il is seen as lite place where God -sits.~ ThIlS, in his Plll~, Solomon spub of -the heaven , lhe hue (maJdtoll) of Your sinin,(I Kinas 8:39). The ",riplure Iikewix Siltes, -RishleClulnes5 and


Table 1 . 1M roor Universc:

u~ive"",", .

Content Sdirot The Throne Aneels Shade oft~ physical

u,vel Nothinaness Somethinl from Nolhinl Somethinl from SOmething Completion

Atzilut (Nearness. Emanation) Ileriyah (Creation) Yetzi",h (Formation) A5iyah (Makein" Action)

judeement are the base (mokllQfl) of Your Throne~ (Psalm. 89: 15). In other places. the Bible speau of the Temple as bei", the ~ba.e~ upon which God sits." The word MaUCI' h=) comes from the root KOfl (to ). wbich is also the root of the word IfrieJrifl (r:lo'). meaninl -to prepare ..... Hence. Moklron refe", not merely to a physical bl.e. but to one that is specifica ll y prepared for I special purpose. T he Scripture thu s .... ys. - He founded the eanh on its base (mokJrOll)~ (Psalms J04: S). Th is verse indicates th at every thin, in the physicaJ world hal a specifie spiri,ual eo unter!>'l" and buis, throu", whieh it can be ele .. aled." In lene"'!. the anthropomorphism "sit.~ when used with ""peel to God. inditato a ~"" oflowmn ..." When a person sits down . he lowen his body. Similarly, when God "sit~ ~ He - Io...·c"'" His e_nce SO as to be concerned ...·ith His creation. When the Bible speaks of God' s Thron-c. ;t is speakin, of the vehicle Ihrough ""h ich He e>:preues such ronten!. In Kabbalah. there is lCfle",] n.J1e that every "awakenin, from below~ motivatn an "awakenin, from above." Thus, when I penon mentally elevltes each thin, to its spiritual essence. he also brin" spiritual wstenance (;hda) down to that !>'In icular obj«t. This sustenance can then be. channeled and by the individual. Under SOme conditions. this can be to actually brin, about physical chaDJeS in the world." The term Ma/dtoll is also inle'l'relW by the Talmud to indicate a pa ",lklism bctWttn the spiritual and the physical domains. IOII The " p"'pared basis~ (moklwII ) throuJl! which God ~$its' and cbannels His spiritual influence to the world is preci",,]y thi. Mald!c_l he parallel ism between the spiri lual and the physial. This is Ihe aspecl throuJl! ",hi-ch God ·sils, ~ and the scriptu~ therefore speaks as lhe ~ba"" (maklwn) of Your sillin&- ~



In Ihis contut, Ihe ~fer Yetzirah herecall$ God the lOtz..... We have IranslltN th is as ~11le Creator.~ but a Il1OI'e accurate rendition would be ~Ihc Formo:r.~ or Ihe ~Onc " '00 forms." In Hebrew, there are tlllft words ""hich have similar meanin&-n..,y a.., Bartl. mcani na ~IO creale," YO/zar, meanin, MIO form.~ and ,bah, meaning I O make." Accordin&lo tile KabbaliS15, Bam ind iK


cates creation ex nihilo, "somclhin& from nOlltin&." Yat:ar denOtes formation of SOmelhin& from a ""bslance that already UiSi5, "somethin& from somelhina. " Asah has the connotation of the com-

pletion of an " ,ion.'-'
The Kabbalist. leach Ihal tllt"'I pantller the !1I1ft s.upernal un;_ vcrvs, wbi<:h are called &riyah {Creation). Yelzirah (Fonnation). a nd Asiyah (Makin&). They are allllded \0 in Ihe verse, " All that is called in M y Name, for My Glory (Al~ilul), [ have created il (BeriyVI), t have formed it (Yelzirah ), and I have made it (Asiyall)~ (lu.i.1I 43:1).101 The lIillle$l uniVtlX is A Izilul. Ille domain of tile Sefirot themsd,'cs, Below tIIi. is Beriy.lI. the domain of tile Throne. Since Beriya h (Creation ) is -!IOTlletllinl from nothing, ~ AlZilut i. ofien ",fe~ 10 •• -NOlllin",css' (Ayill). H en~. the Sefirot . .... hicll are in Atzilut. a re caned Sefirol of Nothinptes!l. Belo .... Beri)'all i. the universe of Yetzirah (Formalion) .... bich is tile ,,-orld orllle an&els. Finally. IlIe", is the universe of Aliy.1I (M aking), ,,'lIkh consiSI. of Ihe physical world and ilS spiritual shado ..... ~ Table 1, Hc"" Sefer Yeui rah i5 s~ating primarily at)Qul eslablishinl' link boetlll~n the lWO lower worlds. Yelzirah and Asiyab. The methods of Sefer YCizirah involve the mani pul.tion of the forca of the Uni,·clX of Asiyah. and this is the reason for the name of tbe book. The to t themo", s~ak5 ofOod as the YOIur. the Former, indicatins H is manifest.tion in the """lfkI of Yetzirah. From the above ment ioned >'CIX. ~ H e founded (}wuad) the unh on its base (MukhOll).- we sec that M<lkiIOII refen to. spiritual level lhal is dose 10 Ihe physical 1lIOfId. namely, the lo~t level of Yel ~rah.'O> Mllk},oll;s on the level correspondinllo Yesod (Foun<hlion ), which has the connotation of conO«1inl and bindin.. Hence, il binds Yctzirah 10 A.iyah. By elevatinl objects in Ihe ph ysical world. one can lhen draw upon the forces of Yetzirall. lhe worid of tl\e anlels. It i5 for thi5 rc.aSOn lhat Ihe Sefer Yetzirah uses Ihe lerm Muk}wn (Base) rather than Throne (KiJl'»). TI>c lerm "Throne" would ind icate the UnivelX of Beriyah, .... hieh il lhe world nr the Throne. Ma/cJrOll, on tl>c other hand. is a level of Yetzirah.




c.n 1':W 117)1 lMO :W'~:I nti'J)O TUV


:llC i'll1V .n>""II'11't PC1V\ l1'tul'n pDlV :1')10 POW\ mlO 1'OlV 1VU1 i'01V\ 1m PJ:lW 111 IONJ ,1.;.0 ~ "J"I' Jl"11't cn"1 pat)1\ JUll' i'01)1 '"1V ..,)1 1)1 ltIV lWCC tTm:l I.;.tull:l

Tf " !kfiror
1' ..

of NOIhi"l nns:

Th~r mNlII" is 1m

1ticJr. iraOj' 110 ~mJ

A tkprJr of bqilrlli'lg A dfp(h of f"d A dfprJr of rood A dfpfJr of ~'iI A dfplh of abo>'t A d~p(h of~ A dfplJr of Nli A d~plJr of wnt A d~plJr of llOrth
A d~p(h


TIIf siltlular M(JJr" God foitJiful Ki", dcmiMt~ ~r IJr~m all from IfiJ holy dIwIling UMii er"ltiry of el"ltifin.

Here tile Sefer YelZirah defines tile five dimensional <:ominuum which i. the framework of itli system. Thex fivc dimensions define Icn d irections, twu oppo$ilC d irttlions in each dimension. See T able 8 o n pace -«i. The space <:ontinuum <:on.;111 of Ihre<: dimen.ions, up-do ...... , nonlHoulh . and cast-west. This continuum is defined by six diree_ lions, Ind is cilled ~UniVff2.w The time oominuum <:onsi.1S of two directions, paSI a nd future. or bcainninl and end. This is c:aUed ·year. - Finally, there ;s a moral, spirilual fifth dimension , whose lWO di.-mion5 arc &ood and evil. This is called ~1OII1.Accordin, to Ihe Iller K.o.bba\ists, Ihese Icn direct;OO5 parallel thc Tcn Sefirol in the followi", manner. Bqinninl C1!akhmah (Wisdom)




Good Evil

Keler (Crown)
Malkllut (Kinphip)
NetUICh (Victory)




Hod (Splendor)

Gevurah (Slrentlh)
Chesotd (Love)

W elt

Tife",1 (Bcauwl
Yesod (Foundation)''''

The Ten Scfirot an: Ihus secn as consislin, of five selS of oPlX'6iles. Th"" an: 1M ~fi"e oppoo.ile fl"c" dise ... ned above ( I:). The opposites parallellhe five fincers on each of Ihe two hands,'" Wisdom is always defined as lite betinnillJ by Ihe Kabbalisu. This is based on such verses as ~The bqinninlls Wisdom" (Proverbs 4 :7 ).'00 This correspOnds to 1M bqinni"l of exiltc".,." before creation "'..s ddined, Irticul l ll,d , o r verbalized. God Ihen created the world with leo Iollyinp. Thi. rt'P~n IS the power of Undersl.l.ndin& (Binah). which is 1M UP«"' of "c rbal thoUJ.b t. As discussed earl ier, Ihe na~ Elohim, used in Ihe account

of creation. rcprnenll Understandio&- "Sayinp" can only rome
abou t Ihroulh Undentandi na. denoted by Ihe name Elohim. PSycholo&ifally. Wisdom 31110 reprncnts the past in aoollter manlKr. MemO<)' is nOi verbal, but is non<! in tke mind in a nonverbal mode. It is only ...·hen one bri n&, I memory to the surface that it beromes verbaliled. Sintt pure ImmOl")' is completely nonverbal. it is in the c:at<:JOl"Y of Wisdom. Tke future, on the other hllnd, cannol be imqined.t all, execpt in verbal terms. One can re"",m""r the put, but not !he fmure. lbe futu re can only be contti"ed when it is dexribed. The main way in which ""e kno.... tM future is by C11r3pOl.or:ing from our knowled,e of the pa01. or, in the laDJu.,., of the Talmu d, ~Unde ... tandin,one Ihin, from anotber.- 'Of Pa.t and fUlure au also Ibe C<.lUnterpllns of Wisdom and Under_ standinl insofar that tlley an: respectively male and female. The past is 5IIid to be mm, sina: il dirtUly innuen<:a Ibe future. In this manner, it is .. if the feminine future is imprqnated by the paSI. Keler is said to be ~JOOd,- sina: it is the Sdinlh clOS"'s;l IO God. For the sa"", rca1Oll. Malkhut, the Sefirah fun besl from God, is to be evil. Th is does not mHn that Malkhut its.elf is actually evil. si nce all the Sefirot are completely and absolutely 1000. However,


SEfElt Y('f'll lAH

Tabk 8. The: len d;m;'lions.

End Good


1M Blind'
Chakhmall Binlh




Dinah Keltr
M l lkhll!

."."''''''' Binah


M alkhut

I"""'" I

ChakhlNh Dinah

""', , ".






T ifem


Ti fcret Nelzadl


NMh S.,,,h


~ ) ~..... ••..h· _. "" /cJ<. Hd? ,,, .. "'"~ ,.,.. Jr." r,,_ Sqo , , m Or:w --. .11_. . l:,..04.""" m....:r....~

, SOC_ICW ......L





"" 1>'.

L s...~ . 7O( 1 1""~

since Mllkhul points in the dim:1ion away from God, i\ i. Slid 10 denote the direction of evil. TM enlire array of the Sefirot il oflen c.IWI .he -rr« 0( life. ~ The ('tn'er line. from Keler to Malkhul. when taken tlorle, i. a iled Ihe ~T= or Kno .... kdlt.~ 11 is Ofl Ihil line th.l JiOOd Ind evil eo"", 1~l hcr. Ihi. bei nllM mystery of Ihe -rree of Knowi.edte of Good and Evil " (Ge~il 2;9). of ","hieh A~m and Eve _re com manded not 10 pan.alr.e"" II ;1 in tbe QlIQj..Sdirah of Knowkdtt (Oul) thaI Iood and evil OOIW~ Because ofUli ... some: o flhe Kabbali1lS pll« !he "ckplh 0( &ODd and depth of ev;]~ both in KnowIro.: (Out). ... ~ an: 32 h)"perquadrallls tMI en ~ defined in I fi'"edimmiMmal b~."IlIaeconnpond 10 tM 12 lpueson 1 fivedJlnerWonal h)ptlCube. IS disarssrd loo ...e ( 1: 1). Tbno: in turn In: n:la trd to the 12 pal'" of Wisdom. Srr Tible 9. In 1('1("1, • kn ife or cultin, blade hIS one d i~ lets Ih,n the con ti nuum thlt il ClIIS. In our con tinuum, I is n.$enl illly I plane. Then:fore, in I fi.·ed imensional continuum, one W{)Uld upa:t I blade 10 lIa ... e four dimensionl. Such I blade would be • fou r-d;menlional hypcn:ubc, hlvin.16 apexes. The Midrash $I11e$ IMt God'ISW on! lIal16 ed,es, indicat; ... thai il il ind«<l. four-dimenlionaJ h)·pen:ubt.' ..



, ,

9 . The 32



Tifen:t Tiferel Yood Yood Tiferel Tife",'

, ,

KeItT 3 KeitT

4 KeteT

Chakllma" Chakllma!! 0,,,,,, Chakhmah 0 , _ Chakhmah 0 , _
Chakhmah Olllkhmah Chakhmah Chakhmah

C ,"'"

N,""" Hod


Kele r

7 Ketn

8 Keter

"""'., """'.,



N"""" Hod N,,_

K eItT

" " " "
" "

KeItT Kef.,r

K eitT
K eItT

Binal! Binah Binah Binah Binah Binah

0,_ 0,,,,,, 0,_

Tifcrl:t Tife",1

y,,", y ,,",
Tife.." Tiferet



(;c"urah Gcvurah Gevurah


y""" y,,",


" " " "

Malkhu! Malkhut


20 Malkhu! Malthul 22 Malkhut

23 Malkhut

C'ltakhmah Chakhmah Chakhmah Chakhmah Chakhmah Chakhmah Chakhmah Chakllmah

a,..., a,..., "'''''' a.-

Tiferet T iren:1





Gen,,,,1! Gc:vurah



(}e"ural! Gevurah



23 Malkhul



26 M alkhul


Tiferet Tifen:!



" '" "

21 M alkh"l 28 M alkhul Malkhul
M . lkhul


y""" y"""
Tiferrt Tifem


Binah Binah

"'~"'" Gevurah

Malkhul 32 Malkhul

"'~"" Gevurah

y""" y,,",

N_' Hoo




Their meusure is len, «"hich hUl't' no end
The & fcr Yellirah ~ not ~y, ~their num~r is ten: bUI. ~I hei r mea$ure iii len.~ What ;1 ;0 uyi... io tha, Ihe ~firot <!tfine a oonlinuum of len d irections or five dimensions. Each of IhCK directions is said to be infin ite and endless. Indeed, in $3yinllhal ~Ihcy ha ve no end.~ Ihe Serer Yetzirall uses Ihe term, ~Ain (la-hem) SiJp 11Ii, i. the term usually u"",d f<)r(iod, 1M Infinite Bein&. Each dir«lion c~ lcn ds without lim it. and in Ihis respect, tile Sefim! share: a propeM)' wilh the Infin ite Beinl-'" The initiate is here: J,iven an alk-Jory throuJh ",hid! he or.tle can pen:ei ,-c his o r he, path \0 the Infinite Beinl- The aile&Ory oonoisl5 of an y of the direct ions. Thus, for u.m pk , ·up~ has no end. One can rontin...., 10 Iravel in an UPWllrd direction, but can never actually reach ~u p .~ The same is true ,.,hen one travels ~ up ~

A depth Q jbeginning
The Sefer Yet~iJ1lh don not speak of d irect ions. but of depths. In gene .... l. the C1)ncept of depth indic.ateo IIOmethin& al a lfC'al di.. lance... ....hen one Jook. down I. deep """II, p zin, al ill ~depth. · Ii the~fo~ denotes ~al d iSlana, both physical I nd mental. Therefo~, In idea that is difficult to understand. and far from one', C(lmpKhen sion. is 11110 said to be deep. ThcK aK many e umpJer. ofthi. in scripU,IK. We thus find. ~The heavens for l>ei&ht . the earth for depth . and the hean of killJ$ ha, no probin,~ (Proverbs 2S: l ). Reprdin, Wisdom. Kollelet li kewise said. " II i. deep. deep . .... ho can find it" (Eccle.i.stes 7:24). In panicu lar. the word "depth" is used in ~Jation to the Divine. as in. " How ~at aK yoor works, 0 God. Your thooJ,hts are veT)' deep" (Psalm s 92:6). These ten depths lheTefoK ~presenl the len directions extended 10 infini l)'. II i. ",rineo. "Coo n...,1 in man', hun i. li ke deep water. but a man ofundeT'Standin, ..·ilJ draw it OOt" (Proverb'l20:S). AllhouJ,h Ihe deplh of lhese d irections is in fin ite. it can be described Olema1iy. The first I«hnique invo/ves verbal thouJ,ht. thllHlJ,h bein, - a man of UndemandinJ. - G .... d ..... lly. then. one can 31 ..... learn to depict these infinite depths nonverbally . The firll u ercise is 10 Iry 10 depict the "depth of bc&inninJ.Attempt to piCtllK an infinity o{ time in the palIt. ttl the mind t.. vel t>.ck 10 a minUle 1110. and hOllr a&O, a day alO •• ~ar '110. rontinu in& until you reach a IC'O·el where you aK tryin8 to im2&ine an infini ty alO. T hen dO the same with Kprd to the {muK.


The nnt eurcise involv<"1 tryi1\l to imqine infinite aood and infinite evil. The limits are PUrl: ideas, which unDO! be verlWized. Finally. nne: must imasine: the limits of the spacial dimensions. One mull perceive the ~i,ln of the sky and be)'Ond ttoe sky. the deplh of lhe eaMh and be)'Ond the eaMh."· In this manne:r, one: ""dual!), lrains Ihe mind to depict the infini le. Since Ihe Srfirollhemso:lves .re . lso infinile. this exereise can help one attain communion with the &firot nl Th e individual can then learn how 10 climb the T= of Ihe Sefirot. Ind eventually .pproach Ihe loflies! spirilual hei,hls. This is lC«)mplished thrOUlh Ihest depths. It is wrillen, -A sol\j of steps, from Ihe deplh s I can You 0 God M(Pnlms 130: I). One c.lls out to God by medill lin, on the deplhs, and then (lne can as«nd throuah • series (If steps. The psa lm is therefore c.lled Ma OQn, of Ileps. ~ " .

The singular Mas/er
Thil tan also be rl:. d. "The Master is si ngular.H .nd a similar npression il found below (1 :7 ). After describin, tile five dimensional continuum defi ned by the Sefirol. the Serer Yetzirah specifically f"l'fen 10 God.s the M si",ul.,. Muter.M The Hebrew for M sinlular" here is }ac/rid, indicatil\j a complete Ind absolute Unil)·. The unity of God is absolute. He is nOI like a pe!"1OJl who COIIsists of many PIIn$. He is not even like Ihe most simple physical object, since even weh an object has Ihree dimension$. To say Ihat God i. bound by dimensions .... ould in ilself introduce an elemmt ofplu,..lily in His nso!'ntt, and this is excluded. After the Sefer Yelzi,..h has defined lbe five-dimensional continuum, one: miaht be miiJed 10 think thai God Himself is a fivedimensional bein&- The text therefore Slresses His uni ty Illhis point The C(MlctPI o f dimensionalily does nol apply 10 God .1 all .

God faithful King
In Hebrew. this is EI M~ri:1I lI'e,malt (JZlIO';';' .... ). TIlt inilial letten of Ihis phrax spell nut Amen III»<), and aCC(lrdinlto the Tal_ mud, il i$lhis phrax lhal defines the word Amen.'" The statement ~rl: lhl1 GOO is Mfaithful Mmeans tha! He i, accessi ble (lnly Ihrouah f.ith . TIlt human intellect can only ""sp concepLS

within Ihe fiv~-di.,...n sional oominuum ofs~time.spirit. God. 11M: Infinile Bei n" ho_vcr. is beyond Ihis. He may n:late 10 Ihe un; verw lU ~ Kin&." but He Him5tlf is above the ","sp of our mcmali ly,

DQminali'S them all
The Hebrew .... ord for - dominale" here is MD.1M1. There are two synonyms thai ind icate dominana. - Mrlrld! and Moshrl. A Mciddl is mkin, .... ho interacts .... ith his subjeclS. and is Ihcn:forc affected by them. A MosJoci. on Ihe othl:r han.d. is .. 1)' an.d d ictator, .... ho 1'\Ilc$. bul is in no ,",'ay inn""nced by his subordinatcs. '" Goo i. oometimes called a Me/eleh. but this refeR onl~ 10 His acl ions throuRh Malkhu l (Kin,ship). Ihe 100'i HI of Ihe ~firot. The [nfin ile Bein.. however. is actuall), a M()jIr~I. an absolute ruler " 'ho is in no "'11 )' aff«ted by His cn:ation , The S('ripture Ihu$ sa)'l'. ~If you .~ rilhlrouS. whal do you ,ive Him' Whal does He receive from yo ur ha nd~ (Job 35:7)'" Thi. is paniculuty 11'\1<'. of God's relationship to Ihe ScfirQl. He i. in no way aff« ted or defined by Ihem,

From lIi$ holy habitation
The H... bre .... ""Ofd for "habitation" heK is Ma '"" (111'0). The u pre$Sion - Holy habitation- (Ma '"" KadaJiI) OCC:Ufl, a number of times in IhI: Bibk. '" It is a[1oO used again below 0 :12). The woro Ma 'OIl;s defined by the ~·el'le. -0 God, You have hecn • hatHtation (ma'",,) for us- (Pul ms 90:1). The Midr.nh in terprets Ihis to indint... thaI -God is the ha bitation of the world. Ind lhe ...w ld is not His hatHtuion.- " · God;s the ·place:- of the world. definin, the S{>aOe· time-spi ri l con tinuum. and . 1... is not defined by any continuum whatever. The COntinuum is contained ;n God. as il ...... re. and He i~ r>Ol contained in the conlinuum. The word Ala 'on is very closely n:lated 10 the word M al«im 1Cl'C). mean ;n, ·I'I~.- M akQm com~ from lhe TOOl Kom 1=,.,), meanin, ~IO $tand.~ Henoe. Alaloom ~not~ I place: in ph~&ical spiI-X. when: something can -stand.- Ala 'oll (111'0). on Ihe Olhl:r hand. romes from the same TOOt as Oriah (:'t:1II). meaninl a ~Iimc- or ~periOO." JUSI" M alec", defines a point in space. 100 AftJOIl defines a point; n the sP«e-t;mc continuum. '" Thus. ,",'hen Ihe Sefer Yel]!i"h lolly. that God dominat .... the ~firot frQm I-l is "Hol y M a"otl-;I is indica t;nlthat He;$ the ~placc" and ~habilation- of the five-dimensiOllal continuum. Not only don

" God circumscribe Ihe universe of space, bUI He even defines lime
and spirit. This is said \0 be ~holy.~ and as discu!oSled above ( I: I), the word -lIoly~ (Kadrulr) dCl!{)les separation from tile mundane. The Infinite Beinl is separated from all tile Sefi",l. and in rdalion \0 H im, even the $diml are mundane.

Untilelernily of elerniries
In Hebrew, Ihis is Adl')' Ad ("111 -W), and Ihis upression occurs numerous limes in Ille Bible.'" TlH:n: .re two synonym. which denote eternity. The firo' i. lLOlllm, usually lranslatt'd as "fo",vcr," which indical" the end point of the time rominuum . Often used ;1 Ihe upression ~am ~aEd ("1)11 c'>1V>), which means "rore,-n and etemily." The npression
"etem iIY." here del1(lles tile realm OUlsi<.k Ihe lime continuum, whe..,

the ooneqn of lime does II<)! uist al all. Even in such a timeless domain, however. Ihere is still I kind of hypertimc. where even\$ can occur in a l(llical sequ.ence. The Mid"",h calls such hYP"rtimr, the · orner of time w (Stdn umollim),m The upreslion "eternity of etemitin (Adey Ad) denOln a domain thai is beyond even sl,Ich hYP"rtime.

1 :6

i'T:l ;"l ~-"c, 111"~)' ;'Ill ' '1 , 1'm'~O "W'V ;:Ilt'l 1(1)'-0 J;U l-oi l Tv 0;"1"1 rlt J11'''I'm ,C'lnJ"IVC 0;"1 ~o, 'l!l'" l~l"'I'" ;"I~lO' ncKC"Il

1i-1I ~firot

of N(){hi,'I"1'$$

Tlrn ' .isio~ is liu Ihl' "appearallCf' o/IIghlning" Thl'i, limit has nO I'~J
And lIis Word i~ IIIi'm is -l1Inning lWur~ing · Thl'J' nulr 10 lIis .JQJ'i><g liu a -..'hi,/ ..';"" And Iwforl' His Ihronl' Ihl'Y proslrOl1' Ihl'mw/l'f'S,


Their vision
The word for "vision~ here is Tzafiyoh, which I,Isuall y denaln a prophetical or mystical vilion. The Hdhalot, an ancient mystical lext which miJ-ht be rontemporary to Sefer YetullIh. sp"au of the "vision (II<{fiyoh) of the Mar1<llvll.wUJ The MarbYll is the divine

" Chariot
in a


in Eukid', vision. and 1m term i. u~ 10 <.knott the mystical experienoe on its hiJ,hesl levels. The Serer Ycu irah is now dcscribin& how the Sod"i rol appear

vision. In earlier $ttlions, the texi spoke of the exu-

c;su ", oed 10 visualize the Sefirot. Ind no .... ;1 describes their

appearance:. The BahiT. another very andem lUI, explains Ihal the word ntifi)'llh. derived from II...: rool T:a/alr. indicates Ihl1 one is Iookin&
down from. hiP. plllC<'_ '" In the p",vious """lion, the Sefer YClz;noh .poke of the Sefiroc as ICn "<.kplhs. - Wilen one Ioob inlo a ckpth . ho ...~vcr. one is usually Iook in, down .....rd. In the Hckhalol. Ihe m y5li"J fJ,peric~ is often dncribnl .. :0. <kIanl in a downward direclion . and il ;' called -descendi", to the Marta"• ."·" One rU$On why plin, at the SdiTOI is called a "dC'SCcnl" is bo:auoe, in order 10 acromplish thi •• 0"" must fil'litlllain CIIakhmah oonsciousncn, IS d iKU~ carlkr_ In the arr:ay of the Sdirot, ho..·• ever. Cb~khmah it the hi~t. u Ira.t of thooe which a.., app11)l.chabk. In climbinl the T..,., iifthe J2 path. of Wisdom, one muSI beain by altacliinl himxlf 10 Chakhmah (Wisdom). When Ihis i. lK'COm· pliihed, one Ihen looks down allhe other Sdirol. Only Ihen does one beain climbinl the Serirot. I>rJinnins at the Iowe..t.

Like the appearance of lighlning
This;s tlken from the ve~, "And the Chayot. runninl and rei urninl. like Ihe appearan~e oflish ln inl ( b<rzQk)~ (bekicl l :l.). The word Bamk . .... hich is found only in Ih i. one place in lhe Bibl e. i. usually lranslated as "lixhlninl~ or -, lPart.- '''' Accordinl 10 other inlerpretalions. Bazak denoles, f1ashina meleor or I bum· ina bubble.'" AccordinllO alllllne Opinions. Ihe Sefer Yelzirah i, sialinalhallbr Sefirot nn only Ix visualized for an initant. and Ibrn Ihey v.nis.h. The veal KahNli.l. Rabbi Moshe de Lron (123g·130~). best know n IS the publis.hcr of the lobar. offen.n inte..,ltina.naJoay .... When the SerirOl are sent in • mystical vi.ion. Ibri. appearancc i. like sunliaht reflected on • waU from . bowl of Wate r. As Ions I . the bowl is ab!.olulc!y still, Ihe reflected in.a&C is clear, but the sliaht(St vibration ~auKS illo break up and oscillate wildly_ Similarly, • delr vi.ion of the Srfirot w'!,mld M possible in theory. bul on ly if the mind were absolutely lIill and calm. Thc 11iJhtnt c""erinr Ihouahl, oo-..~ver. deslroys Ihe imase completely. When the mind is in I stale where it c.n visualize the Scrimt. it i. di.turbed by Ihe mosl minutc dislnlctionl.

Their limit has no end


This is obviol,lsly derived from Ihe verse, MFar every limit I have seen an end. Your commandment i. very broad" (Psalm s 11 9:%). The Hebrew · ord for "limit" ~re is Takhlil (""'~). which also ... meanS "completion" and "ul timuc."u, Ii i. ~ri,~ from 1~ root Kalah (~), meanin, 10 "complete" or "fin ish ." aI in "Ihe heaven and eanh were finished (kalaht (Oenni. 2:1~ The word 11lkhlil also
denotes PIII'l'Q6C', sin~ when somethin& fulfills iii purpose it is said to be completed and fulfilLed. The espn-uion, "Iheir limit hu no end (kI.. j," can be compared \0 tm. e. rlicr exprnsion. "tlleir measure... has 110 end (so))" (1:5). 8o1h words. Knz and So/. denote an end. bUllhe shade of mean in,

is somewhal different. The word Soj('TC'l i. derived from the root Safoh (:mol. meanin, "\0 cease 10 ni.!." The leon Knz (,.,,), on the olliff hand, comes from KtJtztJ !; (r>'pl, mean in, "10 cut ofT," '" Hence, Ihe end implied by 54! is where somethinl ceases 10 e~ isl, ""hile Ketz implies the poinl when: il is ~eut off,~ Ihal is, il5 ext reme boundary o r limit. As Or>C authority put. ii, So/is lhe end in reLation 10 Ihl! which follQws ii, and kI~ is the end wilh rqard 10 Ihat wh ich precedes it. '" Wlten Ihe Sefer Yetzirah spoke earlier o f Ihe Sefirol as ellensions. 1M 1eJ;1 sa)"s Ihallhey h.,·c no So{ This indicates Ihat Ihere is no place where IMy cease: 10 exist. no mailer how fir oul one &<JeS. Thi s is Ihc infinil)" of extension. Similarly. wlten God is called Ain Sof, literally ~without Sof." it also meanS Ihilihere is no place wlterc He ceases 10 exi sl.'" Here, on Ihe other hnd, the Scfe. Yetzirah is spelking of lite Sefirol as Ihey arc Sttn in a myslical vision. The lext th en s.ayltltal Iheir purpose:. completion and outcome have no limil (kef:). EYflI thou&h lite Sefirot an: Sttn only IS a flash. IhCTe is no limi l 10 lite insi&hl Ihat they can im bue 10 the individ ual.

His word in them is Hru nning and returning"
Th is also aliud..s 10 Ihe velY. ~And lite Chayol runnillJ and return in" like Ihe appearance of Ii&hlni",~ (Ezekiel 1:14). II is discussed apin later (1:8).




Tile pliraM: ~ H is word~ is Devl ro (T'.;I:~ OIMR, IIowever, vocalize Illis Dabl'1.l (l'ljI1.I, wllich mans · Ihey speak, ~ This line IMn ~adl. .They speak of IMm U I'1.Innilll and ~I u mina. .". Tll is luches Ihal one cannot focus for Iny lenlill of lime on any of Ihe Sefi rot, T he min d can concenlrale and""" Ihem as I ~flash oflichtninl,· bill only for an inSlani. Then one mUSI ~Iurn, One oscillales belW«n ~\'\Innin&~ and "rel urni n&: P"'kin& for an inslanl, and Illen im medille1y ~lurnin8 10 one'. norm al menIal s" te.''' The Kabbalis\$ POle lhal ·runninl· <knotes Cbakhmall, while ·l'l:l\Irnin&~ implies Binah.''' A. dillOl~ e;lrlicr, one can onl y visuali« 1M Soefirol with C/lakllmall con§ciou.ness, throush Ihe nonverbal pan of Ihe mind, SlICh Chakhmah coPlICiousness is very diffiC'lllllo ma intain, since 1M mi nd normally funelion. in • Siale of verbal Binah C(lfIlICioIosness. As menlioned earlier ( I :4), 1M onl)' way 10 allain Chakhmall conllCiou... nn.s is 10 swin& back and fonh bel"'ffn Chakhmah and Binall. [I is only durin, Ihe instant of pu~ Chakhmah con§ciousness Ihll I~ Soefirm can be perceived. In Heb~w, 1M word ~run~ is usuaUy Rut: (,.,..,). H e~ , OOvo·cver. the commentaries note thallhe 1'001 of Ihe word is Rutza (I<T'). and Ihis ;0 aPPIIl'l:ntly lhe only plao. in Ihe cnli ~ Bible whel'l: Ihis root is found.''' ACCOrdin& 1 the Midrash. Ihis TOOl is ~Iated both 10 R lill. 0 ~IO run ,~ and 10 R&llz"h (:tr,), meanin& to "will~ or ~dcsi~.· '" The word R"I:" (I<T') I""~f<.>re hn the implicalion of "runni", wilh one'. will." or impelJilll lhe will 1 O()fIttntralc on somelhin& he)'Olld ilS 0 &rasp. This ind icates Ihe menial dron lhrouah .... hich the Soefirm an visualized. The Sefer Yeuirah I'l:lal.,. "runni", and retum i"," 10 'pud,. Speech exists only in ~lalion to Binah consciousness, since Ihis is lhe verbal pan Orthe mind. As 10", .. a pel'$Oll is lIQrTTIaUy in. ".te of Binah consciousness, be can only visualile the Sefirol a. a flash, ·l'1.Inninl and ~lumillJ.·

They If) Hi.s .saying lila- a whir/wind
The Sefer Yelzirah says Ihll God's "spe«h in them run. and I'l:tum •." God's speech can he ~;suali«d Ihrouch the Sefirol, bill il "runs and n lum •. " "Speech" (Da",,,) refers 10 I~ leneral OOnttpl. " 'hile a ~sayin.~ (M" 'am,,r) denotes I panicu.lar It. lernent. It it only wil h ~ 10



Ihe leneric ~speech~ \h.t Ihe Sdiro\ OKillale, ~l'\Innjnl in,.- Bm when Ihe.., is " Ma'amar, " s~fic "'),in, or edict, they no. Iontef <»ciliate, but ""h - like a whirlwind.AocordinllO ,he ..,adin&. - His speech in li1em run. and "'tums,this entire Kniop iii speakin, of Ihe &firol. One normally KQ the
Sefirol - runnin, and retum;p" - like Oasbn ofliJ,htnin&- But wilen I. panic".] •• edi<:l from God is prc:5n1I. Ihey no Iona<:T oscillate, but pur. sue it - like" whirlwind.-

" and return

Accordin, 10. the commentaries who interpret Ihis line as -they s.peak of Ihem !'\Innina and retumin&. - the enlire ICJ;\ is speak;n, of "llley.- namely the maslers and prophets. A1thou&h Ihey normally only visuali2c the Sefirol -runnin& and relumifl&,' when" specific edict from God .... s heard, Ihey would pursue it like" whirlwind, goin& rar beyond Iheir normal bounds. The Hebrew word forwhirl";nd here;1 Slifalr, ,, lerm thaI occun many limes in the Bible.'" The word Sll/ah (;""CI) comes from the root S<l/alr (:tW). meanin, "to annihilate.~ ThIlS, acoordin, to many commentaries. it is tile most powerflll and destnlCtive wind possible.'" It is atloO related to the word s.:.{(,-.;>). meanin, a limit or boIindary. As one authority e~plains. a Sll/alr is a wind that e~~ds tile normal bollnds of natural v.-catheT. ,. This teach es that when there is an edict from GOO , the mystic can ,0 far beyond th~ normal bounds to punlle it_The fact that he is pliTSuinl a d ivine "sayinl" allows him to have access to milch hi,her SlUes of consciousness thin the normally un IlIlin. It is for this realoOn that many mystics would topac in meditations related to the ob5ervallCC. of various commandments. They were makinl lise of God-. "sa)"in8" I nd edict, Ind in this manlleT, were able to Il'lch much hi&ller levels than usual. The divine "sayilll" ass0ciated with the: command~nt would alloO serve to alllllCl tile Sefirot Ind make them more accnsibk. T he.., are two typtS of storm wind, a Sa·a'alr and I Sll/alr.'·' It Sa '",air is a wind that me..,ly _"tltes (Sa"",), while a Siifalr is • hllrri_ cane that .~vs away everythinl in ils path.''' At the betionin, of the m~tical experience, Ezekiel says thai be saw a "Slorm v.ind (sa·a,ah) cominl from the north~ (Eukiel 1:4). Accordinlto some commentaries, this refen 10 Ihe aaitation of the mind when one COlen the In.nscendcntalll'alm.''' The vehicle throu&h ..·hich one rioes Ind ente ... Ihe mySlicaI realm is called a Marteivi (chario!). and the art of enaaginl in Ibis practice is uned "workin. in lhe Olariot" (Ma ·am MarI«mJ).'.. 1t i. therefore bi&hly sianincant that the scripture states, " His Chariol (ma,kaWlj is like I whirlwind (sll/ahr (Isaiah 66: I S).''' This ind icales

that the Sll.fa~ wind Xl' lik~ a Chariot. IVnveyin,<me into the m~sti c.l ~.Im. II is a fortt Ihal carries one be)'OIId the normal limit (wJJ inlO t~ IranKcnd.en t.aL Sudia Gaon imerp~t' SII./a~ 10 denOle Ihe dU~1 devils Ihll One sed in small ".-h irl ...·ind ...... hue Ihe dust OHSUmeo many ~hape$ and forms. Th~ form. con~t~n\ly chanll\'. and a di~linct form la.ts only for a mornent. Si milarly, when one vi~ualiu's t~ Scfirol. one can ~ them in many form,. bUI like ,.,nd devils, they la.1 only for an inSlant. and lhen dissol,·e.

Bejore Hi.f Throne they pros/rate /hemseh-es
All d iscu5$r:d earl~r (1:4), when we '""ak o(God a. ~.i\lin,.- il meanSlhat He is l~nnl Hi, ~n~ S<l as 10 ~ con~med with Hi. c...,ation. Hi, Throne i. the ob~ upon .... hich He .ils, a nd hence. il deMlles Ihe vehicle of weh lo~nn8 a nd C(lnccm. While ~sitti n8- i. a Iowenn, thai 0"" ~ on o...,·s own inili.· tive. proslralin, one~lf and bowin, i. a lo ....enn' lhat 0""" d<)rl; beau"" o f a hill>er po"'Cr. The tool. of God'. concern an: the Scfirot. s.i n~ it is Ihrough I~m that He directs Ihe universe. As a result of ti>< conupt of God's Throne. Ihe Sefirot mUSI abo lo~r Iheir e5""nCC and inte=t with Ihe lo "'mid. The Sdcr Yctzirah th~re. fore says. "~fo~ His Throne t~y proslrate IIIcm""jvcs.Tn. univrne of the Sefirol is called Alzilui. Belo .... il i. Beriyah. Ihe world of the Throne. M Ex~ki~1 ~bo ii, -Abo,l' the firma_ men! lhat was o,'er Iheir head. wa~ the likellCS.'j of a Throne... and upon the likeness of the Th rone. wi. a likenCS$ of Ihc a ppcanllCC of a Man- (Ezek~1 1:26). The Throne is in tll<: uni"e"" of Benyah, ...·hile the - Man- on the Throne n:p...,..,nt, Ihe an lhropomorphi<;. array of the Scfirot in AIZilut. Tn. hiJhcst uni ve...., that can IKtuaJJy ~ visualized i. Yelzirah. the world of Ihe anICI .. In Ihi. world. one can visualize a refi«tion of Ihe Thron e. a nd hence. Euki~1 .... id that he saw " the Iik~"d.I of. Throne. - One can also see a -refiection o ra ~fi«tion- oflhe Sefinx, a nd h( Ihc...,f""" sa ..... ~Ih( li k(ness o f the ap"".rancc of II Man,~ When Ih( Sefer Yel~irah says Ihal I~ Scfirot "proslrale themtcl\"eJ., - Ite i. indic:;nin, that they are reflened in the Io....-er univencs. Sinor they prostrate them..,lv... bcfon:: God', Throne. whkb is in Beri )"a h. they are CVen visible in Yetzirah. It is in Ihe unive...., of Ynlira h thaI a ~f1ttl ion of Ihe Sefirot is visualized.




J I1'mro 11:)10

f'IJI) ;mo'?:l




I'N1 "n' p-tl'ttf 117ru:! :rnt?j.l m,'~:l 11l1C:l :'llltl :'U"IK ;'I1J 'mK ' llllr1 ' 1t7 \r.,

1;'" !j,fiT()l of NQI/ringn/'U Th<'ir I'nd is imbedded in Ilreir beginning

and Ilreir


in I""i, m d

/iQ aflame ;/1 a burning cool FOT Ihl' }.taste>' is sitIgUfar

Hi' has no SecQnd And tJ,jou Oni'. ",lral do }"" ((}Un!?

Their end is imbedded in their beginning
Acconlin8 to mOSt oomm~ntarin, th~ ~bq.innin.~ ;5 KeleT (Crown). while the ~end~ is Malkhut (Kinaship). These are tile IWO end pOints of lite .piritual di~nsion . In Ihe most basic le"d, Keter it :sooen as the concept of Cau",,". wh ile Malkhul i. the archetl'J'l' of Effect. Since" cau"" cannot e~isl without an dTl!'Ct. and an effl!'Ct cannot exist without a cause, Ihe two
a re interdepenlknt on other.

The Stfer Ydzirah likens Ihis \0 a ~flamc bound 10 a bumin, C(>;lL~ A flame C1InnOI u i" wilhout the coal, and the burning coal cannot uis! witllou t the flam~. Although !h~ coal is the cause ofth~ flame. th~ flame is also the cause of the burn ing 0(l;I,1. Wit!>ou t Ihe flame. it would not be B burning coal. Since Cause cannot exist without Effect.. Effect is also the cause of Cause. In Ihis sense. Effect is Ihe cause. and Cause is the effect. Since bqi nninl and end a ~ inseparable, ~thei r end is imbNded in th~ir ~nninl, and Ih~i . bqinninl in their end.~ Thu s, even IhOlJgh Kel~r i. Cause an d Malkhul is Effect. Ih~", i. also a sense in ...·hieh Malkhul is Ihe cau:loe of Kele•. Onen in Kabbalah. where such a situation e~ist$, Keler is I«n as uistins on a 1o"'1:r level Ihan Malkh ul. Thus, for nample, Kner of Beriyah i. belo .... Malkhul of AlzilUl . and Keter of Yelzirah i. below Malkhul of Beriyah. As discussed earlier. Ihen: is no term Ihal can be used 10 describe God. God Himself cannot even be called the Cause. '" A cause is to some d~ee dependent on il' effecl, and God cannot be depend~nl on an ythi"&- The Kabbalists then:fo!l: teach thai befo,"" creating any.



10. A


...';Ih 0 and N a$ I....... ''''Ii"""lal PO;Tl/t.

Ihin, else. God ~~aled Ihe roll«'Pl of ~Cause.~ This i. the !;efi.... h of KeteT (Crown). KeteT is Ilso often identified " 'ith Will. This, how_ ever, i. an an lhropomorphism, .illCC in man. will iSl he C4U.U' of all action .'" Thc Sefer Yetlirah therefore .tales Ihat "'tbe MUlcr i. Sinlular, He has no seoon.d_~ The s"firot may be inlcr&pcndent. but this don nOI ilKludc thc Infinitc Bein... Since God is ab500lulely unitary, He cannO! even be called lhe Cause, ,,;nu Ihi. would imply an effect 1$ a ~second.M When we " iew Ihe Sefirot as bein, len direclions in a fivedimensional continuum , _ Cltn also intc~ Ihis in anot.hcr manncr. Every ])IIir of Sefirot defines an infinite line, ""Iended infinitel) in bolh dim:tions. The end points of such an infinite line, however, come 100000her and meet 01lCC lIPin al the ~point II infinit).~ This is a fact ' ecosn ized by mathematician" and considcnoble usc of lbe Mpoi nt II infinit)~ ;. found in complex analyus, tlte calculu. of rompiCK numben. AlthouJ,h th is i•• hishly ab$t,*,1 concept. it is not Ihat difficull to understand. Imagine a circle, ... itll two antipodal poinlS. 0 and N. Obviou!.ly. two lines CKlendin, outward from Owill onu qain come IOJClller .t point N. B UI then what happens if we make the circle infinitely II,...,? The laller Ihc circle. Ihe closer the curve approaches I ItraiJht line. In Ihc limit whcrc the circle becomes infi nitely larae, the lines extendin, outward from poinl 0 actually bocome lIraishl, But still. tlte) oomc 10000her a1 poinl N. This point al infinit y is where alt endpoinlS meet. '" See filure 10. In ou r Ihr~imcnsional conlinuum . ...-e can likewise extend all lines outward infinitely. The end poinlS of all these linel WQUld be an infinite sphc~ Iurroundin, all $paU. Ho....ever, each opposin, ])IIiT of lines would m..,\ at the point a' infinily. and Ihcl-er~, all outJOin8 linc:s mu" m..,t at this po;nt. '"

Thus. in one sense. Ihe entire three..:l imensional space continuum can be secn as surrounded by an infinite sphue. In anOlher
sense, I>o",-c' -c '. Ihis entire infinite sphere can also be reprnenled by a sinale point - Ihe poinl al infinity. A point. however, ;s in finitely sman. Thus, the pOint 1I infi nity can be 5et:n as bein, both infinitely la1'JC and infinitely 5./TIall at Ihe ilarm lime. The same 4f1ume"1 can easi ly be utended \0 Ihe five. dimensional lIypcnpacc discussed in Serer YelZirah. Thus, if c"cry pai r of Sdirol defin es an infinite line , Ihe begin-

nin, of each line is ~imbeddedM in ils end . This is true of all the Sefirol. All opposites, in tlleit extreme case, berome joined as one. One en uSC this as II medi tation. Try 10 imq.ine Ihe sphere al infinity a nd the point al infinity. and al1em pl In pereeive !>ow Ihey are actually one. You win Ihen see Ihat your usual conception of space and e ~len5io n I~ nol as simple IS you believe. In plmicul.r. Ihis is IllIe oflhe Keler-Malkhulline. ln Ihe dir«:t;on of KeteT th i. li ne en ends infinitely toward God, the ul tim. te , Good. In the Malkhul dim:tion. it utends infinitely .way from God. tOward ultimate evil. The.., tWl) end points elIn abo be viewed as the uhimatdy spirilual and tl\e ultimately physical. In this ..,n.." _ must Ihc~fo~ ""y that the ultimately phY'ical and the ultimately spiritual a~ Mi mbedded " in each other. In order to understand Ihis mo~ deeply, ...·e must first ask some quest ions. T he most buic que.tion is: Why did God CJ"C3.te a physical .... orl d? God c~aled lhe universe to beslO .... 800d 10 His CJ"C3.lion, but Ihis &ood is pu~ly spiritual. This bcillJ true . .... hal need is there for a phY'ital world? Ikfo~ "<I"e can ans~r Ihis question , ~ muS! finl ask another qUMtiOll. What is 1M difference between tl\e material and the spiritual? w e speak of the male rial and the spiritual as IW different oonO {"Cpts. w e kno w thaI tl\e spiritual is nOI material. BUI pm:isely wbat i. lite differene<:? The sllould be obvious. The main d;lTc ~ncc bet .... een Ihe malerial and spiri invo"'es space. Physical space only (Kists in the physical "'orld. [n the spiritual, there i. no spae<: as ~ kno .... it . Altho U&h concepts of d ista nce and closeness exist in Ihe spiritual realm, they do not hive the .. me munin, as they do in the ph)'$;Q.l world. In a spiritu.l sense, closeness invol ves resemblance:. Two Ihinv thaI resemble each otl\er Ire said 10 be spiritually close. Two thinp thaI di ffer. on the o lher hand. are far apan in a spiritual sense. T his hal very imponant implications. In the spiritual world, it is ullerl y impossible to brillJ IWI) opposites !~ther. Because they are o pposite. they a~ by defini tion, poles apan.




Thus. fore!lample. God and man are worlds 11K brav_ ens an: hi&her Ihan Ihe eanh." On a purely spiri tual plane. il would be totally impossible for the ',,"'0 ever 10 be brou&lu ta&ether. It for Ihis reason Ihal God en,aled the eon""pl of spa<:e. Spiritu.o.llhinp can be bound 10 tl>c materi.l, just as. for a.mple, lite soul is bound 10 the body. T ...·o opp05i les ('lin then"" brol,lJ.hl !(!tether by beiDI OOllnd 10 ph ysical objec'" In t he physical WOrld •• pace n iSI', .nd two opposites can literally be pushed losether. FunMrmore, 110'0 spiritual opposilt"$ can even be bound to the same mlterial object. '1IJ Thus, for example, min has both." UI'JI' for 10<)<1 and an U"iC' for evil. the Yflur 10., and the r..tu.. HaRtl, In a purely spiritual sense. these are poles lpan. Without a physical world. lhey could never be brou"'11~her in a sinale entity. The arclletype of the spi ritual be;", ;1 t he allie!. Sirttt an an",l has no hody. il CIIn never contain bolh sood and evil in ilS bein.. Ou r u.ees lherdore leach us lhal anacls have no Yt'fU'l'J/aRa.''' II is only in a ph ysical bein, lhal bolh sood and evil can UiSl tOictiltr. Ahhou*" Ihey .re . 1 opposile pooks spirilually, ll>ey can (:Orne 10000lher in t~ ph)"oic:al m. n. One reason .. hy God treated m. n in a physical world ...-as to allow him 10 have full freedom of choice, with both &ood and evil a. pan of hi. makeup. Wi tlK>ul , physical .... orld. Ihese lWO concepls could never niSI in lhe same beiJ\l. '" The fact Ihal &ood and evil c.n exist in the same ph)"oic:al space ,1.0 ,110...., &ood 10 overa)lTlC evil in Ihi. world. Here apin , this i. only possible in a physical world . In a purely spiritu.1 aren•. &ood (:Ould ncver (:Orne dose enou*" 10 evil 10 have any innucn« over iI, In Ihc physical worid, however. &ood and evil can exisl logether, and &ood can Ihemore overcome evil. Our IIF$ Ihu. leach 115 thaI one of Ihe main reaoon s why man ..-al placed in lhe phy~ical world ...... to overoomc Ihe forces of evil.'" The lohar a presses il by slatin, thaI we are here - 10 turn dar1r.ness inlo li*"I,- '" The enlire concept oflhe nonphysical is very difficult to oomp!"e> hend, and may be clarified by a ...,marbble leachilll of O<Ir sqes. The Midrash Iclls us. "One ansel cannot have 1"'-0 missions. Neither CoI n 1"'0 ansels share the same minioo.- '" Th is teachin, brinas our enli re diKuuion into focul. The ansel i. Ihe arehetypc of the non physical bein,. When we .peak of an ansel, """c • ..., ~akin, of an entity Ihal e~is1S purely on a spirilual plane. Alliel. can be differentiated only by Iheir minion, thaI ii. by Iheir invol vemenl and a1lachmcnt 10 oomc physical thin .. Two IJ\lels therefore cann(K share lite same mission. It i. only their differenl missions tllal make the two a",cis different entilies. They cannOI be separaled by space li ke physical objects. '" Therefore,

if t~y both had tile same miMion, lh(,~ "wId be nothin, to dilfeTcnliate them. Ind Ihey would be one. Similarly, onc an~1 cannot llavc 1""0 mission!. On I JH,Irdy spirillllll plalle, twO d ifferent con· cepll a nnot rxis\ in a sinpe entity. If an an.,1 had (\to'() missions. then it would be 1..0 In.,ls. We can also understand this in terms of tbe human mind. 10 • Knse. tbe mind is I PI!"' spiritual .... Iil)'. bound 10 man', physical brain. Many thouJhts and memories may be bound 100000crby man's phyUcaJ hr.tin, blou lbe mind can only focus on one of them I' • time. In simple terms. I penon an only think of one Ihin, II a lime. A \00\1&111 is a spiritual entity, and IS such. tan only rontain I sinlle wnap!. Since both alhou&IJt and In anlcl are basic spiritual entities. Ihis ;1 very closely related 10 the fact Illal an In.,1 ca n only hav<: I


sinsle mission.''' For a similar l'Uson. In&eb hive no


of kno ...~n'lnythin,

Ihat does nOt pertain to their plniCllt.r mi."ion. An lnJel mly be t~ated initillly .... ith a vast . tort:hou.., of kno .... I-ed'e, but it has no ....~y of intrutin. it, al least. not beyond its own sphell: of activity. Thus. foreumple. _ find one anacllskin.another I qunlion; ~And one lanJelJ said to the Man dressed in lincn • • . ' How lon, shall il be until the end of tllne WOIIders'~ (Dan iel 12:6)1 One InVI had to aU the other. b«:au.., he him..,lf C(KJ.1d not kno .... somelhilll outside of his own domain.'" In the phy~ical world, " 'c an leam Ihin" throueb our five ~nil6. We can hear, feel. smell and taste. Our knowlqe of thinp comes from our physical proximity to them. In thc spiritual worlds.. ho ..~ver. Ihis don not uiS!. The only ....Iy Ihlt one can Learn about a thillJ is to come into !.pirilual prox imity with il. An Inacl cannot do this outside of his own fralm. Man the~fo", hiS In Idvantaac ovcr In anlct. The " cry fltl that he cxists in thi.lower WOI"Id cnables him to ",lCh up CYC"!" hicher. There a~ con«pt. of JOOd d«;,eed by God. Ind IU His decreet., they I"' intimately bound to Him. Whcn I man physically involves himself with thnc aood concepts.. hc literally binds himself to God. He Ihus Ichieves 1 closeness that no Inacl could ever hope to
~ath.' "

This is a m~ diffe",noe bet"'een a man and In Inac1. An I nacl is Issi,ned to one spiritual station. Ind hlU no WIY 10 rite any hieber. Thus. when the prophet speab; of an,cls. he says, ~Around Him. the senaphim stood" (Isaiah 6:2). Anacls a", described as slIndin, Ind stltionary. But "'hen God speaks to man, Hc tell. him. ~ I ( you wllk in My " 1)'10. . . Ihen I will,i"e you I plaa 10 move amon, those who siand h(fc~ (2«hariah 3:7). God ~ showin, the prophet a vitiOli of sta lionary anlel s. and tellilll him that he would be able to move

, ,






Chakhmah Binah


Chewd, Gevurah, Tiferet,
Neluch, Hod, Ynod Malkhul

amons them. Man Can lTlO"C fl'(Hn ~\"Cl10 level. but an",1s a", bound 10 Iheir panicular pl~lle. '''' The.., a", many levels in tile spiritual world. If only 11M: spiritual WQuld exist. Ihcre WQ\Ild be no way for tl>e5e \0 rome 1~lher. Tho: only thing 1hat can p05sibly un ify 1""'" level. is thei r "'[:llion.hip 10 the phlsieal world. In order \0 reach tile higlleil levds of holiness. man musl therefo.., bcrome ]),an of Ihe physical world. Wht:n he obeys God's commandments. he al1ache5 himself to the same physical objecu as tile One who pvc tile com mandments. In obeyin, lhe5ccommandmenls, man therefo", allache$ himsdf 10 God 10 the ,",alest possible dearee. He ;,. (h". ablt 10 loCale tile hiahesl s pi ritual hei&hls. Thi. iliM symOOli5l'T1 of Jacob', dream in wbich hr ....w, ~A Iad~ standin, on tanh. w~ lop rnched lhe hea'"'~'tISM «(i.mesis 2&:12~ It is only Ihrouah unhly ~ thai we can dimb the Ioftie<t hci&h\$. Tbe diff=nt Ievds Q/" the $piritual world. IIIe runp Q/"Ihc MIadock1",Mcan only be bound 10000hcT when lhey a~ MSUlndilli on lite eanh.M,,, T he Scfirol a~ nOi physical. and do nol appear 10 be allached to any physical ooncepl. Sinoe they ~p,""nl diffe~nt oonoepts and le",ls. the question tllen arises: How tan the)' inlerxt? Obviou.ty, the only possible way i. throu&h some relationship with the physieal world . It is onl y ""hen two diffe~nt Scfirot rome: toaether and interact with the; same ph Ylical object thatlhey Can also inleract ";th each other. The Kabbalis\s therdon enPSe in many ph ysical activ;tia wilh the primary intent of 'unifyin, the Sefiroc.ArIOlher way in which lite Scfirol are unified is throullh tlte Oivi~ Names. Th is is especially I",e of the Tetraarammaton, YHVH (:n:r). A<'a)ldin, 10 the Kabbalists, tile apex of the Yud (» rep,""nt. Keler. the Yud ilself. Chakhmah, the initial Heh (:'\), Binah. the Vav N. which has a numerical val ue Q/" si x, the next six Setirot. and the final Heh, Malkhul. Stt Table 10. The very rlet thai this Name can be wrillen on a physial piece of J'lllper. where the; leiters represent;n, lhe Setirot are brou&hl tOSClher. serves 10 unify Ihe Sefirol. Each Sefirah is associated ... ill!


a klier, and wl\tn tl>e$t ["ueR an:


" b rou&hl logelbu. th.,

St,firot can also inlerac1. SpecifIC interactions jn"olvin, Ihe Sefirol can also be b1'OlI,.Iu about whrn various namn are combined. l1Ie same is also troe of Olher "-'bbat;'I;" diqrams and "-VI CKnta,;"ns of tile Scfirol. Eve" Ihoudllhc Scfirol were Cn:lled beron: Ihe pbylkal world, they exiu in a domain 1ba! is above lime , when: past , prnenl and future are one. The very fact Ih.l they would have physical countCfpam in 1he futulT provided them wilh .link with the pbysical,.;orid. Since God willed Ihal al some future lime, the !euen of tile Name "'1)Uid be .IIII.!' 10 be repr~nled by physical forms and be written on I physical medium, tiler had an associat ion wilh the physical even before il was crealed. Thi. allowed Ihe SefirollO interact, cven boefon: the ,,"calion of the phy&ical uni\"c~. ,..

The ume is true of Ihe olher ,.tlen of the al phabet. AlthouJh
the klters an: best known as Ihc'y are wrillen down physieally. Ihc'y Kllla!ly al K> Itplesent spiri lllal fortts. Throu&h variO\lS rombin._ tions of the lellen. the spiritual foTtt5 usociated with them are brou&ht 1~lher in wariou. dr.Clive combination!.. These spiritual foren are the ~lellen wilh which hea--en and earth were created.~ From a!lthis. we see thaI there is an importanl lin k bet ...~ lhe physical and the spiritual. Ewen Kel ..., 1M hiJhcst of tile Sdirot, has a physical re presentation in the ap... of 1M: Yud of the Divine Name. This is also realled 10 our earlier diKllu;on of elUSC and effect. The hiahest levd of Keter is the ultimate eause, while the physieal world is the ultimate effect.

Like a flame in a burning coal
In dcKribinlllic relal ion.hip belween Ihe ph}'sital and Ihe spir_ itual. Ihe Zohar USH an expression "cry simibr to thaI lise<! here. The Zohar lIales: ~Ir onc wi~es 10 know lhe wiodom oflhe holy Ull;fication. lei him look al the flame risilll from a bumin, coal Of from a kindled L amp. The flame ClInnot rise unless il is IIniflCd with somethin, ph ysicaL ~ '" From th. conte>.t. it is evident Ihat llic Zohar is speakin& of the dirr~m of the flam •. The only """y in ...·hi.h the name tan rise i. for aU of these p;lrts to come tCllClher. This i. only pcwiblc ",hen the flame is allached 10 the physical mal or ..~ck. In a similar manner .•Llthe spirituallevcLs cannot funC1ion o r inleraC1 unless Ihey are bound to lhe physinl.

Th e Sefer Ynzirah therefore Slates that ~thei r end is imbedded in their bqinnina.. . . li ke a flame in a bumin, (:0111.- The only way in ""hich Ihe end and beainni", can interxt is beause both an: bound 10 related physical concepl$. This can also be used as a meditat ion, '" The wick itself represents the physical world, while the blue flame nearest 10 the wick is the counlcrpan of Malkhul. '" Surroundin, thi. i.lhe bri",t yellow flame, corrupondin, to the next Sill SefiTl)!: Chese<1, Gcvurah, Tiferet, Nnzach, Hod and Yesod. Above this is tbe ba rely visible ut..nor flame, the honest ~n of aU parallelin, Dinah. Thet! romes , the radiatiltJ from the candle, ""hith i. Chal::hmah. Finally, thcre is the concept of flame ilsel f. and Ihis ro!Te$pOnds 1 KeICT, 0 All of lline pam are unified only throuJh Ihe wick. By contemplat ina a flame in this mlnnc-T, one can bi nd himself 10 lhe Ten Sefirol. It is for this reason Ihat lhe Serer Yctzirah stales that the Ten Sefi"'l ,,"rallel the ten d ilUtions. Even thou", the SefiTl)t are purely spiritual. Ihe veT}' fan Ihal they arc aunciated wilh the ph~ical d irfftion. se<Vn 10 unify them. Then, as it ,",re, the point at infinity in the five-dimensional h ypers~ ""<:luld repTe$t!nt the unappl"I)aCh_ able Infinile. The """t Kabbali lt, Rabbi Abraham AbuJafil, notes Ihat Ihe Hebrew word for -(:0111.- Gad.rict (mru), hIs. numerical vllue of 44 1, This is the s;t me al Ihe value of Erne! (roo). mun inl -truth.- '.. It i. T rulh Ihat bindS , n opposites toselher, This is indicated by the word itself. The word Emn begins .... ith an Alef( .. ), the first letter of Ihe al phabet, and ends wilh a T av (1'). the last letter. Thus. Ihe "en d is imbedded in the belinnin&." This is K«Implished Ihroo'" the Mem (1;0). the middle IeUtI' of lhe, Another maSler Kabbali st. Rabbi Joseph Gikatalia ( 1248-1323), poinll OIU thaI Alef .nd T.v are also 1M first ictlers of the word Alall ( ~noo). mean in, ~l1Iou.~ The H ~h (~) al tht end of this word, which bas a numercial value of five, repr~n1s Dinah. a. expressed in the fi"e books of the Ton.h, and in the five phon.nic f,milies of the .lphabet. ,., In omtl' to add,..,." God .s "Thot.I, - "'" mu", first "imbed Ihe bqinn iltJ (Alef) in Ihe end (f.v). - Only then OlIn .." add"", H im Ihrough the letters of Ihc Torah. represented by the Heh.

For the Mosler is Singular
Be,ides bein, brou&hl loylher by Iheir aunclll10n with Ihe physica l world. the SefiT(ll 're also unified by God Himself. In his


praYff. Elijah thus says rqardilllilic Scfirol. "YOI.L bind them, lJId YO\I unify thml." '" When the Ten Scfirot.are represented IS the len direct ions, the physical cl n N taken" the l~ro point, from whkh they all emanate. God. IS it wen, can N said 10 parallel the poim " infinit)'. ..-here they all ronvCrJe. Of CQlJ1'lC, God has no represe:ntat ion ",haleveT,
but th i. is the clo5oest that the human mind can come to imaain in& a

reprnc:ntalion. 8 y ronlnnplalinl lhe poin t a' infinity, one e.n approach a conception of t he Infinite Bein&.
Th is poinl .II infin ity is boll! infi nitel y lar• ., Ind infi nitel y small. It d'Xs not h.,-., any defi ned piau in Ihe continuum of spice, lime, o r the spi ritual. Ii has neilher shipe nor form , yet, a' the same time, ;1 it defined as .I sinale, unitary , undifferentiated point. All ofihis ilalsoO true or God . Of course, God is much more than Ihil. In dcSCTi bin, God here, the Sefer Yc\zirah don nOI say thai He is o ne (fchld). bUI Ihll He i5 si n!ull' (Yachid). II i$ uyin! Ihal God il so Ibwl ulel y li",ula' Ihatthere i. no qUllily whl lever Ihal can be l11ri buled 10 Him. As Ihe philosophers Stile. we ClnnOI d esc ribe God wilh Iny quality or I dj«live .... hlievcr, only ....;Ih ncpl ive Ut ribu les o r ntribuIH of ICI;on. '" Alt bou&h .... e Cln nOI uy whll God Is, by usin! ncplive al1ribules. we Cln Sly .... hll He Is 1101. Simil arly, wilh al1ribules of act ion, _ cln speak o f whli God does. Th is Ilso implies Ihal God is Ibsolulely simple. In lhe domai n thll eKilled befo~ cn:nion, thr~ was nothin! Olher than God . As mentioned earl~r. even such sim ple concepts IS Caus.e and Effect had 10 be =lIed. ~ SlIme i. 100e of number. If the COD<ltpl of ~Olll:n"SI· u isled in God, Ihis would imply Ihat Ihe coneepl of number u i$\S in His essence. This in ils.elf would introd uce an elelmenl of plural ily . One could then lpcl k of God Ind His ~oncness.~ thai is, His 1,<Qci.a,ion with the number one. ~God~ and ~His oneness~ "'o uld then be lWO concqlts. Th" Hebrew word Edradd"nOlesln 'wv-illion wilh Ihe number one. Yacllld. on the other hand . i. I n.... livc Inribule. ind icalin! the absence of any pluralily .... hal"

1/e has no second
This il based o n Ihe vC'QC, .~ i. One. He hi. no s.eeond, He has neither son nor brother'" (Ecclesiastes 4:8).


Be/ore one, what do you COUllt
Ho w can one counl Mfore lhe concept of ~onew came in to exil!lenct'. As Ihe Sefer Yelzirah laler says, ~onew parallels Keter, the fint Sefi rah (1:9). As d i..eussed urlier (I: I), the ooncept of numMR d id 001 rome: in to uislcnce unlil the ~ation of the Sefirot, which wc:re the firsl elements of nurnerality and plurality in creation. llIe oonct'pt of Worn:~ did oot rome into Mini Unl it the Sefirah of Keler ....'as created. God. the Infinite finn&- uisted before Keler came into Milli-


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r' ~I ""

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T.... !k/lrot of Nothingnns Bridl.. )'OU' mIX/lit from I/>Mki"l and )'0'" hea,1 from Ih!nkilll And if )'OOl' ht'tU1 "'Ill

,n"", 10 III .. plau.
II is Ih~ wrill" " .

7h .. Chayol TJll'll'lil'lg and rtl",ning. - (£ zdiln 1:14) R.-gatding lhis Ii OO .....l'Ialll ""lIS mad...

Bridle .w ur mOlllh
The Sefer Yell; llIh defines Ihe ....ord Belimah, .... bich we lranslate as wnothillJllCIS. ~ It says Ihat il has Ihe conootalion of bridli nl (OOlom). The essc:nct' of the Sefirot can only M atlained " 'hen one hridles one', lips from speal,,; nl , and eloses one', mind 10 all ~erbal and depicti,-.. thOUJht. Only "'hen One makn the mind completely blank can Ihe 5efirot be expe~nced. This is particularly important. si nct' many lechn iqllCl of ~bbalah medi tation i n ~ol~e Ihe Tttilalion of a mlntlll-like device or ~arious t)'JICI of contemplation. All SUCh techniqua.. ~vcr. are only a means lhrou&h ",hich Ihe mind is cleared of aU thou&hl. The



aClual e~perie~ of Ille Sefirot only comes Ifter one SlOPS usi", Ille technique and remains absolutely slill. with all the Iho ..."11 p~ hushed .'"


And your heart from thinking
In Kabbalah, Ihe term ~hea"" denotes Binah,'" II indi_ cUes tile verbal pan of I~ mind, .... hich i. Ihe seal of Dinah 000sciousne$!.. This Dinah consciousness must be "bridled" so the Sdirot can be experien«d with Chakllmah consciousness alolle,

And if your hear!


"1 ":lrt" apin refc", 10 Binah consciousness. The Sdirol ml,lSI be experienced wilh Chakhmah consciousness. If one Ines 10 depin IlIem with Dinah (ttoe "hearn, tben ~ mind can b<:rome en,ulft'd in a profusion of symbolism. A. the Kabbalists explain, thi. is ~ry danaerou., si nce Ihe mind can be , wallowed up in this klleidnoope of symbolism, and nOI be able 10 eTnel'BC' from it.'" This i. what hapl"' ~ 10 Ikn Zomah, who Io:sI hi, mind when,", entered

Paradise:. ,J) This "run nin," oonsim ofa rapid profusion ofsymbolism, either
verbal or visual. 'N If the ~l>ean runs,- the Sder Yetzinh warns that one should -return to the place.- He must focus on somethina ph~i­ cal, so U 10 reslore spiritual equilibrium. ," In this resp«l, one must emulate the Chayol. the -HvinlJ an(Jelsseen hy ElCkic1 in his vision. One mUSI oscillale between ~TlInnilll Ind relumina. - Since one can only think with Bim consciousness, one must use it 10 swinlJ into Chakhmah consciousness. This stale can only be mainlained for. shon lime. whereupon Binah consciouslIQ.'I returns, and one tries to depict his cxperien~, AI thi5 point, one must immediately return 10 the physical. In this minner, one cln OS(Hllle back and fonh. reachin, hiJller each time.' "


covenant was made

From Ihe contelt. Ihis covenant is a mutual .... ttment between God and lhe m)'5lic. The mystic promises thai I>e will not allemplto depict lhe Sefirot wilh Binah consciousness., Ind God promises thai if one TlIns back immediately. then he will he ablt 10 return.




It is in tbis contut tllatliN: Kabbalisls advised tbose who were anemplinglo read.. the hiJ,hes1 levels to hind their soul with -.n oath Ihat il should return to tlleir body.' " Besides sllC.b individual oaths, Ihere is al~ a general covenant th31 implies that the soul will be able to return. even from the hi&hest levels. In more genetal terms. a covenant is something that comes bet ...·ecn two Ihinp and joins tllem. This is Ihe covenant that joins the spiritual and the physie:al. In pa"icular. " the Sefer Yetzirah states (I:)). a covenatlt denotes ~irt\lmcisi()n. One of the reasons fOf circumcisions is to incbcate that one mould be 3b1c 10 <XIntrol one's sexual passions. '" Communion with the spiritual is alto sexual in a sense. and the coverurltlt of circumcision also helps 10 conlrollhis paMion. A penon who can control his Wlual passions even at Ihe hei$ht of desire. can also con· trol his mind wilen it cnten tile spiritual realm. Accordin, 10 some ~riti~al studin, this hne is the end oCthe most ancient PI" orthe texL The ~fer Yellirah (6:1) also appears 10 indicate Ihat Ihe covenant ~nt ioned here ·MIS that which God made wilh Abraham. Wbatthe tnl mighl be ,","~inll is Ihat. rcprdi n, every_ thi"l lhat has been ",rillen up to this pOinl, a co""n3n l " ... made. possibly with Abnham.




m., .nnN

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'n " 1Il'O TtOOl 1n:J :v',:m nn Itt" .,-0"

S#"irol <if NQ/hjllg~rJl:

O" ..

11r.. Srt'tllh I.1/llre L M "!J God Blnsed alld bellMiclffl;S tlr .. /lam .. oJ 11r.. Life oJ fto.ldJ" TIr .. WiCt' of ~t'tllir WId s fl«'C/r Ami tlris is tlr.. Ifoly Breatlr.

The ~firah alluded to hcre is ~tcr (Crov.n). This is the number one. It is the first of the numbers 10 COII1(O into existcncc:. '"


The breath

of the Living God

Th is is hased on Ihe ve.v. ""'lIere God says of BetzaJeI, builder oflbe la~rnad. in Ih. <k~n . "I will fill him wilb Ibe Brealb of God (RI#l(:/r t:loIrim ). ""ilb Wii!dom. Underslandin" and Kno ....lrd&e" (boelus 31:3). We Iberefore sec: Ihal Ibe "Brealb of God" comes ~fore Wisdom and UnderslandiOJ. AmOIll Ihe Selirol, Ihen, Ibis corresponds 10 Keler. '" As Ihe Talmud says., il was Ihrough Ihis " Breath of God" that Bctzale! was able 10 manipulate the leuen of creal ion. ~ word roac/r, which we translate here as "breat h," is also Ihe word for wind. and the Serer Y<1zirah also apparently il as the term for air. This word, 1>o"'1:,·. r, is often used in the Bible to denote spiril. and Ihis is tile sense Ihal il is used hCTl:_ In ECl'eral, Ihe word rllac/r indicales mOl ion and communicalion. It is related to Ih. words ().,ac/r. meanin, a path , II1d ().r~. meaninl a lIuest. The spirit (rullC/r) of life in an animal is Ihe power Ihal <;auso il 10 move. Normally, tlte air is in"isible and undetectable. It is 0I1ty when it moves Ihal one <;an red illS a wind or breath. Similarly, Ihe spirilual conlinuum is undetectable, e~cept " 'hen it moves. It is then cxperiencrd as !,pirit (ronc/r ). HenIX. ruacll is the .... Ofd for wiml, breath, and spirit. This is abo describinll the act of crealion. The anaJoey would be Ihe formation of a A1ass \'e$st'I.'" First Ille brealh (ruacll) emanazes from Ih. mouth ofth. glaublo.. er. The "esset is shaped IhfOUlh Ibe inleraction of the brealh , where the ...;nd boundinll off Ihe waU, auso p"".u...,. Th. vessel Ihen ",-pands in all spacial dirn:tion ..

Lil'ing God
As mentionrd above (1:1), the term "Livinll God" (EloIr /m C/rQyim) denOles Yesod (Foundation). when Ihis Scfirah i5 in a procrealive mode, disbursinl aU the forces of .r.,nion. Tile "spiril" l>ere. " 'hich is from Keler, iSlhal wh ich is uitimaldy disbl.lt5Cd by Y~, Since Ketcr ilself cannol be experienced, it is referred 10 in lenns of Yesod, ,inee that i. where il il uperi~n<:td. '"

Blessed and Benedicled
In olher ancient Kabbalah I"'-ts. such as tlte Bahir. these adjectives are also uw wilh rep rd 10 Keler,'"


the two terms he~ are Barukll ('\'U) and M,,8ItQrok.It (TI\=l<l). Both word. aCluaily mean Mbleued. " 8arukh de~ln thai God is in]ri nsicaJJy blessed. while M~80r0k1t implin Ihlt He is bln~ by 01""1"5 in pn)'er. When _sa~ that God i. "blessed," Ihis meanslhat Hi, cucna: i, brou&hl down . 110 as 10 inleracl wilh Hi. cUllion and M biessMit. '" Hena:, it i, ~Iated 10 I"" ...wd B"~kh (T'OI), meanin& "knee." Just as lhe knee. when it i, benl. 5eryn 10 Io...·er lhe body. 10 • blessill& 5cTYn to lown t"" Divine. Thi, i, closel y ~Ialed to the concept of si ttin&, d iiICUued above 0 ,4). God has an intrinsic mode Ihrou.&b "'hith He brinp Hi, CS5enCC to bear on His clUt ion. In this respect, He is called 8a11lkJr. His n5ena: is also brou&h1 10 bear to a &nater dc"ee as a ruul1 of prayer and .imilar action •. In this respect He i. said to be MeBhorakl!.


Life oj Worlds
Th i. al.., ~fers \0 the Sefin h of Yesod (Foundalion), bul in I mode wheu it bestows spiritual innux and life 10 the univerws below Auil ul. II il illeufo", called MUfe of Worlds."

Voice oj Breath and Speech
These ....,u Ihe toOl' of cuation. as il i, wrillen, M Wilh I"" Wo rd of God, the heavens _re made, and wi lh tile Bu ath (R IIQCI!) of His lTIOulh. all their hosts" (Psalm. 33:6). AcoordirIJ to the Talmud, Ihis al lude. to tm, finl $;oyin& of etCaiion. Ihat il. to Keler.'" Voice (/wi) i. pure inut iculate sound. and as .och, il i. ulated to Cha ldl mah. Speecb, on tbe other hand. is articulale an d u lated to Binah. These I WO OI)positn au then connected by " Breatb" (Ruachl· Th is can also be inlerpreted in lerms of creation. "Voice" i, pure, inarticulated creati ve fora:. It is alluded to in the first ~ of the Torah. " In the bc&i nni nlJ God cuated lhe heaven Ind the earth. MThe Talmud $Wei thai this " ..,. the finl orlhe Ten $;oyinl wilh which the world w:.. created.'" Thi. i. an inarticulate $;oyi nl . since only the accomplisllment, and not tM uyi na, i. recorded in tM TorV!. Rilhl after this. the Torah rt"]XIrt •. '"The breath of God tRuad! Elalum) hO" eud on Ihe flOC of the W1Iler~ (Genesis 1:2). This il M B reath~ Or Spirit (Ru«It). It i, only after thi. that God , peaks and uys., MLeI tMu be li&hl ~ (Genesis I:)). This is tl\e UtiOn fO<' tM lI'quence in &fer Yet:r:irV!: ~Voice. brealh, ilpeec:h."'"

This is Ihe Holy Breath
H eb~ .....

~ HoIy

Ihis is RIUlCIr Hakodnh. lIiually translaled as

Spirit.- Thil il Ihe uw~l term for divi ne inspiralion, whicll in iii hilhcr fOrTIl5 abo inch.ldl:$ propheq. This - Holy Spiri t- CI1I be seen .u the in termediate between Voice and Speech. It is thus also intermediate between Chakhmah and Binah OOIIKiousneM, Rwudr "a!(()dnA is the diviM inspi ration lind inf~lion thai OIl(: c;on brillJ back from a nllt of Chakhmah

con$CiOllSJItsS to one's normal stile of Bin.h ronsciousnt$S, Such Ruac" IIllKodnil il lite Keltr, Which stands belWtt11
Chillmah and Binilh, bUI .... hich is above them. Both C1Iill mah and Sinal! I~ functions oflhe mind ilKlf, while RiUId! lfaKodah comes from wi thout. It is therefore likened 1 Keter, since I cro"'n is worn 0 above Ihe head and is exlernal \0 il. This Ruacll lIaKodesh is Ihe - breath of Ood- men tioned in lhe verse, -I will fill him wilh tile Brealh of QQd, wilh Wisdom, Under.llandin .. and Know\ed&e.· '"

Wirh il



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"110' m>rnI'< mtm7!1 :nl:')1

r...,: BrMlh/rom 8muh.

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1) FoulldQriOll lItros

11rrN MOlho $
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fltld T...~~ EltmtlllflU ANi OIIt Brtalh is from Ihtm.

Breath from Breath
This is Malkh ul (KiJ!8$hip), the )0.0."61 oftM Ten Sefir"Ol.. '" [I il counted riJhl after KtteT. followinlthe lbove mentioned dictum, Mimbed thcir end in tlleir bqinnilla. Kettr il eluS(: ....·hilt Malkhul is ElTea , and CauS(: canDO! niSI without ElTea. III the lalliu. of lhe later K.lbbalim.. the finl Breath rrom Keltr ;$ tailed Oirea Li&/lt ( Or Yash",r). Thi$ serond M rea\h rrom 8

alisoda\ed w;lh Malkbut is called Reflected Lilhl (Or C~=tr).''' Usin& the analotr of Ihe Jlaublowcr above. th is is Ille brrath thaI boonca off tile walls of the vessel bein, fonncl. In a conct:ptuaJ sense, the DiIl'CI Liahl i. the concept of tlIuulIly. wbtl'<: Keter is Ih" Cause o f an Ihin". As mentioned above, however. CauK cannot nisI without Effecl, a nd he""". Effe.:1 i. aho the cause of Cause. Malkhul. lhe Effecl, is therefore Ilso lhe Cause, and Ihis the roroccpl of Re flected Lishl. The KabbaliSIS often speak of Liahls and Vessels. ~LiahtM d enotes the COMept of livin ... wh ile Vessels indicate thaI ofacc:c:plilll and Te«ivinlJ. The KabbaJists also leach that tile Vessels came into bein, throup! Ihe -collision- between Dir«1 Liahl and Reflected Li,tn. ' .. Thne Vessels arc Ihe letten of Ihe alphabet.'" The Sere.- YClliTllh lhe""f~ s peak. o f - Brnlh- a nd of - 8n:1\1I from Breath.- The first -Breath- denotes tile simple brc<lth thaI emanat« from Ihe lunp and throat . - B~alh from B ~alb" is Ihal which is ~fk:ned by the variou., p.o.IU of Ihe moulh 10 produce Ihe sounds of speech. ") II is throu&h the interaclion of dinrt I nd ~flo:.:led brealh Ihal sounds are produced. In man, Ihis lakes pl~ in the moulh, ",hile in the Sefirot, it 00:.: ...... in Malkhul. II is ('" Ihis reason Ihal the Tikltuney lobar ~aks of Malkh ...1 as Ihe - MOUlh."'" It is also IhrouJh Malkhul thai an ;m'Bes of the hiJher Sefirot a~ ~fl«ted so that Ihey lOOuld be visualized. '" T he Sefer Yel:zirah therefore says thai the 22leuers were created IhrouJh thi, second Sefirah.



Engraved and earw'll
As diKUned elrlier (I : I). lhe word Chakak. ",hid! is IIMII.ted a. "cn ..... ye.- dcnotes the removal of material. TIle ]cueTS came into e" iSle"'" whcn the ~flo:.:ted breath removes portions of lhe dinrt ~ath. Th is ~kes place Ihrous.h the vlriou.S motion'l of the mouth. The second process is CJrat:a., ""hich is I... nsilled as -nrve" or -Qu.rry." Thi, denoles separali nl malerial from iii SOUIU, as in Ib.e '·ene. -From iii moun~ins. you Quarry (cl!alza.) copper" (Deuteron_ omy 8:9). II also ~fers 10 "Quarry;nl- in a spi ri lual s.ensc, IS in. "I..ook at (God) the Rock from which you were Quarried (ciwlzal'r (I..iah 51: 1).'" The word Chatza. thus denoles lhe process whe~in the leiter sounds lelve Ihe moulh and a~ n independently. In Ihis con· IU!. "En ..... ' ·c- ((',\akak) indicales Ihe Irtiallal ion and pronunciation of Ihe sounds. and -carve" (rlwl:ay) denotes their cxprmion. '07

From the last SC'C1ion of Serer Yetziralt (6:7). we also.we Ihal "engavinl" and "ClIrvin,- denote medilali~c process. This shall be di$ClIssed later.


And one breazh is/rom them
All Inters thai arc expressed inyolve Ihe same breath. In a spiritual ""n'IC, Ihis means thaI the ...""" inspinllion rome'! from alllctlC!1This is Ille RUDCIr Ifa~ that emanates from Malkhul. 5irw;c Malkhut is called the "Mouth.: tile spirit cmanatina from ;1 is called ·speech." JuS\ like plly$ieal speech , Ilti. ron.i,ts of ·words,· which

in lum


comprised of "lellers.-

Some authorities interpret Ihis phrase, "And b..,alh is one: of Ihem." This i. b«.iIlI5e Bre.lh (Ruac4) is auocialN wilh thc.lelteT Aler. as below (3: 7) ....


1 :mn i'i'" rt'I"IO 0'0 tr'x7 :n :'U'n)T po:; JVi?I1 C~ tr" ",.:n '1."1111:1 0;1'~ 1'1"1 :"I:l'!VO r o:l O~'O ;'tC1I"I rc:! p.m
m',n'lt'< ' ":;

:~ l't]" "ICK'

b17t, .,


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Wi/I! II lie mfTU'¥d and rorwd 111 Inlm from} CMat and vMd miff '/tid d ay lie (",rami Ilrem lik a sari 0/ggrrJell

n"w: »,1/" from 8rNlh.

Ht Nrwti /h ..m U~ a _I ufwplI lie <OWN IMm lik" ION 0/ ~Ii'll I Alld 11, pournl 1_ owr /I"m
alld il b«1VM dWI as il is ",rillm


to 1_

n, laid../Jt!coI", mrtll ·· (Job Jl:6).}

Water from Breath
T hi. il Chakhmah (Wi5dom).- The Midruh Ihus UYI. -Sl'l:llh ( RIUIdt) &lve birth 10 Wi5dom.· ... Wisdom i. repr~nled b)' ..-aler,

1.7: II).""


sInce waler is In undifferentiated fluid, lU discussed earlier ( U ). Slruclu~ must be imposed on il from " ';111001. The ploceu described by Sefer YelZirah ;1 alluded to in the verse, ~He makes His ~llb (ruacfl) blow, 1M waten fIow~ (Pu.lms
The InaJocy is rain, ...·hich is formed when ...... nn, moist air 001· IidQ .... ith cold air. Similarly, lhe interaction of direct and ",fleeted breath Cll'ltH Ihe Sdirah ofCh;okhmah. JUS\1l$ J1lin f~b in all thinp alike, so Chakhmah bestows God', blnsin, on alllhinp ""; t hout di,.. tinction." Just like li r ... n hold moisture, SO Otakbmah is implied in the -Bnllh- tltal is Kelcr. The parallel between Chakhmah and rain is described ;n the venes (Isaiah ~S:9-11):
As III, hHlW'I1 is lIith" 11111" 1M

so a" My

"ilhtr Ihan )tIror "Il)'J and My though/s. Ihan}mO' thoughtf.

Bu/ <1T Ihe rain iJnd l _' dnultl/from hnll't'll

and mu,n not 11In?
wil~1 Wfllmnz1ht Nflll

making it b/o(>m and bud pyi"8 M'fti to tilt _ and brNd 10 lie ..·110 I'IUS,

So Ihe _d thaI



My mou/Ir

shall NJI ,nll,n I/) mt' rmptyhanded wil!wtlr rrromp/i$hilf.8 rhar w/rlc/r I plraM and JlICCUdilll ill ilJ mwWll.

Here God is sayin, lhal His ~lhou&h!,M which is Chakhmah, is IS fir above lhe human mind as lhe sky is above lhe eanh. BUI jusl IS rain can d l':KCnd from Ute sky, 110 con God'. Wisdom come d OWll 10 man, accomplishin, ""hal He desires. The d itTcrentt between brealh and waler iI lhal brealh mUSl be blown down ...ard. while walcr falls on ilS own .... The spiriluai n$Cnox implied by Keler can only be JIlInled by God's direct inler" cnlion and wilL l!Io< Thai implied by Chakhmah, on ~ other hand , dnttnds 10 ~r levels on ilS own. In I p:I)'C:hoIo&icol ""n.." Ke\cr "'proem. Rli/lC/r l1aKodnh, lhe divine inspiralion Ihal can only be ,ranled by God. Wisdom. on Ihe olher hand, can be pined by man on hi. own. If min mike. him.."f inlo a vessel for Chakhmah. ;1 comes down 10 him aUlOmalically. In Ihi . resped . il i. li kc rain, whidl can be used by Inyone who has I proper vessel to hold it. Breath alllO alludes to the process ""Mrmy God imposn His will on creation deliberately, 100 as 10 chanlJC nalUral evenu. Chakhmah, on Ihc olher hand. inVOlves lhe nalural ro\Inc of CVl:nts, which pre-

cNc without any divine intervention. II is becaUIoC ofCbakhmah \ha, the COIIrx of nallln: can u;st. In I ph~icalloCniiC, .... Iter is said 10 Illude \0 the undiffcKIlli.ted primeval maucr.-


With them fie engroW!d
Hen: 11K Sefer Yeuirah is ",,"kina aboul1hc bqinninp of writ_ ten kueR. The spoken lellen arise from brealh, bUI for the ....nlten Icncrs \0 niSI, IIIcre must uisl • ""rilin, fluid, such as ink. This im plies the liquid stale. of which !he prolOly~ is ""aIel'. The ..Til''''
fl !lid is spoken of as "mi.., and day,"

Chaos and Void
Tohu and 8Q/r1l in Hebn:w. Thi. alludn 10 W initial '!ale of cre-

at;on , IS it is "Titlen, "The earth ,,-as chlO$ and void" (Gene5is 1:2).
Tile ~fcr Yelzirah laler ... ).. Ihll il was 0<.11 of IIIi5 chaos (101110) Ihat

subslana was formed (2:6).

Tohu denotes pun: SUMlin« Ihal does not contain information. 8qI,,, is pure infonnation Ihal does not relate \0 any substan«.Both an: undifferentiated, and a~ lbe~fo~ included in ClIakhmah. With BoiIu (inforrnllion), the al phabet !eners rould be engnovnJ on 1Mu (substantt).
sial ... llul, '"th~ ranI! ..... chaos and ,·oid. w The;!.lills note Ihat weanhw (n-tlI ) i. a femin ine word, and teach that il aliliOO to Malkhllt. Ihe .~hC1ypc of the feminine. -a.aos and ~oid, w .... hich ~I.ted 10 a..khmah, did noI rome into ~illenoe unlil after Malkh ul. This is the same as the order of th e Sefer Yetzirah, .... hich al.o p1acn o.akhmah after Mal khul.""
Th~ ocriplu~

Mire and day
In Hebrew, mi~ i. R~, and clay i. Ty/. The only plaoe in the Bible whe~ the two a~ mentioned tlJlC1her is in the verse. wThe wicked are like the troubled sea. It canDO! .....1, and its "'a1er1 cast up mire and cLayW (Isa iah S7:20). In describin& the orilinal state of creation, the Torah states, wThe eanh "'IS ehaO$ . nd void, and darkneu on the faoe of the deep (lcl!omjW (Cicnni. 1:2). Accordin& to the rommentaries. the word Trltom denotes the mud and clay on the bonom of the sea.wChaos and vnid w allude to the intCTlOction between Chakhmah ("'ater) and Ketcr (Breath). "Mire and cLayW allude to the interaction


" betwHn


' .... aler) and Malkhul (unit). Mire OOO';SIS

mostly of waler, and therefore represents III<: dominan« of Otakmah. Clay conS;IIS mostly of eanh, and represems tile; domin.nce of MalkhuL The mire il the ...ntin, nu id. ""hile the day is the
medium upon which il is .... rillen.

He engral'ed them ...
Tile Hebrew lelle", have Ihl« basic pans. a lop, center, and bol10m. The lop and bottom uSLliIlIy consi st of heavy horizontal lil\el, .... hile Ihe cenler consisil of thinner vertical lines. The bonoms of the Inlen ~ "en&raved like a prden.- Thil is ...'hn'e mat...-ial is relllol)"o'ed from the malrix, Jeavm,. hollow. The sides of lite !enen ue then -carved like .....'3lI.- These Ire the vefticallines .... hich ~parale the letters from eadI odleT like walls. FinaUy, the IOpI of the \etten are added, like amlin, covenn, the leuers."" AcoordillJ \0 lOme IUtholita. this abo alludes \0 the oalion of 'PI'« no As WI: shall ~ lat .... (2: 4). this Un aJ~ be an instruction for a meditation.

He pcured snow ort'r them
This is omilled in some versions, but the idea is found in Ihe

The liquid .tale ""p~nl! fluidily and chance, ",h~real lhe solid ~u.le upresenl5 pennlMnc:e. When the Tocah IpeW of inltabilit~, it uses ",aler II an cum pie , lIS in the verse, · unltable like water" (Genesil 49:4), '" Thus, "'hen Chakmah is in a state of flux, it is upresenled by wiler, bUI "'hen il is in • state of pennlnenee, i\ is Il'P""" $Cnted by ,now. A. mentioned earlier, Ou.kmah has tWO model The first is that of Chakmah ronscio\ls~ "'hile lhe iICrond i$ Ihal of memory. Chlkhmlh ron..:iousness i. fluid, Ind il represented by waler. MemOI"Y. on Ihe other hand. is filed, Ind is denoled by snow. The leuers Ihemselv" repruenl 1M fluid .taIC. Like a fluid, a\ Ihi. pOint, 1M)< (2JI he rombined in In~ .,..-ay Ihal one <ie5ifH. Onl~ "fter sno", is poured nver them 40 they berome sel and immutable in tM toIid State. A similar ide .. is found in the Bahir. ",h ieh states Ihal before il was Jiven 10 Israel, the Torah ..... s likened 10 "'"Icr. bul Iftcr il "'lIS li ven. il "'Ii likened 10 Slone.'" AJlhouall Chakhmlh is nonVl:rbal. and nonvisual. il still 1l'Pf"e"",nlS 1M $Cfirff of Ihe lcne~ It is only aner 1M lent .... are rombincd inlo words Ihal lhey repreKnt verbal Binah consciousnen. The Iel-


len themselves a", the ~p;llhs of WiWom .~ bu1. as e~pllincd earlier ( I: I). they an: c~presscd primarily throuch Understandinl-

. 12 1

:u :lYm vim O'ZZI '01( V:l~ mv:1 ':llt'~ "'\"';'I mom C"lIl~ 0'I11'tl' mrrn ";)lbo .,"1)1 "lOlO'O 1J1)10 iC' l11\7~Cl! PI( I'm17C

i~~" :ttI:l

Four: Fi" fro m It a/" Will, it He mgrOl¥d atld caTWd

lire Th' OM o/GIO'}'
OplulII im. and Il0l,, Clrayol and M iflis/vinl fllI,rlS From Iiint' til," lie /culldnilfiJ dwrllil1g lIS it is .... ' iIIC":

"lie makn His angrls olbm lliu.
His minis!ns

of flaming fif? " (hllinu 11)4:").

Fire from Water
This is Binah (Understandinr.). ' " The Jlfocess deJcribed here is alluded \0 in the verse, "Fire kindles ",.. ter" ([.... iab 64: 1).1 " We can use the u.rn ... analogy as before. " 'here ... in is brou .... t about by the confluence of warm an d cold air. "Fin: from Water" would then denote the ]iahlninClhal a«omp.anies a rainstorm.". The pnxe&S would tben be alluded to in the verse, "God's voice carves 01,11 (chot .....) of fin:" (P.... lms 29:8).'" Other commenlatin siale lhal Ihi. mers 10 fire kindled by a ,lobe of waleT used as a bum in, Jlan.'" Acrordin,lo both interpretations. tile lin: is seen as one that is finely focused on One panicula .. pla'f. It i. very difTerentthln rain. which falls every.... here without dillinction. This. however. is an. impoftant dilTemlCe between Binah and Chlkltmah. Binah focusn on I .;nJle objttl . .... hile Chakhmah enrompuoes everythin.. There is &50 another important difftf\'t\tt bet"ttn fin:.nd water. Wiler naturally flows 00v."ll"1Ird, ,,"bile fin: tends \0 a!Cet\d up ...·ard.'" Fire also causes lhe lir lbove i\ 10 mo"" up""ard, and prr.·e,m il from de.w ldin.. In a similar manner, Binah lends 10 restrict and cunaillhe no.... of spiritual sustenance ~) downward 10 tile Io"'er spl\crn. In this respect. il is tile PfI!Ci,. opposite of Chakhmah. If ChaI<nWl i. the source of lhen Binah. is the source of restraint. ~ analoJy of fire and waler also refers \0 the mental Slain implied by Chakhmah and Binah. The Midrash slales, ~W.ter con-


" and pve birth 10 Gk>om (A/nair ), Fin. conceived aM p,-e «ind
birth 1<) liJ,ht. Bn:ilth (RlloclJ) conceind and pve birth 10 Wisdorn_~'" From the statement, "Bn:ath pv" birth to Wi>dom ," ";e..,., that Ihi, enlin: pa, ... ~ ;$ spea k;", <.If mental $lale5.

Waler. which represents Chakllmah consciousness. thus lives birth 1 G loom and danness. Th is is the hush;nl and nullification 0
of Ihe senses, a. we!! as 1M celS<lt ioll of all normal mental pr(l(:65n. Fire . ... h ich ..,prewnts Di nah ronsciou,n ..... then lives rise to lilJhl,

;1 ;s in Ihis Siale Ihal visible images are p(rceived.

JUSt li ke wa\er is calm and cool, so Chakhmah ronlCiou!llle5l is perfcetl), calm. Inde.ed, the u)le'icnoe of enlerin, Ihis stale may he very much like dexendinl inlo calm. dttp "''alef. 1 is fOl" Ihis reason that 1 Rabbi AkiN and his companions enteral inl0 the mysteries., he warned them 001 10 say. wWaler. wa1ef.">JI "They sbould not he mi$lrd
into thinkinl thai !My were actually eJl.l*'l ic:nci"l physio::al "''aler. In III<: realm of Cbakhmah consciousness. even the leiters only

in a st ate of pure in formation. Th is information ....;sto .. · ch_ and void. w which cannot be , ...""d at all. or a. wmire and clay.w • . hieh are totalty opaque. A5 e:.plained ea rl ier. the information and . lellers in Chakhmah can onty be ITlsped thmut.h t~ im.alltf}' of Sinah (1:1). It is while in a state of Binah consciousness that this informatK>n can be dcK1ibed ",sin. such imagery .. angels and the Throne of Glory. The Sefer Yelzirah also implin Ihal the ph}'1.iatl world came into bein. throoch Chakhmah, while t~ spiritual world ha. it. roots in Binah. Thi, is be<.:ause a..khm.;th, Ihe cor>apt of civi... frffly. i. the root of meK}'. while Binalt, lite con«pt of rntn;nt. is the root of j ... "iC(C. Sinoe evil c.<isl$ in the ph~ical world. if can only be s... stai~ t hrout.h God', men:y. as the Psalmi.t sana. WI ha"e said, lhe world is built on merey" (Psalms 89:3 ), In lhe spiritual ""orkl. on tbe other hand, PU"' jl.ld""enl prevails.'" Aca.>.dinl to the ph;losnpMn. W ater represent. the primeval maliC', while Fire n:preKntsthe primitive aether.UJ


The Throne 0/ Glory
i. the vehicle Ihroup. ""hieh God Wsits· an d wlowcnw His essenoe so a. to be concerned with His creation, as above ( t:<4). Ae«>rd'n. to Ihe K.\bbalists, this Throne rePl"(!;Cllts the Univenc of Beri yah. II is in this ... niverse that the power of Binah is dominant.

This is the hichest ..,..:' of alljds, ...'hich exist in the UniVffSt of Beriyah. Other Kabba/iSlS refer to them as Powen.. FOI"CIeS ~ Potentials


II Tho: angd l and




At:zilut Beri)'ah


lC~uidl om


Cbakhmah Binal! Nut Six MalJr.h ut




SMde of Physical

saw the Lord &illing on a hi&h and exalted Throne. , , &J1lfim 5100<1 around Him~ (I""iah 6:1·2). Tho: ~ loaiah ...."&5 visualizing Bttiyah, the world of the 1luone. and he saw tile Sefafim, the ar!i"b of that uni"ft'Se. m The word ~~fim~ comt"$ from the root Sartif, meanina ~to bum.~ They a", siven this BanK becau"" they are in the "'orld of Beriyah. wile", Binah, which it represented by fi",. is dominam .... Tho: Cbayo( a", tile anz,els of yeui~. and thc:se were the bcinp that were ,isualim:l by Eukid. He tllerd"on: said. ~ Abo'll: the firmament that " 1lJ O'o"el" the heads [of the Cbayo(] was the likeness of a Throne. , ,~ (Ezdcid 1:26). Finall y, the Ophanim <= the anp of Asiyah. ~ ......-.: therefon: sem below !be Cba)'Ol. as the prOphet said, ""There was an Opium on the earth.-r the Cba)"ot {Ezd:it:II: I S~ "Ministerin, an,eisM .,.., those which appear to man on ea.nh. While ot her angels can only be sec:n prophetically, ministering angels "n also be sec:n phy,ically,'" Table II s!>ows the anlCls in rdation to Ihe &firol.

(KociIot), Btller than angels.'" The prophet thll'S said,

From these three
Thai is, from Bn:ath, Fin: and Water.

He /ounded His d>l'elling
The word for "d"'ellinl~ he,.., is Ma'on. which " 'e e!lC(llJnlered p,..,viously ( r : $ ~ This lerm ",Ial~ 10 God as He enoompauo all creal ion, including lime and Ihe ,pirilual dimension. S n:alh. Fi,.., and Waler .'" the SOUrces of llIe spiri lual (Kel.,r· Malkhut) and time (Cha Jr.hmah· Birtlh) contin uum$, and Ihes<' e!K(lmpau all cn:alion.

As it is wrillen ...
The oomplete \Ier"5e is, ~He lays lhe beams of His upper dwnbm ",i\h water . . . He makes bmitM His anllCls. His ministers of flamin, fi,..,."




God's ~upper chambers" aIT the spiri tual uni~erses, while His Io",-rr chamber i, Ihe physical WQI'Id. The ~ilillJ ~ams of His upper chamben are said to be made of "'"aler. This men to the level above Beriyah. which is At1.ill.1\. In Atzilut, Chakhmah is dominanl, and Chakhmah is ITplCKnted by "'"ate!". The ,~ ~)'S that lhe anacls aIT made of "breaths w (ndIot), in !he plural. Thi. allu.de5 10 both dim:t and 10 rrlkcted brealh. The word for I~I hen> is MtJlakA, which a1S1) means ~~n~.w J UJI as breath ~r.ds and a-=><is Ih!"()UJh God', wiD, so do !hese allJcls. They then-fore cafT)' out the function of direct and ""Il«ted Breath. The second kind of In/lf! functions as a min iSler, remainin, in • sin&le universe. ~ are visualized as fire.

. 13 1

"O':n:7 ',0::1 nvt"O!.l;"l )0


t>1:Jt> " ,::1

o:t:::r orm

7\, 1"

10"0::1 OV::lj'" t:' "0f(


'I:lJ"!I"Il :f?v01:J :1l!)\ 01' om "Oon .m'lYP ;"1"0"0 .l"':t:::r \lllVI1 :"It:lOl:J :"Il!.ll mn om "O'l1 .nl'::1 ;"IllOt' .:"1"''0 10Ml l'J!l1:J :"Il!ll mlO o m V::I'Il' C1V'I VVI1 .'-:"1'0 IW1m l'~" :"Il!ll :nvo 0 111'1 fWY Ol1n -""1/ ,;1"'1'::1 lZlIll"Il \l'1J'1:J :'Il!n 0'11""1 :" 1;1::1 \lllVI1

INO'C' :un1 '

H, I'hOS' Ihm"lfl lm frt)/tl olmonK Ih, Elr mmlals lin Ihl' mysll'ry OIIM Ih," M Olhn:f Aid "'rm Shin {fIrII<)j And fir HI Ih,m ill ffi$ grrol Holml' tJnd "'flh Ihrm. HI' srolffi six ,xl"",ilin. FI,,,,' Ifr JM-/ffi -tJbo",,- tJnd IQCed IIp,,,,,,,d and srolffi il wilA »4d flrlI Va. ~). Si.~: Ifl! waled "br/ow" and faced dow" ..urd and sroled II wllh IIrh Ywd VtJv {'r:'I}Sn"n-, III' srolffi "raJl" al1dfaud straighl ahrad tJnd srolni it with V lW Ifrlt f:M). av Eighl: If' sroled · - and faa'd back"""rd and srolffi it wilh V flrlt rut! (>:TO). a. "'inr: III! seaJffi "_th - al1d faced 10 I~r right and sraled it wilh Yud Vol. ffrlt t-rr). Trl1: Ill'sralfd · /IOI'lh " al1d IIJCed 1 Ih, I'll 0 olnd sroled /1 wilh 111'11 V",· YII<i {-rI}.

He chose three lellers


The Screr Yttzirah Sirnsn the impotUrn:e orthe facllhallMv
tellers "'-ere chosen from amon, the Elemenlallencn. Thi$ provida one reason why lhe lellers Yud Hell Vav ("CI') "",re cl!OKn.

As Ihe Sefer Yelzirah will later uplain (2:) , in alphahe\icJ.l order. the til'll Ih~ pl>onetk famili" all"
Labi. ls:
Aid H eh Oct Eyin ~ Vav Mem Peh


Gimd Yud Kaf Kuf

Ii is immn1;a tely obvio ... s that Ihe first \ellen on these IfOUPS an: the tim three lellen of lhe alphabet . Of thel<', Akf is one of the Ihree Mothers. while Bet Ind Gimc:llre amol\llhe Double.. In these thrn:

IfOIIPS, llien:fore, the firsl sim ple leiters are Heh, Va .. and Yud. Thne all' the letters of the Tetrauammaton. The primary o rderilll ofthno: leiters is Yud Heh Vav. AccordinS ID the book Ru.::irl. Ihis is becaUK Ylid includes the first four Ielten of the alphabet. y ... d has • numerical value of 10, and this is the sum of the tim four tellers (I + 2 + 3 + 4 _ 10). Ancr 4 comes 5, Ihe numerical ...alue o r Heh, and then 6, thr numerical value of V. ... , .. Funher siJnificance or the$e klten is di$CU.~sed abo.-e (1;1).

In the mystery of /he three Mothers
The thlft lenen of the Di ... ine Name:. Yud Heh V. ... (tT'), parallel lhe three Mothers.. Akf Mem Shin (1100). See Table 12. As Ihe Sefer Yellirah l.ter upiaint(J:4), M..... i~ ...... Ier, Shin is fire. while Aleris breuh-air. H()90-e"er, "'1: al$O know that Yud repreoent5 Chakhmah. ",hieh is the arcllety)!e or waler, .nd Heh represent5 Binah. which is fire. We theTefore have I rela1ionship bel"'"C'en Yud and Mem. at well It ~1"'""en1 Heh and Shin. V." has numerical .... lue of 6, and lherefore represenl5 1he 5ix basic SpaCial direelions. '" It also represent5 the 5i~ Sefirot: Chesed, Gevura h, T iferet. Neluch, Hod, and Y~. Amon. tile elements.. Va" is said to represenl Air and Brealh. Indeed, in Hebrew, the word Table I! . The lhrtt MOI Mrs.

M'm Shin

, • •


Air Breath

Chakhmah Binah The SiK

H ,' Y ••


, "

" "d irection" is RUlldr. the same as Ihal for Brulh. V,v is therefore for
derived from Alef. As "'~ lhall 5«, Ihe lh= MOlh.e.. (Aid Mem Shin) repres.enl thesis. antithesi, and iiynthnis, the bwiie triad of Sefer Yetzi ... h (3; I). Hell: the lexl explains how • three-dimensional spa« is produc«l from 1~ 111= concepts. Thnis and anlilhesis Il'preSClu 1"'"() <:>pposile dir«tion. in .. 0"" dimen.ional li..." TOSdher with iynlhesi., IlIe), yidd three ekmenlL Sin~ Iha>: Ihlft ekme nt5 ean be ~rmuted in l ix difTe~1 ....y.. Ihey define a three-dimensional space h.villi Sil dirKtions.'"

He sealed "abolV< ..
The", a re .. number o f wa)lt in which Ihe dil'tttions Ire represented by the 1C11cn. In the Gra version. "'~ have Ihe followina:



down eaSI




;>l' p~

In Ihis system, Ihe uis is de\ermi..w. by the nCl,llral kiter VI VN. As mentioned twier, v ... d is thesis, Heh is antithesis, and VaY b synthe.i•. Since it represents synthesis, Va" il tllerefore the zero point. which is the point on the axi" S« T.ble L3 a nd filllre I L.


, ,

" --------,,,-- "'"'"
Fine Col~m D II t. ...u-., Se,vnd C'oIumD I l~ ...............'"Uh
Third Column
(l~ ~pI_n



FiR"'" II . TM Ora ,... rt iott .



Ou,,• {O

~­ __

13 . Various Wlys


dire<"li<)flS art sy mOOl i>.cd .




511011' lolli' Sudi.·




500,I1 h






, , "

6 7 i

Gta v ........ _~

Tt""'- ~.


Dcw". Ru''lId.

IlIImboIl. IIotril, Elicm

at w.......

• • ,

010 .. II~U ( .od ~ (lou. F.tIno 11"",,,_ : "lb. Tbert ",;PI be. mOKako in ItIiI , .. ' oj""" YVH .. ropoo,od IW~_ It ~ d .... II< Iii< , ... 0..."' ....... _ .. v ........ ~ ;, . ' ;2( ( 6J1>~ ~. lIa~_ K"",,_ """,,nw, ... (/>. )10), stM., HaArl.. ........... l l1L Tib""" z.o;- U • .b. Iti""",i", l :S. Set Gno ... TIh"", Z<I/Ioo. 161>.

K.,,,,, ""'*"

The position of Ihe V,v th llS dclerminn 1he axis. The up down axis is Terest:nled by Ihe tan t:OIumn, the elllll ~1 uis by ll>c fint column. and lhe north soulh axis by Ihe middle column. The direction il then determined by the remlini", two !etten, Yud and Hell. If Ihey a", in direct order. YH (:..), then they define Ih e positive direct ion on Ihe axi s. If tbey are in revene orcin", HY (0:1), then they define tile nep live direction . The _ond importanT system is found in the Shon Version . and used by most of the commentaries" He~, the system is:


east "'" est

H e~ ,




~ ~ ~ ~ ~

the axis i. detcnnined by the !ener in the first column" The

assiplment i.
V,", H,h

• ,


The positions orthc lasl two lellers then determine ..."helller il is in the positive 0<" nepli'"e direction alonl the ai ven axis. The sy~tcm found in the Lon. Version ;$ very similar to that of the Ora, ucept for tile up do"'"n diT«lion" uaminin, il carefully,

.,up down elSt west

SffEk Y£TZIlt,\.H

Scfirah Di l'tttion

nthl front "





OcvuJ1lh T irell't Netudl Hod Y,"",

_. -"

loOuth tast





susp«l$that it oo&inilly lOllS the same as the Gra venion, u~pI that the fint t'll'O combinations 'Nell' confused. This is supported by the fact that the ~rmutation YV H is repeated lwice. The Saadia ~enion is very like the ShOll Version, u~pt thai the ~rmulalion< Il'prnenlin& CUI .nd 1OI(51'1l: inlerchanaed. Hi&hly lil'lif.cant i. the <)'Stem of the Ari. pR:5tnted in his\q.. sian of the mystical meditalion.lS5Ociated ...ith the Foor Species. The Foor Sp:dcs «>r>sW. of the citron (tI'rcr). palm (luia>'), myrtle (/rodQs), and willow (an:l>I:lII). The all' laken on 1M festival of Suo::oI (tabmlao10). foll"" "i", the commandment, "On lhe first day, you shall cue fruit of the c1 lroo 11ft. braoches of palm tl'ft:S, bou&hs of myrtle mn. and willows oflhe brook (Leviticus 23:40), Theie species I"' .... ved in aU six di~ion ... nd acmtdinllO the An. the I ppropo i~te letter combinalion m~1 be meditaled upon for cadi di~ion ,'" Each of these directions is al ..... paim:! will! iu appropriate Sdirah,













N • ..,•• h




Tile An bqins wilh Chesed (Love). Ihe fint Sefirah, ""hich sents Ihe lIOulli. lakinlthe letten of tile Name in their natural omer, YHV (no). Sec Table 14. To deterrni"" Ihe order for Ihe opposite dir«1 ion. Ihe An then make$ U,," of. ayslem used by Ihe Serer Yetzirah itself. (2:4). T he lell stales IhailM t ....." prime opj>Qllit"'l.'" On"1f (ANG llJ) meanin, Mdeli&hl.~ and Neaa (NCA Vll). meaninl a M pla.~.M In fonni". an opposite, ;1 takes the fil1il leiter and place5 it lit he end. This is precisely whal is done \0 produ« Gcvurah (51n:"llh). ,"'hich R\>res.ents the nonh. The Yud N ...... hich was al the bqinnina. is now placN al the end, producin,lhc combination HVY (OTII. The north $()Uth axis is then n:presentcd by Ihe IWO lelten HV ('!:l). The up down axis is similarly defined by tile ~tcn YV "~I, with Ihe position of the H (~) delerminin, the dinxlion . In Ihis system. Ihe first leller is also sipl ificant. For SOUth a nd up, the initial kiter is Y N. wllilc for north and down, it is H ('). Both o fthc"" 01.«' OppOlites in the thrtt column repn:sentation. The east west axis is on lhe neut'lll len> point on both the up do ... n line and on the nonh SOUlh line. In II!(, lhrtt roIumn n:p,esenlation, Tifen:t (ast) and Yesod (wesl) an: bolh in the middle line. Since both the middle line and the len er V (1) , ep,uen t synthesis, Ihe ~n:sental ion of both the"" diTtCtions begins ... ilh a Vay. })' See fig·

" ""pre-

The syslem o f the Zohar is naetly Ihe as tllal of Ihe Ari. except tllat eaSI and ......1 an: interchanged. The system of Ihe Tikuney lollar II .... a similar prindple. bUI some ... hal diffen:nlly. Later we shall see Ihat II!(, lwelve possible permillalions of YH VH n:pn:senl Ihe twelve dialonal boundari ... (~,2). Each of the six basic directiOlU can include I""" oflhe dia gonal boundal"i«. The tinl of Ihese is r~resented by Ihe sewnd Heh at the end of II!(, tripIC!, and the sewnd. with this Heh at the beginnin&•

We can now undersland the conceptual nalu,"" of the !kfirot. The ITHKI primary n:lalionship po!lIib1e ill lhal which exists be' ...-...:n a10r a nd emllion. This is the cause e ffect n:lationsbip. Cause is Keler . ...·hile Effect is Malkhul. O~ Ihe ('(Incepts of Cause a nd Effe.:t niSI. another concept comes inu) beina. nalmly Ihal of Opposites. If Opposil'" e xisl, simi_ lariti es must also exist. Two new conceptS therefore rome inlO beillJ. These a n: Similar_ ity and Oppositeness. In the lan,uage of philosophy these are thesis a nd antilhesis. In our lerminolOlY. Similarity is Chakhmah, ... hile



T i f...,

Vt" Urih

----::;;7'' ' --1---- <"""

Fi~ .. ~


nw six diru rilHos i~ sp«~ .

Oppo$itcnew is Binilh. ~ are the Yud and init ial Hell of the Telntlnmmaion. Once Similarity 100 Opposition exist. anolller ooncept comes into beinl. namely Relationship. In philosoph ic .erml, 1hi. il the syn_ thesis bet..~n thesis and antithesis. In our present temlinolOl)'. tlli. i. the Vav of the Tetrqrammaton. The word MV.V~ means I hook, and Ihe letter Vav IS. prdil means "and. " In both senses. il dcnolCl oonn«"lion and relationshi p.

AI this point in the Josical sequence, .... e hl"e five concepts: Cause and Effea , Simila rity an<! Opposi tion. and Relationship. Throe. lUJ'l«l.ively are K.eler aBo:! Malkhut. Chakhmah and Dinah, and Ihe Vav.'"
U nlil 1M OOIlCq>t of Relationship "': introduced. only fOUT " abslT1K1 points eI~led : Kele. a nd Mall:hul, and Chakhmah and Dinah. It i. with the c:on~ of Relationship th.ata thr«-di~nsional oonc:cptuII oontinl,lum <;.'OmCS ;IliO ("i,ten«. This drfi...,. .i~ d irKlions, and hence:, Ihe n umerical value of Vav is 6. ElIch of ItI(, four a bstracl ronccpts ttl(,n Jive. rise 10 a relat ionship. Chakhmah lives rise to Chesed (Love), 8 inah li' ·n rise 10 Gcvufllh (SIret1llh), Keler lives rise 10 Tife"" (8eluty). and Malkut li'·n rise to Ynod (Foundalion). As di5CUS5eil earlier, in a spirilual sense, Si milarity is closeness. while Oppmition il d istance:. In order 10 live, the liver must he close to the r«ipienl. In I spirilual sense, th ere must he an elemenl ofsimiLarity Mlwun liver and reeip~nl. Therrlore. Ch.khmah, which i. Similarity, livn rise 10 Chesed, "'hiclt i. the concept nf liyi~ Convervly, Binah, which i. Oppositioo, Jives rise to Gevurah, ttl(, ronccpl of wilholdinl-

" Tife..,1 is similarly derived from Kelt'r, the ronttpl of Cause. In
order 1 have Ihe m.uionshi ll of CauSf. an element mUSI live the 0 pre<:isc Ilmount of ui$lenee or motivation required for Ihe dTe(1.
This i. the roncqn of mea. ured Jivin" rcprexntcd by Tifcm.

the IJO/den melln. Since Tifem is deriva:l from KeIer. il would be Cltpt'CtCd 10 be above C1Jesed and GevIiml. Howeva-. sina: TIfan is also ~ synthesis bct ..en Chnd and Gevurah. il is 'n" o'ly ItlHUCI1led as bein& below them. Malkh ut. I~ concept of Effttl, is \lsuaUy said 10 be the feminine .rel>ctype of Clntion. Sin~ Yesod is derived from Malkhul. YQQd is nalu rally dra ...-n In ;1 and motivated 10 allich it""lf to it. Ii is for Ihis 1'U5OII Ihll Yesod is said 10 p.arallcllhc sexual orpn. II is called Yesod (Foundation) becausc it is the lowest of the six. Derived from the orisinal four, there are now four new concepts: Chesed, Gevurah, Tife..,t and Yesod. Once Ihe oonctp! of Relationship has been introduct.t these four ron«plS Ill't no Ionltr ""'I'd )' a!:. uract points in ton<;. plual space. They Ire tonrteC1ed by tM COncepl of Relat>Onship. The 1"-0 pain. Otned-GcY\lrah Ind Tiferet-Yesod Ire like two Cf05Silll lines. Th is yields four directions in a two-dimensional con tinuum. The2 two dimensions can be re p..... nled in physicallPllC':. The Tiferel-Yesod axil can represent e..t_ ....esl . .... hi)e the Che>cdGcvurah axis can represent 5Outh-nOfth. Th is then yields I twodimensionll OOfltinuum. Siner the COocetlt of Relat ionshi p exists.. the relationship betw«n 1M two d imensions tbem ... lvn is also si,"ilkan!. In the conceptual spate depiaion, 1his would be rep~nled as a line dra wn betw«n the two uislin,lines. The Cau ..... Effea or Keler-MIJkhut relat iOflshi p is thaI which is primlry. This i. "'P~nted by the Tifere' -Ycsod ui$. The !h~5antilhesis relalionship ...·as introduced o nly to make the C1iu~ffect reialionYti p pouible. ""flHo ,,,"iow.ntit hesil or Ch akhmah_Binah rdI.tionship is therefore secondary. T his is represenled by the ChCSoedGcvunlh ax i•. The Tifcre!-YCKId uis is therefore the primary dimension. while 'he Chesed-GeV\lTall axis is the aecondary d imension. This )'ields I lotally I>CW concept, namely Ihe Quality of bei n, primary Of secondary. These, in lum , form I. MW, th ird dimension, which Clln be related to the u p do""\1 dir«tion. Th i. ;. tM axi. !i ntin, NelZach (Victory) and Hod (Splendor~ See Filu", 13. Wilh Ihe introduction of these two concepts. Ihe six Sdirot repfeRnled by lhe Vav Ire complete. These are Chesed, GcY\lTllh. Tiferel. Ne,ach. Hod and Ynod. Thoc si s Sefirol I"C"pfeRn l the li x direction. in .~e. T oselhtr with the ori&inal four, these .i. yield Ihe Ten Sefiro!.

T iferet i.


1: 14
~ ",.. lilt Tell




nnrn on

(lmI't) ~l:Ij nn'!lt) 0'00 '01'( m"lll DIe rn"'Il:l

w v l~ rm C ""

:m" , !'lily

J"Wtn miD

&{irOl 0/ NOIl!irrg,,6S: 11Ir BfflJlh Q/ Iht Uyj~ God

Bm>IJ. from Br~11t

WaIn [rom Brl'tllh f"irt./rom Wall'!'

Up rJowrr

f'OlIl Wf'J/

"enh _ t i l.

A.ilk from tMir theoretical impli(-aliQns, the Ten Sefiro! also have

imponan! m~ticaJ and meditath'c sianificancr. The Sefer YetziBh, in Ihis first chapter, has presen led • system of mcd illll; n. on the Sefirol and o f bind iR' on~l( 10 them.
One may use the leuen to dimb the T rr:e of Life, but tile SefiI'Ol

are the points where one must res!. There is aclually an imponant apparent contradict ion in Ihe text. In onc xction ( I :6). t)w, te;,;t says. "'Their vision is like the .p~.rancc of lishln;n" .. they speak of lhem 'runninl and rcllll'nin,,'~ Thi, WO\IId imply llIal il is impossible 10 II<'<:- the Sefirol for mOrt Ihln an inSlan l. ju51 like . flash of liablnin ... Loin, lIo",ner, 1M lut stales, "If)'O<lr hean runs, retura to Ihe place , IS it is written, 'The Chayol runni n, Ind retumin,'M( 1:8). This appeln 10 say thai one can 10 fun her, bUI that one should from !loin, 10.''' What the tut i. lCtu;illy doi.,., t.o-vcr, is dcscribin, t..-o distinct SlaSts of initiation into the mysteries of the Sefirot. The lint stalC beains with ~ ue~i5C whl:rc Ihe initi"e mun Mundcl"$tand with W;Wom, Ind be ",i5C with Undentandin,M (1 :<4). Here M l~ams !>ow to oscillate bet ...-.:cn Dinah consciousness and Chakhmah OOMICCiouSJ105. On th is levd, hi: can meditate on the Sefirot as ttn Ikpths, allo"';nt the mind to reach OIIt to the infinil y of uch of these dt-pths. Si nce he is still in a state of oldllalin, menrunni", and lalily. he IoeCI the Sdirol lite fl ash.,. of liJ,htnillJ. M
returnin&The ten infinite directions. however. represent. state of scpI""lion and d isunity. This i. tM ~nce of Dinah. The initiate must


tllerefore "imbed theiT end in their tq:innirll" ( 1:7). He must oontemplate the point II infinily. wheT\' all these opposin& d irections come 100flMt- as one.
is ..,.,...,mine thai o:annol be ......... "plisbed with Dinah ronsciouS/\tSS. This stale of oonsciousne$s QUI only ima&ine Ihinp 'oTI"bally, or depicllhinllS in ph)'Sic:al term!. The point II inrmily is both inflnile and infinitesimal. and therd~. cannot be depicted. II can only be C(llIltmpial<:d with OIakhmah oonseiousnesI.

As the text notes. Ihis n:prncnts the unity \h.\ preceded tbe conOXpl of number. [\ introduces a device ,-cry much like I ~n koail, aUi"" · lkf~ one, what do you count: Whit is the number that prttedes all number? Both tile point II infin ity and 1M kedn an: meam 10 train !he mind 10 visualize absolute nolhinaness. The Ari IIOles Ih.1 KeitT, the hi&hes\ orlhe Sdirol, is often desi&naIN by the word Ayin. meanin, "ROlhin .. • The [nfinile Be;"" the ~I ab<'lve KeIt T, C&nnolevcn be desianlled by this word. The only ....:In:! 111.\ can be u5e'd is £jJQ, ,.'hk h, ltIXOf"din& 10 the Ari, dClIOles a oolh inaneu Ih.1 Ihoush! (Bin.h) cannO! arasp al all. II h.s been uid Ihal lhe besl ,",'ay 10 dHcribe ~b5oIule oolhinaSince vision ness is 10 speak ofil as .....'hal you behind your head. M d~s nol c~iSl in Ihe back orlhe head, whal one sees Ihen: is aMaIUle OOlhinlnels.. If I 15k )'OtI whal you behind your head. you answer Ihal you nOlhina. ConlemplalillJ on wbal one sees behind one's head is Iherd,,", • IIood way to leam how 10 visulize ab50lule oolhinaneu, In aeneral. Ihe SOIJJ is said 10 consisl offive pans: Nefcsh. Ruch. Neshamah. Chayah and Ytth idah. Of these, only tM fi~1 three, Ncfesh, Ruach and No:shamah. any effect on Ihe mind. The lasl IWO, Chayah and Ytthidah, are called M vdopmenl$M (makijifl). cn whid! annOI enler the mifld. '" Neshamah , the hiJhcsl pan of lhe soullh.t Mcnlcn Mthe mind, parallels the Sefirah of Binah. See T.ble 1~ on pal<' 90. ChaJdllnah consciousness is above Ihout,ht. and is like IOnlCth ini Ihat n ists 0\11· side 1M mind. Or. '$ in the anaJor.y used earlier. il is like what we Msec~ behind OUr h""ds. JUSllikc IOmclhinl behind Ihe head can only be secn if reflected in. mifTOr, 50 Chakhmah OOtlsciou.nel. can only be IfIIspcd when reflected and clothed in Binah. With reillion to am· sciO\ls Ihou"'l, Chalthmah consciousness il called Mnolhinaness.w ", It is in Ihis contnt that the lexl ")'I, M Bridic )'Our mouth from speakina and your hean from thinkina.M M Hean~ denoles Binah con· sciO\lsnc'l$, and hence. it is sayinllhat on this level, the iniliate mUSI blank OUI Binah consciousOC$S completely. This is accomplished by



T ab~


I ~. Le~~l .

of lhe "",I. Kelt. CbathmBh Binah Tbe Si . Malkhut
Nothi n~$11






Atzilut lImy.1t


Yetzirah Asiyalt

contemptalina nOlltinJ,lles&. He must maintain this leycl. and is 10000rdin&ly instructed, "If Y(H,I' ,",art I'\In,· back \0 Binah, Mretum 10 Ihe platt," Tlli, "platt" is Chakhm ah oonK iou5nen, which the initiale has already anaiMd. Ona 11\(: initiate has n:ached I. point where he un I. SlalC of Chakhmah oonsciousnel, he il rudy 1 0 actlll.lLy bqin climbin, tile Tree o f life, which is tile ladder of the &fimt. Hebre .... is ",rinen without vowels, and therefore, Ihe third person and lhe imperative are wriuen u a<;tly the same. We have Iranilaled the lasl PllravaPh, "He Kiled north and flced 10 the left, and He scaled ;1 wilh VHY." Th is, IIowever, CIIn .110 be read in lhe
imperative; "Seal nonh. face 10 the left .•"d se.1 il wilh VH Y." In I. sim ilar manner, the exprnsion, "He enaraved it and He

carved it," can aho be read in the im lKrativc , "Enarave it and c.rvc it V If understood in this manner, sections 1:9-ll an be read IS instl'\loCtio ns rather tllan as a theory o f creation. (In Append i~ I, I 1Ia,'c tran$la ted the Shon Version rompletety in the imperative. to demonstrate how it reads.) The supposition tllat this ill describinl a tecbn ique is su ppaned by the last section o f the Serer Yetzirah i\Jelf, wh ich sa~ o f Abrah.lm , VHe bound the 22 leI ters of the Torah in his tonluc, .. He drew them in ",,,tcr, kindled Ihem wilh fire, qitated them wilh breath " (6:7). The initiate bq;ins by medilalillj on Kcter, the initial vBrealh of Ihe U vi na God. v This Brealh mull be brQuJhI down I(l ihe level (If Y("S(l(\ (Foundation). In doinl this. he musl con te mplale the eslCn-tt of vYoice, B..,atb and Spce<:h." Ordinary thouJht il verbal, and hence, consislS of "'"Oro.. These ...... rds \x.msiSI of lellers. Thes.e are nOI physical lellers. but mental, COnttptual lellers. These ooncep!uaJ letters. however, a re bu ill OUI of vYoioe. Brealh . Speech." Henne, in meditatin, on thne concepl5. one is actuall y contempla!i", Ihe very roots of thoushl. In the Looll Version , lhe lUI concl udes, ' Sl"'«h is Ruat:h }fuKCld~h (Di vine Inspiration)." Ruarll HuKodnh, however, i. above thou","l. He ncr, the ·"",ed," .... hich Ihe te>ct is speakinl o f, is a v vspeech Ihal p~ Ihought.


~ Rep



from Breath" TIle lUI SIal<'$.

" "with ;\

ensnv", and carve 22 lellers." Tile KabbaliSlS np]ain Ihal "engra... ing· Ind · carvin," denote meditali~ let'hniqlln. This is supPOned by tile last section (6:7), wh ich stales Ihal Abrallam "Looked. sa .... , understood , probed. <'-naraved, and carved, and was SU«ltSSful

in cn:alion. TMy leacllihal "engravillj" denOles a pr"OCe$$ when: one depicts • Idler in one's mind. "Can"in,- Ihen mean. Ihat thi. lwer is ..,paTaled from all OIlier thou&lllS, to lhal the cnlin: mind i. fiUed wilh il. !}! One may do this by conlem plalin, alel1er or lener combination
unlil all Olher imagn a nd IhoUJhIli .'" banished from the mind. Altcm.n;vely, thi. may be .CO)mplj.~ by CIuOI;", a leiter in a manner Ihal shall pY'eS(nlly be described. This i. Ihe stage of Mal~ul, whe.., one OIands II tile b<JI\om of the T= of Life. It is 11 this .lalc that Ihe initiue must "wk wilh the l<'- lln that "" wiohn 10 .. .." H~ mull th~n ~d""w it in "'lI t~r, and kindl~ it with fi",w (6:7), Th~ su~ucnt instrueli(lns thc""f(lfe indiCllle how the lener is 10 be cha~ ""ith spiritual pOwer. w ~ Ihird "ep, th~n. i. ~ Waler from B",alh. AI first. the initi"e depicts Ihe leiter in trans"",,,,n! a ir, vi.ualizinl it d urly. Now he must ""lICh up 10 the le"el of Chakhmah. relumilll to a SUle of Chakhmah consciousness. He lhen Ilqins 10 !.ee the leller as if he were Iookin, at ilthrou&h wa ler. This is K drawinl it Ihroush wateT. w Th~ l~ller Ix"&ins to blur and fad~, at if i, "'~re beillJ vie~ throuJh increasingl y deep wl,er. llIe initiate must lhen Kengra..-e and car.-e chaos and void. min and da~. " AI Ihis stage, the form breaks up and dissohes completely, like somelhinl soten throueh lu!bulenl water. Th is is "cttac. and V1,Iid,"'· llIe ima&l!' then fades ...... y rompletely, u if it ~ heinl viewed throush muddy ""'ter. This is "mire. w Finally. all thaI is Jdt is inky bl.acknr$s. ;u if one ~ bu~ in 100000y opaque mud and clay_ The te~1 describes this procus sayin&, ~ Enva,"e Ihem like a IIrde n. carve them like a wall. cover (or surround) them like a cei linlFirsl visualize Ihis blackness beneath your fec1. Yo ur f«1 may then a ppear 1 d issolve. a phenomenon that i. al.o menlioned in OlheT 0 anCienl my.licaltuts." · Slo",'!y, make Ihis blackness ClUJ) Over you, surroundilll you comp).etely li ke a wall. Finally, leI il co,'er and Surround you like I cei linl of in ky black mire. At this pOinl , you will have no visual sensalion whatever, neither physiCllI nor mental. AI! IhroLlih this PI"IXnS. yoo."" constantly . ..... re o flhe feelinl of wal~r. cool and absolulely calm. [I is the dan:. wet f«linl of the womb, w~re YOIl an. 10lally isolaled from a ll sen ... t;';'n. It is with respect to Ihis state Ihat the Midrash states. "WateT conaived and I""e birth 10 absolute daB:n~s. (4....011). wUO Thi. is Ihe level o f Chakhmah consciousness.



S I!F~Jt.


The iniliale Ihen ~aches the fou nb step. where he returns \0 a $laIC of Dinah COl\JCiousnes.. This il depicted as fire and blindilll lishl. as the MidBSh ronlinlleS, -fire ronttived and pvc binh to liahl.- Th i. i. the stilt ""'hcll' one -tindle$ them wilh fire..Here, lhe initilte mUll - tnlJ' and ca",.., OUI the Throne of Glory. Senlfim. Ophanim, and holy Cllayoc.- He dqHcts (Cl\il'&ves) aoo fills the mind (carves) willi these itnaJeS, these beinllhe same as the onu vUualized by the prophet ..... , He milS! $lart with the Throne. and then oonlinu.e throop Ihe various levels of ana:eb. endina 1I'i!b the o.a)'Ol in the Universe of Yeu:irah, .... hk h OOI,tsponds to the SiJI Dira:lioM. n.e influx is thus broIl&h!!o 1M level of Dinah. Now 11M: in itiate musl brio. it 10 Ihe otMr six s"fiml _ Ch~, Gevurah , Tiferel. NC ludI. Hod , and Yesod. These are associated wi th Ille si~ directions o f the physical ,,'orId. whicb have 1hrir coonteTpan in the Si l dlYs of creal ion. By associatin, the Sefirol with the
sis physical dim:ti<:>nl, one actually brinp Ihe influx inlo Ihe phY1'ical

domain. The method of drawinl the influx into thac lower &firot invol ves rontemplatinltlle tll ree leiters Yud Hell Vav (1"'). These 5bouLd be v~uaLi~cd as if .... riuen in the Mhurite tCtipt. with bl.err::: fi~ on wllite fire. S« filUn: 14. Tllese leiters should IPJl!1r lIullf'. fiLlinll1>e erui", mind.'" The idea ofblack fin: ~ not j uSi tile Ibsence ofli&l\t. but neplive lisht ..... The blld; mU~1 be so interue tllit il is brillilntly black. jUlt as I lishl is brilliantly wllite. This ;s the black fin: with which the lelten must be depicled. While COniempLalinl the letter combination .. one 5houLd fKe in Ihe appropriate directi<)n. ei ther ph)"~ia.lLy or mentally. After rompleli", all si. direct ions and permulI.tions, tbi. part of tile exercise is compLele. What .till remains are the astr010Jkal appliUli<)ns of Ihis technique, wllich will bt describtd in chapters 4 and S. This is the p.oun dc-sttibtd in lhe calC of Abl1lham . "He ilniled them with the Seven [Planets). he directed them with lhe Twelve oonstelillions" (6:7).






2: 1


'10' t'I1'111N O'IW'I D'i"V

:'lilT).' C'JWl m7w:J V:J'CI1 mIl/t ;'I:l1T'l '\=11 m:n 'P 1 ilO' ,, '~ mIl/t ,,1:117 .JlCl iCiD

J"IOOn '0



11\0« .,.1:117 .00nJ·:J V"'OC jm V '1)tl nn "'Ml( ' f( 11''''C' '\7 1'1'17;'

lIwm,..,,,,, Foundation ut/":k' TlrrN }.la/11m &>... n Doubles and r ..n..- £1~m~nlal;J. Th~ Tlrrw MOIlrm tJr~ AIQ M~m Sir,,, {JII:MJ, T111~jr foundation is of liability clfld Ih~ I~ of drcr« d«idill8 MW«11 Ihm•. fT/Ifn MOIlrm. A/Q A/~m Slrill (vmc) M f m IlIlltu. Slrillllisws
" pall a {!Gil

of m"il

ond AIQ is


BfflUIr of air

dt'Cidi1l8 MW«11 Ihfm .}

Twt'niY·/\l.(I Foundalion


Havin, complfled Ihe initiuion in lo Ihe Ten Sdirol, Ihe ItK\ now discusses the 22 !ellen of tile Hell,", 11pbaoo.

Three Mothers
Tile first sct of lellen In: the Three Mothers., whiet. will be d is"",ned in f.. rther detail in chapler 1. Here they Ilt'e introduced becausc the)' define tile thni$-antitbcsis-l}'llthesil Itrvct llre Ihl\ is cenlral to the tuchinp ofSefcr YetziJah . 1bcy aho ~ as IUl introduction 10 the meditali~ techniques involvin, the letten. Thne Ih",", klle"" Il:pieOCTlI 1M lh= coIumnl into which lhe Sefirot are d ivided. The ri&hl hand column, headed by Cbakhmah, is n:ptcxnled by Mem. The left column , headed by Binah, il n:pre-

sellied by Mem l, Binah (which is ,he Aiel).



Ooenlcd by Shin. T he tenler C(llum n, beaded by Kei tT, ;s revres.enied b y Ald". As discussed earlitt. Cbakhmah is watcr (which is lIere rep~

fire (wlliet\ is Shin), and KeleT is

A pan of merit
The Hebrew "''Ord for M M here is Kill. This word can denote pan the pan of. scale, but ;1 also dCnolcslhe palm of'Ile hand. Likewise, ,he word whon tan be used for Ihe lonlue of. balance, tile pOinter
which ;ndicalC'5 when the IW PIIns all' in ~uil;brium. ill usual O meaniJ\i, however, is the ton,ue that is in the mouth.'

letters AId Mem Shin (1)'' '''') "'present 1he two pan. and !onlut: of. balance. On tile O1MT hand, Ihey represent \"" IWO hands. and the M oovcnanl betW'CCT1 ~M (1:3), which is the (onlUe.

Therefore, on one hand.




oj dl!Cree

The Hebrew word for M dccrec M here is Chot (;n). This rom" from the 1001 Olakak !i'P"). meaninl 10 Menll1O vc. It is Ihe M IO"l<'e of balance Ihal -en&fl\vcs' ,,,,, !ellen. T his is represented by the letM

ter Alef {" j, the balii. of the alphabet. In the most elemental terms, Mem, Shin and AJefrepresent thesis. antithesis, and synthesis. The a naJo&y is of a !Calr. (~ filU 1~.) The", is a pall o f '" merit and a paD of liabil ity. This is '.ery much like the scale used to wei&h one's meri ts and sins. which is mentioned in the T almud.' In the teTttCf is the fulcl"\lm and pointer, both "'presented by tile AJef. which ;1 the ~tOD1u.e of dec~.



/5. TM


that "7iglu muiu and ,in•.

In application , theoc leU"rs can also ~ u~. wishes 10 creale I silWltion in .... hich he him~lf or anou...r prnOn is 10 be broU&h1 \0 ll1e side of merit, O~ doe$ so by mali na use of Ille Icue.- Mem (=).1 The tec:hniQue5 mall be discusxd laleT. Similarly, if one wishes to brin,_" enemy to the side ofliability, so\hal he shO\lld
be judaed harshly on hith . one makes use of Ih e lener Shin (.,). AleC (,,) is ,,!.Cd 10 brin, a person 10 be judie<! fairly and evenly.

" If one

Tl\ne qualities also rome inlO play in popular usaae. HummillJ., ,.·tlith in~oIves pronou~inl the letter Mem . is usually seen IS I hapP)'. plenanl. posit;,·., &<:Iivily. ConverYi)', one hi_s at • or enemy, pronoundn, Ihe Icner Shin.

Mem hums. Shin hisses
The Hetn-e .... word for fihum " hCK is Damam (lim), in which. the \eller Mcm is dom inant. Similarly. tile: word for "h iss· is Sltllrak (pw), ... hidt beains wilh • Shin,' The hummin, sound "oocialed wilh Mem is ,-cry calm, and il is Illus. Ille sound a ..oci~ lcd ,,;ilh water and Chakhmah ronsdousness. If 0"'" .... i"'es 100 allain Cbakhmah ronlCioosness, 0"'" repealS Illil sound in Ihe manner described like Ille Kabbalisl •. T he rt'Xmblance between Ihis and lhe ~Om" chanl is ~rt.inly more than cOoinddcnll1. This IoOUnd is alsOo closely associated wilh propllecy, wh icll invOolves Chakhmlll ronlC;ousnc:ss. T he Kabbalim say thaI the '"fine slill (dllmamll/r) 'IOitt~ (I Kinp 19: 12), llcard by Elijah. actually a ~fiM lIum millJ sound." ' This hummin& sound is IIscd 100 altain such a StalC Oof rons.;iO\lsness. and as sum. il is expericnced ....hen OII.C is in • prophelic stale. JuS! as lelli", il a ""osage in lob .... hkh. incidentally. also dncribes Ihe prophetic eJpcricn~ vcry Jr.Iphically (Job 4 :12_16):


II - " MW SWim /0 me At)' ca, rtlUShtlltow:h of;' In mi'dillllionsjrom "ig/JI ,-jJi(llfJ Whm IIlffll'lCC [lIlb 0" mil" Tm'Of' rtlllrd me Ilnd I shuddnfti II InroriuQ mOSI of my bones A spirit paucd bdore my Ill«' Moor lire Irai, ofmy /leslr Jland 011 end It slood lind / did /lOt 'KOgni;e ilS .'uion II picture W!IS INfou my <')YJ
, Irca,d a Irum (damlllrnllJJ alld II l'Cke.




Tat»c 16. Shin ud Mem Sho Mo ShaMo SheMo ShiMo ShuMo SItoMa ShaMa SIw:Ma ShiMa ShuMa ShoMe ShaMe She Me ShiMe ShuMe


pronoonc'td with (he five primlll)' \'U"'-cls.

SItoMi ShaMi SheMi ShiMi ShuM;


SIw:Mu Shi Mu ShuMu

,. '" " ,. '" '" ,. '" "" '" '"
w• w•

w •

.. ,. '" '" ''"" "" ,. "" " ,. ""

The leller Shin has the hi"in, IIOUOO ofsh or s. Thi. IIOUrnI i••ssocialW wilh fire .nd Binah roniidOU5Jlcu. The tWO sound., M and Sh, may also be u§((! as a deviIX for 05CilLatin, between Hinah and Chakhmah conscioo.lsne!olll. ~ inv,*" a slronl Illte of Binah ronsciO\l$lle$S by prono\lncinl the Shi n, Bnd lhen swinlS \0 Chakhmah conSCiOUWKSS by voicinl the Mem. The pronuncialion oflhe5e two ktlerl un also include the five primary vowels. in • manner thai "';]] be dncribed below (2:5) in veate\"" delail. It is sianificant to note Ih.t thex lWO IIOUnds are dom inant in Ihe ","Ord Chaihmal (""""). wh kh. aIX<.Irdin, 10 lhe "-bbalill$, il the inlerface betWttn the physical and the 'pirilual. In hi. vilion, Ezekiel Ihus ... ys Ihal he ","W , "The appcano.nce of Chashmal in lhe midll of Ihe fire~ (Ezekiel I :,,~ II was only after visualizinllhe Owmallhat E>:etiel "" as ablc 10 perceive the Oa)'Oi and enler into lhe Slate of prophecy. In our presenl Icrm inoJosy, Chuhmal woold be lhe jntu_ fla: bet"'een Binah conKiousness and Chakhmah consciousneu. It therefore appears OUI of the ~midst of the fire, ~ since it arises from I Slate of Hinah consciousness. Sina: M and Sh arc tl>c dominanl consonants in Chashmah. it is pouibk lhat the WQrd itod f ..... used u a manln whcn lhe prophet swun, be\..-een Binah and Chakhmah consciousneu. "The Ippearance of Chashmal~ would then be the visual nperiena: that one would ha"c durin, luch a SlIle of 05Cillat ion . Even the more advanced prophets, who could enlcr. Sllte of dtaklimah consciousness It will. would use the term Chashmal 10 describe tltis interfacc.' ".;-cordinllo tl>c Talmud. lhe WQrd Chuhmal cornel from lWO word .. O,asJ" meani", ~sikn<;e,~ ~ nd Ala.I, indicalin,lpeeelt. It can therefore be lranslalw IS ~speatin. silence.'" It is a double sensation, where OIX' is uperiencin, tl>c ~silence~ of Chakhmah consciousness • • nd Ihe ~,pecd'~ of Ilinah consciousnas" lhe same time. The lWO p;lrts of the mind are e1periencin, different Ihinas limullanwusly_ Such double sensalion eln be easily experienced. Tate I red &lISS and plaa: ;1 over Ihe ri .... ' e~. and place a veen &1_ O~Cf Ihe left

:.. ", :., :" :,, ' . .. .. . -'." - ' '''-' .. ,::'1 :.~~, : :1:'.,
~~.~ '~'_"4

:~;..i:. i



:'7 ;~ ~ ~~·:.i

Fig""" 16. TM WOTd KQIo ;" on amI)' .drh Ih~ FI'(,," Shoshan Sodoc (The RO§e of MyJterie:s),

"IV' prim<J'Y ,"",,',Is.

eye. When you look lhrou&h both eyes, you will pcm:ivc two opposite llen,uions si mullanwusly. The world will take on a lurnalistic, almost spiritlllll, aJlP"an.~ Th e intenlll:e betWl!en Chakhmah and Binal! is even more etherial.
The Kal!hal;sl. I too note that the two kiter'S Shin aDd Mcm SlXU 0111 Shml (wI. tile .....,Td for "name..M, Ii il Ihroulh lhe ~ l!ames~ of ~ and in particular, Utroup. d ivine Nama. thaI one can make the transi tion between Chakhmah and Bitllh ronKloU5lW:SS. A$ the Baal Shem Toy taUJbt. it is throu&h I name W I one a n IfUP the

of a pc~ or ~.' The Zolla. a110 uyI truu the lelltrs Mem and Shin define the mystery of Moses, wh~ Hebrew name, MO$beh, is spelkd Mcm Shin Heh (:III'C).'o This WQ\lld be an .lIusion \0 Ille fact thallhe two woson.nlS. Mem and Shin, l't-p\tiCnl Chakhmlh and Binah. The Hell bas I numerical value of ~, and this would ""present the five prim.ry VOllo'ClS. with which the combination of conlOn.nll il pronouoced. ~ Tabk 16. A IOme .... h.t similar idea is tauJht cxp1icdy by the early K.\bbl/istl. The TOTIh StltCi thlt Moses killed.n Emti.n who \IllS Slrikin, an Imelite, and the Midra$h explains WI Ibl$ 'NIl ICCOmplished wilh I di vi ne" When he 1In.>cl< the EmU_n, the Torah ""pons that Mose. M looked hm: (koJI) and Ibm: (koirr (Ex.,. dus 2:12 ). In HeblU'. both "hereM and KoI! (>0)., word which baSI numerical value of2S. The KabbalislS say that tbl$ rep_ iCO ts lhe twenly-five combinations between two letten Ibat l re poWbk with the five primary VO'Ndt.. " ~ fi,l,Ire 16. spiritual


Ale! is Ihe Brealh

0/ air

AJefis. silent consonant, and I I such, it <CjNcsems a simple of air. This docs not enw one IOWaId eitbeT state of """M"joo'mesL




Normally, brealhiltJ is an unconscious act, and h~, it peruins 10 Chakhmah consciousness. Ho"..,v~r, one can also control 0""" bre.lllin&. and il is then in the domain of Binah consciousness. Consciously controll;n, the breath is therefore ... valid ledlniqlle for brinli"l 1<11<'1"'" thne lwo stales of con!IC;ousness. 11;1 also useful in maki n, the transition betWft'TI the lWO Stiles. Thul. the K2bbaliS!s make use of conlrollcl bmuhinl in association wilh slICh lecbniqun as pronouncillJ IWO consonants wilh the five pri mary vowels." In particular, such. breath comn bclw«n Ihe pronunciation of the Mem and the Shin.


J'"1l' pm li'!''" ' 10' m'n'IK trm:'1 C"l1711 " , 1"11'(1 "TIl":"T " , ~ 0:"1:1 -m J"1'c.-n 1"vw :ity'? , 'I1V"

Townl,..!"", FounMliOll Imf rs:
engrtIVftlthml. 1ft clU"ed ,lrmo. lie p"mulnJ Ilrm•. He ",origllrd Ihrm. lie (ramjO'mni tlr..m , Ami "'ilk them. If.. depictnJ"/1 (11iJI W!U jcrmnJ (lnd o.l/ln(11 would ~ Ji;xmni.

He engraved them
First Ille letters are ~en,raved~ OUI of noth;n&ness.. Th~n Ih~y a~ Rcarved R out and sep;'illfllted, They .~ th~n Rpo:rmuted,R iIO thaI a .iv~n combi .....!ion .ppo: ..... in di ff~Kl1 1 5e(j~nces. They then are ~~i&l.e.r and manipulated accordin, to tlleir numerical values. Finany. llIey ca n be Rtransformed Ihrouall the vario!.lS standard riphen." These ciphers are sbOWII in Tabk 17. Each leiter I!.j)lcsenll a diff~1flI1 type of information. Thro"'" the vcarlouS manipulations of the lelten, God created all th'np. " The final exprnsions of creation were tlle~fo", the T en s"yinp., found in the fino! ch.pler of Genesi$. Each Say;nl consisted of word" which in 1um consilled of k llers. This s«lion can also be rt'ad in the impo:l"lHive: MEn&f1lve them. carve them. PO:lt11Yle them . ..,.ei&ll them. and depict all that was fonned ... Wh~n inlerprt'ted in Ihis manner, Ihi. ~ion i. leachin, a teCh· nique discuss.ed by various Kabbalisa. " The initiate musl fint depict




'" ,

, , ,
, • ,

, , ,

, • •


, • , • ,

• •

, •

." ,
• , , , • , • , • , , • • ,
, • ,


, 'M


, • • , ,

'" ". '" ,
, 'n

"' • ,
, • , , , • , , , • , , • , • ,
, ,•


,. n
, , , • ,

• • , • ,

• •
• •

, ,
• , • , , , , ,

, , , • ,

• , , , • , , , • , , , ,

, ,
r ,

, , • , , , • ,


, ,

• , 1 • ,


... ... ....


• ,.

, , , ,

, , , , • ,•


• , , • ,

, • , ,


• , , , • , , , • ,

, ,

• •


• , ,

thc !etters, ~enara"in,~ them in his mind. ~ he milS! "~" them OUI, makin, them fill his enlire oomdousne5S. After this. he can pennllie them in vanol.l$ .....}"S. He CIIn also manipulate them IlIrouan their numtrical values and the standard ciphcn. Another imponam technique involved mtditali", o n ~ !euen by ..Ti lins them." The simplest method was 1 take I .... ord and per. 0 mute il in all pouible ways. Ir one used I Kt s~lem 10 permute IIIne leiters. Ihis was c.lkd Gilgul, or "cydi "," Orll1e lellns. " T more n IdvalK'ed system$, one would "00 USI: Ot:maui. (munericaJ values) and lhe ci phers 10 e~ lend the pro«ss.




In effect. wrililtJ or recitin. these Jette.- C(lmbiTUUions "'1$ very

much like ~alin, I mantra. 11 5e!'\'e5 10 blan k out III thouJht from the mind and .1.110 .... il \0 r.-acl! a stale of Chakhm;oh (OnKiOUllness. Visulizinl th e leuen is '-ery much like tOmt:: of Ihe ~ Old v.nero contem plative methods of meditation, and ;1 hH I si milar dr~. In all, there are five buic techniqun; mentioned hen:. These paraUellhe five pho""tic familin di""u~ in the 1M!1\ section ."


J"I1'f'I'IK O'J'1Vl C'-.wv V' ;'1l"\I< ~ :1vcrn ;Ul.::1 lV~" m1;l "I"Cl:! 0'1'1:'::1 r"''1701 110"1::1 rn"ltn 1'TO i" ;l') :D'J'l,tI';J



"'.,;:1 Wi'"


Twrtlly-IItO F fNl1dalion iJtltn He C'!grooM IMm ..- ooi« itl!

lie mrvnl tllem with /JmJ.11J lie ~lllrtm /" the mQllIII

/" jior P/0C6
AId'CIrN 11th Eyi1l

in 1M tirroat


Gim rl Yud Ktif Kuj m>l) in Ille pal<lu l)QiN 'n:1 lAmrd N.", Til>' (rotm)
ilt the IQl1gtJe ".Qyin $amah Slr/" Rnll TztJdi ill rite INth

(Pala/all) (U"palJ) (Dr"lall)

r I"""J "

IkI Va. M"m Pe}, (oy:roJ in lire lips.

Ife t'ngra~~ them wilh voice
means to sound a letter . .... hile ~(arve~ means to upras il. Some versions add. ~He bound them to tite tonsue like a name is bound 10 a bumirtJ ooaI.~ Th is is si milar to an e"pression used above 0 :7).

As uplained earlier.



The divisi<;ln OftM letters inlO five VOOP" is prnented 111:"" bu t this is the only time that thi, is mrntionW in &fer Yeuirah. No appa",nt ",aJOn or application for this division il ~ .. en. One hint may rome from what we ha .. e written above (I: 13). The thll'e letters 0( the Name, Yud Heh Vav (no), are lite first of the T...,h'e Elementals 10 be found in the first three phonetic familia

'" ....hen taken in alphabetical order. lUllural., labial •. and palatals. See
Table 18. Then: an: tWO basic 'NlI~ in which thQe families an: ordered.
The finl WlILy i. lhal which i. prevntt<! litre, ...-bieh stan. from the

throat. Ihe mOliI internal pan of Ihe mouth, and then ronlin ljCS OUIwanllO Ihe lips." The scoond orderin" found in Ille older rornmentaries. take. the JrOIIpinp in alphabetical order." See Table 19 on pal!' 10·t "The most obvious reason for me five phonetic families ...'Ould be so thai 1M division. of Ihe alphabet should parallel I~ divisions in the five dimensional continuum defined by Sdh YClZirah. Indeed,
Ihe Kabhali.1S leach thai tllese fl,·., &rOUPS pan.lle] the Five Loves and Five Stren&1hs (see I:)). which an: tile end points of these dimen-

sion •. 2l. The. :usiJ!.llment of these families 10 spoxific dimcruions. however. i. nOI indicated, allllnu", it may be derived indirecliy. 11 is siJllificanl 10 nOle Ibal all five famitie5 an: present in Bereshit (j,,,'u). Ihe firsl word oflhe Torah ." Doe of Ihe mysltnes of Ihe Sefer Yelrirah is lhe fact Ihat Ihe double leners are nOI mentioned. These double letten Ire Ihe ODes which have dilTercnl fonns in Ihe middle Ind II Ihe e nd of a word: Mem (ag), Nun (ll), Tzadi In"). Peh (')II). and Klf{"?). AlIlhe Tilmud Sla tes, the forms ofthtst lellers ~re fOl"lOucn. and later ...,.ins(ituled by Ihe prophets) ' There is absolulely no refcrence 10 these doublQ in Sefer Yetzirah. The Kabbalisls. lIo .... ever. draw a parallel between the five phonelic families and Ihe fi"e douhled leiters. Accordi", 10 tbe Art. the letlers Plrallelin. the pllon-elic families in lhe order presenled here are: Tzadi. Nun. Kaf. Mem. Pch." See T able 20 on pa&e 104. Another concept lhal is C(>nspicuDu$ly miMin, in tb(, Sefer Yetzirah is thai of the vo...·el •. Here apin. Ihey fonn .IfOUP offi'·e. the mlin vowels ~inl Cbolam (0). Kametz (a), Tzereh (e). Chink (il, Ind Shurek (u). S« Tlble 21 on pajC 104. These are often alluded 10 in the mne monic Piluchey Chotam (w;w>~), Ihe ·silOel eDlflvi",~ (Exodu 5 28: 11) of the Bible. '" Another mnemonic i.

Table 18.

~t ic

division or I"" alphabel

Mothers GUllura!. Labi.1s Palatal. LinJUlb Dental.

, ,





" • m





, , ,

G Ullunl. Palatals
,~ ,~


Shon Vel"5ion

GU llurals

, ,


Gutlural. Labials


.." Labi.1s


Lincu als
[knil ls

Labi. ls

J ,~""

.." IXntals

• ,,,01 ""'"

• 'Q OO


, "

Table 20. Parallcl b(,lwecn phoodic f.m;lies

doublt'd kncn .

I. 2.




GUllll rals Palatals lin&uals



Tudi N ..



M em



P, h


Table 2 1. Thr primary vuw..lil


,. ,

2 3.

Chi ri k
Shuru k





, , , ,

Table 22 Ordering or , ho VQwel •.

Tikunq' Zoha rl T ikuney ZoIIa"" Rabbi Einar Rok~ach'

I .,oi ll i II eo" order of PiIW:hty Chot" II a e i (> order of Nuuu tyikDn
a .:io ll

Rabbi Elazar Rokeacb'
Rabbi Rabbi Emek Rabbi Abnham A1:>uIan. ' Joseph Glkall li . ' HaM.,lekll' Moshe Cordevero'

e L II o ui ea u aieo oill a e

I Tit• ..., ZoNf. loltOodloctlooo

s (200). L9 ( J.I,o,

, liN. 1.'1'(>(1""';.'0(140). JO(U~~ • C _ ........... Sof.. v .. ritaIo ~b, So<

P'..... RI _ " , 11 :%.

• I/W" ' 4b. H..s.tkMi " •. q _ I. ,...,.. /1.;_,... 11 : I .. $tit< II. NiJih,tj, • O;-E,o:l~

, a.


£_H. M~9<.

• I'ordet 11., _", XU.

Table • • Phonic HI'OUP> aoo Sefiroc . '3

Ciullurals Palatals Linlu.1s [)c,ntals .... bial.

i ... "






H od Newell Gevurah TifeRt T iferet Gevvrall Neluch a,.... Hod


, • •



Fi~ ~Ier


Tzadi Nun






Nutareyikon (~i)." AJlh()UaI\ lhe", are other vo,,'els in Hebrew. tllese five arc ronsido:m1 to I:K the root vowels, both by tile lrammatari.ns Ind b y Ihe Kabbal i,t$. The ZOOar clearly dra"'" a p;lnlllci ~t"'een the fi,·c phonetic families and tile five prime ,·owels. and Ihis is echoed by olm K.bbalists. '" The five primary vo"",l. ",-ould then also represenl the five d imensions of th e Serer Ycuirah. In aeneral. tile fi,'c vo~ls a re very imponant in tile UK of lhe Sefer Yctzirah. The usual procedure il to take I pair of klle!"$, pron()Uncinl them with Ihe I~nty·fivc JIO'Ilible combinalions of the five VOWelL This a ppeaR in the s~tem of Rabbi Abraha m •. as well in various techniques of makin, a Golem. The..., appear, however, to I:K . number of d ifferent o pi nions as 10 lhe ordcrinl of the vowds. and a few of these a..., presenled in Table 22." Some of the later Kabbal ists Iiso I!SiIo the five phonetic families 10 the five Sefirot: Chesed. Ge"\·urah. Tiferct, Neuach and H od. Yesod is not included. since, in this rnp«\, Yesod and Tiferct are counted IS one.'" FurthermOtl', Yc.sod I'C'rta inl to melody rather IIIIn 10 sound. " There is. I\o..~er. a dilTeren« of opinion bet ween the Ari and the Ramak as 10 wllether the Scfirot ."' 10 be liken in desttndinl or in lliccndinl order. " The five main vowels I..., also ISsilMd to theoe ~ Sefinll." Sec Table 23. The first due as 10 how 10 assi&n 1hese to the fiV&odimcmiorW rontinuum CQmeI; from 1M ortIt'"ring of ilie fmal letters ill 1M Talmud: Mcm Nun Tzadi Pm ('"F=l. In all IOUIU$, both Talmudic and Kabbalistic, 1M len ..... are "HXnted ill this order. The 000 ttC1 alphabetical ordtr of 1M letlHS, ~, would be: KIf Mem Nun Pm Tzadi (ru:o). See Tal* 24 on ~ 106. The question then mIleS: wily an: theK letterS UMIIlly not presented in their alp/lJobetical ordef?" Earticr ( I :). ho:)wever, "'1: 111'1: spol;en of lhe division of the Tm Setirot into t\\O croups le",acnlilll the two hands. lbcx are 1M Fi...., Lova and the Five J ud&mcnlS. In the ..dc. of the Sefirot. they IlI1:: Five Loves: Keter. Chakllmah, Chesed. Tiferet. Netzacb. Fi ve J udr.menlS: Dinah. Gevurah. Hod, Ynoo;!, Malkhut.




h is immedi.atrly 01»-;0115 thaI each JfOUP lePl "-DIS a lei of end points in the five-dimensional continuum, The pairi l1l in this continuum is: Kcter- Malkhut Good_Evil Chakh mah- Binah PUI- Future ~-<Xvurah So\Ilh-North Easl-WCSI Tifcret Ycsod Netzach- Hod Up-Down

[f we now lake Ih e final \cUen in alphabetical o rder and line them up wi lh Ihc Fi~c L.ovcs in ortkr, "" c have lhe followiJII a,r,sisnmen t: ..r _ K CICT ( Mal k.b ut) M,m _ Chakhmah (Binah) (GevurahJ P,h (Ycsod ) - Tifcret (Hod) r Tu d i - Nctut h

, ,

, N," -"""'" ,
Ycsod Malkh ut

We now must take the Five StrenctM as the opp<IIilC end points in the f've-dimensional «Vltinuum , PIacina them in order, we then 1La'~ Binah - Mem II Gevurah - Nun I

_ Tudi r
- Pch _ Ita( , 1


~4 .



J[phabcii<'a[ order vf lhe Iencrs. FinJ[

Spiri lual

Sefil"Ol KCICT, Maikh ut

Phonetic f amily


.. r
M, m

T ime

Chillmah-Binah Netuch-Hod

North-South Cbcscd-Gevurah East_Well TifCTet-Ycsod


""'" ,,,


, • , , ,

2S . Parallel ordering of the lene",
Five Iovcs Fi, 'c $Iren""$

, • , ,

""'" ,,,
i 'COl


, , ,

• ,


;»" "..


This is Ihe pm:ise ordn" in which thne Ie1tel'1o are 1,l5\1.l11y pre--

sented, and this hardly appears 10 be ooiocidcnlal. Also si&nificant is III.. fllCl Ihal the Ari stales thaI tbe usual onkr MNTzPKh ('lUlOj
only applies 10 lhe$e !cuello ...·hen Ihey parallel Ihe
fi~ Sm~lII\hs.

When they relate \0 Ihe Five r.o,'es. Ihey are in direct alphabetical or<kr." ScI: Tab k l~. Since each oflhe finallelten ""proems one oflhe pllontli., families. ttJnc, can also be a~i&ned 10 their appropriate dimension. In relalin, tbe fi"., primary vowels \0 \hnc phonetic families, Ihe Zebu presents them in the order i 1,1 e <) a, Ihis brio, Ihe order thallhq' appear in PiTuCheY ChoTaM (~~)." Since Ihe ZOO •• here pre$I"nls Ihe phonetic families in alphabelia.l order. I parallel

be drllwn:


LIIbi, ls Palatal,


We no.... Itave three groups of five: the phonetic ramilies. Ihe final 1cllers, Ind Ihe primary vo ..~Ls. All thesoe can be related to the five dimensions. As all the sections. this one can also be read in the imperative. provid i", an impOrtanlt~hn ique. The tut then $a)'S, "Ensrave them with voice. ur-·e th em with brealh , and Soet them in the mouth in li ve places. ~ The inSlrtlCIion is to carefully pronoonce each kller ofthac live families. This is "ensra'·e Ihem with voicc.~ Then one mll$l "carve them wilh breath." contemplalinl each letler carefully. and roncenlralinl on the hreath Ih~t is exhaled while il is pronounced. Finally, one must "set them in the mouth." medillli", o n the place in the mouth wilh whidllhe leiter is pronounced. In this exen.:i$e, elch family nuty aho be prorwu nced ..ith ilS appropriue vo""",1. This yirlds a chanl that can be used for tbis exerdse. &e Table 26 on pqe 10'. The purpose of this exen.:isc is to make the initiate hi&hty awaTC of Ihe physical p~i••'n involved in pronouncinlthe lelten. While sJl"tth ilself involves Dinah consciQusneu, the pronunciation nf the lellen is In automatic acti .. ity, and hence, it involves Chakh mah conscioosness. With Ihn exen.:i$e. the initiate learns to nutke uSoe of the lellen wilh Chakhmab consciousness. Dy pronound", them physicall y, he th.." clothes them in Biaah. It is throUlh Ihis nen:iSoe that be learns to uSoe the kllen as "paths of Wi.ulom."

,» , ""'" • Ch"= Kamelz "01


, " •

Chin k
Shurek Tzereh



S,£FU \,ET'Zl RAIt

Table 20. A

~ham utili~ing

the five p/"o<:w><tk


ACha Ha'A OIl Ye Ke Ke Do To Lo No To Zi 5i Shi Ri Tzi Bu Vu Mu Pu

f:;1J:1 >:<

'11 )"",
T'l'I? !

in : !


In Ihe first ~ion of thi~ chapter. the two MOIi>en, Mem Ind Shin, ""ere used as an exercise 10 oscillate between Chakhmah Ind Hinah conKioosneiS. The second section presented an exercise involvin, the pronunciation and permutation o(lette~ makinlthem fill the enti", mind. Now _ have a third exercise. where one meditates on the physical piO«$St$ involved in Pronouncinl the Ietle~ dlll",in, all of them into Chakhmah c:onsciout.neSli. Once this has been mutered, the initiate is ready 10 embark on the more ad van<:e<i techniques involvina the HI Gates,


/,Qj ';I)';Il~ JII~" '10' m'nv< 0'1"117\ 0"1711 ,1T'tKl C'~J) 1:111:11:1 'lllTl\ 0'11117 I(-Te :'tI:llM :111~ /,1(1 lllll:l ~a, :1:nl~ 1'1( ~-r, lC'Ol


T'>M) FQllndollon L#tl",: H r plotnJ Ihrm in 0 rirclr likro I>'(l/I"l/h 1J1 Go/n , Thr Cird, ()$Cillorn bode ondJqrlh. II lign p this i$: Th", i, ItOlMIt/{ in 8QI)d high"



Th", is Mthing

~iI /(]ft4ICr

Ihu.n P/OF


In a circle
The word for ~circle" here is Gaf$aI. Th is can also be tranilated u ~splle...," or ~cyclc. " Later. the Sefer Yetzirah speaks of the Golgul again, s.ayin" "The cycle ~/gu.I) in the year is like a kina in Ille proYrne<:" (6:3).



· ' -- -- 110<>

~ fin;t


chapter spOke of lite J2 p;ollts of Wisdom. At diseussed lhe~ (1: 1), Ihe numbu)2, when ..nuen 01,11, $~1l5 mani", ~hcan.~ The lutl.ln lpeau oflhe m~"SliCl.I experieDce by sayillJ. M lfyour Iwart runs~ ( 1:8). It also wams.. "Bridle your . . . lImrl from Ihinkin&H (1 :8). The fir.1I 'haptcr tlt\l. speaks of 'lne IlSpttl oftinJ,Ship, whid! is Ihe helln. As Ihe IC~I lalcr says. "The heart in the soul is li te a kina in WJ.r~ (6:3). T he heart thc""fo", domin.t~ Ihe conti nuum of thI'

spiritual. No .... , in lite ...rond chapter, the lal is tumin. 10 I. s«:(lnd ISpect of kingship, Ihe Cyde (ga/gat), .... hich dominates lime. In Jenera!, if I. number Qfpoinh arc p!a~ in I. circle, the n\lm_ ber of possible liMli that can OOOMeI any pair OfpO;DI$ caD be cuily calculated. If ,.,-e let n hc Ihe nurnb<'r Qf points, and L the number of 'ines. tile fannull is:
L .n ( n - l y2

Take the number, rnuhiply il by Ihe number beLow il. and divide by

Thus. IbTff poin ts in a circle can be joined by tbTff lines., f<)OJr poinlS b~ si ~ li nn. fivc points by ten linn. and si~ points b ~ fifteen Jincs. 5« fi,ure 11 on pal( 110. A Jiven numberofpoinlS CIIn 11.... lys be joined b~ tbe number of lines provided by tbe above formula. The number of lines Illat COIn C()I1nect tbe 22 leners plactd in a circle is therefore (22 >< 21Y2. Sre fi,ure 13 on palle Ill. Makin, the calculation. ~ find lllallbere are 23J such linn.. Tbeloe Ire the 23] Gales.

LikJ' a wall...
This can also be read in Ibe impenuive: KPlace tMm in a circle, like a wall wilb 231 ptn. K The Kabbaiisis pTeioent an important meditation regardin, tbese pies." Tbis is based on a text in tbe first cbapter: KEnvavc them like a &arden. Carve them li ke a wall, deck tbem like a ocilin8~
(1 :11 ).

The initi ate must O}nlemplate tbe IfOtlnd. visualiz.;nl it as murk~ black mud. He mUll then K",vaVe~ tbe 22 letters, fomlin, each one in bis mind. These should a circle in the IfOtlnd. Tben be must Kcarve them like a ..-aII. He must Kcarve each I«ter OUI of the around and stand each one up, makinl' circle of Jette .... surround in, bim like a wall. One of the major Kabbalisls, Rabbi Isaac of Aa:o, speaks ofa simil ar medilat ion. where the !etten are visual;7ed on Ihe honton .•





) Point$ 3 l in«

4 Point.

6 lines

, Poinll 10 lines

7 Poin l. 21 linn

8 Poin" 11 lin«



Fi, .." 18. 1M HI

GtJ/~I .


Fi,,,,r /9 . 11 poi"", lJ/liMs . Til. lJ//i"" fOtlIl«/;", 1M ]1lmtrt
O'l 1M 2)1 Galtl.

m' V\

V i" r D '1\1 VI> III III ".., v,:> "17 >'I' rv 'Ill ~l IlC 1V 1"1' "1!' p~ I'll 'Illfll r'IJ lI'D "'I' PI' rl 'F' N~"o Pl rc


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T~ ~

mOm _m m

'" ,~ lit
11 :.;I ....

111:1 :'01
IU l '

rov l7Il


i>C' ~


1'10 1I'1 "I:l ~

~ ~

row", roM


" .,

"PO '" ro ~~""
mW~ ro~ ~


."~ "'TI'!'I tM .~

r .,,"

• ."

" • "'" " , _1m"


.. 111

I' ~ ."

'I OJ rot ". ,~\lIt

I~ g"I i, 1;1 'II )TI C:I ~ O>.,~


;n ,." .,.,

" l1" 0;0' I' ~ .,.. r"' ~ III l ~ \lit


• "CP!"";rIr> 'Pl'II m"" " 1" .,.

." i"" r"I "

v:> ""


.... M



, • " , , , • • ,, • , , • • , , ,, " ,, , ,, • , • , ,•• , 1 , • , ,, •, ,, , • • , • , , , • ,, ,, • , • , , • , ••, • , ,• • • " • , • , , , • •• ,, ,• , • •, , , , • • • • , • 4 , • ,, • " •, , , , • , ,, • , • , , •, , , • • • • • • • • • •• • • • •, , • , , , ,, " , , , ", • , • ,, ,, ,, • , • , 7 • , • ,, • , , , • • , • , •, ,, • • , •, , • ,• •, • •, ••, ,• ,, ,, , , , •• • to •• ,, , , •• • • • , • ,• ,• •• , • , • , •, • , • , , • • , •, , , •, • II ,• •• • • ,• • ,• • , • • • • II • , , • , , , , • , ,• , • • , • , , • , • ,, ,, , , • • ,, , • , , , , , , • • " • • •,• • , , , • , , " ,, • , , , • , , , , , , • , • • • • " , • , • • •, , , • • , , • • • •, , , , • • 17 " ., , • , •, , , ,, , ,• • • ,, , , • , • • ••• • , , • •, • " ,, ,, •, • •, , , , ,, • • •, , •, , • , , ,, , , • •• • • • • , • • •• • " , ,, , , ,, • ,, , • ,,, • 21 " . . • • • · •· • • • " • .
· ·


21. iltmal array







Nexl, tile initiate milS! Mdeck them like a ~ilina. ~ inc the 231 linn connectin, Ihe 22 lellers, and depict them like . teilin, OvCr his head. Onee he has rompkled this exercise, he is read y 10 make usc of the rire~. If be wilohes \0 Use ;110 crelle, he ml,lst proceed in direct order, bqinnin. wilh lhe Ale{. FOCI.lsin, Ihe mind on ~ Alef, he Ihen follows each of the 21 paths emanalin, from ;1 to the other let·

'" He mUSI im.,_

lers, from BellO T.... He continues in Ihis manner, IIsin,aJllheother lelltrs. See flJUre 19 on pa~ Ill.
Acrordina to $OItlC, Ihis is abo I technique for makin,_ Golem. If One wishes 10 dellroy iI, one proct:ed. in the p~ opposite di~ lion . beI;on;n, wilh Tav, and end io.","ith Aleph. Some rommenlann p rHent 1!I\Ort primitive method, where Ihe initiale IClually d I circle around Ihe object Ihll he wishai 10 form." Proccedilll in. circle, he chants Ille len« oombinltio<\$, fi rll Alef wilh all the ol~ lellers, Ihen Ikt, until llIe alphabet is com· pleted. I( one wishes 10 dnlroy Ille ~lation, he ptooeedl in !he opposite direction. It is also ~Ialed Ihat Ihe diJCiple$ oftbe R i..... auempled 10 \lie lhe Serer Ycu:irali 10 make a anl1.U"e. "They ~nl in the ...rnn& dirtttion, however, and sunk in lhe eanb up 10 IbeiT waists Ihrouah the power of lhe \ellen. Trapped, lhey cried out for help. "The Riva was finally con\.aC"Ied, alKi he told his other disciples to rteite the alphabeu wltik procecdilll in the """"","Ie direction. until the othen wert ftttd.." There is some que:nion as to whether ~pnx:eedinl~ here means tbl! one lhould aclually walk aroulKi the eime, or wbether il muns Ibal one mUSI merd y move around il mentally and meditat ively.

With 231 Gales
The number 231 repraenll tile number of ways in wb ich twO differenllenen of tbe He~ alphabet CIIn be connected. Thi$ num_ ber also is the numher of 1,,-0 !ener words thai can be fanned ""; Ih the \etten, provided the same !ener il no! ~peated, and provided thai O«Ier il nOI considered. Theoe combi nations may be arranied in a Inanlle.'" This finl melhOO is called the Lo&ica! Method (f"UTe 20). Besides tbis, th ere is also a Kabbali"ic Metbod (filure 21). w1ticl! is somewbat mo~ complex." In tbe Kabbalistie MClhOO, onc belins by writinS the entire Hebre'to" alphabet, from AJ,ef 10 Ta ... On Ihe second line, one wriles every olher \eller. endin, wil h Shill. One Ihen skips lhe Tav and bqiliS Ollce apin wilh Alef. The IICQUCIICC IIle~fore ~pealS jt~lf.




. = ,.• •• .. •, • " " • " " " . .., '"•" •• "• . •• " " • ., • . " " , " " " " • . ,. , " • . " • • " ., • " "• • • " " " '" ,. '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" '" • , . "• • ." ,. •" ,.• " " " '" • .• '" .• " • ..• ,. •" ., " • " • " .• • • ..•" "., .• "• " ".•, ..•, ""• .. '" '" • " ..• " " "., '"" " " "
~ ~























" »




































" »

• "

• "






0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

• , • • • • 0 • 9 , • • 0, • • • • , • , 0 • 0 • , , , 0 0 , • • 0, , 9 • • 4, • 0 , , 4• • •
I 2 3





, • , ,





2J . .4

~,".,br","ay "


'. n,,,bi"'11 1M

• , ""IIi.' /array .


3 2







lI,nJ ,•~ 1M

l(abbuliSli" Ml'tlltxJ.

In the third li~. one writes every t hird k1ler. in the fO\lrth. every fOllrth leiter. continuin, unlillhc 11 lines hive bttn completed. ~ then has the inilial IrT1IY. The clevcn lh li nc i. panitula.rly interestin" Since 22 i. divisible by c""'cn, Ihe 110'0 lcllc~ Aid and Lamed, ",~al1hcmW'lvcs for the entire line.

The nell step is 10 take the arTIlY and b~ak il into pairs. This yid<h 21 lines and II columns. producin, .. total of 231 pain. Thest an: the 2Jl Gates accordinllo the Kabbalistic Method. See flJun: 22. This system i. actually not a. oompln as it fint IPlXan. To understand it more thurou&ltly, ...-e can take .. similar amy, usinlllle numben from 0 10 9 ;nl1ead of teuen. It is quite ,;mpk 10 make o.uch an a ..... y. See fi,ure 21. In Ihe fint line, one merely counts from 0 10 9. In Ihe KWnd line. one counts by IWO. As soon U "'"e reach 10, we muel)' u!Ie Ille laSI diJit. In tile third line, .... e do the same, oounliJ\l by tlllft and usin& only th e final dil,iL The rest of Ihe array is foTll'lW usinl subKquen\

What we actually h.. ,"C then is a simple multiplication table, "'11m: only the lUI dialts 1I.>'c heen retained. Clearly OOvlouS in Ihis array is the dilaonll symmetry, which is al!lO found in the a1pbabetic:al alTlly. The fifth line is part icularly si&nific:am . Wilen one counts by S, one obtain. the numben S. 10, IS. 2S, and so on. ThcrefOK. when only I~ JUI diJits I"' tak~n. 5 and 0 a1t~m.ate Oft this line. Thc same is \"", of the ..)e.· .. nth line in th .. alphabelical amoy, .... he"' Ihe AId' and I~ Lamed alternale. OIK' Ih..., divide$ the IlmlY ;nlO double columns, 10 form a nu~ric:al analo&ue of Ihe 2)J Gales. TIt.. onl y diff.-rence is Ihal ",h..n wortin, ",ith the alphabet, "'~ a",. in dfect, u~i", a number bax of 22. See fll"'" 24 on paJe 116. One thilIJ lhal i. immedialely apparent is Ihe fact that even Ihouab ...-e obtain 45 pain, lhey do nOI correspond clictly to the 45 unique pairs Iha, can be obla ined from 10 diJiIs. See fllU", 25 00 Pa&C 116. We ~lUaJly find that 14 pain arc minina. while an equal number arc rc~aled. Thc mos,lIarinl example oflhi. i. Ihe ",~Ii­ lion of the rombination OS. wbich Ottun fl"e limes. Anolher redundancy is 80, which i. merely the ",verse of 08. JIlII a~ one can be&in each sequence from Akf, to one can also bqin il from Bet. One would then ha~ a similar amty. ",ilh each line bqinnin& with • Bet in.tra<!. of an Akf. Each ieller of the Bet array would be one hi&her than the COile:>pOlldi", lctll'1" in the Alef array. One tan make similar arrays with all the lctten of the alphabet. Very imponanl illhe eleventh line, ... herc the IeI1I'1" pain ",~at Ihemsel~es. In the Aleflmoy, Ihe lctlenAlefaoo Lamed n:pcat themschon in this 1in~. In the Bet amoy, th~ lcllen Bet and Mem will n:pcatt hemselva A. subsequent amys an: ronstructed.. the ",~.I­ ;nllcllcn contioue 1 conform 10 those in the ALBaM (~ "") cipher. 0 See filure 26 on PIlII' 116.



01 02 OJ


" " "
06 08 09

" " " " ,. "

F'gllu U _II. ~,,_n(',,1 ulI<Il~..r o/'M 1J I r:;mu us/O<""",II&., rbt Kui1bo,/iSl;" Mnhod.




" " " " "



" ." " " "

."" " . "


" "


0] 02 0) 04 05 06 07 08 09

" " ., " " "" " 68 69 "
57 S8

12 13 2J 24

1516171819 26 27 28 29 36 12 38 39


" " "



~ ~


~ ~




'" •

'" "



FiX"'" 16. TAr ALB.. M r;pMr.




This holds (rut u" lil ()n~ reacha Ih~ Kafarra the leiters K.a( and Tav rePHt. In lhe Lamed array, lhe letters Akf and lamed rrpeal. so thai Ihis is lhe revenc of the Alcf lmay. l1tc repe.t in,lct·
len in Ihe ",~lICnl arrayo are the !'evene of Ibo5e in the tim eleven .ma)'~


Therrlon:. 1M", Ire eleven amays where Ihe eleventh line has Ihe pain in lhe ALB.M $CQIIC'~ ",~alinj.. The nUl elc"cn amyl hive
lheir T(>vrrv "'pralil1J,. A num~r of some..'hat similar amays are used by lhe later Kabbalis\s." lnSlead of !,Isia, Ihe Kabbalis\ic Method, ho,,'cveT, they merely skip I number of letlen in lhe se«:lnd colum n, and Ihcn proceed wilh Ihe alphabet in iii " ....1 onkr. II is not dear if these

lalcr Kabhaiisis did Ihis so as 10 conceal the true method, or if il actually repreKnts a completely diffcKnI proccdllre. See filuTe 27 on


Acoordin, \0 either procedure, thcre are cleven arrays in '""hkh lhe pain l'l:PfnC'nlro by ALBaM are dominant. Thca., thm:: are aoother cleven arrays whcll' lhe reVtnc of I~ pain are dominant, 11M: finl eleven amo).. ,re .aid 10 reprrsenl lite eleVfn Sffirot ""hen lite quasi-SefiRIt Out (Knowkd&eJ is also included. The scquentt is: Keler. Cbakhmah. Binah. Out. Cbescd. Ocvurah, Tiferel. Netueh. Hod. YeJOd, foblkltul. 11M: fint eleven 'mI)'", witeK the ~irs of ALBaM are in direct order, repre.enllhe ~fronl· oflh<':K eleven Selirot. The KCOnd set of elc"en, " 'here lhese ~in are revened, reprnenl the "bad" of the Scfirot. These amy, aN: prrsented in Appcndi~ Ill. Althou&h lile Serer Yelzirah sa).. , ~Ten and nol eleven" (1 :4), Ihis is only speakin, of Ihe inner euence of lhe Sefirot. When _ s))tak of their reprne:ntalion IS letter amo)'S, _ are speakin, of Iheir OUler euentt. and hffe Out (Know\edJel is al50 toI.lnted. muillJ ele'·en." These ln1yi an: "ery impOrtant in bindillJ onnelf 10 Ihe Sffirot. They , 11: al50 used in lite ~lIion of a GoIem. ",""dinIIO lhe early K.IIbbalist5, the 23 1 Oates are alluded 10 in Ihe narne Israel." In Hebrew, Israel it s))tlled YiSRAe L ('llC Ie». Thne le1len n n .150 spell 0\11 YeSh RLA {.rn r) . whkh lilnlllly means. ~Ihere are 2J I ," 11M: Midrash states Ihll lllhe ~nninl or~alion, "Israel rose in thouJ,hI."" Tile name "Israel " Ihus alludes 10 Ihe fact Ih.t crealion look place throod! these 231 Gates. Acoordinl 10 the 1.ler Kabbalisti. Ihese 231 ples.n: whatll:lftlined in lite Vacated Space Ihat pr«eded erellion," When lite Sefer YelziR h _peab Of lhe "ll Pllhs of Wisdom," it uKi Ihe WQrd Nali~ for ~p;l lh ." The numerical "alue of Nati" (~'nJl



" • , , " m ,, " • " • " , ,., > , " ,., • , • " • , " , '" • ,., , " " " , '" •
~ ~ ~

, , , , , ,





" • m • " • • •


~ ~ ~



" • m


. . "




" • m

~ ~



• , "



• • lauT K"INHI/IJIJ. Tim ,$ 11t~ Alif "'rll)' r Ofuspondinll 'Q Kru r . INQJ~ NIM' 'ht Irllt' 8 of Trt,,.. grammallN! ~lItJ 1>1<1. (Jrt lined lip ,,'if" 1M liitrs_ !


" "



" " Gurn at:«H'dll'X /o 231


,., " " • '" .

• •

• ,., • • n m • • " " ,., • " n * • " • " , " " • " • • • • " • " " " "• ,., • " " ,., • " n '" • " W " " • " • " m " n W • " '" • m , • " n '" " • • m • " n " n • " " • " "" • • •" m " • ,., • •" m " " ·










~ ~

. . . . . . . . .


~ ~





~ ~



~ ~




~ ~






~ ~




is 462, ( 1IKlly Iwke 23 1. Sintt each of the 23] Gales oontainl\WO \ellen, there all: a tola! of 462 Sellen in each IInY." It il lberef~ evident Ihll Ihe M Pathl 0( Wi$domMare I'd Rled 1 these IIn)'l.. In 0

some VCl'lIionl of Sefer Yetzirah, the actual Gain. M",

~ad ins

is M462

Tllere i .. however, • very ancient tradition wbk h THds 22 1 Gales rallier than 231." Thil iSlhe reldin, favored by Rabbi Eliezer Rokeadl of Wormes, who karmd it by tradition from Rabbi Yebudah Haehasid. " See flJUre 2&. The KabbaliSlS note WI this number is 1M...... on the Talmudic leach;", that in the Future Worid, Kina David', cup ..,.;u hold 22 1 mea_ 1II.ll'eI." This is bawd on the verse, -You have annOOlled my head ..ith oil, m y ClIp i5 overl1owill&~ (Psalms 23:S). In Hebrew, MOVerno..;"I- i5 ~ ("'"). whidllw I numerical value of 221 . The Itnn R~ it Iller uKd by Sd"cr Yettirah 10 deno\e the MlempeTllleM wason, paraUelinllhc kllcr Alef (l:S, 7). Just as Ihe Alcf W"'es as 1I1e intennediate bctw«n Shin Ind Mem, theselrrays mi&ht


FIll"" 18. TM 111 Gain
Wor .....~ ( //6(j..I ZJ 7} .

• • " n• " ,. " " " = , '" " m n• • , " po " ,. "" " '" ., • , m ro n '" " • w • • • " • ", » " " w " P' • n " " = " • • " ., n '" po ., " • " • • " ,. e ., • " , " ,. " " " • • • u" " '" " , " n " • " " '" • • '" " , m • "' • • , " " n" • " " • ., • " " po "' " , , " • " " ., " "• " '" ." ' "




, , "

~ ~ ~ ~









,. " n


• •










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~ ~


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" "

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, 1 Rabbi· EI".,Ir 0



lieI'Ve as


mCin. of Ullnsition Nt llittn Binah and Chaldlmah

Also si",ificanl i, t~ rontut of Ilti, I~a<.:hinl- The becinnm, of Ihis vt'l'Se it., ~you l\ave annoioted m y IIead "";Ih oi1.~ T his aUudes 10 the feeli", of bein, N IIIN in oil which il fl't'qllmll y eTlCO\Intcm! durin, the mystical upo:ricn<.:I:. " Auaininl weh a n e~l'C'rkllCe is therefore associlled wilh these 221 GaIn. The number 221 is also siJniflClnl as bcillllhc product of lWO primes, 17 and 11. T he numben can the...,',,", be placed in a unique

This syllcm follows Jo&jaIlly from the Kabbalislk Method distUiSCd earlier. In the array produced by this method. the two lellen.. Alef and LImN. are re~ated dr,'en times. SilltC this in sill&k combination . sud! Tq)eIition il rWllndant. III Elieur Rokeach's system. the AId.lamed pair iSIl~ only 0IICe.. Since len sucb pairs are omitted. instead of 211 Gatn. one is lett with 22 1. Similar aml~S can N made beainninl with the othff kllen. These are presented in APlXndi~ III.







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n m


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v ., " '" m "

m m n n

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~ ~

, "


• '"



" m

n m


~ ~







, " " "
" •








n , ., " • m " n • ., "




• ., • " • " " " " " " •

, " '"

'" " •

" "



u " ., '"

" " " ,. "

. "" "" .. " " " " " "
19 J8
02 39 03 12 06 09




Fip:urr )0. NumrriC"Q/ onalog'u

" """" " 08 16 " " """"" "of" "


Abulafio' sa",,)".

im ponanl ",presentation of Ille 231 Gates is lnal of Rahlli Abraham Abulafia. " Tllis is somcwh'll ikc I"" Loaical Amoy. bUI il is KI in I ~.n"c. wilh Ihe upprr nShI side .mon,ed so as 10 fill in Ih~ missi", 1~II~rs (f""re 29). The Slructure is discvnl bk wben OIK Sludin ils numerical anaJOIue (fi,ure )'oJ. CJose cuminalion shows $Orne redundancy in Ibis amoy. combinalions are


C'- -'-.

• r...

'• ,., " " ,



" ,. ,. " m "
" m

.• .,


" '"






, " ., " m > • , , '" m • ", m '" • m • • , , m " • , '" m • • " "
~ ~ ~ ~

" "

• '" m " • ,., "• • " ., ., C " " u " ." " '" ,.., P' • ., '" w m ., • ., '" •,

" m



., "

'" "" ,


~ ~






• = m • • w • " , m , • " m " , " , " m " " " m " " " " " " " " " " " " m " , "• " , " " " " m m " " P ., " e u' " m ,., • ., .
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~



~ ~




m m


~ ~

• •




~ ~

. • ..,



Fiflurr )1 , NIl_ril:al aMI",,,,, ,,' Ahil/afM's ""lI)' ~1iji..J '" r~ .."" ...

"" OJ "" " " 11 " """ "" '" " " "
29 )8 02

06 07 03

... "" "" "" "
37 69 78


"" " "

"" "

rn/""oo ...·/u,
n:peated, while others a n: omined_ Thi s IITlIYcan be modified, bow. ever, 10 that its redUDdam:ielI lIn: remo"ed and all oombinations an: n:prnc:nled , See lieun: 31 and Ii",n: 32, Even wi th lhe reduDdancies n:mQved, bowever, 1he extn:me left column is ;LnQmaIou.$ lind complex. This anomaly can be n:moved,



. .
~ ~

• • n, " nn m m •, • ., m • • , • , » ." , m '" , ., ,• • • " • • ".

'" , '" • • " " • ,., , '" ., '" '" ,., , " "w " " ,. " • • " .,., ", "• " " ,. " ., ,. • ., "




~ ~ ~


• " n

~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~



~ ~







n n




















. .


• , • m • • • m m • " " • • " m " " m " m » " " " • , " • » ., n ." m " • ., m " " " ,. n " , n m " " " " P' n '" " " ., " m • . ".

m m





~ ~


~ ~















" ." .. .. ." "" " "" "" "" "" "" " """ ""

21 J7

12 19

06 07 08 17 26 09 27

Fixurr # . N",."rinll ~....

" .., " "of " '''ray
Abtolqfo, I

MtNJijitJ ""'" limp/i·

and Ihe aTTaY it lIIo.n furlbrr ,im pl jr~. S« filul'l'I)J and }4. Tile number 231 rcpres..n($ the 10tai number of combinations o f '''''0 Ictten. The n!,lmber o f oombinalionl of th ree leltt'l'S il 1540. Rabbi Abraham notes lllal Ihis is equallD 22 lirMS 70. The Dumber 70 I'l'prewtlU the 70 pri"",,.,. lllllllqn. If each of these lan-

Table 27 Combinations of Icuen .

ullcrs Combinations
105,432 646,646
47 ~.420



Combinat ions

, , , , "
1 J


6 7 8

1,54Q 1.31 5 26.334 " ,61l 170,544



479,420 646,646


" " " 20 " "

" " " " "

31 9,770 170,544 74,613 26,334 7,31 5


I\lages had an .lphabet of 22 leners. theft would be a 10lal of I SolO lctten." In ~neral the number of eomb;nuion. of n tellers i. Jiven by tile formula:

c ~ 22!1{n!(22- n)!I.
Values Oflbc numbers from zero to 22

provided in Table 27.

There is nmhing in good higher than Delight ...
This is because the Bible Kfcrs \0 the mOSI dir«1 nperience of God .uinll the word ~d.,1i&ht- (O~). It is thus wriucn. -rl\en you .... ill deliahl upon God- (h.aiah 58:14)."









TIle .... ont for "plague. - Nega (ltll), K obtained from Iftllf (llJ) by si mple f1)\a tion. The term Nl'ga denoted especially a kprosy like pique ..... hich a siln of dis.approval by God. See filU,.., 3~ on page 123. In an earl in S«tion t I: I 3). ...., di"""ucd how permutltions such as thex t an result in OppO$ite~ A very si milar permutation il p""""nted by the K.:Ibbalists. The hi&hest spirituallevd to which one can :u pin: il tlle Sc:firah of Keter (Crown), The furtller one climbs, however, the ~ rarified tile atrnosp/le"", and 1M "",aler the I pirit.."l da!IJeT. By I simple permulalion. 1M ....ord K~"" (vol be«lmes Kal'Ft (rro). tile Heb..,... word for urilion, whe"" • penon il complelely cui off Wiritulll y. " One of Ille earty 10th centu!)' mystics, Hai Gaon, noted tlllt many people who embarked on tile mysteries "" en: s~ful, but then met .... it h untimely de.III." Tile 1Ii&her tile climb, tile more danaerous tile falL A perwn WQ\I ld not attempt to clim b I danaerous mountai n witlloutt lle proper In.ini nl and equipmen t. Any OO¥ice woo ....ould anem pt II dimb wilhout an e.pemnced guide WQ\Ild be court in, diluter. Oimbilll spiritual Mi1h15 can be equally dallJerous. OM needs tile. proper In.inin, and mental equipment, as well IS In ex perienced ~piril ual guide.



ov a,\;ll O~:J OV ':<: [1'0.1'1 I'vV JII'" '1I":J
111 " 1m ':J OV 01,,:11 ~:J OV ':J 'I(

''0';' 7:J\

7:J :<:YCJl DI"1VV I( -I:I~ J'1l1(Y.Oll : "111:( OVO 1O'l'

1/""" Ht pmmdro Il!t m. "";gl!td Il!t .... and 1f<J'4fQrmtd Iht.... ,fltf "'ill! tl!em all and all of Il!rm ",ill! ,fIr! lkt ..'ilh Ihem alt and all Q/ rhem "'jrll Bt'r. TIr~ rt'pr<ll I" a cyde and n ilt In lJJ Gal<'5. II romn 001 IIuII allillal ;1 formro and aI/ rhal II j pOknl ..maNJIt$ fro m OM Namt,

0. _.' __ .... ;:w ....

One Name


AcmrdiTIIIQ Ihe Kabbalist$, this Name is the TClrqrammalQn, YHVH (;moJ. Each kiter mus' be pennuled with the Tctr..n.mmaIon in an appropriate manncr. The te<;ilnique for doinl this is outlined by Rabbi ElieuT

Ra keaeh of Warmes, Pl'rtiallarly in the conlexl of crellillJ a Golem." This brines uS 10 some of the most po~rf... l medilalive
techniques of Ille Sefer Yetzirah. When one is WOfti11& ...ilh a letter, he mU51. combine lhatleuer wi\h the ktlen oftbe Tctrat;mnmaton.. usinJ aU fi..-e V'D""el1. Th u$, for uampk. if one were usilll the AIef, one v.'OUld bq:in by combinin, il wilh lbe Yud of Ihe Tetraanmm.ton, usillj aU live ,-o_ls. 5« filllIT 36 on pqe 126. Then: is. hO"l',ever, some question as 10 how one is 10 JO about Ihis. From the words of Rabbi Elieur Rol<each,;1 would appear tha' one simply makes use of all the vo""",ls In sequence:

AuYuAI YaAiYiAeY eAo Yo
As discussed earlier. Ihere is ~ ql,lestion rqardinl the sequence of Ihe five primary vo_ls (2: )). There an: I' leul • hJlf dozen diffCll'nt opinions.. If tile proper sequence is crucial. much danserous eXP/'rimentation WOIIld ha"e 10 be done to determine the proper sequence, It is pOUibk, ho_VC', . that the sequence il not overridin&ly important, In ny event, followin& t he system of Rabbi Elieur Rokeacb , the initiate musttMn p' OCted in this manner, oompletin& all four kllers of the Tel ....... mmalon. One tan proceed in tM same maoDCT usins any D1her letter of the alphabet. The ini tiate continues in this manner. pronouncins all the leners in the array oftM 221 (or l l i l GatH. Since AId is the k ner associated with th e thorax, tile ent;", Alef array ...... Id pertain 10 this pan of the body. Neu the iniliate would proceed 10 the head. for whkh ht WOIIId u.. lhe Shin array. as elplained below (3:9). He would form an array of tht 221 Gales wllere ,,·try line bqins with a Shin. Ht would then continue in Ihis manner throuah all the pam of the body, Ulin& tht lelttrs that Ihe Sefer YelziTllh a"ocialel with each pan. FOI" each klier, one mUll to throuah the entire sequence of 221 (or 231) Gatts. Each luch sequence contains 442 leners, and therefore, in completinJ aLI 22 of tile alphabet. one will have made use of 4862 letters. Each of th ... letters will ha .... been pronounced with tl>o five primary 'IOwels and the four leners of the TttrA&T&mma_



AuVu AlVa Aiyj AcYc AcYo AuHu AlHa AiHi AcHe AoHo AuVu AlVa Aivi AeVe AoVo AuHu AlHa Ai Hi AcHe AoHo

foc~ .. ~!! 'IIIt"",,,,~~

... ",,~:o:<!t'
'IIIt::."""",~ \'!"~!l:~

BuYu BuHu BuYu BuHu BaYa BiYi BcYc BoYo B;oHa BiHi BcHc BoHo BaV. BiVi BcVc BoVo B;oH. BiH i BcHc DoHo

1'i:I :'HI~ ::q ~


Figltu 36. Tilt Jtqwt ...... lor A.ltl and 8 t l .

jllpl)~ o,n~ U rln 0')')) 11:\1 t~):'! I'lln )'m, ' J';' ') ~


mSll ')/!I>~ \~ Il" tl"~' '~P' pCW:"I




M " I'l~' -mil:'! )11 O':CI'l O'JI1) '~'I I'lIlJ

,,) "nJ 'Ill I' tlr;nl! nJ) o,/m 1>1''' 3\1> Iljl'i' "iV~ I) r;', ,fm "'tl!,, ' J ''IIn:'l

I! """, )lll' ",llIn " I! ,,;,.r,."J, Ul)ll'I', J'/l.., )" /'I C:'Illll er;:> nil! e;Il)), /'I I! I! /'I ". . , " . . • "/'1 pI , )'!)fI, , )'11/'1, 'I! )'11/), ,,, l"rl/'ll 'I! il ,
,,11 ;" 'J PI ' J 1')11'
: mtI\))

, ttl 0,1! ~, "" fijI:! 0.,,' 0,*''I} 11)11'1) )'nn', O~\J r.r;Vl 0 "" C'1Il 'till!> )Jl" "I! ;J O"lrtl b-J' ~e 1'l~"J nt~hl )l~l; m" II"~' ,rc} n " f't, J ' n:1l "l! ~, U)





:'I"/l pI

P';::I)' )J:'II U '1l1J1l


Fil W't 37. It..I,wctiOtlJ fox maki", II Gai,,,,, jr(Nfl Rabbi £Iitztl' R~_·It· $ ,-",.",.t1ll"'7 QfI Stfor Yt lti' ......

ton, a total of twen ty pronunciationl for eacb letter. Thil means that tile entire c~crdK makes UK of 97.240 pronunciations, AuwnUq that one can pronounce fwr Iyllabks a SfIWDd, it WQ\Ild take appro"o
Una.dy seven houn 10 complele this entire process. The mClbod of creat ;1Ii a GoIem il w tlillCd by Rabbi Elieur RoI<.each in hi, rommCDlIf)' on Sefer Yetzinh, and p leseJlted in

..J .... _

....,- .. ,,,,..,..... ............._ ....... '" "'¥N."""............" .....,........ "' ... .. "' .--.. ...... ..,,,-...... .... .. ,., > ........ ...,' """ ........ ,. "" .............. '7!'''' O·_ _ ... , __ .... u, ,.,. . . _ ......'"". ,,,, .................... ... _. ""'""1' ...... .. .. .. ....'..-.
.......".,. .."f,..- ....... ... ,.,.
'_1".. ...........

_ _ " ...... . .........., oJI,o ....,,"""..., ~~
:!~ ~.,.

"P-... --.", .~,..,- .......... .......

.... ....,W>n .., ....., ....._""" - p " po ... po...,. ... ~ ,.. ,""p , 1.0 ... , .......... ...
~ "" '·.w· ~~ ""'''''

...,., ......... "'.,.- ...... ,........ ... .--,..-. ........',"" ,..."_" ,..-".. ...... " ..',............. . . .... -. . ...... '" _, •• ' • • , ....... , I" J "'y''''
• p'w.·_ .. ,_ ..
'.- ..... ...., 1>""" ""' ... _ .. ,......_
,· _ . ,_~

_ _ ""'._.... ., .. ........ "p'" , ~ ""... .... ...-.. ........" .. ,...... ""'no'''''' .. """'_ •._




~ ..



.. ..... ,'"""?"" ... '"':'" to"Y''' ,... ..... u, P' ..... 'f'"'' ....... ., ...... "'.... _ '*..,.. .... .,......... .,,, ,... ... ,...,,.....•_" ..' .... ,--....,,'''' ........... _..... .... .,"' ......... "....... ...'-r, ..........r'.. "'1 ..... ...-" '"'....... ...... _ '"1""" ., ...._""" .....•.", ........., _ ... -"""''r._"l"O>? , ....... ...,,.,-, ...

_ -,

f"'"" _ ........ ,.., ""

........... . .. ...... _ .. ·.""",....._i_ ...."" ........·_..... ... .
... .. .... ' " ..... P - ! " ....., .


I""P' - ....

......... , • ....... .... \o' ..... ~" ... ,..... ... .,.,. --~-.-


-,.. ,. ~rt",.
.,.,," ~'"

"...., ~ " ".



-- .... ,. --

._ .~_

• J"'"

,...~ . ""U I""


,r. . . " ....

....., ............ ....

'-'Io ....,' .. n ""' r'" ..,. ........... .......


.... If?"''''''''

50mr""ilat iJ""tater detail b:Y 1M .uthorof Emek IfaMMJr ( Depths of the King)."' Sn. rl&ul"C' 37 on pa&e 126 and figu~ 3&. An initiate VrouId not do it alone, but VrouId alway, be ...,,;...mpanied by one or two 00I.1ca" .... . The GoIem mU51 be m;odc of virsin 500. taken from a place ..."here no num has ever duJ. The soil must be Imeadrd with pu~ ~"i .....ter. taken directly from the ground. If this ""at« .is placed in any kind of ve..d, it Cln no \onJtr be uri The people maki"i 1heGoiem must purify themselves tocalIy befor-o. ensaPll& in this .aivity. both physically and ",iritua11y. While makina the GoIe,,~ they muOi ...,.,. dean "'hir~ vestm .. nl!. Tbne authoR also 5t"'S1that O~ mUll nol make an y mistak .. Or error in the pronunci~t ion , They do not $IIY what mUll be do~ ifone ern. but from OIMr :IOUn:e5. it "'wid that at very kut. one " "uld have 10 bqin the 1m)' from the bq.inninJ. Ourinllhil enlire procedu",. no inlerruption ",hau.;,..""r may OCCIIr. Thne .UthoR also inr im~ le that the)' I", only ",vealinl the out· line of the method , and are not p~ilenti nl il in ;\5 entirety. This ~150 appean evident from olher sourees. TIle", i. abo evidence that nutinl ~ GoIem was p1imarily nol a physical procedure, but rather.• hilhly .d\l;lnced meditati'-e technique. ': By chantin, the appropriate leller .rrays tocelher wi th the ktters of the Tetra.rammaton. the initi.t~ could form a '"ery real mental imaB~ of a human bein&. limb by limb. This possibly could be u~ u an astral body . throtrs/l which one C(luld ~=nd to Ihe spiritu~1 ",aim ..



The formation of such •• pirit ....1 body . how~·er, would also Tnuh in a tremendous spiritual potential. Once Ihe OOllolXptl.Lli GoIem ..... completed, this spiritual potential rou ld I:.. transferred 10 • c~y form and a nimate it. This was the procns IhrOUJh which a phy~ical Gc*em would be brou&hl 10 life. In introduciTIJ Ihis method. the Sefer Yetlirah uid, ~E","," c

them like a prden, carve them like I wall. deck them like a


( I: II). There is some Question as \0 what role Ihi. meditation plays in Ihe technique of makin, I GoIcm. Aocordinll to sonw: early SO\IItt$, one must proC! ! d in I circle around the CJftlU~ thaI one is crutin&- This ,..,fet" 10 Ihe mental SU'UC\urin, orlbi. ·prden,· wall ,- and w eeilina. befo", the Golem is formed.

Pronunciation with the YIKI ('):
AoYo AoVa ",aYe AoYi AoVa

.>.aYo AlVa AaVe AaY; .>.aYo AeYo AeYa AeYe AtYi AeVu AiYo AiVa AiYc AiY; AiV"
A",yo AuV, AIIYe AuV; AuYu

:':' '':' !I:< !':' "!'
,.. .. ' 11 ' 11 '" -

.. .. .. .




YoAe YaAe YcAe ViAe YuAc

YoAi YaAi YeA; YiAi YuAi

YoAu YaAu YeAu YiAu YuAu


.r .r of 'ri'

o;r: ~ o;r: .-:

If. o;<! tI: 0:<: '-:

t': o;r: '!': ':': .M!

"= '!: ,:,~ ',,=

Ao Ho AaHo Ae Ho AiHo AuHo HOAO HaAO HeAo HiAo HuAo

AoHa Al Ha AeHI Ai Ha AuHa HoAa HaA. HeAl HiAI HuAa

Pronunciation "ith the Heh (:I): AoHe AoHi Ao Hu ClKCI":jII \I" ":1K :'Ie:'le:"lll :'le ":lot Al He AaHi AI Hu .. AcHe AeHi AeMu \":'::'"L'tN!'\"!'l"II! Ai He Ai Hi Ai Hu V"::'"L''1':'\,,!,~ ;wi :'Ie :II< 'III .:IIe Au He Au Hi Au Hu "


.. .. .

.. .... .

HoAc HaAe HeAe HiM HuAc

HoAi HaA; HeAi HiAi HuAi

HoAu HaAu HeAu HiAu HuAu

~ o;oiI~' ~ . ....,

'!'>, '!V ..., ...., :;:c:t '!'>, I[CCI I[CCI •..., tel ':"1 '!'>, ~ '..., ~...., ' ...., ....., " .. .. .. .


F'II"'" 19. Alx<lgfoJ·s $p wn .



c+., ... r ...
Alw importanl was the system tau&ill by Rabbi Abnham Abula»a. "'"hich is apparenlly rooled in earlier lechniQues. See fi,ure 39 on pa,n 12i-129. II is nOI <:ena;n, ho"~'"er, .... helher Abulafia is upandin, upon lhe mel hods of Rabbi Eliezar Rolr.each. or if he is drawin, from an entirel~ different lradition. This technique is alw quoled by a number o rJaler K.abbalists. " In this system, lhe initiate pronounces the lellen 1O&Clller Wilh thow of (he Tctl1luamm. ton. just as in the system of Rabbi Eliezar Rokeach. Ho...'C>"er, inSiea d of me...,ly usinlthe five primary >"owels alone. he must usc C,'CI1' possible combination of these _ "CIs, twcnt)'-five in all.

Pronunciation ...; th the Vav (1); AoVo AaVo AcVo AiVo AuVo VoAo VaAo VcAo ViAo VuAo "oVa AaVa AeVa AiVa AuVa VOAI VaAa VeAl ViAa VuAI AoVc A. Ve AeVe AiVe AuVe VoAe V,Ae VeAe ViAe VuAe Ao Vi AIVi AcV i AiV i AuVi VoAi VaAi VeAi viAi VuAi AoVu A.VU AeVu AiVu AuVu VoAu VaAu VeAu ViAu VuAu

:oo .. jo<;.. ... ;t:IJI:<Jl:Cl':'I!
;O:<JI:<JI:<!t''':.' :OO!"l'!<JI:<~


':"I o:n 1ft tt\ ..,
If. "'! ':') '!!.")

'!! to) ~ to) 'If! '!! to) o:n ~ 'M! ':'1 ~ "'1 ':'!'Of!

Ao He AoHa AaHo Aa Ha AcHo AcHI Ai Ho AiHa AuHeA uHa HoAo HaAo HeAo HiAo HuAo HoAa HaAa HeAl HiA, HuAa

Pronunciation with the final Heh Ao He AoHi AoHu AaHe AaHi Aa Hu AcHe AcHi AeHu Ai Hc AiHi AiH u Au He AuHi Au Hu HoAe HaAe HeAe HiAc HuAe HoAi HaA; HeAi HiAi HuAi HoAu HIA u HeAu HiAu HuAu


"'" .. , ....."'," "" .~ """""""".",.
!P' tl' tl' ~:I ''':I

~ "" "'"' ~ '11., t'" '!'!:I ""~ 0:<-' '",":,
~ '!'-:' "'"~ ':":' ''''~

t":' "'" "'"' ':": ""


Cholam Kametz


Chirik Shurck


. -

8c&in straillll ahead and raise head up"'ard. IkFn at riabt am! move head to left. Begin at left and movc head 10 fiabt. Belin slTlliJ,h1 ahead and lower tl(,ad downward. Move head dirc<:t1y forward.

Ifthi. method "",re used with an entire array of 221 letter pairs.. complding a sinsle array would be a major t ..... , takin& over an hour and a half 10 complete. It would take over H houn to complete lhe entin: seq~ncc of 22 letters.. It is que:uionable if this was evu actually done in prKlice, bul il i. not imp05Sible. Formina a GoIem was considen:d to be ttl(, mO$t advanced-and danJerous-of all mroitative t~hniques. An initiate advan«d enough to al1empt it miJ,h1 al50 have the diociplin e 1ICC:eS$3T}' for ovcr thirty houn of continuous meditation. Besides this. Abulafia abo procribes sp«ific bn:a1hina: exercises to be us.ed ..-'hi le chantin,theK lel1en. BetWCf'n each lener one i. to take II singk b",ath. Bel""Cen pairs.. one i. to take no mo«o than lWO breathS. between lines. 110 mon: than five. and be"""Cen euh leller of the Tdravammaton. no mon: than twenty_five. Specific head motions an: also prescribed for this exettise. These head motion. an: to be made slowly and deliberalely, while one pronoune« Ihe leuer and uhalu. See filure 40. These motions correspond 10 the s.hape of Ihe vowel. While doina this e~ercise. o ne is scated. facinl toward the east. Then: is evidence thai the na~ and sha pes of the Hebrew vowel painu ""en: used for mystical pupOSe$ lon, before they wen: used in wrilina n d vammar. The earliest IIOn-m~"SIical uSC of ItI(, vo",'Chi dates from the eiJ,hth or ninlh century. while mystical uses arc found in K. bbIolist ic 'IOUfttS tMI date 31 early as the fint CCntury. [t i. hishly p<)!isible that the shapes of lhe wrillen _els wen: ta ken from Ihe head motions associated .... ith thei r 'IOUndl. Abulafia uses his system ofbrealhinl uerci~, and head mQtion • .... ith the leiter Alef. since Alcf(with ... numerieal value of I) upresses unily .... ith God . The same system ean also be uW wilh OIMr leuers. There is no evidence, however. that this melhod ...·as ever u§e<i with an enlire array of 221 lener pai". To usc ;1 with even a sin&le IetteT is a ~r efron . It is pOssible. however. that lhis melhod coWd be u§e<i with various kite" 10 anain specific results wilh them." kin, "'..5 merely the most a.dvanced Ind SlXClacular use of the methods of &fer Yelzirah. Each kller individually, 00"'"

c"cr. is abo ·ssocjated willi ... pan oflhe body. The array awxliled with the partiall,r lener could be used iU. ~il'lion 10 ,!fen 1hll specific limb. This could be u!led to "",OBlhen Ihe 'Pirilual C'DeT"JY
of llull limb. or even for Cltral;v" p"lXses..


The teners are Ilso Issocia\(~d with vlrious timn and IstroloPtal sians. Usilll the system ofSercr Yeuirah one can also oonmuct med· itations Inociated wilh Ih~.


mr \l'~ .Nt :reV' r.tnll t>CI:l "1r 'I( 1 .0>0 :'ITl t>!lru 1l'I(\7 ~ 0'7m D'-nt:lV

-n:t':1 7;, NC

",,)1' '1'ctl'I ;u,,]'

O'rn:rI C"ttp

-0," 10'01 .,M

' I(

CI)1 ~l

em DV

01l' ":11;1 7:1 .Nt! O']'tln

forml'd substance 0 111 of clrOIJS
llul/ alllMt

ond mmJe nOllf'x iS/fll«' i/l/O oru/ell« Ill' calWd pwll pilla" from air

M gras/N'd.

T1Iis is a sign
{AI([ "'ilh Ilrl'm all. and all of/hem "'illr AId]
III' forwn. "a~ms

and ma/cQ

uff Ilrm is pmi'd and all that is Yp<:JYn:
(HI" Name. A sig" for ,Iris Ihittg;

oIJj«u in " si"K,fc body.

He formed substance OUI of ChOOl
Earlier. the Sefer Y(airah staled Ihal chaos (101114) ,"'IS Mcnaraved and alrved~ from Wiler (1 :11). As we ned there, "Water" alluded to Chalr:hmah and the buis of all ph~ica.l creation. The ~_lerM menl>oned there denoted the most primitive spirit~1 root or





oflhe Scfirot. II was OUI of Ihis Ihal I~ fil"it sla~ of maucr, "CbaOlj~ (l<lIrll). was formed. T he ICJC I here therefo", statt'$ Ihat it "''liS out of this ~ch.osw that matter WIIS fonrn:d.
The word for ~subs\anct~ Ilcore ;s Mama.1! (PDD). Thil rome. from lite root M a.$JuwI (VC'I;l), meanin, ~to touch." What il produced is a reality lhal can not only be seen. bllt which i. physical cnoulh to be louched.

waler, as il niSi. in Ille IIniycrsc Qf Alzilui.

1~ ~alm

And made nonexistence into existence
Chakhmah, howe'-cr, is on the lnel of NOlhill&fle5S. It is from

Ihis NOlh inaneu. hO_~CT. tllal aU Ihinp _re created. From this "nollC~islen«.· Binah and Ikn )"ah, which are called "ui.unce" (Ynlt). wcre brou"" in10 brio&-

He canY!d greal pillars
Tile reference here i. obviou$ly 10 Ihe vcrse, " W isdom hal buih its hou"",. i\ has carved ils seven pilla rs" (Proverbs 9: 1). This is fur_

ther evidence Ihal

Ihis se<.:tion i. 'peakin, of Chakhmah

Theil: is 50~ d isclIssion II 10 Ihe IllQnin&ofl he "seven pilLan" in Ih is "ene. In one place:. lhe Tll mud ~ys Ih~1 Ihey are the sevea da)'l of the "'« k." Elsewhell:. lhe Til mlld ilates Ihal Ihey Il:fer to the seven pill an UpOn " 'hieh the world stands. an inte'P'l'tat.ion lhat is .1.1$0 mentioned in the lohar.·' Othen idenlify Ihem "'i th the seven scienttS: anmmar. rheloric. Io&ic. lrilh >netie, musH:, &eometry, and astronomy." The Kabbalists leach Ihal these 'Ie" en pillars Il:presenl the lower seven &firot," Thrse oorrrspond 10 the seven pillirs of 'Il:alion and the seven day. of the wed :. 10 this does 001 contradict Ihe Talmudic in terpretation. In Ihe .ySlem of lhe &fer Yetzirah, it is obvious Ihlt Ihese seven pillars ,..,prescn t the I,wen Doubles. They are called "pillars" b«;I".se they Ill: Il:presenled by ve"icallincs in Ihe Tree of Life diaaram. These ""ven Doubles all: derived from the three MOlhen. This WQ\lld IlIppo" an ancienl ,'enion, .... hieh inSlead of "substance" (Mamasb- lflXl ), read AMSh (1'011), the three MOlhen." The lexl would then read. " He formed AMSh (11l;;1li) 0111 of chaos ... and carved veal pillan ...."



From air thaI cannot be grasped
Tllcsc pillaB an: arva! from "air which cannot be JI1I~.' Air _s carlin" idm\incd with Breath, .... hich in tum is associated with tJ>c, first Sdirah, Ket«. Air is abo i<kn1;fJed lO, th I~ Ietler AJef (2:1, 3:4~ The Sdcr Yetzirah stales 1hat water is below, fi n: above, and air is in the middle. Tllis may initiall y be SOIne'A'hal d ifficult 10 understand •• inee ai r i. aS$OCj~lcd with B",ath and KelCT, lhe hi",':$! Sdirah." II is also associated ""III Alef. the firsl leller of Ille

alph abet. As nplainro eartier ( 1:9), however. tbe Bmlh associated with Ke\CT is not IfUl)abk, lin« Illis Sdirah ,tptCknts a level abo~c W inlelkct. The only place "'~ this Breath can beoon1ol' manifest is in the lower Sefirot. Therefore, even lhouJh i1 is Oft " Ie\'e! abo-oc Chakhmah and 8inal!. il is only manifest on a level lhat is below
them .

The "ai r thai (:;In no\ be I'1lspro" is therefore the Brealh romin, from Kelt •. This cannot be 'ra'ipro until it cnlers the rul m of tile
"pillars," that is. the lower seven SefiT'Ql. Th is loeC'Iion is a'1Ually be$1 understood in a mystinl sense. l1Ie previous retian uplained how to use the leiter amys toIether with

the d ivir>e Name IS a mtdila\ive device. One of the man ifestations of hi&her meditative state. (u _II u some dn,ll·indueed .Iates) is ha llu.cinoamesis, " 'hm, one can voluntarily form menial im~. These menial images appear to be real and subsl.tnlial. When a per_ son is in a normal stale of consciousness. he nu.~ be able to form menu! imap, but they are ..'cak. lransienl. and blurred by mental sialic. In ronlraSi. Ihe im ...... formed ;n a meditative Siale a ppear lIolid. substantial. and real. In an ordinary stale of Binah consciousness. the mind is filled wilh statie. If you wi~ 10 ttt Ihis stalic. merely dOle your eyn. You will see I rapidly chanain, kaleidOKOpe of imap. one impOJed on anolher. b en if you can vasp a sinlle imaae fo r . short while. il is inlerminsled wilh mental stalic. and you have lillie conlrol over lhe im alc. You cannol make il COme and 110 al ...·il1. and you cannot delennine how i1 hellav.-s. Even when you a n uen some in fluc:na: o ver ii, Ille imalt will seem 10 have a mind of it. own . This llalic also Uilll evCn " 'hen our cyesare open, bul;I ;O I>ver· Ihado"'"ed by Ihe imalel of the real WI)Iid.ln I dartened room. h0wever. il does remain visible to some d~ Thi ••tatic impairs our perceplion of Ille oulside worid. and clouds our menial processes. Thc pereeplion I>fthe spirimal world i. even more IcnUOU$ than Ihal of lhe physical. In a normal .talc of ronsciousOCiS, menial static m.kel it abs.olulcly impossible 10 visualize 1M spiril lll.l world.


Ihis Slale of mental stalic is called ~chaos~ (ro/li/). A<I both Ille Kabbal ists and lin,uists lead>, Ihe word TQ/rll (nn) 0()IneS from IIIe ' ·erb T"hah (~), mnnin, 10 be ~asIQUoded~ or ~confused. · >:1 This is the nonnal st,te of mental confusion, wlle~ the mind is ck>uded with st.tic. Th is is .lto associated willi Binall consciousness. and IICCOfdin,ly. a number of Kabbltlists as§l)Ci.te To/Ill wilh Binah." The lobar alto teaclles Illal Too .. is associated with Ibe Klipoll (Husk). the forttl thaI p~vrm one from vi suali2i"l the spirilual realm. " It is out of tllis ToIIl/. this stale of confused Binall consciousness. tbat one must creale a palpable ima,e. There are many imqes that can be produced. bUI the mOSI common is Ihe mental Gokm, the astral body. The initiate thus "forms palpable substance (nwm ....'" out of chaos.~ Thi. implies attaini"l a .tate ofCh.khmab COnsc1ouj.. ness. Tile Kabbalisls tbus note Ihal the word GoIem (a,,) has a numerical value of 73. IIIe same as Ihat ofCh.khmah (!'II:I:lI\). " One mllSl then "make nonexistence inlO aioIencc. ~ brlier, in· i"" "form subswlce out of d\aos, ~ the texl uses tile word "form," while here it uses the word "make." In Heboew, nl""Cially au:ordin& to the Kabbalists. the word "form" (}o:llzar) denotts the initial fonnin& of "somethin& fl"QlTl oornethin&- ~ Tho "'rm "make~ (asah.). on the other l\and, refers to the completion of the po« Thuo. in "fontIiflg subst.nox QUI 0{ chaos, ~ one besins tile mental act 0( creation. In "moking n(lII('Ji ... 1erKf: into 1!1i5tenox," one completes it. The lerm "form.tion~ alto implies an activity lakilll platt in Yelzirab, the lower spiri lual univen.e. ThUs. when one "forms substance QU\ of cbaos." one is brin,in, aboul a Pllrely spirilual result in the uni'·erse of Ye~i .. h. " Makin,, " on Ih e olber lIand. ~ren \0 Ibe universe of Asiy.b . .... bid! borden on tbe physical. This implies results Ibat may actually be manifesl in the physical world. In order to aa:omplilh Ihis. one must entc"!" fully into tbe realm of NOlhin,ness. This is the hi"'esl level of Chakhmah consciousness, borderin, on Keler. One IherdOf"C belins with "non.,..itlen~," whicb is NothinBJIess. Wilen one ",.cho this level, he an actually make somethirll ~that actually is~ (ychllO) (lr ".,..iSlen<:e." He can aClually bri lll aboul ~sullS in the univen.e of Asiyah ..... hich can tllen tw: rdkcted in tile physical world. In makin, a GoIem , Ihis ...·ould oorrespon.d to Ihe state of O)nsciousness required tw:fo~ Ibe mental imqe could be imposed on Ille day. brin,;n, i\ 10 life. A very similar pl""l)(:nl i. dncribcd by the VCII Hassidic master. Rabbi Do.. Bacr, tbe Mauid of Mczritch ( 1704- 1772). He writes thaI .... hen a per50ll contemplates a physieal obj~ completely ~nd IOtally, he can .clually bri"l that objecl onlO bis lhou",\. If his 1bousht is



Ihen bound \0 the supernal Mind, he can elevate Ihal object \0 the level of Mi nd. From IlIcK. il no be funller elevated \0 the Ie"el of No\hin&ne:s5. WhCK the obj<:el ~ases to elIiSi. When Ihis ob~ is tllen once aaain brou&lll back 10 the lc~1 of Mind , it call be brou&lll back in any form thai Ihe initiate desires. Thus, when he IinaUy bfinp it back 10 ils normal physical state. the object can be ehanaed in any manller he desires. As the Magid stales. -he can even transform il inlO

II is in Ihis state of consciousness Lhal one can visuali2e the Sefirot as -veal pillars. - One -carves- them out. Ihis meanilli lhll the image of tile Selirah is seen separately. totany fiUil\l the oonsciousness. Even tho ...&It Ihe Sd'irot aK totally ineffable and iodeKriNbk. when a pe~n is in Ihis state of oonsciousnt'SS, he can -ClI."",- them out. They are Illen pe~ved as solid pillars. made of transparen t air. Like the air, the Sefi1'(l1 are still invisible, but in this state of consciousn<"$$. ev~n tile air can ~me visible.

This is a sign ...
The Sefer Yetzirah d~ribes a s~ throuah wh ich one knows th.u he has anained this state. He must 10 throuah the ~ntire array. "Alef with th~m all. and all of them ....ith Alee This mean. lhal he perm!!u:, the amoy forward and backward. which rnpecti~ely are the modes of creali", and deslroyin ... Tile inilale Ihen " fo~ lransforms and makes." The word for "foresee" here is IZO . and IS discuilSed earlier (1 :6), this word /ri! dellOtes mystical insiahl and foresi&hl. If the ini tiate has ulained the proper state, he atlains I mystical insiJl!I throuah which he can prrceive tile inner essence of all things. He Cln then cnpse in the prOC_ ess described earlier. where the Sefer YelZirah said, "discern with them. and probe from them " (I :4). When Ihe initiate reaches Ihis hi&h level, he an also "transform." actually chanlinl physicallhinp. He CIIn ev~n "make," bri~n, thinp 10 nislence in the physical world. MOSI impo"ant is the final realiuli",,: "An thaI is formed and all Ihlt is spoken is one Name." The iniliale not only kIlo"'s Ihis inlellectually, but he can actually visualize In d see Ihal an creation is IIOthi", more Ihan one Name, the Tetraanmmaton.

A Sign/or this thing. 22 objects . . .
This goes back and refel1l 10 lhe entire chapter. "T",·enly·two objects in a sinsJe body." is . sil" Ihal the initiate has completed this discipline and has mastered it fully.



II," ncb of the 22 !eUel"$ 10 fonn a menul image (If . differ. ent part of the body. Each part of the body can thu ~ be fonned ~pa.

talely. The abili ty 1 oomp/de ~parate parts. however, don not 0 pron mastery of the InC'thod of Serer Yetzirah. The final proof of mastery is the ability 10 • ...,mble all III ..... 22 objed. inlO a "; 0&1"body. " This is Ihe procns of compktin, a mental GoIem. The initiale mU$\ 1>01 only form .lIlhe parts, but he ml,lst actually assemble them. T llis means that while he i. COPied in lho< medilation 10 ..""te Q".., pan. he ml,lSI nOI lose lIis menial imqc of tile parts lhat lie formed carlier. As each part of Ihe imqe is fOfJl'lcl, il mu~ !lor retained io
1"" mind. wilh ,u~lIenl imqcs ad<.kd 10 ii , PIOn by part. T he amount o f mental di.cipli""" ... _II as the advanced nalure of Ihe rmdilat;ve lKhniqllc requi~ for thil. i. virtually ~ond

description. The creation o fa mental Golem is therdon: a culmination of ille arts of Sefer Ye!zirah , as ....en IS a !es! !o determine if one has m.iIS.. tered them. This did no! involve the actual c~a!ion of a pbysical OoIem , since this ....... only done on "ery special occasion •. As tile K.\bbalislS .... 'rn. JUdI In un<iertll:in& ~uLd not be anempted .... ith .. OUI permission from on hilh."



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3: 1

J'1~! ~:l pltl' W' OK ;110.'< !:'hv :tM l' J V','C yn PV'n ;1Jm 'lJl

ThtH MOI~~rJ. A.1,jM ffll Shin {"rt0lllJ

Thrir joul1da/it", is a P"" oi m"il
a P<l" ofl;ab/IiIY and l/rt IOngu~ oj dt'rrn dt(idiMg

torr ........ them.

This rt'peats pan of. p~ioU5 $«tion (2: I). and it has already been discussed. Chaplers one and twO SpOke (IfIll., basic mNlilal;ve meth_ ods invol vin, lite Scfi rol and letters. Now Ihe lellers are trea ted separately. Thus. in the bq:inn ing Qf chapter tWO, the thrtt MQthers _,.., introdu.ced. The main idea Ihen:. however. was 10 leach lila! ~Mem hums and Shin hissn,~ one of!~ first ~it.ative practices IIsi" , t~

Here. the same concept is repealed, bUI as introduction 10 (he idea Qf thesis, antilhesis, and . yntliffis. II is similar 10 a n ancient tradition of homilet ic interpretalion: ·T.... o IICriplUres lhal a)nlnodict one alKlllt«. until a third .Kripture romes and deccidro b.t~n them.- ' In both eases. the same uprHSion, Kdecides belw«n them ," (Makllr;a B/')'nt hl'm), i~ used. It is significant to note the homi. ktit rule is c~pressed by Rabbi Ishmael, a lea<kr of an imponanl finl ccnlur)' m)'Sl ical school , who appaT\"nil y raYived it from Rabbi Nehunia h ben HaKana.' The siml*Sl ink,poctalion i, thai Mem i$ thr:si .. Shin i. antithQis, a nd Aid is synlhais. ~ lhl« demmls then form the WI« ...,rtic:al columns into whidl the Sefirot aT\" di>-KIed. Mem '"POCstills the richl hand column (headed by Cbakhmah). Sltin. the left hand column (1'II':aded by Binah), and Ald', the cmlr.ll column (headed by Krier).> Th ere is, ho_ver. another interprelalion , and Ihi. follo~ lhe arranllcmcnt of the leiters on the Tree of Life aCCOrdinllQ the Ari .' He"" Ale(, Mem and Shin a", the horiwntallinc.. connectinl oppos. ina Scfirot. Shin is betWttn Chakhmah and Binah , Alef between Chesed and Oevurah, a nd Mcm betWttn NtI"lIch and Hod.




FoIlo"';n, IlIio, lh~ leU i. sari ... l11a1 ll\c "fou ndalion" o f all three: of these Mother lellers is tile synt hesis connectltllesi. and antithesis. Thesis is Ihe Selirah 10 Ihe riJ/lt, antithesi s is the one \0 t he ltn, and synlhesis is Ihe MOlher leiter C(lnnectin, Ihe two.


:'TOOOI ~~~ltI t,,"U "0, 17"0f( ~ 17~ D'n "1~ I:r.1ll \l(Y"I rnv~t:I \:71:)1:1 otnm :rm~ nuKl:ll m~ l,'ru C;"IDl v/t

Thr« M oth",," Aff{ Mem Slri"
II grnu. mystiCQI Si'<Tn


"nd ualnJ ""ilir six rillK$ And from litem t'mllll/lled air, lIuter {mdfif?

And from IIII'm are born Ftlilrers.
tJlld/rom lire f t"Ir=. dnulldeniS.

A great myslical secret
The II-ord for "mystical" here is MliPIr!a (lI'>IolZl).' This is very clo6el y rdated, and shares Ihe same rool wilh Ihe word Pe!iyah (""''''). used in relatio n \0 the Th irty-two Path, of Wi$dom ( I: I). One reuon for Ihi$, as di'ICUw:d earlier (2: I), is be(au,", it iS lhroua:h these Mother k n f'rs lhal 0"" can en ter ;n10 the realm of Chaldtmah oonsciousness . .... hich is th e portal to the transcendental. These three Mother letten are also related to the mystery of thoe divi~ N.~. The Sefer Yetzirah earlier said. R He chose three let· ten . . . in lne m~tery of Ihe three Mothen, AMSh (l'!lI<r (1: 1). Thlls. the letters AMSh (l'!lI<) are tlte roots of the letters of the Tctlll""mmalon. YHV (""). Acc:ordinJto lhoe KabbaliSl', Ylld i. Mrived from Mem. Heh from Shin, Ind Vav from Alcf.' These three Mothers thererore reprnent an even deeper mystery than the Tetlll&rammaton. ~ T etrqnmmalon act ually only relales to the Ten Setirot. There is, b(! .... ever, .n asp«t of (",alion th.1 existed before the SetirOl. In Ilti. st • • th e prolo-Sdirol n illed II simple noninteractinJ points. In the lallJllace of the Kabbali s1S, this il known II lne Uni"enc of Chaos ( 1MII). In Ihis 5t.1.le. lhe Vessel", wh ich _re

Ille proto-Sdi mt. could ntitber inleract II{lr Jive 10 onc another. Sin« t~ could not em ... Lu., God by Jivinl, lh~.......e ilK(lmpkie,

and could Iben:fore not hold
~~ hallered.·

I~ Divi~

Liah1. Since Ihey oould not

fulfill Iheir pUI'POS<' . \I>ey "'en: overwhelmed by Ihe Licht and

Th is ;s known as Ihe " Breakin, of

The broken shards oflhesc VesKls fell to a lown- spirii"allevel. and subsequently bttamc the source of all evil. II ;s for Ihis .uson Ihal Chll» (Toiri/) 15 uid 10 be tile rool of evil. Aner hav;n, betn .hanered, the VesKls "''''''' one:.. apin rectified and T'fbuilt in to Personifications (Parlzujim). Each of tllese Partl ufim oonsj51S 0(613 pans. paralletilll the 6 13 pam ofille body,

IS well as the 613 commandments of Ihe Torah. These PaMIufim ..-en: then able to ;nleraci with ea(h olher. More important, throuch
1M Tom , \1Iey ~ abo _bk 10 ;nlelXl wilh man. TIli, is the stall'""hen: Ihe Sdirol become ,ivers as wdl as rtaiven. In Ihis rectified nate the Vessels (or Scfirot) ~ fi\IO mccive God's Liabl . In ~bNlit1i, l~rminoLosy. Ihi. $late is <;ailed the Uni_ versoe of R«tificat ion t Tikk"" j. l1Ie ~bbalis" leacb Ihat the klten of the Telnlu-mmlton, YHV (\'1'). only prnain to the Universoe of RectifiCition. In lhe Universoe ofChaoo (Thllu), the divine Name oonsisled ofl he leit ers AMSh ("1lII).' When a prrson ~ n!~rs inlo the mys!~ries. he must parallel the sequence of CTealion.' Fi nl he enlen the Universe of Chaos (Toiru). Here his mind is filled wilh oonfused lransient images. If he pettti ves Ihe Sefiml. Ihey are filike liablni n" runnilll and muminl~ ( 1:6). l1Ie Sefimt are perceived as disconnected ima,es. where no relationship between them can be seen. This is lhe SlalC 0( consciousness attai ned thmu'" the ktten AMSh (" 1lII). u diKUssed urlier (2:1). The initiate can Ihen enter lhe Universoe of Rectificalion. ...·here lhe Sefimt are connected and a!l$llme the fonn of Partzllfim. EReh Partzuf;1 a human-like form. very elosely related to Ihe OOIlCt'plual Golem. The emotion of Ih i, menIal Gokm-Partzuf i, ac:c:omplishro throu&h the leltCfll of the name YHVH 1000ther with viriOUS leiters, as described above (2:S). This iii 1M Name associated .... ilh the Uni· versoe of Rectification. Here. one must combine aU the Sc:firot to form fia ,in"e body ~ (2:6). One also becomes a"'arc of the lines con nectinl the Sefiroc, "'hith arc included in the Thirty·two Paths of Wisdom. Hence, when these Thirty-two Paths areo discussed. the Sefer Yetzirah uses the names YH YHVH. The Ihree Mother leiters. A1I.fSh l iso lprlJ outlhe Hebrew word Emnh (\\'011). meanin, ~yestemia.hl. " Thil occurs in Ihe ,'ene, "You o.lepl lUI niibl (emnh) .... ith my falher~ (Genesis 19:34). The word




abo d~note$ deep impenetrable &loom , as in the VCI'K. vGloom ( il). ""nle and desolation" (J ob 30:3),' This is tile inky &loom tht nisIN! herolT cITation, in the Uni verse of Chaos., Ihe "yesterniJ,ht" heron: lhe Scfirot Vl'C're brou&hl into bein ... There i. allO e-oidenc:e that the "''OTd tmnh ...-as also IIwd as a mystical name ofOod. Thus. Laban Ioaid 10 Jacob, "The God of your fathers lasl ni&hl (Emnlt) $ 10 mc" (v.nes;. ) I :2~). This can JUSt as easily be ..,ad , "The God of )'Qur fathen. Emesh, said \0 me," Similarly. Jacob said. - And Emesh pvc judlmen'" (<knnis 31:"3).'0 AC(:(lrdin, 10 tome aUlhorilin, Ihe letters Alef Mem Shin (n'III) also ron"". l a d,e"per mystery, ...·hieh is Alef Va v Yud {.... )." AlIOlher element of the mystery of the lellen AMSh is the fact that they ",pre5ent the rea)ncilialion of opposites. l.o&ically. then: is no way in which OppO$i tes can be reconciled . These lellen IMTefon: represent a myslery Ihal cannot be penetrated by 1 000c. One oomm~nt3tOi'" St3tU thai the leiters AMSh contain the m~"S­ lery Ihro ..'" which one can ..-al i< on fire." The n:awn for Ihis may be because IIIde letters hive Ihe polO1'r 10 T'eCOIKile opposiles. It i. possible Ihl Rav Ztino made use oflhi. lechnique 10 prevenl hi. feet fT(lm bein, burned in fin:. at related in Ihe Talmud ."

Sealed with six rings
The obviou. scri plural 5011= is t~ verw, "lbe: SCriPI which ;. wrillen in the Kin,'s ""me ~nd Sft}.lnJ wilh the Killl·' ring. cannot be n:ve.--l~ (Eo.ther 8:8). Acrordin, 10 Ihis, the ~Tinv~ hen: would be the nnv of the Kina'. name. Ihat is. the letters YHV (nol. n.., Kabbali"slbn"efon: .... y 111~1 III...., si1 rin .. are lhe .ix directions, wh ich. as Ille SefC1' Yetlirall (l : 11) earlier .... ys. wen: "seakd" witb lhe leuers YHv (no)." Behind Ille permutalions of the kne,,; YHV is lhe deepcr myltery of Ihe pennulat;on. of the lelle.., AMSh. now under discussion. The... six direclions . ..·hich com pri se Ihe physical universe, an: whal hide Ihe deeper mysleries. It is Illus wrillen, "He hi. SCI the uni verse in their hearl , so Ihat min cl nnot find out the work III" God has do~. from the bqinninato the end~ ( E«~;"'.tes 3:10). As Ille a)mmelllanes poinl OUI. lhe ....ord ·u nivene~ lIere in Hebrew is OIam (*"). It OOITIH from Ihe rool A/am (11'>;» . meanin. "occlusion, ~ Ind also has Ihi. connolltion. As Ion. as a person can o nly tbi nk in lerms of the physical dimension. of s~ . lhe inner realily i. cont:e3kd from hi m. Also sil11i fi canl is the facl Ihal a rin. is nonnally ..·om on the finger. As the Sefer Yetzirall states (1 :3). the Ten Sefirot ill\" ",pre-

senlro by tlw: len fina.~n. The six tinp a~ tbus worn on the ~l WfincersM correspondinl \0 the six Sefiro\, .. hieb. represent the lix
dir«tion1." The M rinpM hCf't also allude 10 the · six rinp of the Ibro:n ,six mentioned in the Zohar'" 11 is from these nnp Iha1 all lIOund and l~h arc derivtld. These six rinp, wbicb a~ the soun:e of physical speech , conceal the mystery of AMSh, which n:lales 10 the rool of spttd!. This mystery (:an only he penetrated whell one lransoends the I'l'alm of physical speech.

From (hem emanated air.


and fire

This is the process described in detail in chapler ODC (1:9_12).

From them are born Fathers
The three MOiller leuen, AMSh (rt!lI<). represent cause, efTttl and theiT synl hesis. Shin (I') is cause, Mem (0) is c/Tea, and A.ief(IIl is the synthesis bet~n Ih~ 1 oppoosiu:s. III tlw: Tree of Life dilWO JI'1Im, these.1.rt: represented by three b.orizootaJ lines. These three IlOriZODtal lines Jive rise 10 the three vcnicaJ columnS in Ihe Tree of Life diaJlllm, headed by KeleT, Cbakhmah. and Binah. These are represented by -air. waler, Ind fi~. ~ We therefo~ bqin with I dialttt ic triad: -C~lto<",- -object of c:reation,~ and -act of creation.- This gives rise to a second triad: love, juda:ment. and mercy. Thil set:Ond triad defines the th,"" column. into which the Sefll"Ol. a", Ilrnlllied.." The th,"" horizontal lines are th e three Mothers. The three column. define lhoe three Fathen, which are the lellen Yue! Heh Vav (n-). 11 w" from these leiters thlt .~ i. defined, •• the Serer Yet:zirah stiles earlier ( I: Il). Onoe space iii deftned, then creation can take pla~. This can also be underslood in a meditative sense. Throuah the pronunciation of the letters AMSb, one enters the rnlm of Chakhmah consciousness., and P""" Ihrouah thc Chuhmal. One then passes thl"O\llh the domains of Breath, water and fin:, IS described earlier ( 1:14). At this lime, one mu.t be in I totally recep.. tive mode, which is In upecI of the feminine. Hence, the lelten AMSh are called "Mothen.Aftcr this, however. o~ can e nter into I creative mode throuah the letters YHV. 11>ese Ieu= .", therefore called "Fathers. ~ OIIly then can one produce -descendents.-



11;.p17 l JYn JWl"I17"Ol( 111IJK ,,~ c71vJ 17' 0.0< J"I1CK ""17 C;"IJ "1]'1 rocm EO'!llJ " ' 0.0< J"I1CK ""171 :"IlWJ W' I:jbC J"I1CK
::"I~"ll "1:11



nmv MOlir~' Aft{ M",1 Siri" tct:.)
lit! t!1tS"a''t!d fllt!m. IIi canoN IIIt!m. 1ft! Pt!'milifti IIIt!m. 1ft! " '(!l'gllfd IIIt!m. lit! frtJJUformni flr t!"1, And willi ,11, "1 If' dt!piclni n.rN M()IlIm AMSII (rn::M) in lilt! Uni''"'t!. nrN Atafll"l AAtSII (Vt:.) in lilt! )~'. TllrN MOIir", AMSII ('Cot<) /" III, SoiI/. malt! and fomal, .

He engra.V!d lhem ...
The ber;jnnina of this S«tion is uactly the same as : .. thai U aU the letters ~ beUl@;discussedthere, andllm:onlytheIlueeMother letten :m: under COII5ideration. In boIh caceo , ~ :m: fj,-e proc ... m· rnuavina. carvin&. permutina. wei&hina. and transfomtin.&. When , as in chapt~r IWO, all 22 lcl1= are &i~n equal Slallls, IlIen all Ii,'e d ilmns>Clns as the Ii..e phonetic families (2:3). Here, On Ihe olher hand, Ihe Ihlft MOlhen are taken separately. The fi ..e dilmJUions are Ih~refon: also di vided ;nlo thlft domaina: Uni"erse, Year, and SouL The Uni verse consists of the th..,., spacial dimen_ sions, Year consists of Ihe lime dimension. while Solll consisu of IIIe spiritual dimension. A similar division inlO th= domains was encounlerro earlier. in .,hapler one. when the Selirot were lint ~num~nued. f int ~nulm r_ aled was Ihe domain of Soul , Ihe spiri lual dilmnsion, which ron· siSled of~Brealh,M and M Brealh from Brealh~ (1:9,10). Then came Ihe domain of Year, lhe lime dilmnsion, consislin, of Water and fire (I: 11 _12). Finally came Ihe domain of Universe, lite Ih= spacial dimensions. represented by the si~ prnnutations of the 1c1l~n YHV
(1 :13).

The Sefer ¥euirah stated rarlie. (I : n) thu the Ih= lelten YHV. which define the space conlinuum, are derived from AMSh.

Therefore, il is Ihe Letters AMSh which separate Ihe ~ce from lhal of time and the spiritual. There is an important differen<:e betwttn Ille $pa~ ronl inuum and Ihe o\~r two. It ;s only in space Iha\ one can mo~ volun1.aIily.

'" continuum

In lime, one mo' " in one direction II I prroclcnnined rale. In Ihe n
spiritual dime nsion, I physical body eII noo! move al alL Only Ihe soul ClIO move \hrouaJ! Ihe spiritual dimension. and il is for this reason thaI Ihis domain is called SouL The leuen AMSh differential( space from lime and soul. These same lellers can Iherefore be us.ed 10 do away with this diffe_ rentiation.


D'W \71'( D'C "'Ml't c"I1V~ \7- QN 1TII:IlC t>1:l17 nne "~l C'CO M"Ul 1i'Kl:l ~"Ul




Thrtr M otl,,,,,. AAfSh (mot). in Ihe Un;''e!'u orC oi., .... Il'~ fi rr.
lOW CUQ/ffl from




cualN from


o,j, from

Breath ikcides M "'Nn IMm.

In chapler one, Ihe text discussed the spiritual aspect of "BlUth. wateT and fj"". in lenns oft~ orilinal four Scfirot. Here it is speakil1l of how these Ih= are al50 manifesl in !he physical world. In Ihe sim plest physical terms. ~w.ter~ repcsen ts maller, ~fire~ is enc'"*Y. and" is the $pICe Ih" allows Ihe two to interact. " On • somewhat dec~r physical level , fire, w.ller .nd .ir repre_ $en! the three basic pltysical fOKeS. " Fire" is the electromll&llelic force, IhroUJh wh.ich all mailer interacts. The lIomic nucleus. bowever, COn.iSIi of like positive eh.r&CS. which. would repel each other if only clectromqneti sm el isted.. There must Ihema,.., exist another force which Cl n bind Ihe nucleus IOSClhcr. Thi. i. Ihe "strona n\lele.r" or pio nie force. ",·hich hinds the nucleus 1<)Ielher, repre-



r . .)
<.\r~;;~ ...



Knted by ~WlIter.~ [fthis nuclear foru _re to inleract wilh all parti_ cles. however. all m~uer would be mutually auracted together, formin, a solid lum p denser than a neutron star. On the other hand. even wit hin each elementary panicle. there is. need for . robesive force to rounlen.<;t the elee1romaJne1ic repulsion wilbin the panicle itself. Th is foro: ca.n be nei ther electromapetic nor pionic. This i, the ~~iT,~ .... hieh representS tbe ~weak nuclear" force, which "decides between" the otber two. It is th is force that allowsli&ht panicles (leptOns) such as eketrons to uis\. See fi,ure 4 1. The founh foro:, lfllvity, COfTeSpond$ to "earth." Earth. however is nOi I basie element , bul a confluence of the other three." It is therefore represented by the final Heh in the Tetn.lfllmmaton, which is actually a refJetition of the fint Heh in this name. On an even more elementary level. these throe elementl represent the throe ues in the unitary symmetry. SU( 3). which is the most basic propeny of mauer. These throe elements ,Iso relate to the experiential. Here. fire ~resen l$ the radiation of eneru, while Wiler representS the Ibsorption of enel'lY. These are IltHi, Ind ant ithesis, ,;vin,lnd rterivin .. wh ich themselves are mani festations of cause and effect. Air. whieh represents the transminion of eneflY is t hen the synthesis, li nki", the two.


In this asP«1, fin: and water also represent the
mod~ ~fin:~


of Binah and Chakhmah


As discussed earl ier,

is Binah t<H1l1Ciollsnns.. where the mind itself is constantly

radial;nll encfJ,Y. ·Water: on the
~A irM

at"". hand,

i. Chakhmah oon-

sciollsnen, when: the mind can ab50rb spiritual enCTIY from without.
is then RIUlC~ HaKJxlnh. tile medium Ihrou&h which such spiritual encl'lY is lransmiued.

Hearen is created from fire
This is lite same.s the stalement made abo'-r ( 1:12). Oure~peri­ enee and depictin, uf the transcendental IIphen: must be brought into Binah consciousness. In a physical sense , fin: repres.enu radiative ennJ)'. This usually tak.-s place by means of the ele.:n(lmagnetic interaction in the form of liJ,lIl. · H eaven~ here repl"n"nls Ihe oontc'pt of~ all <kfined by Ihe eieclromaanelic interaction. Ihi, being an imponan! cornentone of tile principle of Relativity. Fin: repTt'SCnt. Binah, and as d iscussed ea rlier (1:1), the word Binah roma from the root 81'),,1. meanin, "betwun." Ii ii from Binah that the con.,.,,,t of seplration rom..". into ~illJ.. Furthermore, it it only u a result of the roncept of ... p.aration that Jp;lee can exiS!. If 1101 for Dinah. all existence would be concentrated in • sin&lt pOint, In the same manner, "earth is "",ale<! from water." "Eanh" represems the solid state. ",'here matter rxists ...;th a minimum o(space ~ratin, its molecules. This Stems from Chakhmah. which tends 10 minimile separation and dist ance. In a ps $ueh as air, the molecules tend to fly a part and "'pantte. Yet, at the 'lame time, they an: held tOl"ther just sufficiently to Jive the &as substance. Gas is therefore al".. ays in a state of contained expansion. This is intermediate betw~n the conlainment of lOIid mailer and the 100al upansion of pure radiation. Fire i• ...,prnenttd b~ the Jetter Shin. Shin i. the dominant letter in the word Esh (1)11), meaning fi...,. It is joined ....;!h the Akf, TC"p1'esentin, air. because a fire cannot exisl withoul air.'" The thT« heads of the Shin also SUuesl the flames of the fire. The hissin, sound of this letter furthermore is like Ihe hiss of a flame. The thT« heads of Ihe Shin an: ""parattd, $UJFSlilII the ",nem concepl of ""paralion. CorrespOndin, 10 the Shin is Ihe letter Heh (:'I). which is only one of Ihe tWO leiters in the alphabet ronsistin, of tWO dioronnccte<! part ..







Mem. Here ;lpin, Mem i. Ihe in the word Mllyim (eo!)), meanin, "'Iler. ]nden!, Ihe

Ib~ 1~lIer

vel'}' nlme ofth" letter Mem comes from the word Mllyim." Mem is aho. c~ kiter, i ndia!in, conr.inment and unity. " It il also sounded wilh Ihe mouth closed. It paraliels the leller Yud N . which is wrillen IS a sinsle point. Air i~ ~resented by Ale(. since ;1 is the inilialleller of Avir (......),
meani". "air. AId is • silent lelltr, whose lOund i... undetectable as the invisible lir. In shape, it consistl ofan upper ri&hl and a lower iM left dol , ~rescntin,IWO opposites. wilh I di1lOnal L in the midW

dle, ....hich both separates and connects Ihe twO.


.:'1"1'" "I\" C1I"! :"IlV~ ,,-~ ~ nno :T'nl C'J:lI:l KUJ ' ..., tlNIl I("Ul


:0' .nl'~ V'"1:ID

Tlrrn M Of""S AMSIr ~ct<)

ill 1M

rOOT lUi'

Ihi' hOf

Tire hOf is =alrrJ from firr Thr cold ;f CTNlrri from IOIll<'r And the t""pn'IJU, jrom Br~lh. drcidn bl'1 .......n IIr~m.
The ~u is divid«l in to IIIIft basic pan$. There is the hoI summer and Ihe cold winler . .... tlich are Ihesis and anlilhesi5. The two lempe!"ale season$. sprin, and aUlumn. are both laken lOielher and are spoken of IS Ihe lempernle season. This is Ihe synlllesi$. Here we Stt lhe con~PI of a cycle belWttTI opposiles. Thil cycle. like man y olhen. con5lamly swi nlS belWttn 1"'0 opposites. Al Ihe midpoint in eoch 5wina. no mailer in which direct....,n. Ihe cy<:k muSI pass Ihrou, h the intermediate midpoint. Thus. both in lOin, from hot \0 cold. and from cold 10 hot. Ihe cycle mlL'lt pa'lS Ihrou,h a tempenote salOn. 11 i. out of cycle. luch as these Ihat linx is defined. The Serer YelIilllh therefore S\.lles that the Cycle is Ihe kin, in lhe domain of linx (6:).

Ihe cold rmd Ihe lem~'lIf_


In Ihe annual cyde, winler is represented by Mem (e). summer by Shin (!:OJ, and the two temperate sUs(lnS by Alef(,,). ~ complete cycle is then defined by Ihe !etten MAShA (.-w). Takinj IheirparaJ~1 •.

these correspond 10 IIIe leuen YVH V

(_I. Thi, is closely

related, but somewhat different than the Teua&rammllon. YHVH

In Ihe TClragrammaton, Ihe onkrilli of the IeIten is YHV (no), Here thesis and synthesis are seen as opposites, represc:nlillllension
and equilibrium. Antithesis is then Ihe midpoinl connect in, the IWO.

The fourth kiln of the Tetraa:rammaton , lhe Hell. is also. point of tension.

The temperate
The Hebrew wo rd for

here, i. RtnQyair


This use of Ihe .... ord Ra'(Jyalr is vi rtually unique in Hebrew
Ii te!llt \Ire. The usual interpretation of Ral'Qya/r is abundance, as in the VerY, ~my cup is abundant (ra''lJya}J)M (Pulms 23:S). II sbould be ~Ied Iha' il is from Ihis verse thaI some Kabbalisls filKl an IDulion tQ tM 22 1 Gates, discussed earlier (2:4). One reason fo r Ille use of Ra"ayall 10 denote the Sprinl and fall WI5 beCIUse tllese tWO we~ tile lIarves' seasons in Ihe Holy Land . TIle most obvious source fOl'" this usqe is tile verse, ~We llave rome throu&h fi~ and wlter. You brou&ht us QUI 10 RIll'Il)'IlII(Psalms 66:12). Some commentaries inlerpret Ra>ayah lien: IQ llso mean Mabundance,M bUI from 1M CODlHI, Mtemperate" seems \() be I mon: klsical inlerp~laliQn. Rav-ayall would then deoole Ille desired meaninl belw«n Mfin: Mand ~water." TIle Serer Yetzirah also uses Ihis W()ro in soch a sense. l! il siJllificant to note thaI lhe Talmud i'UC1llretl "fi ~ and Wiler" in 11Ii$ verse to denote ps~holo&ieal stales." The Midnuh likewise interprets "fin: and water"" in this vefSC 15 ~ferriDJ 1 IWO 0 opposinl kinds ofpurplory." Fi~ is tlte overabundallCe of sensation, and it is also n:lated to shame." Wiler, on lite otIter lIand, <.kDQtcs 1ac.k of sensalion, and is n:lated to de-pres.sion. RnwI)llh i$ tMn the p/'rfect mentll state belwe<:n thne IWO rxtn:ma. Some authorities al!lO"'Y tllallhe word Ra»aya/l is n:lated to the word YQI"l'h (:n1'), wllieh denotes tile early autumn rain .. "



:UP)l "01 ~'J:I ~ -OI( moN ~..,~ :T'Ul D'CO ~ 10:11 ~ftC N"u) ~N' .:1'Ul :C'nl':I V'Uz;l nntJ

rc:n ~N'

Thr« MOIh", AMSh (lIOI<) ill th~ Soul. mal~ and frmaJ~. ar~ Ih~ hrod. brll,.. and chnt. 1M hrod is crrolfd from fi" . TIr~ lJ,lIy Is crrot~ from ..... Ier and 1M chnl. from lHwllh. df'Cidrs /Nt "'« n IMm.

The ~!I(Iul~ hue also refen 101M body. One reuon for Ihis is beaUK the $()UI is an exa<:1 oounlerpJort OhM body. Evcrythinl found in 1M body is also found in Ihe soul. Similarly, 1M buman body i. a microcosm of Ihe , upernal -Man.~ See r"ure 42 On pap: 151. This is Ihe "Man" Sillilll o n the Ihrone, Ittn by Ezekiel. Tile lupernal "Man" repre5C'n\$ the amy of the Sefirol. The "Soul" mentioned he", lhen also "'fen 10 Ihe anlh .... pomorph ic reprnenlliion orlhi. alTllY. Wilh respect to the Sdirol, Shin is the line belWttn Chlli.hmah and Binah; Alef, between Cllcsed and Gevurah ; and Mem. be!w~ Netueh and Hod , l1Ie top line repn:scnls the head, Ih., eente!' line, Ihe ChClil, and 1M Jo_r line, 1M bdly. " Accordinlto Rabbi Abraham Abublfia, lhe", ;1 also an allusion here to the IWO covenants mentioned above 0 :3), The CO" enanl of the IOnlue il in Ihe head, while lhe covenanl of circumcision is in Ihe relion of the belly. Between Ihe IWO, in 1M cbest, is tbe bean, which is kinl o"er Ille soul (6:3), This alludes 10 the Torah . wh ich is IIIe primary co,'cnant " The head also reprnenlS min 's crelli'1: power . .... hich i. repre_ senled by fi"" The belly is man', receptive power, repn:scnled by waler, The clle~ and lunas mU51 bolh inhale and exhale, and Iherefo re pertain 10 bolh, In a <ktper KnK, Ihe bead is Ittn as lhe cenler of Binah consciousness. Ii il Ihe head lh al is Ihe ""I.I of Ihe conscious 5tream of thou"'t The wortings of lhe belly. On the OlheT hnd, .'" almost completel y lubconsdoils' The beUy lherefore parallels 1M Mem • .... hich denotes Chakhmah consciOUln<$S. Ii is for Ihi. reason that some myst ics would comempl~te their belly ....hen u lemplinl 10 all8in Chakhmah consciousness,







F;l! .. r~ 41 . TIr~


"Man : ·



Brealh illl borders on bolh the conscious and the ullC<.In'ICious. One u.ually brellha unconsciously, but one ca n 100 control one's breathin! oonociously. Brealhinl is therefore · ·.."..;ated witb botb Binab and Chakh mah consciousness. It is for this reason thai conlrolled brealh inltec:hniqucs are imponanl in makinlihe transition belW"n Ihae lWO states. Breathi", is centered in the cbes!.

The chest
The Hebrev.· word for ~d!<':It~ here i. GaviyaJr (:\'11). " The usc: of Gaviyah for citest is lito uaiqlJe in Hebrew lileral"re. Usually. the word refers 10 the body IS I wllole, I nd some eummenlllri<':l here also Sllle Ihal it denolH lite enlire trunk.. A po6sible scr"i plun.l soun:e for this may come from Ezekiel', vi.ion, .... here he Ioaid of Ihe Chlyol, "With two [winpl lhey covered their Ga"i}Y:Ih~ (Ezekiel 1: 1 I I. The scriplllre may be sayina Ihat Ihey covered titeir chest and heart with tWO of Iheir willIS.)' Some co mment . riu interpl"t't Ga.iyah 10 denote the sex ulI orlan .» In the lanllll,C of Ihe Mishn ah, we indeed fin d Ihlt tite ~ helld of Ihe Ga.i}Y:IlI" refen to Ihe tip of th e male or.,.n. » Ho w_ ever, IS Ihe major c<:>mmenlaries nOle, only t he te rm , "held of the Ga~iyall- hal this conll<)tltion. Ind not the word Gaviyah itself.'"'


"1ro "


rtTO 'l(


TllU:l ;T'rTI trnv :l

"V< 0;0 VI :"11:l :"11 lD"U'"I


:O"ll'l(:I TI:ljill p ' !:»t:l

"ODl:! ;T'1l1

Ife made Ille Imv Altfrr-; ki"8 0"" Brnull And lie bound a Ct'!".*·n 10 il

And lie combinftl Ihem one And "'illltilem lie pmed

willi aII01l1e1'

Air in lilt U,,,verse
Tht temperate in Iht )nu And Ihe dInt in tht Seul: TIlt malt ..dill AMSh (vI:JI<j And the fo ma/e will, AShM {vtrrI).


He made Ale king !


Mali! simply, this means lhal wilh regard 10 concepts related to 8 "'.111 , Alef i. ahollY. the tim letter in lhe pennulalion." In a <i«per sense, this means thl' Alefwu bound 10 the Sdirah of Malkbu \ (Kinphip). Malkbu\ is said 10 he Ihe "mouth," and as such, ;\ is Ihe Sefirah IhrouJ,h whkh Ihe pO_' of all the oilier Sefirot
il exp~."

The flI1l !IU3<'- is ~fore \0 make the letter "kina." This means thai il is brou&hl lo the "mouth: which is lhe Sdirah ofMalkhut"

Bound a crown to il
This ind ic:altl thai Ihe leiters are bound 10 the hiahl'St of Ihe $l:fin)!, Keter. All the Sefer Yelzirah stall'S earlier (1 :9), this is the direct B.uth. Ma lkhul, on the olher hand, is reflected Breath. Before
a letler can be exprened IhroUJh Malkhul, it must be bound \0 Kele •. Th .. I, the " End is imbedded in Ihe betinnin," (1;7), This abo speaks of the physiralle!.tm., '"" hid! have ~ "CI'O\IoTIS" called Taggin on top. The Talmud thus says thai w~ Moses ascendo:d 10 haven, he saw God "'bindina crowns 10 the kum. •• These "'1)"""S ",pre..,"1 the h;,her spiritual nalure of tile IetI~"' '' Iftlle klters themSl'lve5 are in Ass;yah. tllen tile crowns on top bind Ih~m 10 Yel:z;ra.h:oo

Air, tempera/I', chesl
In Hebrew. air is Avir (..,...). lem~rale i. Ra''''yah ('I"n). and chest is (;eviy.h (:MI). E:o;cePI for tM hslt in ,fyir, aU of these words a.., sJll'l1ed IIIe same: AVYR RVY H GVY H '"'

The endines of these words is oonsistantly VYH (:\1'1 ). This reprellents 1M hidden power of tile 1~11ers Y1,Id Heh Vav (\'1') in tlH: 1hm: M OlllefS AMSh. II i• • i,"ificanl 10 note thai in these words. the order of the letlen is VY H (1M). Since V~v (1) cotll'sponds to Alef(lI), Yud (» oorre.ponds to Mem (Il), ~nd Heh (II) con-espond. 10 Shin (1'), 1M !c11en VYH (1M) are in 1M ume order as AMSh (lOtM). The word Av'r is ,,";II~n with. R.-Mt N instead o f a Hell (II). Th is i. because A VY H (". .. ) s~lls OUI a secre' divine Name. "



Male and


The initial !ellen of A>,i" Ran:ryall and Gniya/l spell 001 Arog (.... ). which means "to weave. ~ It is out of lhele IIIIft syntheJes that the fabric of cmllion ;s woven.

Rabbi EliuJor RoI<eaclt of Wormc .....,;1 thaI if one wishn 10 "" crute a male GoIem . tlH'n Ihe 5eIl""na: AMSh (ftIOt) muSI be used. If ~ " 'ilhes 10 <:relle • fem.le GoIern, then II>e sequence rnl.lS\ be ASIIM (tl'COI). If one wilihts 10 ~ll'(Iy the Oolem, Ihen ~ sequence is SIIMA I _I.'"
The Hebrew "'on:! for man ;. Ish (11"11), while thaI for WOmln is

Ishlh (:WII). In both casn. the lellen Aid and Shin ate in the wne posi tion II he~.·' We tIleD



ASh H :In< AShM mrI<

The only difference between the Hebrew words for man and _mao and the combinations here is till' Yud and Hell an: substituted for II>e Mem . A. mrntiom:d earli ...., Yud is rom, while Heh is femak. These !ellen take the platt of the Mem. which is the belly. lince it il llere Illal man a nd woman Ill: differentiated." Also siJll ificant is tile position oflhe Shin, which ~presenlS fi~ a nd pauion. III mall, !he Kqu~ntt i5 AMSh (trI;II<), with the Shin exposed al lhe end. In woman, on th e other Mrw:I, Ihe sequen« i. AShM (a\I"tI), wilh the Shin concealed in the middle. This is beause the Kxual Dlpn in man is external. whi~ in woman it i5 internal. The Talmud thu. wn~ •. ~ Man MI his paDion (:In the QUuide, while wotnan has hers on the iDside. ~·'
'17p1 O'~ '0 ~ ,.~c., :1117:l ,..,1 C7IV:l C:1:l '"ttl m :l m /!l'U1 :~'17~ :1:l;'ll 17'~ i:ll 1711~ TC:l1





lit made Mem (DJ k"", OWl' -...:II" And lit bound II crooo·n 10 iI And Ht rombi"nJ <HIt' wilJr Il/!OfJr" And ...iIIl tlrem He pmnl EIlF/Jr i" lire Uni'·~se Cold I" lire Year And tire Mly i" lire Sotll: 77re male w!)1r MASIr ~HJJ/ And lire frmal,. ..1tlr MSM (owllj

A ~d

"\ro 'I:T~ \?I't~ '\? 11'l( 1'I:>c;'I CT!l ~v~ C'W ("It) 0;0 om ;;t::l ;n )D"'IYl :1t"W::I :1~"11 0 "10:11:1 ':ll t10n \:Tit" OUt1::1



II~ mad~ Shin~)


II, bound a

()'W fiN' crooo'II 1C i l

And II, combinM 011<' " 'jl ll c/IO/II .... And " 'jIll Ihl'm II" fixmi'd 1I~.~n ill tilt Uni _U'
HQl in 1M YNr .~nd 1M /r,.ad in ,II, $QuI: TIl, malt with ShAM (0/JT1) A"d 1M frmal,. ...';/Ir SIrM ... f-


Copyrighted material


Copyrighted material


4 :1


11""Ul) ' "l )



,' " ,, ', ,n ,J":I JrIl1I7t,

'1'117) :V'?rn'1Ul ;"I17j'l l ' n'l~ .n "11 "., ,'"

Glmel (I). Dalel tV. Ko.f~), Prlr M Rn h r;. Tao (n). Tlrry dirtt'llirmuehn willt IlII'O /ollglln



Bel-Blrer, Gime/-Ghime/. 1XlIn·Dlralet.
KgfKlra/. ~h·Pi!eIr. Rnh-Rlrn lt. Tlll'11!(n: A $Iruelure of $CJi tJnd hard.
Sirong a1ld weak

Thi s is the sel of double letters. each havinllWO pOSSible SOtInds, ' In

the Tm: of life diauam. t!ley corrnpond 10 the seven vertical lin es. The double sound is Klainro by aU Jews for Bet. Ka( and Pch. T he hard s,,1 (~) hu Ihe oou nd of b, wbile the soft has the wund of
•. Tile hard Kif ()) has Ibe $(lund of k, the soft , 1M sound of kJr, like the Gennan ell. as in ~dodl.~ The hard Peh ('I is pronouncN like a p, while the IiOft is like an f In all Ihesoe cases, tile hard sound is • pl05ive, pronouncN in an e~plosi"e puff of !IOUnd. The soft sound is a fricative. Tile northern European Ashkennic Jews pronounce lhe soft r av (/OJ like an I. MOSI southern European Sefardic Jews pronounce both Ihe ha rd and soft rav Ille same, like a I . Some Sefardim pronounce tke soft Tav like a soft lh, as in ~th illJ.. ~ The Ye~nile Jews also di 51i nlUi5h betw~n Ike 50ft and hard Gimel and DaieL The soft Gimel (I) has lhe sound of a j , Or amon, otllers. li ke I deep , !lIteral fricati~ g. The 50ft Dalet (,) hu the 50und of a hard Ilr. u in ~the. · As a ",Mn.1 rule, these siK kiten, BGD KPT (1"II:l ,~), always take the hard form at the beai nn;", of a word. Thil il one ~ason why no Biblical nama a~ found betinninl with an f This would imply a Peh (~) I llhe beI;nnin, oflhe na~. and il would automatically take tke hard sound, which i. that of. p.


Table 28 .


wilh a


in lhe Sible I Samuel 1:6. 1 Samuel 10:24 , 17:25. 2 KiltlS


, , ,

l. HaRimah 2. H,R ·ilem R.





• .."

7. I..cShan:kh.
Manu 10. Sh"R<)!Ihi

"" .'" ""
"" n

Jen:miah 39:]2, Proverbs 11:2 1, 20:22. Ezekiel 16:4.

Habakkuk 3:13 . Proverbs 3:8. Proverbs ]4:10. Proverbs 15: I . Son, of Sonp 5:2.



The hard lOund is distinuished by a d<)t , called . Oa&nh. placed in t~ middle of the leller. Hi&hly siJr!ificanl is I~ fael Ihal Ihe R~h N is ""'"" ronside~ 10 ~ one of lhe Doubles. Most po:sl-Talmudic-al If1lmmariln5 lake pucilW'ly lhe opposite view. and SUile that the Re5.b never lakes a D'IC$h. Not only is then: no verbal distinction belw«n lhe h.rd and IOfl RC$h, but rno<km I:k l)rew If1lmmar does not even reco&nize soch a difference in the ..nnen form. Then: an:. however, len different words, appearin, in foun..,n placn in lhe Sible. whi<:h an: ",Tinen with a Resb COlItaini n, a Da,esb ) See Table 28. II it. obvious. ho>vever, thlt Ihe ulual rules applyin, 10 the Iene .... BOD KPT(".~ "11) , 00 nol .pply 10 the Re5.b. n.., plese", sound of the Resh is a fricali'l:. and is therefore mo5t probably the,.)ft iIOU nd. n.., hard Resb was eitbcf lost or delibmltdy oonceaIed after the drsuuctioo of !be: Temple. In earlier times, its usc was standard. and !here is ev1deoce from IMir !nLnsIi\n;lUon of Ihal its pronuncialion was I<no)....,. to the .uthon of!be: Septu. ginl. ' By the 100h century, however, the double Resh was 0rIIy U5ed by the membmI of the unaU Muyr. rommuniJy in Tiberias.' Tiberias had ~ the last cily in which the Sanhrdrin, the veal roun wbich piC>t.-.-ed the uadilion, had fIou.rish.ed.' This was one of the mysleries that the Sanhedrin had ""trusted 10 the communily ofTiberias. Acwrdin. 10 Ihe Serer Yetzinah (2:3), Resb iii in the voup of [)enlals. lSShRTz (. '''01). AIoIlJ wilh tbe lenen Zayin (I), Samekh (e). Shin tv), and l"udi (. ). it is pronounced wilh the leeth. Acwroins 1 lhe Lon, Veninn (2: I), il is sounded M 0 OOween the teeth , with Ihe IOn8ue Iyin, down, 5prr",d OUI.~ We ClnnOI "Y thaI il is. rolled

, sound. sin~ this in.vlves Ihe tip of the (on,uie. It would Ihen be ei02st 10 lhe I sound, and should be included amon, the LiIlJ1Uls. OTlNTh (ru'xr!). Funh ermore. the hard Resh should be a pIosive, like allihe olher hard doubles.. Theil: is no r sound in use today 1hll ITIffII all these tntc"; •. Funhermore. there is no plosivc sound pl"OlIO\Inced willi !he 1 eelh th ai ()()Uld be I. candidate for the hard Resh. The onainal pronunciation of Ihi. lellt' therefore remai ns a mystery.

Hard and Soft
The hard sound il cu~n ll y indicated by I do, in the middle of

tile Icncr. known IS I Oacnh. Before print;n, Wai inlroducW. most manUKripll II"", ind io eated Ihe son sound by. line above the leiter, known as I Raith. Thi. device i. used in lhe DamQCu, M KcIU Torah~ Pentateuch, ...-rillen in the ninlh cen tury.' In Ihe Firkovich coIlcdion of the Library oflhe Academy ofSciuce in UnillJr.ld, there i$ a coda of Ihe Bibl e, dated from Ihe year 916, 1hat also makes uIe o(the RQf~. A. I.ue II I. 480, th is mark i, found in haodwritten Bibles and Prayer Books.' The use of th is mark is also mentioned by the TiIcJClIII~ ZcJriJr. It states that the Rafeh abo" e the leiter is like the ~finnameo l above the Chay()(~ (Ezekiel 1:22).' The Ti/r;kun~ ZiJhar a!.so SllItes tbat the hard and soft sounds are related to the ~Ch l yot runnin, and relurnin,~ (Eukiel l :1 4). It sa ys. ~they run wilh Ihe hard sound. and return wilh the soft.~' Atrordin, 10 some remmentariel, this indiCites that the hard plo> sive sound is pronounced more q uickly than the soft fricative SOIInd. oo Hov.·e\·tr. sina the ~fer Yetzi rah (1 :6) teaches thai ~runnillJ and return in,~ also relates to medillltive techniques, il would appear that the hard Ind soft SOIInds were used for this pUrpo$C. Tbne seven Doubles would be used to climb Ihe verticall.ines in the Tree of Life. Wh en the initiate would U$C the letten to ~run~ and climb upward, he would u$C the hard sound. and when he would ~retu rn,~ he would use the soft sound. The Bahir states that the Ietlers are the body orllle Kript. while the YO"'els are its soul. " TIle later K..h balim nOte that the Dqeib. and Rafeh I re neither yo ....,I. nor letten, bUI in termediate helweoen the 11\'0." It is Ihis intermediate ruenct Ihal man muSI perl"ec1 ifhe is to enter the domain of Soul.



JI'1\ "1't'1J1 ~n


l"I" tl~ ,.~



:lm O'I~ :1?wco 0',"

S<-w" Do..blc.: BGD Kl'RT (mil, 'ID)
1"1!~' /o4mdatiotl is

wWom, H'nll ill. Snd. Ufo. [)Qmln"fI«. l'nlcr ""d G~,
These are the oonoepts tllal can be controlLed IhrouJ,h the SoeVen double !omen.. The methodl are similar \0 II\os.e outlined in ChapleT 2. T llese seven qualities parallcllhe seven veni.caJ lines in the Tne of life dial'llm. They also male \0 Ike seven limes Ibal ~ phllllle, Kit WIS good.~ in the a«ou.nt of ~tlion _


:TTIC11:l1 "10'1.:1

")::1 nnw:! If:!" mv.:lZ"l ' lW "WlV rrnDJ"\ n~ ;'10:," rrnDJ"\ J"In:lV ;'!~oo InVJ1l I1VJ C"fl rrnDJ"\ :tOZll7'
J"I' "U);)


rn InVJ1l :v:n'?c O'I'?v InVJ1l


$#wn Dou/)/n.: BGD KPRT (1N:J

in Jp«CII lind in Iransposililm. TIl, Irans{J'OW of lVisdom Is Folly TIt,. IraflSfI'OM of Wl'tlIth is Powrly The muu poM of Snd is Dnoilllion TIl,. ImnspOSr of Lifo i$ [)Nlir Til,. /rarupose of DomiflalK't' if SWbjllgatioll

1"11 .. IranspoY of p~ is War

Til .. trampog 0/ Grau iJ Utiinns.

AcrordinllO the Tikkunq Zci!a,. IIII' hard 50Und implin hanh jlldlmenl. whik the 50ft SOllnd implies len ient jud&mC'nt,IJ The JQOd Qualities would then be associated ""ilh IIII' soft 5OIInd. Ind tile bad qualitiC1i witllthe hlrd ""'nd. T llere arc. I>o...'e~r. 'lOme IUthoritiC1i ....1>0 ~ Ihis."


o..- ' -- Fow ;



The word for "'lranspo$eM here is Tl'mural! (;n'Il1'I), Earlier, Ihe Sefcr Yctzirah Aid. "He enaraved lhem. carved lhem, pennuled them, _iahed lhem. and tJ1ln1posW them (2:2). The word for "tran5p"K~r Ihere wlS IImlir ("1'0:\), which has Ihe same TOOl Illhe lenn used here, Earlier, wc followed the commentaries who interpreled wlranspo$ed" 10 rellte to the UK o{the standard ciphen. From the lut "",c, """""-cr, il would appear thai it denoles the transposit ion bel ...·een Ihe hard and ~ft sounds orthe Doubles.

Peace, IVar
Pea« Ind .....T relate bolh to nalions Ind 10 the individ\lal. A person can be II war wilh him",,]f. or II peace wilh himself. II These lellen can be used 10 transmi t these qttalilies both 10 olleSClf or to another,





n ""UI'

Jll'CI(~ Jl'OC \7';::';"\

m'?w, ,?"." crm l~l'
' "l '




N\7U Ml."

Dowbln: BGD KPRT (tnI>~ ~ Up and Jo,.·n £as, and 14m North aNi _th ANi 1M Ifoly Palace /Wtriscly in the center aNi il SUpporlS Ih"m all.

Up and Down
Thil Ihould be compared 10
As discu~

,nd I :] J. earlier, the six di.-..ctions pu;ollcl the Six Sefil'Ol.
I :~

The or&-r liven here would Ihen be: Neludt, Hod, T iferet, Yesod. Chesed, Gevurah. Also ~ Tlbles 29. 30 on pqe I~. The di"";lionl would indicate lhe di.-..ction Ih't one mull face. or Ihe head motion that he use . ... hen attemptiOJ 10 tJ1lnSmil the qWllities menlioned in the lUI seclion.

snEll Y£TZ]UH

Table 29. Acrording 1 tbe Gra . 0

Gimel Dalet



Wisdom Wealth Stt< Life Dcmtinantt





Tiferet Netzach Hod Malkhut






Table 30 AccQl"ding to ~f~r HaKarwll .'


WisdQm Wealth




Rinah y,"",


Gevurah TifeTet Netueh Hod

Two of the5e ooocepts ITe alluded to in the Talmud: ~He wllo ... ishes wisdom, let him fatt south; He who wishe$ walth. let him face north.~ I' This "'as reflected in the Temple, where lhe Menorah. which related to wisdom. was to the south, while the Table, indicatilll wealth, was to the nonh. We see here that the leiter Resh indicatn JH'aa:. wht.n tbere is no JH'ota:. this letter cannot be sounded cornctly.

The Holy Palace
This is u~ually interpreled to <knote Mal khul. " The Hebrew word for ~Palace~ here is 1Jrl<M1 ('J7.1). This I numerical ~alue of 6', lhe ...une as thaI of AhMy ('TIlt), the divine Name auocilted with Malkh ul." Ik.ides beinl the lowest Sefirah, Mal khut is also the end point of the Keter-Mal khut ~piritual dimension . The W HoIy Pall«~ in the center themOfl' not only reilles 10 Malkhut alone, bul ,Iso to its associuion wi th KettT. In channeli nl sustenanc:e from Keter. the center point suppons all the othcrs. '· Aooordinito Ihe Bahir, -lIndwill"KodQ1, " here should not be read •• W HoIy Palace,w but as w Pllace of the H oIy. ~. Tile ~ H oIy"


'" KelcT, and the K Palace o r lhe HolyM refen 10 Malkhut wilen

il is dim:tly connected to Kete. in Ihe m)'5lery of M [mlxd tlleir bo:Jinnin, in their end (1:7). This a lso ""plftenu a great m)'$tery in cre~lion, ao uplained by Rabbi Judah Lin ( 1525- 1609), the Maliatal of Prague, famed as the creator of a Golem. He states that the mson why the world was CKlIed in six days is because. th""e-dimensional world has l ix dirttlions, as the Serer Ywirah sutes he~ Each day was n~1Ql}' \0 oompk\c one of these six dirtttions. l1Ie Sabbath is then tbe cenler point, which binds aUtogetber and supports thrnl aiL" The Sabbath thus re~nls Malkhut, bUI in Ihe mode in which il is bound to

These 1Ie"en clements also parallel the seven branches of the MenOOlh." They are also alluded 10 in Ihe verse, ·~n na on ~ stnrte (mhariah 3:9)." "!>Olher sU'clt al h"5ion is the verse, ·Oi~. portion to seven , also 10 ci&ltl (Ecd esianes 11 :2)." As discussed earlier (I :1). Ihe number seven denotes 1M perfection of creation, while eiahl i, Ihe enlrance inlo Ihe transoendental.


1::'1::' I(~ V:l1::' J"!' "W:I , ' U ro'7l,:I V:l1::' 0;'1:1 ".,m tr.1:1 1111:1 mlZlt7 I(~\ VJt7 :U\Jz:l ~V "tt1' JI7;'1\ 'nO ~V '1:1' 'OV;'l\

$noell Doubif'S: BGD KPRT (~, '11::1) s..WII and 1101 six &veil and nO/ righl Exami"" "'ilh IlrI'm Alld ~ "'Uh Ih"m Ma"" {l'tIChj Ihing $land on ilS ~,,(t' And /h" erN/or sil on Hi5~_


Sel'l!n and nor six
Thi s is very much like 1:4, and thl' t ..,o should be compared. The seven Doubles are often associated with tM se~n ~r s"firol." Actually. ho_ ver, thnc seven leiters n:present the seven ,-er1icallines on th e Tree of Life dia,ram. The oevtn low.... Sefirol In: merely the 10_1 end poinls ofthnc 5eVen vertical lines.



The:.w. Idlen are theref~ \~ L adden leadinA upward from the seven Io..-er Sefirot, and Illis is the way in which the two are auociated. One Or lhe main functions o(the se ...en Doubles is thus to climb venieally on the ladder of the Sdirol. One rises Ihrouch their hard 10<100, and ~nd. wilh their soh sound. T ile Sefcr Yctzirah warned uS earl ier th,u there wen: Ten Sdil'l){, 110 more and 110 less ( 1:4). Here the t C11 w;tms us Ihat there ~ seven

... enical paths, no more and no Ie••. If an cilhlh "m ical path were
added, ;1 would be taken as a palh from Ketu to the Infinite ~in" and such I. palh cannot exist Funhermore , if a p.lub 10 Kelu ,,'ere omiued, one michl be misled inlO thinkin, It..! Keter is God, and this is abo erroneous.

Examine with them
This is also similar \0 1:4. OM- can probe and "urn;,.. w it h these !ellen very much like one ~ with lhe Sdirol. In 1:4, bowe ... cr, lite texl also sa id, "U ndcntand wilh wiodGm, and be wise with Under.nandin,,· while here this if omiued. The discussion there involved the basic e ~ erei1C of f1uctuatinl between a.. khmah and Dinah ronsciousneu. Here, the a e rei.., involves Ihe lelle.. Ihem..,lvCl, "Iher Ihan pure SUlies of consciousneu..

Probe K'ilh lhem
In 1:4 the n:adinl was -probe from them." while hen: it is · probe
.,.,illr tl\cm.When lhe tut spOke of the Scfirot Ihem..,lves. il COtIld "'y, "probefrom them,- since it is from the Sdirot that one recrives spiritual enera). Hen:. h;)wever, it is not the \eIlCrij thai provide spiritual ener'J)'. but the Sefirotto " 'hich they relale. The IUIIhcn:fore stain, "pfOb( willr them,- indic.tinl that the \ellen an: tile tools throuJh which O<Ie <:;III probe. " The upper lia of the.., 5oeV1:n Sefirol n:prexllt the Iii din:<;tioll$.. Mal khut is the center point. tile " Holy Pala~." Taken subjectively . this "~nter point- il the ~nter of beilll of the individual reachinl up to the Sefirot. The fi ..t Sefi.. h that the initiate must reach is Malkhul . Ind he acoornplishes this b) meditatilll on the ~nter. which is the center 0( h is bein.. Only after he reach.,. Mal khut Can he reach OUlto the other




Sdirot. The Ebh ir the~fo~ identifies the " Holy Palace" with the very purest essence of thOUYlL ro


I:lm Ii'P" " 0' l1' i!l) , ' 1:1 I1nW) V:::l17 C'D"\:::I "V:l17 00:::1 "ttl ~C", ro17 lII"U' ""\:::II 17'1:1 C'"1V17 ;"tV)17 :-U17:1 C'C' :1V:l17 ri1w:l

&w~ Doubln: BGD KPRT (~ "m) FO fuwllIion If~ ~~ Ih~m. If~ conwi Ih~m. If~ p"mumi IMm. If~ owighnJ Ih~m. If~ Irof4PmnJ Ih~m. Al1d " 'ilh Ih~m If~ pmnJ.


~"'" pillMlJ in Ih~ l/" i_w. Sfown dO i~ Ih~ YN r. )'J ~ gOln i" Ih~ Soul, ",ol~ o"d f~mok.

HI! engrQI't!d them ...
The five melhods mentioned and 3:3.

are the same as those in 2:2

Seven planets
The seven vert~! paths associated ..ith the 5e\'en Doubles a~ ma nifnl in the phyaic:r.l ....rld a. the allroloaicaJ forces associ.ted with lhe seven planets: Satum, Jupiler. Man, Sun, Venui, Mercu11' and Moon. [n Time. they are associated wilh the seven dl~ of the week, while in man, they are the seven opcninp in lhe held. These will be enumr:"l1ed in lhe followinl 5ttlions. The Talmud aho speaks of~ various infll>eoo::i dlhe planets and days of ~ ..-«k." ~ are dosety rel;ded 10 their role in creation, and do not appear to follow Ihe l)'Rem ofSd"er y nmw.. See Table: 31 on pqI: 168. The seven planets are aho associIled ..i th specifK: anaets."

Table 3 1. l'1ancts and their !\filletS.

M, .
CILa~jel T~idkiel


JU J)i ler




Mi chael






Ch • ..tid

Anel Gabriel


Ka plliel


Michael Raphael





And And
Anel Friday

M ichael WednQday



Ka pl"l:id



Raphael Sunday


Kapllicl Sa tu rday


Gabriel Mo nday

• Roziel 1 11H " ~


• Sod; Ila:.!;. q _ ia KLilJJm y...x".., p. 1}t. Rf,bbi E1iour of Go...,;o Oft S<f<f v,u;", ... p. 1211. Cf R... ieI ZOo 16<11. I) It •• id I tbln~
of ,.. . 1MK'ial<d day,,, .. pial....., be ......


, SMoIo.o. Y..:>d 010 .. , p. '98 ff- Tht i>b..... ponai. '" Ill< f, ... _

• Yolk.. , Roo • ..,; ltot.


32. The


of the ... eek and the planets arxonIing 10 tr.c: T.I.

mud. Shab/)al 1S6a

Sunday Monday Tuesda)' Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

One-sidedness. leadership Anlcr. s«lusiveness Wealth, lechery lntello:d, ~mory Charity. Jenerosity Rclilious inclination Life, holinriS lndepen<kr>ee. openness Wealth, lechery Intellect. memory o..pendence, $eCr'Cti,"e~$, manic«prosiveness Inaction. invulnerabi lity Generosi ty


Venus MCl"(:ury

Satum J upiter Min


These anlcis channel the influence of the seven "utical path, throu&h the planel5. See T able 32. Also associated with the lI:'"en planets a", spttific si",s, as "" ell as a system of malic '"Juam,1t See fi,um 43 and 44 on pqe$ nO-I71. The rule of $C,'en also appeaTII to ~ ",Iated to the mystical Seven Seals mentioned by the early Kabbalists. " See figure 4S on
pqe 172.

In order to understand the .i",ificance of the astrololical fOlCh, WI: must first undenllnd the role of ansels in the chain ~tween the SefiTQ{ and the physical world. The Sefirot are in the Univene of Atzilut, and below thi, is Beriyah. the universe of the Throne, which serves to allow the Scrirot to in teract with the Jo>o.·er world •. Bet","CnI Beriyah aoo Asiyah is Yetzirah, the worl d of the anJeI •. Yetzirah is kllOwn as the ~worId of .peech ,~ The Talmud stat<"l that ~E""ry .... ord emanating from God ereal<"l an angel.~" Thil means that e,"ery one of God'. word. i. actually an an&el. When \Ole speak of ~God·. word,~ .... e are actually speakin, of His interaction with the lower world •. The foree that tra,·ene:s the spiritual domain is what "'.., eall an an",1. The Slln also form an importllnt li nk in God ', providcooe over the physical world." Between God and man, there are many levels of interaction. the lowest hein, those of the anJels Ind the Sllln. The Midra.h thus teadie$, -Th en: is 110 blade of ITa" that don not have • constellation (,1.10:01) over it, teUi", it to pow.~'"'



Jupi, ••

17 ~

T!idk ici








M.... ury



175b1 .

FiXllrr ofJ.


s<-.. /, of 1M planrl$ iI'om Ev\cn HaShoh.:om p.

A. lb. commen1.l.ri"" uplain, God's providence works Ihrou&h the .~II. but these an&els, in 111m, work throuah the stan and planCII. As some authorities PUI ii, the I nlel. are, in • sen~, like 50UIs 10 the. stln. 1111,1., for example, SO~ SOlI"'" .peak of lite stars as h.villl inldliBCIlC<'. but the romrru:ntann note Ihal Ihi. i. actually speakin, of the antel. that arc "!IOCialed wilh litem." There are. bowever, IWO types ofaoBeI •. We have already .poken of the leach in, thaI there arc In&els trelled wilh every word of God. Elsewhere we find tha,ancelslre crealed every day. wilh. new troop heiR, made each morni!\&- " On the other hand, there Ire mlny ansel • .... ho Ire known by name. such.s Gabriel,nd Michael, who have per_ mane nt existence. These an: obviou."'y • oecond kind of 1np:1. This i. closely related 10 anollier discl/mon. In tile Midrasll, there is a question as to wilen the an~ls were ~ated" Some NY tllit they Wffl: made on tile iC.'OOIld dlYof C1Ulion, while othen mai ntai n that they " " created on the fifth day) ' ere





44 , S~"ls of 1M p/aMfary QIIII,IJ Olam 1/ In7}.


Shoshan y • .oo

In discussin, this, Ih. KabNlislS arrive II I. siJniflcan l rondusion. They Slate thai there are two basic lti nds of I nse1s: p<:l'I1'II.IIent ansel' Il!Id temporary '-OJ.Is. The temporary anaets "'ere created on Ibe serond day, wlli\e Ihe pennaneD! oms, which are likened to the birds, were created on Ihe fifth. They also Siale Ihll an! di ffuen~ be!....een tbe permanent IIKI lemponry anlels is Ihe fact Ihll only the permanent ones have nameL" One of 1M most impOnanl facton in aslr%lf is tbe ti me and dale oh person's binh. Tbc Talm ud Ihus Slates thallhere is. ~Mazal of tbe hour.~" Tbe lime, day, and d.l<~ upon which. person i. born has an impolUnl influence on his destiny. Elsewhere Ihe Tal mlld teaches that there is an I0BtI called u ylah lhal ovcnees binh. Il is Ibis antellhlt proclaims if Ihe individual wiD be stronl or ....-eat, "" ;s.e o r foolim, rich or pooT. " Earlier, howevn, we disc\lsse<i the Midrnhic IrachillJ" "One anl"l canl\(ll h.1," 1"'"0 mission.., and IWO ilJIl"ls cannol share the e ume mission (1:1)." BUI if Ihis is • ,enerat rule. how can a sinr.le

SEf£1t; V£TZI MAil


Va lalh





ovcrwe III~ birtll or every penon who was ever 10 be born? Does Ihi. not mean Ihal lie lias many missionl? The same ql.lCS1ion alw applies 10 all W I"'rmanetli aJl&!tls woo have n.ames. These an&rls. ",,'hid! """"' ~Ied on the fifth day, Wit fore,'cr_ In the coune of their exislence, lhey must have many tasks and minions. Why does Ih is TIIk not hold lroo: with rqard 10 1hnn7 In answeon, Ihese Q","lion$, the C(lm"",nla rics nole Ihal Ihe 110 an,d. a re lite lQuls 10 llIe lIan,'" A human soul is 11 a spirill.W enlilY, I nd the 51"'" Queslion could be asked a bol.ll il. How can • sinlle soul be involved in many lists? BI.II ~ Ihe answer i. ob'l'iou$. The soul is inlesraled by ils associalion will. a sinak body, It is nOI differenliated in10 man y souls by ilS many tiSks, becluse its as~ia­ lion .... ith the body al\o'.\-'s i\ 10 remai n an inleV-lIed .... hoIe. The !lome is lTU~ o f Ihe In&ell havin, names, These a"&Cls are li ke souls 10 Ihe stan, and this ,1.0 melDS lhal Ihe stars and planets


Fif{"" 46 . TM ...wn planns (from Mu",h Toviah. p. <lI b} .

• ~ the ~bodin~ of these In&els. S« fi,u~ 46. As such. each star KrYeS as a fOC\ls for a particular InBC'l. mainla;nilll ;1 as an intearated whole. even thoUJh il may have many difTe~nl tasks.
is thel'efore a tJI1&-IO.OIle rdalionship belo.etn the stars and aJ1Cds. Each sur has ils own pani<.:ular .".el, and anF has iU own Slat. Ii is litis relationship thai aIJows !he namtd anaclS 10 /uI,." many tllh, and $liD not be diffaentiated inlO many anIds by ~ tub. Elich named an&d is inlep'llCd by lhe sw thai serves &$ jill body. This also nplain! wh y Ihe permanent an,els IIlv," namn. The

i. derived from Ihe vene, ~ Hc brinp 0 1,11 ~ir host by n\lmber. He CIOn, them all by namc~ (Isaiah 40:26). [\ is also wrillcn, "He counts Ihe number Orlhc sl.n, He aivn them each I namc~ (Pulms 141:4), The Midnl$b indicates thai Ihe different namn of the stan COrTespond 10 tile nlmes o f lhe ditfe~llnsel .... The one·\OoOne ..,lation. ship is Ihemorc dearly ex pressed. This also explains why the named at!iC1s wen: CR:Ited on the flfil1 day. wbiJe the unnamed. t~mporuy at!iC1 wm: cn::ated on the seoond 1, day. The named aIlFl~ """re associated with. the 5Ulr$, and rouId thef"eo. fore no( be cn::ated until after the stars. The stan wen: not Cf&-

Zoh,. teaches lhal every sin"e star in the univcl"K has I name." This

lIed until ~ fourth day, and tM Inp:11 coukllhcnfon: not be crel Ied until the fifth.




CO,1oU:I p-lY 'K!\:I\:7 Itr!v~ D'Dl:I "V~1:I' :m:>J. D"C' :'TV:n:> .:UJ."I D O :'IlU ;,en ;'1:lj')1 " , 1:I'tl).:l O"Vl? '0' 1WJ.17 ::'tl.l:TI '\K:1 '::Ii?) '1;7 C' llf( '11'0 COl'V 'nv


.s.-.v-~ pWtll1J ill

,It.. Unil¥!fM: $Dtrmr, Jllpiltr. MaTS.

.sull. 1 ' _ M nn.,y. MOO#I.

s,wn dQys.1t 1M Ytor. TM _ of 1M ..wk. ~II ""n itl ,It.. Soul. 1I1al .. and fomQIf': 1\00 t)'t:f, ''''' ~ '''''' 1IOJ1fl/,.



1M _11r.




r, 1t''I'1 ~ru
C'I' crnV::I

;'IJ:I'" D.U om ;n J. ;n ,~m :;UP1' "1:11 "~ll ra M" :'1117::1

., nlK


Ill' ~ 1" .. I"IIn- Bn (:J) hili CWt'I'" WISdom And II.. 00..114 Q ","",'n 10 II

"lid II.. COfJlblnnI 0 -

. "jfll


And ....;'11 tlrnn Ill' pmftJ TM MOO<I /" 1M U.. i,~ $undQy in Iltt Yror TIl .. rip/1'J'f' ill Ih.. Sou/. ma/.. andfoma/".

4 :9

irn II:! i!:7j7l "TOw.) 'J m< l'~o., 'l17 Cl' d?lV~ O>iKll C<1:l il'\ m ;l :IT

1 '"lJl

::1:lj"n our ti'!ll;) r D' Itl<l mtl::J

llr made lite Imer Gime! (» killl 0>'1'1' Wrollh
lind If' bound" o:TtM'IIIO ir And He rombillN {Jilt witlt ollQ(her And " 'jllt l/rt'm Ill' forml'd

M an in Ihe Ulli.'/'t'U'

M()Itday in tire 1ft/'
TIle righl NJr in tlte So"I, male and female_

4: 10

irn 1~ It'i'l V"':l ' j J1\.'( 1'I:JC;'l 'll'?v Cl' c"wJ ;'101"1 0;"1::1 "1l'1 mJ m 1 "1'1 ::1:Jy11 '::11 ll?,l;l r O' "l'nJl :1ll:7::1

He madl' 1M ImlT Daler

fV kinK ow '


"nd lie bound a "",,,'/I /0 il lind lie rombillN om' "'ilh a/lOllter Ami .... illt Ilrml /(e fomlN The s"" In tire UlliW'rn' TIld<iIJY /11 JI,l' Yror
The ,is/rIm»!ri/ i ll IhI'Sou/. male o.lId/emale.

4: 11


r, "1'0['1 0"1'\:1


110N 1,I:Ja.l

'V'~n Cl'

D71)1J ;"1m O;U 1]1 m;l ;'11 J!lil'\ :;u pn u t t1'~ ~ J'V1 :"IWJ

lie mode lire Imer KIif(' ; killg 0"" Lifo
Alld H e bound a ,"",'/lID I I Altd Ill' romDineJ 011(' 14'illl another

lind ...ilh them He jonnnl 1'('/fIU ill lire U"I"",, lI eJllnd4y in lire Ymr The left <')¥ 'If the Soul.
mDI.. and female.



4: 12

,,, "Wi"

:rn,~ 'II 111loC 1',",0:1

Ol' C~l'::l ::lJ1J C.U "1V ;'1lJ ;n lIl"m -,ro :;'1~"~1 "O! tot,):! ~C'" Jl~l :m'J '1l"Dn

lit' mad.. II" 1m" J?I! ()) king 0>'tI' Dominllllu And lit bound II cro..." /0 il And lit oornbin«l on, "'ilh ,moth" Alld "';11t Inl'm H .. formed ill Ihe U"i~ TluUJday ill IIIi' Year


Tire It'jI N r /11 zhr


ma/.. and irma/I!.


110 ,., "Wpl cf.oW::l " ~ 1"'0.' 01' C"VJ '1(101:' DO'O '1' :1T) ;n l'iY'l :;"I~"ll "1:11 17'1::1 '?w::lv "n.ll :'UVJ '17t7

lit' mad.. I),,, IttI" Rnlr
And }I" boiind a

tV Icing II"'" Pea«
{O il


A"d Hi' oom bi"td aliI' with (moth" And ,,'jrll them He formed Sill"'" ;n III" U"ilW'W
Friooy in lit.. Yl'tIr

Tire kft "owil itl lite Sou/. malt' (J.nd k mak


lIl"U'1 "V1:I ,':I 'Vi" I":l '11



:11VJ lOW Ol' C"'V:l piJ' D:"!::1 "11'1 m:1 ,i l

:0'Di'l) "1:11 t)'))1:1 :un

Ill' mad.. 1M/niH Tar (tV kirrs (Jon G'(Ju A TId lit' bound II """'II /0 It

Alld 1If' combined 0111' with lmotMr
Alld wilh Iht'm He form"; Jupil" in lire U"i_u n" SabJx>.11l in l/r" Yea' The nwulh in 1M Sow/.

mal" alld female.

the Serer YelZirah diocusleS Ille lelter1 in rdation 10 Ihe primary trails, Ihe planets, Ihe days of the ""1"1:10, and the pans ofihe


body. There are a "umbo:r ofvari.iion$ in


il$$ilJlmenls, and the

more importanl ones are &inn in Table H on ~ 178_179. Each leuer can be used to influence the pan of Ihe body with which il is associated. This can be accomplished IhrouJ,h usin, the

Irray of 12 1 (or 11 1) Gates associated wilh Ihl\ leller. These lellen are used in a similar manner when creali ns a Golem.
Most importa nt are Ihe relationships between Ihe lellen, days of the week, and pllnets and betW«!llbe seven primary trailS: WUdom, Wealth, Seed, Life, Dominance, Peace and Grace, One Can U"" the methods orthe Serer Yelzirah 10 allain or enhance anyone of these

by usinllhe soft pronunciation of the se~en Doubles. If one wishes 10 transmit their o pposite. one uses tile hard proouncill>On.
Lik e oIlier Sianzas, this can also be read in the imperative: Makr (1.01 kins (lver Willd(lm, bind a crown 10 ii, and rombine ~ M with anolher, and with Ihtm form .... ~ The meditali(ln invoh'es USin,lhc seven Doubles in Ihis manner. Tht dominanl klltr is placnl al Iht beainnina. and Iht olher si x klten are then permuted. Thus, if One was SttkinSlo Wiod<:>m, one ...-ould pl~ Ikt (~) at the bo'pnnillJ., and one would trn:1I per_ mute the remainin, !.etlen, GD KPRT (mil, '1l), in evcry pOSSible manner. Similarly, if one were Sttkinl Wealth, (lne would place Gimel (l) II the l:qinninll- and would pe""ule the leiters DD KPRT (mIO!I -c) ill all 72(1 pOSSible wtI)'S. The permutation wilh which one besins il pven in Table l4 (III pqe 180. AI the same lime. one shoul d rontemplale Ihe parl of the body aloSoOcilled wilh Ihal panicular lrail. ThUs. for Wisdom, one ,,-ould collCt'Tllnllle (In IIIe rilhl eye, while for Wealth. on the rilhl car. In a similar manner, one should also C(lncenlTate on IIIe appropriale direction. Also imJlOnanl is the day (If the ",-rek auocilled with each trait. tf one .... ishes to transmi t a certain t",il , il is best done (In lhe specified day of tlle..-eek. In ulina Ihese metl>odl, (lne must al'" lake planetary innuen.ct!l inl0 aCC(lunt. Besides the influences pven here, Ihere are others liven in Bcreita of Shmuel HaKatan , ""hieh a ppear 10 he eloser 10 those expressed ill Weslern aSlroIoiY." See T abk 35 on pqe 1SO. Influence eXlends only from Ihe visible members of otIT soIarsyslem. The dinanl planets such as Uranus, Neplune and Plulo, .... hich are invisible 10 the unaided eye, are not considered 10 have any Sil0 nificanl aslrological influence. If one wue 1 take these inlO acc:(lUllt, one would liso have to consider dozens of uleroids which ,,-ould exen an even arealer influence.

Tobl<: 33. The Ictler.i in ",Iarion ro primary r",its. planols. Dald ,


of the .....,.k. and piOns of tbe body .

A. IwiJ.(lom

',f ,
"h ,


Gimel ,

" .Jupiter
""~ Saturn Fri. L noslri l



• •




Sun. R.eye

M~ .

s," "'"

R.u, R.noslril wisdom

domin ance Mercury Tlmn. L ear



""~ Jupiter
Tues. r Lnr life

dominancc Venus Venus Thun. R.l>OStril


Mercury Fri. Lnostril

"'~ Mercury Th, • R.ear


B. hi fe Saturn Sun. R.eye C. !wisdom Saturn

Mon. L eyc wealth Jupiter Sun.

R .~lrit

Lnln!ril Venus Lrwslrit

Fri . Lea r

wisdom wea lth


Mon . Le).,

D. l tife Saturn

.., . ,.
M, .

""~ Jupiter

Tun. R.nOltril


Sun. R.eye

Mon. Leyc

"'" W"'.

"'''' Mercury
Thun, R.n,
po ....

Fri . L ea r

• (" i;;;..- v~ ji-tI;~-;'- ~~ Si><.""", V, lkul Rcuv ..; It.b. l i ..w. H4M_ 'I< __ 'hi> v""'" fOI' body

" 1- . Vrru.... o ..... R,.',. , ....... \ ....... ,_ .0., ,,.. R

V.........._ ,.,_

r""" ,_"""...... Ttl" venion it 1"001>11 ;. $Mol.. t: ) . I,). H . "1. C1\ournon, it ttl< .."... no,p' .bal _ 1... _ ,1>11 pKC . . .

~. I"-~"

JJ. "The ,,-

-.-. ~

I " ...... . ..- ...... _, .....


dan •

of tM bod. •

dom in'nce

•• ,r

I- E. life '
WUllh Mercury Fri. Venus Thu .... R.ur

"'~ Jupiler
Lnoslril life


,,,., w...

0.'" ,
So ••

...'k . and • "'" •

M ••

"'" ..,

."" ,






Jupiter Thurs. Sun.

R.lIOSlril dominance M ••


Venul Fri.

-" .....


SIIlurn Sun. R.eye wisdom Saturn So. G. life Saturn


M ••

wisdom Mercul1'

mouth H. life R.nostril Lnoilril _allh Venus


..,= Sun.

""" w... '"' C",



Jupiter Thurs. R.ear

Sun. R.e)·c

Moo. Leye wisdom M ••

Jupiter Moo.


Moo, Mon. dominance Venus Fri. Ln. dominance MOO'

So •.


Mercury Fri. Lnosuil


I . IL_ Chakhmah J. life


''''' ",,-







_ llh on« ~ Cf. "' In~ r Dc ph 4:H Ru~ -,. _ . , . oot 11 _ _..... pipet ;"n." " ,Iro: n........... 0I1I.. ir:UAri Shd .., ,"_10.. Tho -do)" orr i. Drdft-. to." ....... til< pIaaol .. u.o, nit:!< i "'" .. '-he n... ioou.- 01Il00: P"'" do,.

tS\ltl ~

K 00_ Hog ,tIl; SII, .. KooIIah I' Il\loo~ ........... Oidc, i •• oI,bo , Eu a...; .... SI>aa, TOI'ftA " ........... ......,; ... ;. ro.. .... in Oi ... , EFI: lie. J 11M • ..:!. Po Sib.

11. _ .


n f_


s.rc.- lloPeliyah 190.





Table :W. Pnmutalions of the senD Double.•

la<.Wrding 10 Saadi. 6 """" . G imcl Dalel


R ~h


, , , , • ,

T ••





=~ ~= ~=

Table 35. InftllCn«s :wxoroing 10 Bardi . of Shnlu(i fl aKatan
Isc.: OOIc 4 5 ).

SalllTn M on

destruction. internal injury and ,icl<~. Blood. wickedness. strife. external injl,lry. .... r. halrfll ,
jealousy. Life, l""aCt: , sood. prosperity. r'tJiaiou5 fcdinl$. joy,


Venus MClnlry

'"" Moo"

_allh . political advann:. Grace, love. lust. c hild..,n, fruitfulness. Wisdom. okill , "'ri tins. lan,ua,e. Li&ht. darkness. work, alXUmplilhmcnl , travel, exile. Holds ke~ 10 heaven and eanh, SUITO(IiIIC for ,ood lind
oi l.

influence of the plaMts in Ihe system ofSefer Ycl1.irah does not depend on Iheir pOSition in tile sky. but on Ihe hour of the da y. Th is is discussed in a num~r of Talmudical and Kabbal isl;c

In ord~r of their diSlan« from Earth. th~ planet' an:: Suum , Jupi ter. Mars. Sun. Venu$, M~n:ury, Moon. Oftbete. Saturn is furthest from the Eanh. and the Moon is doses!. " )'coordi", to the Bible. the stars and planets wen: made on the Foonh Day of tn:ation (G~"".i, 1:14-19). Coun ti", from Sunday. the Founh Day was Wednesday, In Bibl ical J'ttkonin" ho,,~er. ni&:ht al",."ys prtteeds day. The Torah therefore oonsi.t~ntly .... y., ~ 11 "'a, even in,. and it was momina. ~ Eveni n, always pn:«cdil mornillJThe planets ...'en: placed in their position, on the eve of the Fourth Day. that is. on Tuesday nighl_ They ,",'ere plaenl one It I ti me. an hour Ip'-rt , in order of their di.tan« from eanh. Thus. in the fi rst hour (6 ..... ). Saturn was pla«d in ;ts position_ In the second hour (7 ..... ). Jupiter was positioned. 'The order of creation of lhe ..,"en planets "'lI' then ao follo,,-,,:




I ... ,


Moo" This is t~ orderin, found of the e~e of on the chart of planetary influences.. Each p!an~1 then domi nated the hour in .... hid! it was positioned. After the fint ""ven hour$, their dominance bqan a new c)'ck, with the planns in t~ same order. This ",,"en hour cycle IXlntinues throu&hl the week, and it is the same every week. The entire ",«kly cyck is ,iven in the tabel of planetary influencn see Table 36 on ~w: 182. One immaiiately noticn that the first hour of cadi e"eninl is dominated I>y a diffeRn! planet, in the followin, order:.
Sun. Mon. Tues , Venus Wed. Saturn

First hour Second hour Third hour Fourth hour Fifth hour Si~th hour Seventh hour

6 ..., 7 . ....

J upit~r

8 . ...,
, .~

10 ~... _ 11 , ....


Venus Mercury

12 .... ,

Fri .


Mercury Jupiter


The first hour of each day is dominated I>y the planets in the

~' Sun.

Note that the name of each day is associated with the planet that dominates its first hour in the mornina." Thus. Sunday is dominated by the Sun, Monday (moon day). 1>y the Moon . and SalUrd.y. I>y Sat· urn. In th~ fnJli'" na mes of the other days. the Nordic or Germanic names of the planets are used. The Romans had ori&inall y named the days after the planets dominati", their first hour. Th is nomenclatuR still survives in the Romance lan,ua,es. Thus. in FR neh. T uesday i. Ala,ai (Mars· day), Wednesday is Mercredi (Mercury's day), Thursday is Jeudi (Jupiter's day). and Friday is Vendml i (Venus' day). Saturn dominates s.turday, which is the Sabbalh. In Hebrew. Sabbath is S/rabbal (11::1:'). and hence, Saturn i. called SlwbbtJla/
('K1\»' ).

The planet thaI dominates the fi rst hour of the da y or ni&ht is said \0 domi nate that enli re period. The most auspicious times.

plane!,_, . ,Il, Table: 36. WeekIo - ,. .Ie: of . ..•••IIC""" • . · Hour W<d . Thu rs. Fri.

Sun . Mon.



Nith! Befo",

Sa!urn Jupiter


Venus SllUrn Jupi!er

SI!urn Jupi!er

Mon M••

Ju pi !~r

M ~rcury

2 l

M•• M, .

M ~n.:ury

S•• S••
SI!urn Jupi!er Venus Mercury SI!urn Jupi!er

Moo. Moo. M, .

Venus Mercury Sa!urn Jupi!er


Ven us

6 7

Moo. M, . Moo.
Salurn Jupiler Venus Mercury


Sa!urn Jupi!er

S•• S••
Venus Men::ury


Sun .

Venus Mercury Mon.

M ~rcury

M, . Moo.

, • , , •
Fri. Venus Mercury SilUro Jupi ler

Sa!Urn Jupi!er


Venus Mercury

Salurn JUpiler Tues.


S•• S".
M, .





Sliurn Jupiler




Mercu ry





Moo. Moo.
Slturn Jupiler SalUrn Jupiter

2 l

M. . M, .

Venus Mercury

Salurn Jupiler

M,. Mon

Venus Mm:ury

, • , ,
Venus Mercury



Venus Mereury

Sltum Jupiter


Venus Mercu ry

Slilurn Jupile r

Venus Mercury

Venus Mercury

Salurn Jupiter

Saturn Jupiter

, •
Saturn J upiter






Saturn Jupiter

Mon S••




Venus Men.:ury

Mon S••


Venus Mercury

Table )7 . COOCCplS 300

tilTlC'S l..crording to Gra) .

Wisdom Bel, Moon. righl eye, Che5f'd, WIIlh ..... hite; Saturday ni&hl, 7- 8 •.w , 2·3 ......: Sunday, 9-1 0 ......., 4- 5 .... , Wealll!, Love Gimel. Mars. riaht ear, ~vurah, north. red: Sund:l y ni&hl. 7·8 . ..... 2-3 ......; Monday, 9-10 ..... , 4-5 ..... S«d: Children and th ings ...,Ialin, 10 them Dalel. Sun , right noslril , T ifcfel. ca.t, yellow;

Monday ni&hl, midnight- I .......; Tuesday , 1·8 A , ."
2-3 •.'". Life. Heahh Kaf. Venu •. left eye, NClzach, up, upper eyelid: Tuesday ni&hL !/}.Il " ', S-6 ....... ; Wednesday. noon_I,.... Dominan""'. Adva""",menl Pch, Men;ury, kft car, Hod. down, lower eyelid: Wednesda y night, 8-9 ..... 3·4 .......; Thursda y, 10-11 A.>L, 5-6 . ....

Pea«. inlemal and nlemal Resh. Salum, left nostril, Ycsod , west. bl ack: Thundlly nighl, 7-8 .... . 2-3 .......: Friday. 9- 10 .....,'
4-5 .....

Grace. :u tracliveness. pers.onality improvement Tav, Jupiter. mouth, Malld1ui, cenleT (sdf), blue;

niz.hl. midniz.hl-I ~-"".; Saturday. 7-8 A-"",

2-J , ....
Be (a,..,flll n<)IIO violate Sabbath.
as/iOXialed both wilh Ille COII«I day and wiib 1M rorrec1 planet See Table .l6 on pqe 132. ThUl. for example. in our (GnI) v=ion ofSder Ycuirah. both Sunday and 11K Moon.,.., ass0ciated wiib Wisdom. Dunlli the day on Sunday, iht Moon is dominant ;n 11K founh and de'~th hours.. or from ~IO .... and from 4.5 , ... T1!e;t an: Ihen the most auspicious times for WOOOIli 10 altain Wisdom." There is a rommandmenl. wTherc: shall nol be found arnallj you .. , one ",1>0 alcuJatr'!l limes (MeOnall)~ (Deuteronomy 18:10). In the Talmud. acrordin, to Rabbi Akiba, this ~ificaJJy applies 10 one who calC1.llales auspicious limes. and a number of authorities ac«pt this opiniQn as binding." This, hO'N'l!'ver. only mean. that one
oo-..~-er. ;m:, t~






, ,


T ~eloday

Wedl>C'Sday Thursday Friday Saturday


"" .."
~~ =~,

'" =




"'~ ~,'


'-' Sh'va

Table 39. Days. vo,,",els and angels. Sunday Monday

&meluria, Geu:ricl. Ve'enael. Lemuel
Shm.iy<:l, &rd:hiel , Ahanie[ Ch:;tniel, ...... h .. d id. Madln i.,l

Wednesday T hur)(\.y Friday Saturday

Chizkid, Rahilid. Kidashid
SlImu.iet, Ra'u mid, Kunicl Shimudliel. Rapllael, Kidu.hiel

Chi. .

Tzuriet RBIiel, Ynile!


Shurek Shurek

should no! make utroqy • dominanl infl uence in one', daily life.

As we


from aU Ihe commentaries on Sefer Yetzirah. when one is

enPlC'd in IhcK m ySli(1l.1 lechniql>«, I hi, prohibition is 1>01 appl iabk." Stt T.bk 37 on pap: 183. AUI!ouJ,lt most versions of Sefer Yelzin.h leI ,he planets in the order in which lhey WCre crelled, Ihe Gra veninn, ""hieh we are usin" follo""1 a dilTerent system . It is baKd on the ordenn, of tile planets as found in the Zohar." Then:, we find tile foUowin, n:lationIohip between the plan el$. &firot and roIon:
,, ~


""'" "'"

Gevurah Tifertt

," "'... '"

$atum 8lK k




Malkhul Ncuach

"W .o.





Hod Thun.

When the Sd'irot and days an: placed in thei r usual order. the planets appear in the order liven in our venion o(Sefer Yeuirah. This vm.ion Il"Ien:foIT i. that wItich filS m(lIiI ck>ody 10 t"" teae:Itin&s r:rf the Zohar. The associalion ...·;tll colon is also s;&nificant, , ;nce one can also meditate o n lhese roIon when seekin. to transmit Ille ,ss°ciated influencc. The colon art also useful in Icneral in medita tions in,"O!vil\j the Sefirot.l' Also associated with lhe days of the week .n: Ihe letters o f the ;l2-lener Ram<:. Seo: Table 38. T bi. ean be uKd in various medita tion. involvinl these days." The sam<: is tnK o f the ancel. associated with each da y." Seo: Table 39.



4: 15 ,n1Tll't 11:1'" .T'VVl



" ":.:1 TTl"'" II::''' ,,)1:111 ,TWiny ;tyjt'

'" <IV'"

<!V'l1 ,nruill 0'TV::It1 ,nn;u 0'TV;:I11 .0'0' ,f'I"Cl1 II'" ,D'111 V:lrf ,11WOV ;tV:l17 ,C'C; 1'IK :l~ l:l'tll:l .v'j:m ;" m ,rrr,:ll' ;W'11
:C'ct>';"1 "

mJ"I rwv':lV;"I


Doubln: BGD KPR T ('"", -w)

Wi/h IIr, m


U"i.nsn, .Il'W'If jirmaml'n D. _II /olf(h. _II SNS,

ri _II dnuu. _ " da~. _ " ,,"ft'IU ,U'OIf'1'I }~rs. .Il'W'1I $l2bbat;cals,
_" jllbil~

Thn,fot-r. lit mad, """'/U' bfto.wJ under af! 1M MOWns,.

and 1M Haly Palace.

S(!l'(!n Uni verses
The K.\bb;llisu write that IhC1C' are lite Se"cn Chambers in Ihe Universe of Ikriyah." These are liven in Table 040 on pqe 186. Of these, the two 1o~~I. ~ Brickwork ofSappbirew and ~Esscnce of Heavm,ware mentioned in the Ycrse, -ntey saw Ihe God of h ille!, and under His feel was Ihe 'Bridwork of Sapph ire: de,.,. like Ihe 'Essence of Hea~'M (bodus 24:10). These Seven Chambers parallel lite seven lower Sefirol in Ihe Universe of Atzilul. They also parallel I~ seven "". Itlles of an,els in the Universe of Yeu:irah. Some early souces state th~tthese Seven Univenes are tile seven thousand yean that the world is suppOsed to exist." TlIC fint ,i1 parallel tlle UK weekday!, ... hile the seventh thoug,nd yun is the ~day when all will be Sabbath .~" Others relate the Seven Un ivenes to tIN: Kabbalistie doctrine of Sabbat iais. This statn that there are seven di stinct periods of crealion. eKh !astin& se' ·en IhollAnd yean. " "crordin& 10 lOme )(abba]i"., the present CJ"Ution is the second , while othen state thl l it is the sixth or seventh. In any case, there Ire seven cycle., each seven thousand yean lonl- This means that the universe as we know il willl..t for 49.000 yean.


40. The 'C,-cn chambers of tile Kodesh Ked.shim Ahavah b=khut Etum HaShamayim ljvna! HaSappir

U niv~~


6~riyah .



Holy of Hol ies Desire



Luster Enena: of Hcav~n Brickwork of Sapphire

ACrordini to !he master ~bbalists, bbbi hue of Acoo. when counl;nl Ihe yeln oflheK cycles. one must nol UK In ordinary physical ~ar, bul ralher. a divine year." The Mid ruh says Ihal each divine day is I thousand Y''''>$, bui nl Ih is on the vene, ~A tbwsand years in Your si&hl are as bUI )'<'SterdayW (Psalms 90:4)." Sinee "Kh year C(M1Llins 365'1, days, a divine year would be 365,250 yean ,.". Accordin, 10 Ihis. each cycle of KV,," Ihousand divine years would rons;" of 2556.150.000 earthly years. This n,ure oflwo-anda_half billion ~an is v~ry close 10 the se;"nlifw,: eJtimale as to thc Icnllh of lime thaI life has e~isted on carth. If...., ... ume Ihlt lhe Kventh C)'<:1c bcpn wilh Ihe Biblical attOUnl of creation, then this ...uuld have Otturred when the un iverse was 15,340,SOO,OOO yean old. This is " cry d<lI5C 1 Ihe Kienlific esti0 male that the .... pansion of tile uni""",, bcpn some fif\«n billion yelrs &&0. The currenl Hebrew year is 5736. In this calendar, the year in which Adam was ~aled is counted as year one. If we Ihen rounlthe Biblical "'.... alogies from Ihe lime of Adam, we find thaI 5736 yun have elapsed sinee the time he was formed. However, the Kabbalisli clearly say that other human beinas .... isled before Adam. and this is ev~n lupponed in scri plure." Actually, there are two accountS of creation in the Boolr. of Genesis.. The linl chapleT of Genesis speaks of lite initial creat>on of the universc. while Ihe 5Ctond chapter speaks of the crealion of Adam. Duri", the si~ da)'1. of crealion described in the first chapteT. God did 1101 a<;lually ~ate Ihe world, but rather. crc.. tcd Ihc in&redicnts which would allow the world 1 devdOp. II thus refers 10 lhe crealion 0 ofan maller, ,,",onl with space and lime." It was duri", Ihese 5i~ days Ihal God broll&hl (he un;v.:fSe in\o beinl from abwlllle noth in,"ess." Afler these si~ days of creat ion. God allowed Ihe univene to dcnlop hy i!SClf, r~r>ewinl Hi. crealion each oeven lhousand divine years or 2.5 billion ~arthl y years. AU lhe la ...·s orn'lure and lite prop-


Table 4 1. Firmanxnts . unhs . and anri"",,,,, If""" 0';<1'

, • , •


I/"Sh~1It 1

v iJon Rakia SIII.e h,kim levu! M a'on Makhon

Eretz Adamah

Ch. . .
(;e.-urah T iferel NClzacl! Hod Y<Ood Malkhul

Ufe Peace Wisdom

Yabashal! Tevd Chalad






of mauu had ~n fixed for all lime, as il is written , "He has established them forever: He has made 11 d«ret ....hich $hall not be lransvessed~ (Psalms 148:6)," It is si milarly wrillen, "Whatever God

decrees sllall be forever: nalhin, $hall be added 10 ii, a nd IlQthinS shan be liken aW1lY· (Ettksi;l$les ): 14)." Each of the &Ix ~cIes of creation hrouahl 5(lmelhin& new inlO the world. The fifth cycle ",as the one Ihal brau,l!! ronl! life, and th is look place Iround t .... o and a half billion yean .,0, Around 974 ,cneral ions before Adam, or lOme 25,000 yean .10, man dc"eloped .Hthe ph ~ical and menial uJ)abililies Ihal we possess 100ay."' Thi, man had evoh"ed from Kthe dust of the earth (Genesis 2: 7). but he still lacked the divine soul that would mike him a Sl'iritull being. God Ihen crea led Adam. the finttrue human bein, wilh a soul , Kand He bl ew in his nostrils a soul o f life {GenHis 2:7)." Accordinlto tradition. the creation of Adam tool< place on Rosh HaShanah. the Hebre .... New Year . .... hi ch oocum:d on September 9. H6! ..c;....

S(!l.'f'n Firmaments
Thne are li sled in lite lonl Venion {4:13; as bo:in&: Viton , Raki •• Shechakim. Zevul. Ma·on. Makhon . AnoVOI. Thne are 1100 menlioned in Ihe Talm1.ld. '" See Table 41 . AttOrdina 10 tlte An, Iltese Jnrallel the seven 10""" Sdirot of the Universe of A$iyah. "

Sel,.m Earths
The lonl Venion (4 :13) lists Ihne as: Adamah, Tevel, Nashiyah, Tza r', Otalad, Eret:., Chllad. Another source giVH them as: Eretz. Adamah, Arkah, Gey, Tuya, Nasya. Te\Oel." Still anotlter


Ttvel, Oalad."


a",;"nt SQUm: liSlS Ihem: En:ll. Adamah , Arb, Chariva., Yabasbl., Ao:cordillJ 10 mlny authorities, IheliC ~fer 10 Ihe seven continenlS: North America, South America, [ uraj'll:, Africa, Asia, Au .. trllia, Antarctic •. " Th"ll: is no oonl;nen\ on the north pole, and hence. the north;1 said 10 be Moprn.-n Bolh Ihe seven firmamenli and Ihe seven eartlts are said \0 para]. It! Ihe &firol in lite lower wot1d. They allO parallel tile seven anri· butes under discussion heTt.

Sel'en Seas
Many commemarirs stale Ihat these are the seven lakes and seas

in Ihe HGly Land." In modem terminolof,y, tile seven seas repraenl the IeV"n <xuns: lhe North Atlantic, South Atlanti<:, North Pacifl(:, South Pacific. Indian Ocean . An:1ic <::Ittan, An1.afCl>e Oct-an. The seu in the Holy Land ~resenl a micl'OCOSm of these OCUJU.

Selvm Rb'ffJ
lbese an: the seven riven ..S()Cialed with tile Holy LJ,nd: The Jordan, Varmoch. Kirmyon . Pop, Pisllon, Gidton , Cbidekel. n The

[uphn!!es;s not counted because it inctvdes them IlL" These plflIllel
the Vt'al riven of the world.

St'l'f'n Deserts
These Ire Ihe seven deseru Ihroush which the Isruliles paS$Cd durinJ the uodu. from Etypt: Eiun. Shur. Sin, Sinai, Paran, TziD , !CadmU1."

Sewn Days
These are the seven day. of the wed;, They are also the iC\'en days of Ihe m.;or feslivals, Pesach (Paoso""r) and SUotOt (TI\>rmKles).

Se'l'en Weeks
These are the seven weeks \>rtwt'Cn Pesach and Shavuol, The Torah thus gy5, ~ you s.h.aIl CQlJnl from the day .fter the h<.>Iiday." . seven complete weeks~ (Leviticus 23, 15).



Sewn Years


Thne: are t~ sc"cn yelR in the Sabbatical cycle. The Tonah prescribes Ihal on Ihe 5e"cnth yur the land should lie fallow and not be worked: ~Six years shall you sow your field ... but the seventh year shall be a Sabbath of solemn rest for tile land" (Leviticus 25:3-4).

SelV.'n Sabbaticals
Allhe end of se ...~n Sabbatical cycles. tile Jubilee y<:ar....,.,. ~1e­ bnucd. All staves "'ou.ld Ihen be frttd. and real property ",vuld be returned 10 its herffiitary o....".,r. 1l\e Tonh stale$, "YOII shall num· ber seven Soobba\icals, x "en limn seven years ... makin, fony-nine
yea ..... And you $hall ... nctify Ihe fiflieth year, a nd proclaim liberty

Ihnxagh(HIt Ihe land ... ;1 lItall be • jubikc \0 you" (Lcviliclls

25:8. 10).

Seven Jubilees
Th is is ""ven limn 49 (or 50) lotal of J 43 (or 3S0) years. The Firsl Tem ple stood for 4 iO yean. and during Ihi, per\Qd, Isrul observed seven jubilees, 0(1 This also relates to the concept of Sabbatical. of creation, where each jubil~ ~riod ronsists of 4 ~,OOO ynrs. There will be seven such jubil~ ~riO<h, and the univene will therefore last a Iota! of J4),OOO yean. These are d ivine years. each one ronsislinl of 36S,2SO eanhly years. Thus. the total time between the initial expansion and final collapse of the univene will be 12S,lS7,SOO,OOO years. Th is filure of 125 billion years is ,"ery close to the scientifIC calculation. After this period Ihe univene wi ll become rompletely spiritual. Olle of the .speds of the future world will be extreme lanaevity 011 the pan ofmanl:ind. Reprdilli Ihis period, it is foretOld, -As a ehild one: shall die a1 a hundml years old" (Isaiah 65:20)." Acoordilli to Rabbi of Aero, the lifespan will have beo:omc so extended lhat olle who dies at the qc of a hulldml wilt be ronsiderc<l like a child currently dyinS at the • of). Th u$, the nonnallifespan will be ap-proximately 33 time. itl present vah.e, or around 2.000 years. ll [sue of Acoo funhermorc SUi tes thai these will be divilK yurs, IQ the human lifesPl'n will evell1ually be extended to Ihe orderofei&hty miltion years!"




The Holy Palace
Tlle;s Ihe seven th point. lhe cemer oflhe OIhI"r 5ix, as uplJ.ined above (4:4).

He made Sl'I'('I/S belolM
Accord;n, to Rabbi Abraham Abulaf1.&.

all' foe'U. levels in

enal ion: Form. malter. combination. mineral, vqetable, animal, and man. Man 15 th"5 the i1eVenlh level, and i. ~I beloved by God."

4: 16

Il'l~ 17~ ,D'J"C ')17 J"\\lO Il'l~ ,.,17 ntn:I C' l:IN: V~"If( ,tNt:! :1tl'V .nun ;'1t<O r1lJO O'~ von ,co11:' O'"11:IVI ;"I}I:l"lf( fWotO V::IV rnJO 0'1:lN W ,O'.n:l 0 ' it'}ll
O'!)\m l1Von mn::l C'1::lN V:l'D .0'10 D'"W)/l

r Nl7 ;to :::nVTll 1Cl' 1"'1'<1 1 1'<'.0 .o'TO Il'}lYVCI :V'II:lv"J .nn' fl1l<t:1 r l't\ u,':l ,",p' ;tlm

r"" Slont':f build 1 ~

111m s/ CHln build (, Iwwo
build 14

Fi" S/OIIn build /10 housD Six stOlOn build 610 ~ &.Y!tl SfOtID build JfUO housO':f From Ir~ 0 11 If' (lltt rsnd cakulmr thai ..·hiar til .. "'Ull/II (;(lflfI{JI. sJWllk
ond 11r.. l'tlr cannot IImr.



He", Ihe letters of lhe alphabet an: called


KlIbbalist. say thai they are ~.ton.,. quarried from the veal N . .... of

The lext he n: is diSC'Ussinl the nllm~r of permutations possible with a liv~n number or lell~rs. Ir One has 2 letten, AB, OIK can per-

'" mo,l\c them in 2 ways: AS and BA. TIIese are the -2 Stones- thaI
-build 2 houses." If one has 3 leiters, one can make 6 permutations: ABC, ACB, BAC. BCA. CAB. CBA. Use has already bttn made of th is above (1 : 13.3:6-8). In. similar manner, " kite", "'<In be pcnnl,ned in 24 ways, and S in 12(1. The numben are nol difficult \0 obtain. If one stanl witb one lener X . .. second lener cao be placed either \0 ils n&hl or \0 ils left. This lives 2 permutations: AX and XA. Now if we lake a<,:h oombination XV, we can pl~ I. th ird letter in \h= pot.!Iible position$: AXY, XAY, XYA. Si~ the Jetten XY themselves could be permuted in 2 waY$. Ihe total number ofpermu_ lalions is 2 x 3, or 6. Similarly. if .... e have 3 lellen Xvz, .. fnunb letter can be pl.oed in one of 4 plaen: AXYZ, XA YZ, XY AZ, XYZA. Since Ihe 31enen XYZ can be permuted in 6 different ways, lbe total number of permutation. is 6" 4, Or 24. If we then lake" leuen WXYZ, a fifth leller can be inserted on one of S platts: AWXYZ, WAXyz, WXAyz, WXYAZ, WXYZA Since WXYZ Un be pc:rmulI,d in 24 ways, the tou.! number of pc:rml,ltllions iii 5 x 24, or 120, we Ihe",f~ 5«, Ihal for a liv~n number ofl~\lers. Ihe number of pc:nnulationl il liven by

l "2,,),, . .. . xN.
This is known as N faclori al, and is U$ually wrillen II! The number of pc:rmUiations for all numben of Ielie .. up 10 22 i. liven in Tables 42 and 43 on paje 192. In &tnera], leller permutations playro an important role in the prat'licn of Ihe meditalive KabbaliilS. TlIesc pennulations we~ often chanted very mlK:h like a manU1l in onIcr 10 brinl aboul a desired ~Iale of consciousness." A number of sud! tUIS conllin e)nensi"e tables of such peIIilUtalions."

That which the mouth cannot sfH!ak
This expression is Ilso found in Ihe Talmud." Assume Ihal a penon wished to pronovllCe all SQoCO possible permutations of !leVen kilen. He wo\lld therd'OIl' have \0 pronoun<:e a tOlal of 5040 )( 7, or 35,280 lellen. Anumi nl that ~ oould pr0nounce tbree Leuen a second. it would take over three boon to Il'cite them all. Difficul t. oot not impossible.



NumbeTof letters


Table 4 2. Permutations fOf 7

Icn~n .




• , , ,

2 1

, d Ix2><] ],,2,,]x 4
])(2,,),, 4)( 5><6

I" 2" ) " " x S

1 .. 2 "],,.x5)(6)(1

, -, -" - ""'



Table 43 .


for'2 leners .

Number of



, ,

, " " " " " " " " " " " "

• , , ,

40.320 362,880 3,628,800
)9,916.800 4 79,001,600 6,227.020,800 87,178,19 1,200
1.J{)7,674, l68 ,OOO

, , , "" 0 no '.' "


" .' "

" "
8! "


II '
12! I J!



20.922 ,189,888.000 355,687,428,096,000 6,402.373 , 70S, 728,000 121.645, 100.408,832.000 2, 432 .902,008,176,640,000
51,090,94 2, 1 71 , 7()9,440,OOO

16! !1!



1,124.000,12 7,77 7,607,6&0,000

21 '

If One wishN to pronounce all possible permutations of ei&lll \etlers. he would have 10 rttile. IOlal of 40,320 x i, or 322,~60 lellen.

AI the same Bit. Ihis would take a ppro~i male!y thirty hours. For all practical pUIP;:5 '~ thi s is outside th e realm of normal human capability. rm, 1e><llhemore SLUes Ihat Ihis is some!hin, Ilial KIlle mouth cannol speak, and the ear cannot llear.w The &fer Yel~irah incl udes il here, sintt il is possible \0 pronOUrKe all the permuulions of the ~en Doublts. and apparently, Ihis was do ne in SOme techoiques. Mln Ihe next chapter, the text...., 11 be speakinJ oflhe I_I_-e Elementals, whi<:h can be permuted almost • h;olfbillion ways. At the .... me note as abo"." il would 1m 63 years 10 pronounce all these permutations. From Table 43, we s« that Ihere are about a sextillion (10") p0s-

sible permutat ions of all 22 leiters of 1he Hebrew alphabet. This is very clo5oe 10 tile total number of stars in the ~rvable uni vene. Thi s univene contains lround a hundred billion (1 0" ) plaxks, each one with approximately ten billio n (101t) stan. A very similar figure is also found in t~ Talm ud." Thus, from the permutations of the al phabel. a name c:an be formed for C'o·cry Slar in the univene. This i. in acwrd.lnce with the teachi"lthat every ,tar has In individual name."

Copyrighted material


Copyrighted material


5: 1

: 1 " ':1 1"110111' .. iiiV 0'1111 l-nQ' :p 'y 'y : 0 '] ~ : ' '0
1i"1:n:'11 ,:WVrI ;'111'01:' ;t'tn



1'11"1\7 ;'ICPVt,


''1: I " :tr1'11 ,111''0 "',

r ..-dYtr £1"m""lo.l$: HeI! (:I). 1'0.'< N.

:UZy ;n M, Clrn (n), Tn (0). Yud f).

Lamnl tJ). Nun (l,!. S<JmU/l (0).
Eyin ("9), nadi ('I). Kuf (P)· Tllt;r foundatiOll i$ s~«~ . Ilwugill. mo/ioll.

si$hl. hN n",. IX/lon,
roirilNl. $/tIn/. UH P.

ang", laslf.


Th is can also

interpreleO as temper or qrnsiveneu.

Tile Hebrew word here. L '('ifalr, liltnllly means swaIloYo'inJ. Many comment.ries. ho~ver. interpret;1 to man lastt. ' Thr;.., anribliles do nm h. .>'e opposites. They can either be pres1 ~ni or I~nl, but their abs.ence is not the opposite of tlleir prnence. Thiry are therefore represented by Ihe l~lve Elementals, which only have I .incle sound.

u \wel,-e ,ribes of IsraeL There are two waYI oforderin& the twelve tribn. The fil'1lt is thai whkh OCCUl'1l in tile bqinnin& of tile Book of Exodus (I :2-5): Reuben. Simeon. Levi, Judah. ]ssac:har, Zebu]un, Benjamin. Dan, Naf\a]i. Gad, Asher. Joseph.' The fil'1l1 six here are Reuben . Simeon, Levi, Judah, bachar. and Zebu!un. Th~ I re the six sons of Leah in order of their binh.' Then

As we .hall~ . Ihe.., QU.uilicl parallel the lwelve months. as_1I Iht !"""in siJ.ns of Ihe zodiac. They also have a parallel in Ihe



• g

• ~ .ij



~~~ < %

" §i ..

aU .sU

.2 oS

• 1 .5~1 e

• !

" .! iii <~o

~ -~

i Ii

, OJ !, i ' ~ :j& u:=. ~~>


0 e, , • • .2.

i •• •a.. ~ • , " -• 5~
~ L.

>-< "

, • e -' 0>

• ••

.,~l'" ..


• •~ ~



~ :> :-


comes Benjamin. Ihe son of Ractlel. Joseph , the oilicr son of Rachel, was in Egypt, and is therefore not mentioned unlillhe end. Followinl these Ire Dan and Naft.tli, the IOns of Bilhah, Rachel', handmaid. 11Kn comes Oad and Asher, the sons of Leah's handmaid, Zilpah, ...'ho "'ffe born after the sons of Bilhah. A number of authorities list the twelve tribes in Ihis order,' Acwrdin& 10 this. Joseph's si.,. rom« QUIto be Pi$Ct$ (Dlpm), and thi. is al..., rdkcted in Talmudic leachinp' (see Table 44). Other authorities liSI Ihe tribes in the order Orilleir camp$ in the desen.- Stt filun: 47 on pqc 200, This order ;,.; Judah, Is.w;har, Zebulun; Reuben, Simeon, Gad; Ephraim , Manancll, Bcl\iamin; Dan. Asller, Naftali.' On the eastern cam p was Jl.Idah, Issachar and

Zebuhm; on the south, Reuben, Simeon, and Old: on the wal,
Ephraim, Manas:seh, and &ltiamin , al>(! on Ihe north, Dan, Ashe.., and Nafiali. Aocordinl 10 some IUlhorilies. Illis was a1110 the order of the SIOnes on lIJ.e Urim and Thumim.' This chanse of order occured after Levi WII liven the priesthood and ",moved from t~ ordn of the tribes. To complete the twelve, Joseph was divided into two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh. This was in aocordance to Jacob·, blH$inJ. M Ephraim ilJId Maoasseh 1halI be like Reuben and Simeon to me (Gn1esis 48:S). When the traits I"' in the onler liven in our (Gra) venian, the tribes ml.l$t be m. tched up with them in the order of the camps .. lbe division of Joseph, however, is nol considered., and therefore, Joseph is in the place of Ephraim, and Lev; in the p~ce of Mlnasseh. See Table 4!i.

T. ble 4S The Gill ,-enion. Month Nissan Iyar Sivan TamuI


Tribe Judah Issachar ZebuJun Reuben Simeon


Thouaht Action Silht Hearins Action Coition

T ishrei a,,,,,hvan Kislev T evet ShevlI


(Josepb )



Benj amin Asher Nanali


Taste Utu&hler



w., E",,"' L m M<.....,cl.



Z<I>ul un


FI~~ ....

47. TII<, IriMS in I"" d'1<'rI

Tllese 1I"'elve auributr:s alllO """"neltlle twelve poormut.tion~ of 1M Trtral'llmmaton. Even thou", four leuers can normally be peTmUled 24 differen t " ·a)-.. since tWO lelten are tM .. me lIere, tIIis number is halved.'~ See fi,ure 48. One bqins willlihe name YHV H . Relllinillj the Y It the betinnin" the V is fint placed at Ille end (YHHV). and then immediately aft .... the Y (YVHH). See fi,ure 49 on paJC 2Q2. The Y is tllen placed .1 the end . octtin, the first H in the betinnin, (H VHY). As before, the middle leiter, wllich is now Ille final H . is fi nt placed at the end (H VYH). It is tllen placed after tlte initial letter (HHVY). The H in tile initial pennu"tion in Ihi. triad (HVHY) is then placed al Ihe end, lea"in, the V al the lIt,;nninl (VHYH). Apin, lhe middle leiter, Ille Y. is fint placed lillie end (V HH y)' and then after the fint leltn (VYHH ). The V is then placed at the end, lea~;nllhe fi ....1 H in Ille bqin_ nin, (H YHV). The midd le H is then moved to the end (HYV H). .nd tIIen to the second posilion (HHY V). Aceordinl \O most aUlhorities. Ihi. i. the order of permulations of the Tet~mmalOn parallelin, Ille months of the yur." There are certain verws tllat aho pertain to Ihese. whCTe Ihe letten of the poormutal;ons appear a. eilllee the initi al or fin.1 letters of tile words."

AlloO ..wxiated with thes.o are t~ T"" eJve Houses, wh ich Ire the twelve anlular divisions of the sky_ Stt Table 4S on page 199. The positionins of the constellations and planets in thl'Se determine tlleir asuolOlical influence." Thit division is al so u~ in w~tem Istroiosy·

FiKurr 411 . c,'... lr ofJ"r""U/IJfjon. • . lwuu$. IrilHs. ,,,,,,,rh•. t"JnI;~K m Roo,w 5,,/.

,,,,J . iK'"


:r"'y 'llI} Doe.:} II"I:~ ~~~ y~1~ lC,Y_" 0IJI'r.'" : ~:n te" :'''''1 ~ = rt'l ~""''lCv ~~~ 'i"l::l ~ ~'}.,: r... "" :.' ~.): ," M
' ;>\0 "

~,.~,., F ::tC:,,\ ';'''1 ":11,' ;'1:"\' N :,,\j\l' ~.., Ice:.



, - ,-- ,

"" ;I\"... r ~ j" C
j'J : " "I:

: ,~ " ' ::' ,\-=l'l! ;,,!: ~:'·iJ. ':"I'~-:-\ .~" r;' . . .


:"':'I~ :I:i] ~1','J "~"~::l;:l'


1I"n t"=' fI:J

:'''' : :1'':"n

: ':P;:j\

- i''','.'


""J j\j\k' M;;'j - ,- - ,

.............. :~~n '~C.:l
oT'l i'~ ' I')" : ~ n=l!)
"""X"~ :'lI.~ O:::o'

:lD' ;;::'C"ll :

' ,'\01

. il~"''' ·,.-,,- ·jU~:"\ , .;":"\
, ' - " . -,,'

: ",.:", ' J: ;""li"1'=''tI iI' " 'N,'iI )';,.,

- ,


,,"> : .,.: . '"1'"114 -.


Hlu,.."""". p. ll6 . £1..1,,wi ..war orr j,,'rrrltwtst<l UITOflIj,,~ It} ,,,, Q/dt. KubbttlislS. M~, l"d...Jn/ arr lilt ,,"#11...- ..·.... k '" rM pt.",.. ,..ri"". orr

49. PtmtUlolioN of rHVH wtd rnrH

...-ronIi,,~ '"


dtri>'td. Iht S4irol. u1ld 0<'1"'"

of Pon;"fi"' ,


11lOWD :ntrV O"fltI' Iml 'l1tl~~ '7ul ~V D'1'D P1C' :i' 'y l' j 1'1 i AD "1m J"I'll!ll' 11'mlC ~ 1'I'zm il'l i liD n'I i lie 1'1'crr1 ;u. rrZll"1 1'1'ClT1 '?m ,IT'1V'IJ'1 Iml "'01' 1'I':l"1VC 7ul ,1W"Im 11'cm Iml J"I'lUll' ~ J1'mn 11' :l"1VC 7w. 1'1'crr1 l1':l"1VC J"I'nnrI 1'I'1l!lY "1m 11':l"1V1:l 1'1'1'111]' 7w. 11'01'

:0 ') ,"' : ' '0 'n :1 '\

:C.,'V .rn'ml 1''1 1m 'v
n.~"f' Ef~m~'lIals



r:l""" r~

Tilt;, Ji>undll/i(JM iJ flrr

en 'on m)


TIlt NJI UpfWI' OOufllUU)'

Tht t'Wt flOrtlr"" boundary TIl .. l'tUr lt1t<w /)cunda,)'
TIll' $fJ1I11r

uppn boundary

Th .. sou,h '<IS11'r/! boundary

TIIl'soulh /(]to" boundary " Till' 14'nl UPI'" bcundary Til« wnl soulll"" IxNndlU)' Thl' lWSl/(Jt<'n boundary
Thl' IJOI'lh upper bolUldary

n... norlh I"",,,,, l:!oun/kJry

The nor1it

" nlt'l"lI


Tlrry u:lm" (OII/inllally "filii of rrn-"ltj~ ;s IIrI'J' Ihal are tlli' bndarin of 1M U,,;wrst'.


TIll' twelve Ele"",ntals 1I", said to rdale 10 Ute Iwtlve d~1 boundaries. See Table 46 on pa&e 204. These correspond 10 the

twelve edln of a cube. Wh en a person ustS Ihese !enen in any medi. tation. lie muSI also concentrate on the appropriate di~ion. The orderi,.. he re beain. on the east , and then II<leS throu&h the four primary directions: east, SOUlh, W"t$t., north. This corresponds 10 th~ (eadtin" M Whenever you tum , tum IOward the ri&hL M" The orderin, of di~ions is also the as that of the foor camps in the dcxrt. " The twelve diqonal boundaries thus .pond 10 ,he twelve tribes. Ii is for this reason that our (Gill) version &ive. Ihrtt boundaries for each of the four .ides. These ronespond to the three tribes in each of the four camps. '· In each of theoe: four directions, one ftnt cUes the upwud boundary. then the ri&h( boundary, and then the lower boundary. In



~ers ioo~

Table 46. Two

of the diagonal bound.aries Shan Venion Permutation Tribe
north east south



, , ,

lonl Version
east upper

east nonh east

east lower

eail upper
nSI lower
nonb UppeT


J",1Ih [ssachar

Reuben Simeon

, ,

south upper
1101/11\ Il0011111

, ,

nonh lower
west soulh west north wnl upper



",-at upper wnllOU lh


Ley; Benjamin


• •

north liPPI"
north ...",SI




north Io...- r e

to.llh lower

"'''" Nl nali





, ,

, ,

rilJ~rr j

I. TM "",;1100

of thr £/rrnr ..",/. ''', '1r'/;''1I to bulh ,.,,,in

lhi s manner, o ne deKribn kner Bet

on each side. This tolit-

$pOocb to Itt. teachine Illal the ... orid was "realed wilh a Bel, this

bein, the finil leUer of the Torah. '1 See fil"re .50. A "umber of Oiher ve",ion~ Ii"" Ihe twelve bo ... ndarin like Ihey are here, " Other ~rsions. ho ...·cvcr, LUe I diff.-rent system. They Jive all the eastern boundaries firs!. Ihen Ihe \"'0 ""main;", no"hem ones, then all tile western boundaries. Ind finally. the \ ..." remainin, southern w&eS," See fl,ur., SI.

The Bilhir fdates !hne I_h'c diagOnals 10 Ihe Tm: of Life.'"
T h.,re i. a one-u.>-one ",]al ion.hi p

11K dillon.) boundar1n

and the di..,onal lineo in lhe T= of Life dia&ram. ThCiie I_h'c boundaries also correspond \0 Ihe lwelve permutalions of the Tetrqrammalon. The permulalions beJjnnin, wilh Y rorrnpondin& 10 Ihe east; those beginnin, with Ihe firs' H, 10 the south: t~ V. to t~ west. and the final H, to the IIOnh."

They extend /Q eternity of eternities
The term , ~etemity of elemities,~ whieh in Hebll:w is Adq Ad. hiS alll:ady been discussed (1:5) IS denotinl a rnlm heyond spaee and time. T~ use of the term hell: would imply thaI the diqonal boundaries actually e.ltend heyond the Il:alm of spaee and time. Earlier. when the xfer Yettirah (4: 4) spoke of the si~ primlry dir«1ions. it did not tlIlithem boundaries. The Il:I5OII why they Ill: tlIlle<! ~boundlries~ (,vI'ulim) here is because the)' I ll: used in



method of mnliLl.linJ on Ihe "boundarin- of lPlIte. The initiate meditates on the four IeIten Bel whieh ..,aI lhe uni" ene on four sides. ..,,,inJthe limils ofthou,ll1. tI He also meditatn on the twelve permUlalions of the Tetragrammaton, whtd! correspond \0 the Iwd~e dillJOllals. In Ihis manner. he can reach the le,-el where they extend 1 -elerni ly of elernilies, - beyond the Il:alm of space and 0 time. In discussi nJ the t_lve d i~,ona1s> the Bahi . says, '"On the inside of them is the Tree. -" This is the Tree of Li fe, the IrTll y of the Ten Sdirot. oonnttted by lhe 22 !etten. The Tree il not inside the twelve b<xandariel from an earthly poinl of view, since it il external to Ihe ph Y ical universe. It il only inside Ihese boundaries when ~iewed l from the point at infinity, that has been discuHCd arlie. ( 1:7). Ii is al this point that all the boundaries are unified. When I person meditates on the infinity of the dialOllal boundaries.. Ile is also able to mo~e alonllthe dilJOnal paths in the Tree or Life. This is importanl. since it is much easie. 10 ascend aIon& the dillOnallthan l lon,tlle ~ertiCliI paths.

Boundaries of the UniVf'rsl'
These boundaries parallel the boundaries of the t.... eI~e tribes mentioned in Ezekiel 48. Each of Ihese dilllOnal boundaries relate5 to one of the t...,.,lve tribes. Acrordinl to the Talmud, Ihese boundaries correspond 10 the t_I.'e pillars upon which the universe rellS." Th il is based on the vene. - He slOOO up the boundarin of the nllionl, accordi", 10 the number of the thildll:n of Israel- (Deuteronomy 32:8). The Tllmud also Il:lues thne 10 the -arms of the universe.Instead of - boundarieJi of the Unive~.- the S!>ort Venion reads. -arms ofthc Universe. -" The obvious allusion is to the verse (Deuteronomy 33,26-27): Theil: is none li ke the God of Jeshurun The Rider of the heaven. is )'OUr Hel!'!'. Hi. pride il in Ihe o.kieI (~lrna.okim). A dwelli", is the God of eternilY And below Ire the Anns of the Universe He drives tile enemy from before you And He said , - Dcstroy! Th is venc tX'Curs after the blessin, of the tribes, where M{)5CI blessa the enlill: nation of Israel." Allhoualt the verse is s!,!,akin, or



GOO helpi", Ihe hrtleli les in a mundane KnK. il also has mystical .... vrn .... nes. M0SC:5 tqins by callin, God, ~Ihc Rider oflhr hcavnlS. ~ The word ~ ri<kr,~ ~ (;on), ~ do5rly rclaled 10 /PIaI'kaI:a (:g;rc), Ihc mystical ~chari....C thaI is Ihr ew:noe of lhe m~'Stical epaience. The corapl of ~ridin,M involves tra,'dinl and kav;n. one's nalural place." 'NMn M~ says thaI God Mrides" Ihr hcav.:ns. it means thaI He aves His II.Ilural Rale where He is absolutely WIknowable and inconceivable, and allows HimKlfl.... be visuali=!. in a mystical vision. As Ihc ven<: continurs. thi, takes plact throu&h Ihc $ties kno'4n as SlrdchaJcim. This lerm always refffS t .... Ihc tWl) Sefinrt, Neuach and Hod . .... hich are the Sefirot invol"ed in propbel'yand impiJation.'" It thrn says, "A d....ellin, (mt'anah) is Ihe God af eternity." As discussed earlier (I:S). the ....ard maon (and m~'onah) indio"e a level above space and time, the "place of the uni,·ene.~i'O The word for ~ncmal· bett is Kedem. wbid! ",.. aUy indicates Keler." The Hebe. word for Cro<o.n, Ketcr (vo) also comes from Ihr TOOl KaJar ('V1;)~ meaning 10 ~Stlrround.~" It is lhrou&h Ihc attribute of Krtcr or- Krdtm (eterniTy) that God e••;:c)iIlpo ...... all spiIte and time. It is bel ....... this that there u in the ~Armsaflhe Universe." These Ire the infinities involvi", the twelve dialonal bou.ndaries. On Ihe highest levd, ...e conceive of God IS bei", lOWly divan;nl from all space and lime. This conceplion involves I state af consciousness thlt penains nei ther to perception nor to non perception. On I lower le"el, " .. e woe Him as Ihe one .... ho defines SPlIce Ind time, as the ~ Placr of the U niverse. ~ This involves a stlte of consciousness pereeivinl NothinlIle5S. On I stiD 10lOW le~1, we s« God as beilll beyond the bou.ndaries of the universe. ThUs. ih pel'SQll wishes 10 experience GOO, he must bcain It the lower level and Wl)rk his way upw;o.rd. He Iherefore bq1ns wilh the Marms of the Un;verse,~ contempiati", 1M infinily of space in the \ .....,h·e diagonal boundaries. Only aner Ihis can he reach Ihe level of ~I Dwcllilll is tile God of ( temily." where Ile conceives God IS tM "Pllce of tile Uni ,·ene." Finally, ho_ver, Ile mUSI altain a conception of God IS beinl totally divorced from spa« and time. He Ih~n sees Him as tile ~ Ri<kr of the heaven~: who merely uses all depictions as I means throusb "" hieh He can be conceplualized. A very important element in Ittaininl the mystical experience is the ncpt;on of the Kif. When a person sees him..,lf a. nothin" then his Klfbcromcs transparent to the Divine. Commenti"' .... n 1M vene, "from under!1le Anns oflhe Univene," the Tllmud states thaI I person mun ~make himself like he don not exisl."" Throusb contemplati". the infinit>es of the universe , one can nullify the 1:10.


Tn ar>Ol~r ,.~ry si).l1ifu;anl leachinl. the T.lml,ld Slales Ihal. ~The spiri l (n.adt) depends On I~ siormwind (w"""lIj ... and I~ slormwind hanp from Ihe arms ofGod.M).J This is also huo:d on the verse. "From under Ihe Arms of Ihe Univn'Soe." The slorm"';nd ( .... ·arall). however. WIIS I~ linl manifeslion of Ezekiel's vision, IS he says, M looked, .nd ~hold, a slorm "';nd rominl 01,11 Of lhe nonh~ l (Ezekiel 1;4)." The sturmwind reTales 11,1 Ihe stormy Slale uf c0nsciousness thaI pr«cdes the true m~licaJ e"perK""" , .... hich ;. called MSpi ril" (Ruacll). The Talmud siales that lhe state or Sa'arall. which is the pteway 10 Ihe mystical experience, depends on the Atms of the Univese. One allain. Ihis state .... hen one mediUlles on Ihe infinilies of the dilJOl1.Il boundaries and the permUlalions of Ihe Telrqrammalon os'lOCialed .... ith t~m. In lhe lui he,.." ... e I t t thaI the onkri"l uf the Iwelve di'lonal boundaries beains wilh Ihe eaSI and ends with Ihe nonh. Since Ihe directiun upon which one medilates is the nonh. Ezekiel ...... Ihe "storm ... ind rominl from Ihe nonh.~ The Sllle of "Slormwind," I . .... ell n lhe "1"'11 doud. and nasb· inl fi,..," seen by Ezekid .,.., the rorco of I~ evil Husb (Klipalr), which must be b,..,.ehed ~fore one can enler inlO Ihe m ~leriu." The pa»ale in Deuteronomy Iberefo,.., ooncludes. "He drives the enemy from befure )'Ou. ~ Si""" after conlemp/atinllhe "Arms uflhe Univerv," one enoounlel1l the enemy-Ihe K/ipah-MO!es bad 11,1 pn;>millC' Ihal God would drive Ihi. fu," . .... y and allow une 11,1 enler unharmed." In Ihe urnl Venion. the readin& he,.., in Sefer Vdzirah is "Hei&hls uf I~ Universe." Some commenUlries SUIte that these "H ~i&hls" are Ihe "A rms of Ihe Universe.- " The term. "HeiahlS of the Universe: 0CC1J11I Ih,.." limes in scrip. 11,1,..,. In Jarob's blessinllu Joseph, he If1IInlS him. "Ihe desire uf the Hei&hlS ufl~ Universe" (Genesis 4!U6). Moses li kewill<' blcsllC'd lhe tri~ of Joseph wilh. "Ihe ITUsu,.., of Ihe Heiahts of the Universe" (Deuleronomy JJ:H).>O The Zohlr $Illes Ihal IheK Hei&bls Ire ,..,llied to the feminine principle in crealion, esptti.Uy 11,1 tbe Sc:firab uf Malkhu\." It is Ibm"'" medilllion o n Ihe I".. elve infinite tines of the universe Ibat une can enter into Malkhut and beain the dimb up the Tree of life. The t....,l'·e dillunal boundaries are Ibe,..,fOK like lransmission lines. throu&b whiCh c,..,al;ve ene raY flows inlO lhe uni""l1Ie fn;>m ~ twelve diqon. l patin in Ibe Tree of life. As such. these infinities Ire I~ inlerface M lw«n the physical and the lf1llnKendenUlI.




'n :' '\ ';'I J"fOll)'!I ;nJ:IV 0'1"11' l"'cm ~'" 1~"1]' pm tpprl f1'1O' :p '1 '11 c>ViM '''11 0'1" ~lV!I ",Iml ,."V 0'111 O:"l!l 'VI
,'tI ')

,'? : '


::1!1j?ll "'Dl 1"1:1 C'l':"IlIJ 117V 0'1V ;UP!!

T,.,(,/,'f' £f~m~"lals II VZ ChTY LNS MQf;Jr; en "'" m) Tir", /Oundation is [tlral} II .. rngTa..-d tMm. carwd th<'m. ptrm ulM Iltnll.

"'ri$lred (h,m, and rran4«mM them, A IIQ will! IlIml lit formed
Iwri.", CQlUleilatiQI1$ ill lb., U"i~ ''''1!/~ m QlltJu in liI(' tN'

and null¥' dir«l~ In Iht' Sow/. mall' and f ..mal...


0'0'IKn -,w ;t"tl C"'W:I rnlno '\:'1/ 0'117 "l m7l' !I";'V C'llKll .,'run ~"\I'( II:T1C :0'1"' •."

T..-rlw rotISrei/ariolU;n 1Ir, liIIi~.­ Ari~ (rIel!. til.. Ram) Taunu (Shor. III .. BIlI/) (ri,min; (T.-umim. tit, rwilU) Call(" (S<mall, tilt Crab) Uo (An, lilt' Lion) VirgQ (&til/air, III, Virgin) Libra (Ma: lUlyim, tlr, Scales) Scorpio (Akrov. l/r.. Soorpioll)
$ugif/tJrilU (KnJlel. Ilrt' Arch")

CaINicorn (Gedi, tI, .. Kid) Aquarius (!NIl. IIII' War..,. Dra"-n) PiKa (Da$ill, III.. FiJh).

" o
tMi. rom.'spondell«S, .

T.hle 47. Heb«=,. IUlUr months


M on th


l Si,"
Aries Uriel

I An,el o



Jyar Imrie! Gansharish Cadnie!
Tariel BlIl'lIti.,1

Apr.- M~y

~m ini



M ay-June


Ba nlk;"'1


Jun.e-Jul y


Aklln id
"IR iel



AliI- -Sept.


Libra Scorpio

C haniel

T i$hrei
r. marid






Oct._Nov .

Kille v


O. brid



T e,.",

Dec.-Jan .

YaTiel Sumiel

Shaoie! Aquarius


Jan .-Feb.

Ru mi.,l




' A«onji.. Lo lIui<l 4 16. 141.



non Il'tI

JO'} ;U1)'~ :"1( 1:)~1)' lUtl
,. , ~


"WV O'l"



]'1 VTT '"W1'I ~

Trw/or mOn/1is ill tllr , .... , NiJ$lllt, i}'Q.'. Sil'(11I,

1IIm"z, Al: £/,,1. Tisllte;, ehnh<an. Ki.J!"" Tf'Wt, Sh...·(J/. Adal'.

tile zodiac are sho .... n in Table 47 on p,&ae 210. Fi,ure S2 shows the zodiac as it appeared in the 1720 edition of Tzural HllArn:.


~fe~nces to





0'"1' '111:'

:t:li'n r~'.",. i~ l'i"


t;I!)l.:J O')'W "WV 0':11'.' ;r'\/:llW"J::I '111:' O'~m ' .nV :"lI"It) :1:li'

Twrl".. dir«lDr$ ilt



1Mlt and /tmak T'ht lOW hllltds. lilt I_1M.
lilt Ilro Iddfl~, J1r~ gall bladd". tht i ltlnlina.

,ht Ii ,,", Iht ~~. tht ki'lflh, ,11£ Sp/« II,

The intestines
In Hebrew, the word here il CkJkki". This usually denotes the

small intesti ne. but ;1 can also include the


intestine or ooIon.

In other venion. , intlu.d of DQkbfl. Ihe Serer YelZirah usn the term M aJSaJ o r IItmsns. Ordinarily in Hebnoic literature. Ibis does nol denote a human orpn. The lentl usually refen to the Omuum or man~1l1ies, the third stomach in rumina!io, (cud-chcwin&) animals weh IS taltk ." See figure SJ on pa&e 2 13. This orpn is also called the putlm um, si~ in Iongitlidinal folds are IlTlInsed like Ihe leaves in a book. Acmrdin"o, nl,lmbC'r of rommentann. Ihe Manas <koOla the stomach in man." In a number of places, the midrash implies lhal Ihe {unclion of lilt MaMIU is 10 Mpind food." ACC(lrdi", to the substitution in the GI1I Version here, ;t would Ippu.r thatlhe analoJue of the M~ in min i.the omlll intestine. This is also supponed by I number of aU lhorities." This would be in qrem>ent with the Kabbalisl$. since lItt'Ordi"l 10 11Iem, the 110m;teb is the K~biJ.,,_

The KQrkeban
The lerm Ki;wIt;Iba" i. nKKt oftcn used 10 denote the linanl in fowl," In the Talmud and Midrash, however, thi. term i. QCC... ionaUy if I1Irdy uK<! 10 denote 1 humin o rpn, u,ullly idenlified with the ~J.ri nd in. of food.
M "



" em

Ik1 11' ''1><0'

M ,, .",

3<<1 ... o~"

cnd j,I"m ..· ~
" " 3 Aboma,um

' ,Il >I"",,,,,h


5J. Thr fOllr Jlom«lor;n " ruminam .

The Zohar dearly idenlifies the J<iJrl:£ban as ,he


Ibis opinion is sham! almost uni\"crsall y by all 1,,<:r Kabbal i.u." Other commentaries identify Ihe Kr:xkdKJn with variOU5 differm, inlemal orpnl. Some say lhal i, is lite esophq,UI." Others say thai il i. the omall intesline." Still another Opinion has that it i. lIIe rolon." Some c'"en SIIy that;1 is lhe appendi~_ "

The Kivah
The Ki.ah is also an "rpn usually associated wilh animals_ In ruminant •. il is the fourth tromM'h, known as the rna'" or abomuum. In calves, ;1 is also known "' Ihe ~n""l baa• • in"" il the




makin, &lands." Accordin, 10 some oommcnlariC'$, Ihe K iru i. the IIO<nach." O\hen identify it .... ilh Ihe in testine." Another op;"· ion hu that il i. lhe wlon." In animals. tile Ki~13 ",IS part oftbe offerin, pve n 10 pri esll,


as Ihe TOflll Slales, MThey IlIal1 ,;ve \0 the prieS! the shoulder,

the two cheeks, I nd the Kivtl~ (Deuteronomy II:J). Mlimonides states Ihal the reason for lhil is because the Ki.ah ;1 the finl Imonl the di&cSl ive orlanl. an d this opinion i. echoed by the KJlbhai i'il." Accordin, 10 this, the anaJo,ue in man would be Ihe (wpll. ,ul. The Talmud and lohar, ho~yer. apparently leach thallhe main (unclion ofthc Ivah in man is 10 indu~ li«p." Thil is .1110 reneeted
in Serer Yellirah (5:9). This would inruQlle an orpn of &Iandular rtalUrc, possibly the pancreas. Sianificlol1y. an early MidlTSh am. · buIes \0 the Ki N , • ~.lecp o f $~Ine:H.-" One reason why tlte K;YQ miaht be associated with sleep i. ~ause in animals it is tlte orpn that diJests milk. The human anlque ma y Ilso be associlted with milk. and milk is known 10 induce sI",p." 1"11<: Talmud also SUtes thil in r;enera!. eatioS brinp OIl sI",p." It is also pOSSible thlt the Kork£ball and Ki'"Q Ire not human orpns I' all. This would meln that use is made of them only when the ~fer Ye1zira.h is used with rel"ion to animals.nd birds. By makin, usc: of these orpns., one may C1"'"eate an l.JI.imal Or bird ."her than • human. This miaht have been the technique Ihll the Talmudic: sar;es used 10 crelte I prime calf.


lIIii' 1 ;m>17j. ';"1 roM ,."'0., O"'Wj. ;T,tl o;n "ll" ;n) ;n Inrt "1ro ,''' ::"upn '" tl'1Il:::l f C' ~" ;"1l":::1 10'l1 "1ro ,.., ,t:'i'l ' \' .".,) '\ .n~ 1''''0.., :"Il17:::1 .,.,~ cTIlV:::I ."..,. 0<1:::1 11'1 ;n:::l :"II 1 1111'1 ::"I:::It.,n "'01 t:'1Il:::l .M')o> ;n:::l ;n 11I"ll" "1ro ,.., ' ' 'i'l 1 '''':-0 '1 ~ 1''''0.' ~Otl' "'l" :"Iltl':::I J1'01 c'?IV:::I C'o~.n 0:"1:::1 1Y\ ::"I.:It? ll "'D

1'(' ' ' '


Inl" Ifd! (:V kill6 OIW sprech and 1ft bo~ nd d """,,n II) il And If~ combill«l on~ ",ith dfl()/he And ",ill, I" mt H~ /oImN Arits in I"t Uni~ NWan in Ih~ Year And Ih~ righ' jiJQl in Ih~ SoIII

If~ mad~ Ih~


tJJUl frmiJl~.

madf Ih~ Ifif" VdV N klll6 a_ IhlNghl And 1ft bound d rn:M·n ta it And 1ft combill«l alU' ...ilh GfI()/he ANi ....ilh Ihtm Ht ji:w11U'd Tauf1I.I ill Iht Ullillf"r$l' [par in Ih~ Ytar And Iht right kMnt}' ill tht Soul md/t dlUi fi'''Wlt Ht m(Jdt IlIt Inl" Lwin (tJ king Ol"eT motian And Ht beulld d """'·11 ta it And Ht rombillfd ant ''';1'' IlII(J/he And ..·ilh Ih/om Ht ji:w11U'd Gtmin; in th~ Ulli.Si'",,11 in Iht Y (Jr t Alld tht Itfl foot ill tnt Soul ma!t and fi' mtJlt.





fnloI ,.~n.i

d?w~ J1:T1C' tr.I~ VI ;n~ ;n JllVl iro


::niJll "01 1'.'lID r.o> i'l



JlliYl iro r, -.t1VI ;w'1lt'.':l '0 /l'II( Y,n.i w'?1;11 ;o1'.'~ ~l o7lv~ 0"1'it( c:"I:l iYl ;n~ ;n "~I:l;' : ;1.~i'11 'UI 1'.'1l1~ rr~ iYl ;n~ ;n l'iYl iro r, it/ l71 ;'1'.')11l:1 '. rmt "'D ~V ' '1 0"I1V:l 7nKl d?w~ ~ tr.I~ ::np11 'U1



1/1' mad.. Ihl' IntI"

eMf (n) king 0''" siSirl

And HI' bourrd II CTuwn 1 II 0 And lie rombintd DIU' .... ilh II" And "'itn 11"", 1/1' p mtd CaM" in lire U"/1W1l' Tamu; in Ihl' Yror And tire right /rand in III .. Soul


moll' alUi kmall'.
HI' mlJdl' IIII' 1m" T~ (c) king 0""' ht'llring And fi e /xNnd a m)W1I 10 it

And III' combi1lft! 0fU' ".'itn anot""
And ",ilh Ihem III' fiwmttJ ~ in 1M Urri,'n'S(' A. in lire y""
And Ihl' Idl kidlU',. hI 1M Soul

mali' and jl'mll/I'
HI' made 1M 1m" Yad (» Icing 0l'f'T action And III' bound II ("I'OWn 1 it 0 A"d III' rombinNf OM "'ilft ",,«lin And "'ill! tit..", HI' formt<l Vi.g<> In lire lftrlvcrst' £ /14/ in rhl' Ynrr And Ihl' left hand if! Ilrl' $cui

mall' and kmail'.


llVot ,,"0;"1 071V:l D"ltl<1J o;"I:l "I)'\ :11:1 m Itl"l)'l 1m ,,? : ~"m "tit Vlll:l ;'1"'10'\ ;om:>:! ..,vrn l!11:n "U"I:I ,,? "Wi" r1'"tI ' J n11't Tim;, /1'1' :';)'0::1 !l17nl c'?1V:l ::IVJI 0:"1::1 "U'\ ;"11::1 :1, :;'1::1,.,11 "1:11 " ' l::l n'IN ,,"D.l 1117j? 0.1.:1 1:n m ::l ;"II 1 11m VU ,,, ,ti l" :tJ't'J '0

lVi" 17'0'0ro


::'I~;ll '1:11 VIIl:! ;"I~~ ;"1117::1 +'0:11 c&"V::I



Ihf InUT Lamed ('» ki'lg c oer coiliOtt And H, bound" crown /0 it Alld III' rombinni one ..ilh Il1I00h ...


A"d ,,'illl tlwm Ill' formni

Libra in Ihe


Tisllre; in IIII' Yl'<lr

And the gall bJadd ... in lire wut male "nd femalr.

HI' made lire Inur N"" (lJ king 0_ smnl Alld lie bound a ,,"0'..,1 /0 it
Alld H e oombin/'d om'
... ilh


And wilh them Ill' [ormni
Scorpio /n Ihl' Urr;W'rn' ChnJmlll in Ihe Yt'ar

And lire ;runtin, in tire Sou/ mal.. Qlld fr male.
HI' modI' (" .. In t" Samah (c) Icing 0'1'('1' sl«p. And Ill' bound a t'roK-'" /0 II And III' rombj"f'd."" ""illl alWfiler

And "'th Ihem He for mni
Sogittariw in Ihe Ulli,'('I'sl' Kisl.... jn rhe t ....., And Ihe Kivalr in Ilrl' Sou!

mall' and forn alI'.

5: 10 co"p




~ 1'~c.,

" l 0;'1::1



m J''m



"!I~ ~\

;'Utl'::t mtrl

Wl)'1 1ro ,~ "11l'pl

::"I.:Ij.,ll "1:11 t:>'l:l 0'11 C:"I:l "tTl m:l ;"II "1ro r, ll''I' ' i''ITW'::t 11011711 ~'.::Ij"n"1:l1 t1!1~ 'Ji'It)\ :"Il'C::t iilfl tnW:J

J~"""'l ;'Ill:'::t mK l"tl:1

:"Ic>V,:I ' y J"I1r( 1"0., ~::t"'\ c"nV:l ", C;'1::t "tTl ;'l1::t ;'I I



::1DrI,n r'n::t



I'C~ ~'tl ;0"'11





lit madt Iht 1~1" Eyi" fp) ki1l.f 0,," {Jfl8" And lie bQu."d Q m;JOI'/f 10 il

And Ill' comb/liN 0/1' ..'i11! fllt/Xlru And wilh fir"" lit' pmN ClIIJrirorn ill lilt' lkIi'~
~ ilt Ilrt Y<"I>r

And Ilrt' Ii_ in Ii" Soul

malt turd ft malt .
/{r ma~

1M 1m" TIdl ('I) ki", ow, UUlt' And 1ft bow"d Q (TOtO'II 10 it

(lild Ill'

rombinnJ OlIO' wilh aMI""

And wilh thtm 1ft /ormtd Aquarius /tl Iltt' u..1.~ SIr~1 in lilt YNr
And Int KorkrlJan i ll Iht'SouI

malt and jnnalt'.
lit' madt lilt' 1miff' K,if(p) kittg 00ff laughtv And lit bound II '"""II 1 it 0

A"d Ill' rombilltd oot' I+'illl Q/IOthv And wilh IlItm lit form,.} l'iKQ in Iltr u" i....v Adw in tlrt Ytar And Ilrt $plN" j" t/lt Seu! mal" Ilnd jmullt,
lit IlrTtlflltd likl a waI' lit WI thtm up fikl a ballit.
lit madr thtm "'kill Irt)<lllir


There are several varian r readinp fOllnd ;l\lhe ditTell'''! vel'l';ons and oom~nr.l'ie$. 'The major ones are liven in Table 48 OJ! pqe 219. In Ihis ven ion, the Ki."h is " $OCi.u~d wilh sleep. Ihe liver wi lli I"lfr, and the spleen wilh lauahter. The; """""'Ilion is found in 1M Talmud." Here _ ~ thai 1M sians of the zodiac are I ssociated ..,jlh thr t.... elve Hebrrw lunar monlhs, IlIther Ihan .... ilh tM position of the Sun, as in Weslern aslrolosY. The assiJnment I'Iere approximates 11'111 of Wmem Qlm locY. but is more accurale from I "-bbaliSl(: viewpoinl. If aile wishes 10 Ittain a deep undentand in, of the siJnificancc: of Ihe IlSlrolo&ial sian •• one must contem plale lhe pllllems of sta ... lI'Ial form n ch one. As one pzes alll'lese stellar al11l)"l, nol only does

CUp!... n ...

Table 48. Various "enions of the



""," '


N loun

,-, ', T.u",s kidney




R. fOOl

[li,llI) R. haM
[~ln .. ]

, Siy.n Oemini

_ ...

L h.M




or the

.<irn~ .

liahl R. lllnd





(.....111 U_

_. -""


L h.M

-" -"



liahl R. IIInd









, u'" ." , """"". -"

"" "'"

hean,.. heari,.. om ("'''"] '"~ Lki.dney R. kidney R. ki.dne)" R. ki.dney R. kidney

Vi ....

~"" L hand

[coilinn ] aclion ~ L kidney L kidney Lkklney L bdney [actinn] he. [molion] coition coilion



[. naer)
[1l"",1n] [\I>Oi.lah1] kivall

.. .. _ """""" _ .. ..... om."
kiyah R. lllnd
L ~~

!auahle, livn lhouahl

Kisltv ~na"".

... -_. ,

, , Aquanus "

"'" ."
'"~ Ii"",


"'"'" "0'

R. hand Lauahlt1"






R_ fOOl Jauahlt'

m." """P' o R. fOOl
U_ ""



1a.. , ·,"""sItt. _ . alto 1"....•by _ in "",.. lI.i_,., 11: 16. HOd Th is '" , SaMio U .io. ill ... U. Alto , ...... 8, Iocrc. n;,. ...... onIcriaf; is '-"" ;. the

The lnIiu or< _ listed .. plirilb- ioa U", SI>orI v ........ ""I or< ,; ..... by 1M Raavod. no. O<drri .... _ _. i, 100004;" H. Poooooll .......",i"r ""","IIIboot lor ioa\<1rlla..,. liver """ ............1 """ .... ooitioll and WIt. KII:MI 4:1' ..... . ... I... CIftkri ... b... iMlftd '" ...... ' . . .op ..... lllo<>u&lU.· lor .....







U _

.. '"""""


6: ~1}:


""'" V....", ill ,lie ~ S:ll. W"; - ' " \ha. i ..... _ f""" Sudia. n.;, ordcri.. _ 0110 -.I by a..bJnooO 7)0. RabIO fficur Rot .... lOb. """ by RoNol Y_TulOC:. in Slwirir ~Io.. 11a.""" n- H..a.J.. :I4b. SIll", K _ II (Adom~ lIP. 19s,"


49 Signs and


of In. rodix

Zodiac lnnuences

Planetary lnnuences RemairKkr Pland Mercury Moon Satum Jupiter

Si", Canoer Uo Virso

0 1 2

0 1



, ,

• S


Taurus Libra Scorpio Sa,ittarius Capricorn Aquari us


• S


M ,.


tile picture of tile si,n emel'le. but one also pins insi&hl into its inner In aeneral, il was fOrbidckn 10 actually dr~w picturn of the ur~ r.,prnented by the all~ .,,,,.. ,, In ancien l tima. the muinB of .uch piCtures actually led to the worshi p of these sians as IO(Is, '" To draw the stars alon." or even 10 1lOnn«1 them with lines SO a. 10 make their p.allems re<:OJIIizablc , however, is penn itted.'" For the purpo§O: of contemplation. the pictures and diagrams found in mOSI astro!o&icallexts are neu 10 u5tlcu. In5lcad, "'" must lum to Ihe wrilinp of Ihe ~ncien". On., of the best descriptions of Ihe oonilell~tions, datin, from the second century. is found in f'lolcmy'l "/masur. and this is qUOted in ancient HeblTl< manuscripts." [ ha"e used Ptolemy's tables in construct in, the diqrams of the constellations.


fie made them Ji/u- a trough
The constellations are said 10 be like a 1m"'" becau5t thooy eh ..... n<"l spiritualsustenanoe down to the physical ,,·orId. The months are like a wall. The paTU of the bod y an: involved in a constant state of war. as discussed later (6:3).'" Besides his time of binh, I person' s name also plays an impOr. lanl rok in determi nin, 'Slrolo&ical si".. .. [n Order 10 <kicrminc tbis


one must wri lt I"" I"'l'$On ', name: and the n~ mother in Hebl't'W characters. ~ 1e1lfTS muSI tilton be added up, so as to determine the nummcal value ofbolh 1U.mes." To determine the sian 0( the zodiac, OM mUlt eul ofT I_I.~ and u.kc 1M remalndeT. Thll is. one must divide the abo"" J\lm by .,,-e!ve, and dClnminc lhe mnlinilcr. This is used to detnminc lhe lip of 1M zodiac." To determine the planetary innuen~. one mILl! cast off JeVcns. Like bcfOK. one mUlt d ivide bytc"'cn. and ~n only the remainder. This is uKd 10 determine lilt: appropriate plane!. NOie Ih.JoI in 1M ubk, 1M order of the p1aMU II that of Saturday niahl. In He~ ~onin" Ihis il the bc'ainnilll of the fiB! day of tlH: ..'CCk. and hella. the lim pmod. of ",".!Jon. This metllod can I'rIOfe ....ily be understood ir"'l: take In cumpic. AHUIIH' till( • ptf'SOII'l name: il "milam (1n"QII) and h is mother's name is Sarah (:n.). Maid", U of the nuTTKTical Ytiue for K t'Kh letter, ..-e lee thai Abnham Ius. numerical value of 248, willie thaI for Sarah is 505 . Addin, lilt .'"''' 1oarlher, lhe finll sum is

; nnU~ntt.

'" of his

To determine the Ii.." of the zodia(:,

,,-e m"" divide

by l_t~

yiddi", 61. with I n:mainder of nine. ConSlllii ... Tlble 49 on pqe 220 • .." fi nd 11,11 Ibe IP1IropOale .ian i. Capricorn. Si mila rly. 10 delennine Ihe pllnel, ..·c d ivide 713 by seven. "J"1N, qUOlie nl i. 107, w;th a n:ma; nder of four. We th u. find that Ma n will exert a stron, influence on I pc~n named Abrabam. who is tbe son of Sarah. Also impOrtant arc Ihe 28 "campswof Ille Di vine Pll'ience. COllespond,n, 10 tbe 28 d l ys of the lunar month." Tbe Ien, lh or lhe lunar month is 29 dl)"" 12 houl"$. 264) seronds (29.SlOS9 days)." Th is is Ihe period du n ... "'h ich tile Moon IOeIlhroop all of ilS pbases. IH-sides Ihis, Ihen: il l1so the .Klcn:11 monlh . Ihe lime duri.,. 'lll'hidl the Moon paues Ibrou&h I II 1_ lv( .ips of the zodiac;, Th i. period is 27 da y$. 6 hotJrs. 780 xconds (27.2S902 days). Th il il lhe period duri.,. which lhe Moon n:voh"n l round the earth.lnd n:luml 10 its oriainal posilion " ';lb reprd 10 . find Iur. The 1"lI.Ir monl h i. Ion",r lIu ,n me ~rul monlb. The reason for Ibi. is bn:a1,llC., in or<kr to c:ompkle • luna r monlh. the Moon m~1 nol only pass thl"O\lab the l....:lve ...... oflM zodiac, bul il must also oo:eupy lIS ~viou. posilion ill rclalion 10 the Sun. Durillilbi. monlh . however. the Sun ilKlf hu 1d\".IDCed Ibl"O\l&ll 1M zodiac.. The hllUlr month i. IheltfOO'e IoI1J1e1" than lhe $i4crt:Il IIIOIIlh by • flC\or of ono: t_lfth. ~ Moon lherd"ore PIIl8elthroua,h eadI or 1M I.."h·e siam of the zodiac in 2 da)"S, 6 hours. I86S Kronds (2. 271S8S da ys).

A lime \0 be born It time \0 planl


.... time \0 kill
A lime 10 wreck A l ime 10 "'"Up It lime of mournin,

A time \0 throw siones A lime 10 embrace
A lime \0 0«1t

and I and I and I and. and. and I and I and I

lime lime lime time time lime lime time

and I lime

A time A lime A lime A lime

to safc,uard 10 tear 10 be still
to love

and a time and a time and a time

10 die . \0 uproot. to Ileal. 10 bu.ild. 10 Lau&h. of dandllJ. \0 ho.rd stones. \0 !.hun. 10 lose. 1 discard.. 0 1 sew. 0 1 $peU:. 0

A lime of war

and a time 10 hlle. and .1. lime of pea«.
ti n.,~



I. n., 2l!

and thei, ",,,,,,,;al<d


A lime to be bom (seed)

J . A lime \0 plan! (seed)

2. • time \0 die (desolat ion) •• a lime \0 uprool

s. ,

A lime to kill (de.llI) A lime 10 wreck (death)


9. A lime to thro .... stones

I lime \0 Ileal (life) I time \0 build (life)

" "
" " " 2S. "


A time 10

lose (poverty)


a time to hoard stones
(...ullb) • lime \0 _10 (... eallh) .. li~ 10 sh ... n ("'&lions) a lime 10 ditcard (... &lineu)

A lime to nnbra..,., (......,.,) A lil\lC' 10 SlIfeluard (J;race) A lime 10 be slill (wisdom) A lime 10 sew (wisdom)

a lime 10 speak (fooli5hness) 20. a lime 10 lear (foolishneu)

" " ". ".

A lime of ..... r (""ar) 2J. A lime 10 hale (war) A lime of mo"'T1Iinl (. ... bjuption) A lime 10 WU1) (subj ... plion)


22. a lime of peace (pelce) a lime 10 love (peace)
26 .. li~ of dall<'inl (dominam:e) 28. a lime 10 laush (dominance)

Besides lite 28
lun~r da)'$,

tlte si<.kreaJ month can also be divided

inlo 28 equal parts. Each one of these p~rt5 is one of the Moon's ~camps. ~ The moon pasS('s litmus./! each of;15 camps in 23 houn., The 28 camps pandld Ihe n ~li mn~ mentioned in Ecclesiastes. '" See Tables 50 and!i1 on pale 222. These are related 10 the seven Qualities COrJapondi"l 10 Ihe sev~ Doubles. as discussed
above (4:2-3). See Table 52 on page 224. Tile 28 camps are associated with lite Iwelve siBllS aflhe zodiac Ihn')Ush tile 42 ~uer Name, given above (":14). Sec Table S3 on paBe 224. Thi. name i. oomhined with the letters of the Te1raarammalon in lhe manner shown in fIgure 54 on page 22S. Thi. yields a IOLll of 168 lellers, or six for each of Ille 28 camps. The 168 letten can also be divided inlo twelve VOUJlS. each con.i.,i", of 14 kuen. Each of these groups lhen rort'ftponds \0 a specific sian of lhe zodiac. u Ii"en in Tabk 54 on paae 22~. Ii i. Ihoe

leners thaI an: dominant"" tile Moon passoes throush each nf the twelve sians. Also associaled with each of the twelve sians is a permutation of tile names YHVH and Adonoy ('TIll). By meditatin, on these rombinations, IS well as the derivatives of the 42 l.cIter Narm, one can pin knowle<iJe of things thai "ill hlppen in the desiJnated times. St-e figure ~~ on page 226. The 28 M times" of Ecclesiastes can be di"ided into two groups of 14. One grOup ronsist. oflhe good lime., while the other consists of lhe evil timn.. The 14 gOO<itimes Ire said to come fmm the 14 leiters ofYHVH Elobenu YHV H: YHV H ELHYNU YHVH
One Ihen takes tile lener. which in the Ilphabet comes IfieT each of these 14. This yields the letters"

The 14 evil times are said 10 oriJjnatc from these 14 letten. The.., 211 leners can therefore be u...:l to trao"",;t the appropriate
oo~pts .

is another sY$lcm Ihat also provides insi&!tt into each hour of the day. As discllss.ed earlier (2:5), when vlriOIlS leiters Ire combined with Ihe TetflllTlmmaton. Ih·c vowels are us.ed. Wben one wishes 10 make slIch. combination reLali", \0 tile hours of the day, however, one mllSt add a sinh vowel, tbe Shva (:). 11 The afTIY lunciated with each letter of the Telravammlton Ihen consists of 36 elements.


SEf{Jl I'ETllll.AH , Tobie ~2, n.e 211 lime_ """ 1M 14 lone", "r IM Ihocc name'. YIIVH EI<>henu YHVH .

Li fe


, , , , ,


Y 10 be bom H 10 pianl V 10 hcJtl H 10 build E L H y N U 10 10 10 10 hoard "ones seek embrace safeluard !O be Slil1

, ,
, ,




, • , , ,


!O die

10 Uprt)OI 10 kill 10 ,..TeCk 10 lhro .... Slones 10 lose 10 shun 10 discard 10 spelk 10 lelr of ..... , 10 hate ofmoumin, 10 ....""

• ,

y or pea""

• ,
• • •


H 10 lo.'e V of dancin, H \0 lauch

TM 2M <"lim", of 1M diyine pro;encc rThc .",nbined wilh the IcllCfl! YHV I
T~blc ~3 .


lone. namc
::J 'n ~ '

, , , ,



HYI'OHY HVI'TzHY HI' 1'0 H\" HVI'NHY HI'I' 0 H" H" \" SH HI' HI'I' R III' H\" " 0 III' HI'I' B III' HI'I'OH Y Hvv l HY H\"

n l' n n Jet '" " I/ ' n n l' n n" n n 17' n n , 'n n l 'n n J'n nil' n n'" n n

•• •• ••

n' n "
" nj:>' !:I 'n17' l' n l' J ' n" !:I'n J ' n'n l" v'nn' l'n e » l 'n"

,. , , ".


... " ...




" ,..


v' n

n D'


n I' n n n 'n

v'n 1:" "n Y '

Tz""" Y



ii ,.



, <, ".



, -;


.," "

" ,


S4 l1Ie 211 camp' divided


[he: 12"",.


VAKvvBllvv G KvvY

"")':'I " "'/(1.'Ij)'n )" n n 'CI

Taurvs Gem;n;

O '''I1'n)l''''''







1::" 111 " ., ,, ,,, , , ., ' ·...,0'''' ' ·\'1
n ' np",

", l ' n ) ' ' ' ' l ' ' ' '

l ibra v T Z Hvv TH "" vO "V y C'K Scorpio Hvy K HYY BH V yTH V s..&inariu$ v N .... yO HV " y "" ,,0 Capricorn IIVVLHVVPIIVVZHY
Aquari ... , Piocn
IIVV Tz II..,\' Y HYv TH H V


l1' 1"

n t)' a :" np''n
)'1.\ " " ' )1 " '\1 ' '

\'np'1:1 t:" np' n 1'1 ' '" " '" l' " ..

"'!'''' D'''' ':> ''''


:l"" I~

t" I:> ))"":>, , I':"'I~ )"):1 ;l"I'

"'I' ,','I! )", 'I!
1" "1:1 P"I:> )"\..'

"'I'l "'~' "':IiI' • " , :b , ":/J :>' ):1' l"" . /J ")' .



l" I:>

. :1', ,;\:1

:~ ,


"'I" Ifl"
;"\'"1, ( '



1':1)'1' l " I' l" I~
, ,~ ) ,

t ',,"



" '/11
,0 • ••

'" :>:'II


~"'\..')' \' ::r.l'l:I :"'\..' , ' /I') '·"1 "1m


;1'):1 l"'P r."\..~:

1' ~ n" 1:> " '\.. ' ,"\.'I:I b'~)'

, ' bl'


I"'\..' v'\..,


~"' ' -"I

t " I.'

tb1' b'11'



\';"11'1' ~"\;I :1""1' ...·D· "
' ",

f -' ".


Fill""" 55. TA, 18 camp! d;,-Id"j u"""'S lA, (>0"('/>', r(JotSull,uitJns. /J,du<l.. , ~'m"lmiOltJ <J/ YHVI/ aNi Ad"" (FT()IJf Ri4"""I. 1'. lOb).


J% Cholakim





H minu,n

I. minute>
1 16 Cha~kim 12 min", ..

,. ,. ,. • ,. ,. '" ,. ,... .. .. .. • • • "" '" ;:Itt '" ,. :'1( ryl't tu:t ~ ..






'" '"




'" ~ " " ;:II!


., ., .. ., ., ., ., .. .. ., .. .. " ., "


Each Elrmen! _ 6
Total _ 216

., .. :1< 'tt 'I:' 'I< ., ., " .,• .,, ., ., ., !tt ., ., .. " " J%

". ., ..

., ..




Each Element -

Total _

.. "• " ,. .. .. .. • .. • • " " '" " .. ,. Cil< !II< ..

~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~

"",. ..





~ ~ ~ ~

.. ..


~ ~

~ ~





'" '" " '" ,.. '" ''" " ..



~ ~

.. ..

~ ~





" :;1<









uch Element - 6
Total- 216




Total - 2S2

Figll'" 57. AIr! rombined .... ilh Ih .. Imus tlrr(N<~1r SIX _ ,rd•.

of 11r<'

r f/r<1J/romltk1l<)#1

Bolh in Ihe Tal mlld and in Kabbalah, IIIe normati~ d ivision of lhe hour is in10 ella/aldm, wi th 1080 ella/alei m maki nl an hour. Th us., Ihe~ are 18 Cllalakim to a minute. The d uralion of each lellCT, expreued in Clralakim, is laken as beinl equal In ils numerical value. Th ul, Akf (..) is one Chtdrlc, Yud ('J is len. Hell (:II is five, and Yav ('1 is six. In Ihe amo.y, lhe Y\ld a nd Aid' l~r add ... p \0 eleven. SiDtC' tbere If(: 36 elements in the IITIIY. ils IOlal numerical vl lue is 36 " I I. or 3%. Pt oc!!ding in Ihe u mc manner with eIlch of Ihe four squares, Ihe values obtained are 396, 2J 6, 252 , UK! 216. The total of aU thete is 10&0. This is exactly the number of Chalakim in a ll hour. See fi,ure 56 on paae 226. Each oflhese oombinationSlherefore perlains to a precise period in the hour. See fi&l,Ire H.


Thc-re are, l>oWC'ver, t .... elve permutations of the TetravammaIOn. 'll'>eK ClIn eitber penain to the tWC'h'e houn of the day, or 10 tbe twelve boun of the nishl. Wben the Ale{ precedes lbe lelten of tbe Name, as in (llure 56, tbese permutalions penain to tbe twelve boun of the nishl. When Ibe \ellen of Ibe N.~ pre«de the AId, tbey represent tbe Iwelve hounorthe day,




Copyrighted material


6: 1

1l<1"1 V"Zl« 1'1'0< t'7c 0:1 ~ 0'0 "'MlC c:n troIC o;m

D :'T'm.,'V'n Il1;lN ;wI,t' ,m,1ru-i ~ 't?~


"!!l <1l17 071V:l O')l»(J D'"TV ~"
' l')\ " TO

-wv 0')'01 o:T'TlVC.:lY\ 0'.:1.:1'0 ;tV::!",


:1)1::1,,' :::1"


O'T'rn .f1C.:I~ OOV D'lln



And from

lh~ Til"", M()/h"J AMSh (lt0l<). Ih~m I.'ma1Ul,N TIt,« Fatif"",

alld from TIlT« Falllus and 1111.'1, dn«IIdl.'nu. And ~ p/all~s fll'd Illrir hOists,

a ~d Ih~ II'/.'


"'II1tt'; "M firr_ 1M Falh~. dncf'ndI.'ItIS.

And I"~~ diagollal bou1Idarin A proof of Ihis
tflU ",illlnJn in 1M U"i.'('r~. alld II flit/.' of /Koftor

Y..".r, Soul

IlM """' alld I"m'; III.' jI'/ Ihl.'m in 11t~ ~Ii. rht' Cye/I.'. and Ihl.' UNrI.

From them emanated three Fathers
Tills is the same as 3:2, ex~pllhal here the Falh(n ~elIllln.le. ~ while above, they _ .. -born.From 11\1.' Mothen. AMSh. emanaled Ihe ron~pt of 11IC'S;0, anlilha.i., and lynlhail, as di~ earlier. These ue the Fathers,
rc p.eknled by fire, water. and a ir. From Ih;s Inad comes the tl'lree columns of ~hc Scfirol, and from Ihem , III lbe rest of creation.

The ndi
This is one of the most mysterious words in the Serer Yet~irah. The term OCCuR neither in the Bible nor in the Talmud. and there:;, considerable discussion as 10 iu meanina. '



A" ••

.'.' .'

c .......

90."" ....

c . ....



TI!~ ~(Ht;'"II",m"J


/) rll<'" ",..I UfM' Mi,~". (o....·,," li"lI

f<I Pwl~m"!-

Th~ only place whert wr find a . imilar word i. in a $inJl~ rtf~r· tll(:c 10 I. weapOn. whc", Jaoob Ioid "Ta ke your inslrumem5.

your Trli and ),(HJr bow- (Gennis 27:3). Some rommenlari~. inl~r· pil:I lhe lei; h~n: 10 be " kind Qf ....'Qrd. and il i. Jiv~n lhi. name because il hanp (Ialair) from onc's side.' OIhen HI' thll il is • qui.'er. in wh ich lhe arrows all: piled (Ia/ll!).' The term . howcver. appears mOrt SUBllelOl;vC Qf a kind of bola. This i. a line wilh a ball .llhe cnd. used 10 ensnart a nimall. [t would be crlled a Tefi bec;iuse lhe ball hanp ((alair ) from the [ine, Thi. is al,., $uppOned by Ihe faci lhal the .cripiUrt tlearly sll l ~ thai Esau ...'a~ 10 I!'lIP ( luuI) an animal. Acrordin, to many KabbaliSli. the Teli mentioned here in Sefer Y~I~ira.h if the imaginary axis around which the heaven. I'()lal~,' It is seen as an ima,inary lint from ...·hietl lhe celestial sphere hallp.

CI.IlP'" SiJr


Figurr 59. D raco. (B uJrJ O~ a /-1111 ff/lIOI ry' H~I>,."ir IIWno .. ....ipl /. .

very much li ke a bola from ils line. Accordi n& to Ihil, Ihe word 1Hi (~n) co~s from Ihe rool Talall (mn), munilll ~IO hang. M, Many aUlhorities identify tIM: 'TNi with the ~ Pole (Nattlltull Bart"'oclll, mentionn! in the verse, ~ By His Sj)irit, th e heavens were calmed, His hand has pierced tIM: Pole Serpenl~ (Job 26:13 ).' 11 is abo menlioned in the ve!"1e. ~On da)', wilh Hi, &real. h a~ sword. God will visi t and ovem>me the Leviathan, the Pok Serpen t, and the Leviuhan. the Coiled Serpent. and He will kill lhe d ralOn of the sea ~ (Isaiah 27: I). This Pole Serpent, which is identified with the Leviathan. mly then be seen as an ima&inary creature from which the eanh hall&S. Thul, in In Incient m)'stical Midraslt , we find that the world ~h.anp from a fin of the - ' The Pole Serpent is often a55(lCilled wilh the constellation of Draco.' This is not surprisins. since DnIco is very close to the North Pole. Indud. around 4~ ~an 1&0, Thuban, a star in Draco's tail, was Ihe pOle Sllr. There are, ho"""ver, \"", ima&inary pOles in the sky. The fi nt is Ihe «lest ill pOle. which is directly above the ean h's north pOle. The second il kno .... n I S Ihe ecliptic pole. Th is is th e pole of lhe sphere of which the ecli ptic is Ihe equator.

Ss..",. .,,-



Eqllli ot

T'I'K ecliplit is Ihe ,,"I orde of lhe celeslial , pile.., II'lK:ed by the pJaltC' of lhe eIIrth', orbit lround lhe MIll . If we view the sun and iW'S IS m 'o/villliround the earth, ~ will lIOIa lluit in the courv of lhe yrar, It I 1i'Tfl lirM 9th day, the ""n will OCCIIPY I llialnly d iffemll ~tion in rdilion to the conilel~tion •• Ad other mrs. III Ihil ~n.pecth"C, the ediplic is the IlInlill Pllh of the IIIn movilll throush the heavenl.' from WCSI to In de libi.., the posi lions oflhc the .~nlS made u,," of lhe tdi plic pole. ralher Ihan ItIc celttl i.1 pCI~. IlIlhislI).,lem, ..-e find Ihll lhe (()nllellation of DrKo acllllily $\IrTOUnds lhe ecliptic pole. h 11$0 h.s stlB in lhe KCtions of .nlhe ,i"" of lhe lodilC." It is Ihe..,fore lilerally lhe Pole Serpen l, since il is the ICrpenl Ihal surrounds the tdi pl ic pole. Sec fi,um S8 and S9 on pIJC$ 232 Ind 2B. Since Ihe Pole Serpent ha. 'liB in III lhe houlCl of the zodil(:, it is I.~ 5eI:fI as . lIopportini Ihem aiL" It is as if Dfaro _s II Ihe lop of Ihe criQlil. 'Pherc. and IlI lhe other JII", were han&inl from il. As weh, Draco is seen as the 0", "'u Ind dill'C1OC' of In 1M other SUirL Drxo is thn"cfon: auociated with the Td i, which, as the Scfer Yetzirah Stltts (6:3), i."OVCT the Uni~rte like I ti", on bil lhrone." II i. called lhe Tdi beaoux all the other cotUteiLatioa. hana; (faWI) from it In ancienl timc:s. I~ Tni. in lhe form of Dnco, wall wonhipped ., In idolatrous deity. " Rabbi Isaac of Aceo alII) iden lifles it wilh lhe idol Saal. ntenlioncd in the Bible." Ml ny ph ilolophicaJ commentatin on Sefer Ycu irah. as well as ulronomicIJ tUIS. interpret the mi I. bein, lhe indinalion hclween IWO celestial pll nes." In modern astronomy, Ih i. i. U$lIIlIy ClUed lhe obliqu ity, . nd il usually dcnolC1l tile indinllion SCPll'lltini the ecliplie Ind 'h e celestial \'quator. wh ich is lhe Imllinll'}' circle abo~ ,he tarth', equa tor, U shown in r~u.., 60. In Ihis sense, lhe 'THI i. allO



O':O:~, ,~


.,1 -), ~'lT

'X>co ph,

01 . TM Tel; .u it a~urJ ilf R,H:N,,·h "f w."""'~. p . 11".



'1 Rabbi £/ir:rr

ofte n ",f.,~ lQ as " dragon or fim, See figure 61. Tllis i! because it has Ihe shape of a fish . wide in the cc:nler. and roming \0 a poinl at both ends." He~w aSlmnomen also uK<! the tenn Tn ; 10 denote It.. incli. nation of the orbit of" planet fT(>m Ihe ecliptic, particularly in the

case of Ihe moon."
There Ire IWO points where the orbit of a planet ;nlenttt II>e plane oflhe ecliptic. The point tltrough which the planet passes from the 5O<I,h of the edipt ic plane to lbe north i. called Ihe Iscendil\j node, while Ihe oll>er poinl is Uw""1l as the cM:scendin, node. In medieval ISironomy. the ascendin, node was often called tile M draaon'S hnd.M",hil., the descend;n. node WIS refe rred to as Ihe K draaon 's tail. " With rqard 10 the intersection points of the equator and Ihe ediplic, these Ire Ihe lWO equin01et., See fisure 62 0<1 pap: 236. The vernal (§prin,) equino~ is Ihe head, while the IUlumnal equino~ is 1M lail of lhe dralon.



Filfltrr 61. Tilt Tct; <u 'lit ittt;liNJriQII

of ril<' ,>rbir of II plant' from 1 M

r';/if/fit-. The "drqon,- whose head and tail form tile tWO nodes., i5 thell identified as the TelL Mosl cany Hebrew writen refer to it by ill Arabic name, AI Jar'har." J .. z'lIIlr ;1 I. P"nian word, meanin, "knOl" or "node.Rabbi Abraham Abulafl& also identifies tile Tcli 'liilb tbe celestial - knoIl- (Kull/lrim)." He writ" tha' the head of the Tcli denotes merit, while illlllil sianifies liability." Espodally impotUnl are the lunar nodel, lince il is only I' these points tha' an eclipse, either af llle lun or the moon, can occur.- The Tel; can Ihen be seen as the imalinary draaoo swallowinJ the IIlQ or

-, Allho\Iah tht obliquity is often refernd 10 as the TtLi , il is qut$-

tion.ble if thil il the Teli menlioned hen: by the Serer Yeuirah. There is a1!1O I. ,,..(\i tion thai there are IWO Tel;, or dTqonl, one mile Ind tile olher female. TheM: are identified as the two Levi._ thanl. and Ire menlio~ in the acoouO\ of creation, - God created the veat drqoQI- (Genesis 1:21)." Ac;:cordinl 10 the Talmud, the Pole &rpent mentloned by Isaiah il the male drqon, ",bile the Coiled Serpent (NlICluull Ak4Jk4Jon) il the female. :tl Some Kabbal illS lute that the con.~Uation of Draco i$ the mille Pole &rpetll, while the indination of tIN: ediptie is the female Coi led &rpent. JJ The femllie therefore enC(lmpaw-s thc mille, this bein, thc mYltery of, -a female shall surround a male~ (lell'miah 31:22),>< Other commenurits ickn tify the Teti with the Milky Way, Ind say thatthil ilthe Pole &rpent. lJ Aocordin& to Ihil, the Tell would be Ihe uil of Ihe pluy, nllhcr than Ihlt of the ultst;" Iplien. In tbe Book of Rll.zin, ho"""~r, it IppeI11that the Milky Way il cIiled tile River Dinllr, mentloned in Daniel, and not the Tell.Another imporUnI opinion i$ that of the praetical Kabbalisu. Tiley write tllat Tel; i, actually I place un<kr the fimtanlCnt ofVi1on,

and that it is inhabited by humanoid beinp. which dcpon themselvn in holiness and purity like an&Cls. The divine mysleries a", ",vealed to these beinp. and they have the authority to ",~allhese Ihinp 10 mon al humans. Methods a", also pvcn whe",by Ihese lIti"" can lit contacted )' Wh ile adherin, to the view Ihat the TeH is the sqrnent between the a~ndin, and desundin, nodes, Rabbi Judah HaLevi (1068·1 II 8) also writes Illal Ille Teli alludes to tile spiritual world, and 10 lIidden mysteries wh ich cannot be grasped" Rabbi Abrallam knots Mof tile Teli a", MknolSM of Abulafia sim ilarly writes that tile M lo~ and mystical un ion.'" The nodes of the TeH a", the points where lWO di ve'leTlt OmilS mcct. The physical and spirilual worlds ean also be looked upon 15

Fi/("rr 61. Thr =OO;W: . (from Musch

Tovi~h .l' .

-#Ju J.




,...." di "~rsent orbils.. ~ T eli would lhen ~pres.en t the nodes .... here ,II<: physical and ~piril\l.1 m«l_ This pictu~ iscJarified thlOUlh a Talmudic example. The Talmud praen15 a pictu re ~~, ~the u ormwind hanp (talllll) bel""«n the two anns of God like an amul~I.-lO This ~han&il1lw a n be idenlified with the Teli. As discuss..:! eariiCl". III<: ~stormwindw (SIl'arallj refen 10 the initiation imo tM prophetic or myuieal experience." The IWO nodes of the Tell a~ Ihe .piritual points from which Ihis ~amuletw hanp. The Talmud rurt~ stales that ,"" warmsw from ""'ich il hanp are lhe ~anns of the univclW." A. diSI:U~ ~arlier, lhe "arms oflhe uni,'crw" denot.,. the Iwdv~ diago<1al boundaries (S:2). One of Ihe most si-.niflClnt int~rplflalion. is thai of Ihe Ebhir. The Bahir Slates: wWhal is Ihe Td i? It is Ihe likeness before the Blessed Holy One. II is ,hus wrinen. 'His Iocb a~ han&in& (ra//alim), (SonlorSonp 5: I IJ. "'" The li nl; .... ilh Ih is biblical verse is highly siinificanL In its entirety. the verse reads. wHis head is a treasure of fine &Old, His locks are hanain&. black like a ravcn.w In both Talmud ic and KabbaliSlic tradi tions, Ihis verse has two interpreta tions. First, il relates to a vision of God, indicalin& thaI when He is visuali zed in bailie, He i. seo:n a youn& man wilh blade ha ir." Th~ Kabbalim .... y Ihat Ihi. i. z". Anl',n (Small Fact, Micro prosopus), lhe pe~n ificalion Orlhe six Sefirol from Cltcxd 10

yesod ....
The second inlerpn:lalion relal ... ,h i. verse 10 lhe Torah. The Talmud states Ihallhe han&in& (or piled) hair relates \0 Ihe fact thaI e,'cry leller of Ihe Torah oonta in. "pik$ and piles" (/I'll IftIl 'im) of wisdom ." Betidc5 Ih is. the halllin& hai rs are said to ...,Iate 10 lhe linc:s upon which Ihe lellers of the Torah are written.'" The Torah wh ich is spoken of here is nOI the ordinal')' written Torah , bm the primeval Tonh . ...1Ikh WItS wril1en ~wilh black fire on while fire."" Accordin& 10 many Kabbahsts, Ihis primeval Torah in iudf is idenlified wilh Z ..r Anpin . In this picture. each lelle. of the Torah i. seen .. a in lhe beard of ler Anpi n, TIIcse arc not SoNn a•• imple hai n , bUI as eMn· nels. throu&/! which God's wisdom emanales from His "head.· The ~ h~ad" is lhe ronaaled wisdom of God, while th.c lellen are ita 0111· ,,-ard revelat ion," The port ion of God's wisdonl that,.,., can (:()mpn:hend bears Ihe .... me relationship to His lrue wisdom that the hair does 10 Ihe brain. The brain is the ~nler of all lhoughl , ....hile Ihe hair i. esscnliaJly de.d. There is a world of dilTerence belween the I"'-o,~, all Ihal W~ COIn comprehend i. the " The verse says, ~ H is head i. a treasun: of fine JOId." Thil refen 10 Ihe unknowabl~ divi ne Intellect, SiJl(:e . 1Ilhat we can comprehend


is a ~hair.· Ihe vene continues, " His locks a~ IlancillJ (piled), blact li ke a noven,- Even these hairs contain "pile$ and pilft" (1M; Ida';",) of wisdom. Still, il is "black like a nwcn: Even these -hain" are black and incomprehensible. Each of 1M.., hairs corresponds to a ·pOi nt" in the lenen of the Torah.'" Each leiter contains ·piles and piIQ" of wisdom. The"" labali"" which me.n "ltanBinp· or ·piles," Ihlls refer \0 the divine wisdom tnal is revealed. Acoordinl 10 tile Midnosh, how· ever. Ihey do not refer \0 the \ellen themselves, bul \0 the lines (Jir/ul) upon ...·lIich Ihey are wrillen. When one "Titn I physical!., onc milS! first draw lines upon which \0 wrile the \ellen. These lin ... Ire not actually dr.awn " 'ill' ink. bul IK merely imprnsed into tile PII rchment wilh • shlTJI inllrvment. Thne: almost invisible lineJ reprexnl111c "haocine of the hair. lhe link between the letter
and ill spiritual TOOt.

From each hair in the divine beard of Zn Anpin, there hanp a univen.e. Eac.b of th~ uni" eTSe$ is aho related 10 a Icutr in Ihe Torah:oo Attordin,lo this. lhe Teli denOles llIe "hair" in lhe divine be,rd from which our universe " hanas.~ This is lhe uis around which the univen<'- ~vn. The Teli also relate. to the mrodialion on. kuer. In Ihis mediation. one pietures the lellers as ""';uen with black fire on while fire. One ronlempl'les th e letter. roneent ... lin, on the near invisible line upOn ",hieb it i. drawn. This line is seen IS a hai r in the d ivine beard. from which the universe h,np. TI\e scriPlure calls the ~hnlinp" of the divine beard TallO}i"". The Zobar relaln this 10 the word Talpiat, whith. as the Talmud teaches, iothe "hill (I~/I) to which all mouths (piat) tum.-" This -hm" is the mount upon which the Temple was buill, which Jacob called Ihe ~aate of he,wen" (Oennis 28:17)." This TalpiOl is the anJibie li nk bet..-«n Ihe physical and Ille . pirit .....!. AtrordiOJ 10 the Kabbalists. Ille same holds true of the Teli."

The Cycle
The Hebrew word for cycle he", i. Galgal. In . number ofplacn in the Talmud. this word is also used 10 denote the cydc of eventli in Ihe world." Later (6:3 ). the Galga! i. depicted as tbe kinl over time. This is beausc: .11 time is defined by cyclic motion. The word Galga/ 31so tnens sph e", or ti ~k. In some plaen in Ihc Talmud Ihe word is u~ to denote Ihe splle", of the .:odi..:.·'




"" The Serer Yetzirall (2 :4) earlier stated tll.tlhe 22 letters had 10

be filed in the Gil/falto prodUtt the III Gain. The word Ga41ll therefore also dcooles the mystical array of the 22 lellers. In Ihis respect, 1he Tdi denotes the almost invisible lines upon ""hidl Ihe !ellen are written. The Go/gal;s the d.'\:Ic in .... hkh they a re drawn. The Serer YClzirah also au.ocialed the m ystical expcricn(;c .... ith the whirlwind koo ....l1 as I S,ifah ( 1:6). 11 is si",ificanl 11ta! the prOpltct . ... iah a·sonales such I ... hirl .... in d with the GaIgaI, sayin&. ~ Li kc a sphere t,gaIpf) befou the whirlwind (Sl(/Qh )" (Juiah 11: 13). It is also associated wilh God's voice. as in Ihe VCIW. "The voke of

Your th under was in the sphere (gQlga/r (Psalms 71: 19)." Most si", ifie.nlly. the GillKal is also s«n u beinl below Ihe fro:! o f the Cherubim. God 11111. Ioid an an&e1. RComc 10 U\(: inniUd. of the Gals-I. bencath the Cherub" (Enkiet 10:2). This Cherub ;S uplicilcly identified witllllle Cllayul 'lttn in Ezeu e!', initial vi.ion, as he sa~s. "And Ihe Chembim Wnlt uP. this illhe: Chayah that I law on the river Cheba,... (Ezekiel II>: I 5). Earlier (1 :1). we lIave also d iscuss.ed how lhe: Chembim llerve as the: focus of lhe m)lIlieal upen. elltt. The Go,,"' is Illerefo~ a cyde Ihat lift, ooe up 1 > the level of <; the Chayot . ... hich a~ in the Universe of Yelzirah. The Bahir staleo Ihat the: Galzal is the Womb." In one sense. this it; speakin, of Ihe Galgalas the cycle of lime. The pre senl is the womb in which Ihe future is born. As we ha" e sten earl ier (I:~ ), IIIe dimenswn of lime is s«n as exlendinJ, bc.1~n Chakhmah and Dinah. Otakhmah is the paSI, while Binah iii the fUlure. The present is lhe interface between th~ tWO Seliro!. Binah iii tt.e Mot her, and the Go/g<ll it; Her womb. An important cydc thaI we ha'~ discussed earlier ( 1:4) i. the oscl.!ation bet_ Chakhmah and Dinah comciQUsneM. The lim initiation inlo the spirilual domain romes throulh Ihis cxerrillC. and 1Ioence. as a GaIga1, it is the entrance into the m~ In this sense. the GaJp is lhe womb from wbich <lilt ;'..,born inlO a opirilual plane.

The Heorl
hean il s«n .. kin, over Ihe !QUI (6:3). Of all pans in the body. il il the dominant ooe. The soul ~Iales to lhe spiri tual dimension. Thus. when Ihe Sefer Yellirah speaks of the m ~lieal expen. en«. il describes it as a "mnninl of Ihe hean" (J :8). The Hebrr .... word for hean is Lev (~"). Ind a. mentioned ean ier (1 : 1). th is ;' also the number 12 in Hebre ..... As Ihe Bahir lIates, the hean reprellenls lite J2 Paths of Wisdom." Ii is throulh these 12


'"of palhS 11ui, one ItcendS in lO the $f),ritual d imc'nsiofl, TM Book
R<Jzirilimilnly IIlta, -8~'lh ( RlltJdt) nmonal Q from I~ heart, just like lilt Hdy Spirit (1~UQ('1r lIaKOtksll) fman.ales from 1M: Throne (of Glory). - .. The Bahi, abo 'lilts thai Ihis Hun il the scriptural - Hean of

The DIM' pIKe ""~ Ihis is ITIC'nltonnl il in the """"'01 of the ,""elalion II Sinai: -You ca~ doIe , .nd you llood under the mou .... lain, and 1M mountain b\lmed in fire. .. ntillbe' heart of haven ~ darltnrM, douG, ilnd &lOom. And God spoke 10 )"011 from 011\ of the fire- (Dtul(l OitOill Y 4: II , (2),. From the COIlIUI. '"' 1ft lluil the fire IhII' ,t.. bed 10 -1M heart o f 1It."m- ...., the fir!' associated "; th ~"Iion. from ""bich God $pOke. Sud! fire is the tbire! !.Iq:I in the initiation of re'~lation, as...., fiDd in 1M (Ut of Ezekiel', >'ilion., whida WU [n;IUlled ",i!h - , storm ...i !ld ... 1 IJ"HI cloud, and Iluhin, fire- (Eui<id 1;4). II was onl y in 1M fin: WI he visWlllml lhe Chlllllmal. Sim illorty, io Elijah', vilion, lhe IIIIft MrpI weft, -'lind .. , lO\IlId . . . and fire- ( I Kinp J9: II -ll). In one pll«. the Midruh abo ",1.les Ihis fire 1 tile: !addn 0 in J.rob', dream ." This ladder is .150 the ~hicle throush ",-hieh ~ dimbli into the tfllnSttnd('nl..lJ. lbe thlft Iteps men tioned by EzekiclliJo appeu paflllltl those tluallt by the &'er Yel~i l1lh (/ : 10- 12). First COf\\eS Breath (Ruadt). wh ich cln also be tflln.bted .. winu, ... hich il the ~nonnwind~ of Ezekiel. Then comes R I(T from Brelth." ,,-hieh un be usocilted .... with the fIIindoud that he sa ..... The: Opaqueness of th is cloud is simi_ lar to the ~ mire Ind da y- mentioned in Sern- Yetzifllh. The th ird step is ~fire from ..... tn-. R Th il is the -Ominl fireseen by E.ekid . T he Serer YcUirlh N)"J that out of this fin: One depict$. -The t',,"One ofOIory. &fllfim, Ophanim. Ind holy ChayotR (I : I 2). SimilJ,rl y, aReT upcricncina the fire , Ezekiel Ible to visual ize the Chayot Ind the Thron.e oroiory. It il this fift: of ",,-clition that il $lid to I( kh -to the Jte.n of /Ia'·en.- The hnn illhe ki"l 0''eT" the dimtnt-ion of spirit, Ind one Ifllvcls thfOl4h thi, difTlt'f\$ion by meanl of fire. -n.n fire lhertf~ Itkhes the -hean.- The Hnn ~rtSmlt lhe 32 palhl on the Tift of Ufe. In thil verse. the tmPlurt Sl..lles thai God spoIr;t ·out of Ihe fire." EIIC~, howc'n. it N)"J. -YOI.I helrd His voKlr out of lhe midsl of the dlrtneu- (Onnnonom y $:20). 8 uI u the ZoIw IIltes. the Rfi",- mentioned he", illhe fin: of dartn.ess..... I, is the bu.rnina 1orI&ina thaI comes from the 10tal nlllli(lCItion of lhouabl. This il IIso I~ted .... th the -black fire- .... ilh ..."idI the primcvll TOllIb ..... ...-rillen."



In the Kabbalah , the word ~h~av~n~ i. usually u~iated with br Anpin, The ~hean of huven~ is tl\.trefore the heln of Z~ .-lnpi/I. " It is .ilnificant that the HahiT relat.,. the 'hIi to Ihe hair on the head, .... hi le Ihe Galtal is rellted to the womb o r bell~ . The Hun is nalural l~ a$SOCiated ...'ith the chat. Thus, from these thrtt, we hive th~ head , bell ~ and chest, the Ihree pans oflhe bod~ usociated with the Three Mot hers, AMSh. The Tn;, a$SOCillecl with the head, would then relate 10 the Shin. The Ga/gal, u50cialecl with lhe bdly, 'A'OU1d reLale to Ihe Mem, and ~ Hun, 10 the Akf. Out of tile Three MOlheR, we derive the kinp o ver the Univcne. Year and Soul. This result. in lhe fiv(>d imen5ional conti nuum heinl d ivilkd into opace, tim<:, and ~ spiritual. In InOlher sense. lhe 'hi; is the u is. reprcxnlinl Ille Ionptudinal anlk. The GI1i811i is the sphere, "'protnlinl the azi muthal anpe o r latitude. The Hean is the radius or altitude. Thus. thne thrtt kinp repn:sent the thrtt-dimensional in spherical coordinates.. The fiv~-dimen';onal continuum can likewise be represented in hyperspherical coordinates. The Kabbali 't. note that the initial lellm of 'hIi e>11), G<ll,al ('01"") and Ln (~") spell out 70GeL <'' 1'1 ). This is in the vene. " M y soul ...·ill rejoicr (1lIGrl) in my G od" (I.sailh 61: I 0)." It i. Ihrouab meditation on thrtt ekmenu that the soul can attain mysliCliI O!OtHy. This word also occun in the vene. "God is kina. let the unh rejoice (TaGrl)" (P1alms 9 7: I). Thi, CIIn be interpreted 10 say, ~God i. Kina. Teli Calp] Ltv is the eanh ,~ indicatinl tbal these are the thrtt kinp over Hi. crealion , as the Stofer Yet1.iralt IlteT niles (6:3). Tboc an: the deep mystery. as it is ..Ti lten. "The m)'SteT)' or l oollter do not ",veal (T'G<lL)" (Proverbs 25:9).


:t"'vo'" WN \:7N C'O "IN \:7 'J:l.N 1TICN \:7"'\:7 1 0'0' O'ru'~ V'L:lO j)n nn ;tCO'" O'~ 'N ' \:7 J"IIlCn '0 ,0'0., J"\K Kl:7'l \:7N:t ~,.., :O'ru'~ V''UC vn m, "'\1(




TIl," Mrxll=.' AMSh (rJoc) A;r, -...:I1l'T. and firt'. Fir? is "'<l/V is brlow.


;s l ilt' TUIt' Ihal d«idn M O.""" Ihl'm. And D Jigll of this thillg ;s that fi" supports " '<lIN".
,lit''" hums. SM" hiSYS. (Jf!d Aid Is /lrl' breath

{l"""'.of and (lir

of ai,

tiro/ d«ides brt"'ffn Iht'm.

This is essentiall y a repetition of 1:. and 2: L WateT and Mem represml Cbillmah, whik fi~ and Shin denote S inah . Since Chakhmah i. usually oon.idem! (0 be above
Binlh , it il somewhat d ifficult 10 understand why fire is Sttn as bein&

above ," aler."
The reason behirKIth il, however. is related \0 the penetration of Chuhmah and Binah ;nl0 "hr Anpill (Micropro5Op\lS). The Kabbalists leach Illal Yesod of Chakhmah penelJ1ll" down to Ynod of ~ Anpin. while Ynod ofBinah only penetrates as far.1 the heart (Tiferel) of Z.., Anpin. Sin~ Si nah ends in the hean, it is often identified wilh Ih isorpn. Chakhmah is clothW. in Bin.h, and since Binah ends in the hean. it is there that ChIIkhmah;1 firs' ~aled. The 32 Patlts an: Iltus identified willt lite hean (uY), ich is Dinah, bill Iltey an: also identified "" ilh Cbakhmah.l' Thul. even thollJh - fin: is al)(we and ...·lIer is belo....,· SliJl. -fu-e .uppon...... Ier.- Wisdom may penetrate cn:alion 10 .....uter decree lhan Underlillndin.. and may be found in 10..."CT levels, but still, Dinah · suppons· Cbakhmah , and is below il. Th is is refI<"CIed in the oounds of the !.tern and Sltin. whiclt n:prnenl these as Slites of oonsciousneu. As di5Cul~ earlier, on lhe basis of the Bahir. the Tni is identified .... ith 1M head, Ihe GalKal wilh 1M beUy. and the Heart with Ihe chesl. Tltul. lite Tn; males 10 Shin and fire, the Galg<ll, 10 Mem and WIlIer, and the Heart \0 Alef and air. What ...-e therefon: diS(:()" cr is tltal spa~ ;5 n:lated \0 fin:. time \0 ""at..., and spirit to air.




'?l'?l '11<0' '?V 1'?zn 07lpJ ''?n ::wmzn 1'?zn "-'til:! J'? :'T~-,c,

Th~ Th~ Th~

Wi in Ih~ UlliW13f' iJ Ii~ /I ki ..,. 011 hil Ihrol1~_ C",I~ in Ih~ y~ illi~ /I kins ill Ih~ pro'riIfCr, I/ftlrl In Ihl Soul is lik II king in .... ,.

The Teli in the Universe
The word M kin,M always alludes 10 Ihe Sefirah ofMall:hut (Kinsshi p). Ii denoles tlte inte~ion bet"'«fl • mlcr and his subj«U.. When ....~ speak of an entily as a t in" it ;t an indio:ation thu ;t it inle~in, with somethin8 Iltat is below it. The Tt'ii is Ihe kin, OVeT lite Uni'leTSl', Iltal is, over Ihe domai n of space. Ii is seen as I "kin, on his Ihrone.- Ahhou&h the Tdi inter~s wilh space. ;1 does nOI become 1111" of il. We can see th;, in IWO ......)'S. Fil"5l of all. we can take tlte view thaI tlte Tn; is the nis around which Ihe uni"ersc revolves.. In cireular mOlion around I n axi" everythin, moves bu t ~ p i, itxlf. l1Ic uis is tlte focus of tlte motion, but does not pa ruke in il. Similarly, Ihe Tt'ii is kins over space, bul does nol become part of iL The same is lrue if ....~ view Ihe Tni as Ihe li nk bel ....'Cen Ihe spiri tualand the physical. In this respect also, tl>c spiritual does not enler in to lite physical." Throne" ,l...ars invol,"e'iI a oonAs discussed ea rl ier. ( I :4 , J 2). I M a.f/t of ~rin. and concern. TIM: Ttl; Ihus ref/resenls the sf/iritual bein,lowcred so as 10 inleract wilh lite physical. Even 1Itou.&It a kin, sillin, on his throne may IlOl come betWffn his subjects, he is still hiJ,ltly affe<;:te(\ by them. l1te spiritual is si mi_ larly affected by Ihe f/h ysical.

The Cycle in the Year
Unlike the axis, the cyde
no! only

defines lime, but abo 1>c:>;xA.w::s

pan of lime. Tho: cycle cannot stand S1ill in lime, bul must include il!lClf wilhin lite flow of time. Hence, it is like I "ld", in the prmince. ThaI ""hkh defines spaa. can remain aloof from Spa«. TlIat "" hieh defines lime. on tbe olheT hand. cannot remain apan from it. In human unn$. il is the mind thaI provides I pelUPlion ofbotb opatt and time. You can " and in 0 "" plate and perceive I I~ pO<"_ tion 0( spaa.. Like lite Ttli. you can perceive larce areas of space, Ind still remain aloof from Ihem. YO\I do not actually have to be in a portion of spaa. in order to perceive it. This is nol tme of time . You can only perceive the time in which )'OU uiSl. You may perceive Ihe flUt in memory, or the future in the

imaginalion. but di~ ~rttplion only uius in the p~nt. You can ~rttive space ~t a distance. but lime only wilen in proximity to it. Since no one can perttive llIe future, you cannot know ....hal you .... ill do later. It is due to this fact that you can h..·( free ...ill in tile p~nt. Thus. ;t is this basic difference between space and time thaI allov.'S freroom of action.

The /leart in the Soul
The different spacial points. as well as past and future, involve end points in Iheir respn:t;ve continua. Still, they do not represent opposites. In the spiritual dimension. On the Oilier hand, Ihe tWO end points art: &ood and evil, and these are diametrical opposites. Since ~ heln is the midpoint between these opposites, it is seen as the sile of haltle betWttn &ood and evil. The Talmud therefore identifies the h('ln as the scene of the baltle between the Good U~ (Yen..,. TO>') and the Evil UIlC (lnuT /faRa)."


Nl1V" ;110 O>;'I~ ;'IVV ;'II ;n 11K OJ ;J1t);'I V"V.:I V' ;J1C0 ;J1t) ;J1O 1\1:1'111" V' V' :t,\ZlV ;'I;l1tI ;Jlt101 1W V"'\"TI V-"-' 11K :O'Vi" :t"l\Zl'D 0>;Jv ,




"Also God made one QppOSit f the Oiher" (Ecc/esilUtes leU). GO(Jd oppOSite, opp<J.Jite gOOd. Good from good

E.nfrom rd/.

Good defi~es Cl'iI
A~d neil defi~es good. Good i~ Up/ (he good o~es A~d

Cl'i/;, kepi fOt' the evil 0'Its.

One opposite the other
Th is speaks orlhe hean. which is like a ~kin& in baltle.~ The two ntrt:mcs on tile s.pirilual axi.-Sood and evil-are actual opposites. Li ke Ii""t and darkness, the two cannot conist.

Good from good
earlier (I:S), aood i, ~ point on thi, axis Ih~1 i. d~t to God. Evil is the side that i, furthnt from Him. All aood comn from the side o( aood . .... hile all evil comes (rom the other side.


Good defines eFil
The lohar explains that li&ht can only be !"W)IJIiw1 because of the existence of darknns. 00 If the~ we~ 110 darkness, li&hl ...-oukl be ~n inlqraJ p.o.n of 1M uvironnwnl, Ind such In inlr&r.U pan cannOI be sensed. Thus. for example. we cannol sense the lir. sin« it is In in tqr1l1 p~n of our normal environmenl. Since lir is always pTHent. there is no n.eed for us 10 have 5e1\SoeI to detect ils pluence or Ibsence. Similarly, if liJhl were 11....1)'1 present. without beinl divided into shadn Ind colon, _ rould not see llJ\ythi nl wilh it. E" ery shade or color involves iIOme Ibsorbtion of liJbt , n d hence, I dq:ffe of darkness. In I similar mannc:r.1lood CIIn only be ruqnized because ofibe existence of evil. If evil did nol exi,l, then ..."t .... ould 1101 have any free elloice whatever. We would be like nwre puppets or robots. It is o nly because of the existence of aood IIKI evil thai free will can exist, when we CIIn c!><>Me betWttn lhem. Convenoely, il is only as I result of free will that JOOd and evil can be reoosnized Ind defined.

Good is kepI for the good ones
The d imension of IOOd and evil DOl on ly serve:'! to define these CQncepts, bul I I"" serves to rew~rd !hem. It is lIu&h1 tMt God ereI ted the world in order to besto .... JOOd to the world." But what aood does He oITer? First of all. we must rellize that any JOOd that God &lvn m~t be the ultimlte JOOd thai His creation can acupl. The Pulmi!l said "How veat i, Your aood, Slared up for those ... ho feu You" (Pulms J 1:20). Our lilies interpret Ihis to say Ihat God beslOWS aood in the lrealesl JX!5sible abundance.."' In another place, they leach uS that this verse means thl! God is tellilll us, "You accordinl 10 your Slrenllh. and Me ac:cordi nlto Mine ..... In Olher words, God live< u. the &realCSt aood thll we can possibly aC«jX. Bul what is Ihis ultimate aood? Whal is lhe veateit JIOIoSibie aood that God can be.IOw?





If ",-e think about it, the answer is really qu ite simple. The areat· est pOSsible &ood is God Hi m~f." There is no (){her ultimate true lood. TIle PWmi$l thus said. ~ I have 110 &ClOd but you~ (Pl:I.lms 16:2 ). In the Talmud, Rabbi Acha interpn:tlthilto mun that no tf\le Jood nist. in the world. n~t that of God Himself." The ultimate &ood is therefore to panake of God. and it is this Jood thlt He planned to live the world. He would Cl'Hte I woOd where creatures ultimately could panake of Hi I r ..roce. The P$IlImi$! sinp of thi •• ~TlSte and see that God i. JOOd" happy is the man who finds refule in Him" (Pulms 34:9 ). God therefore created the ",'Orld in such a "" y W t ~ rouId draw close 10 Him Ind pan.ake of His CHen.::C, Of course, we Ire not Ipeakina of physical closeness, but of spiritual closcne». Such closeness in>'OI"n the knowled.., and undentandinl of God. as weU as r-esemblinl Him to the p-e;!.tn\ dq:r-ee ponibk. Here apin, ~ hear this in the W'Clrd. of the Psalmi$!, ~ But for me. the numns of God is JOOd. I have made God my Il'fu&e, that I may teU of Hil W'Clrks~ (Psalms 73:28 ). The Psalmi," isteacll ina us thai hi. ultimate &ood is nearness to God. This nearness involves ~tellinl of Hi. worb"- \h,;u is, a dttp tno,,'ledl" and pnuption of the Divi~." The ultimate &ood that God otTen is Ih cll'fore the opponunity to pereeive Him. In one place, our I:I.ln thus teach UI thaI God created the W'Clrid in order thlt men mly know Him .•! This is nol a Kpa!lite I't'uon. but the way in wbich He brstoW$ H15 &ood upon us." God thus told UI throua/l His prophet. ". 1m your God, • luch )'011 (or your &ood~ (Isaiah 41: 17). The Psalmist upresscs the same idea when he says. ~ you Ill' load, and You do Iood. teach me Your dccl't'CS~ (Pl:I.lms 119:68). To know God Ind understand Him in any ,,'ay is to have I ~ .~ Ind dread of His M';nty. AU true wisdom is that of God. But such wisdom and Irnowledje imply the feu and r-evtrcnct of God. The Pulmist thus, ~Th e bqinni nl of Wisdom is the fCIT of God- (P$IlIml Ill : I 0). Solomon expll'ncd the idea when he said. "n.c fell' of God is the beCinninl of Kno~~ (Proverbs 1:1)." We CIIn lhell'fore say thllthc ultimate coal of creation il lhat we should rome dose to God, and therefoll' boIh know Ind fear Him. Allin we hear the 'to'Ofds of Solomon, ~ Wha\evcr God does shill be forever , ., God has made it SO that man should fear Him" (Ecclniaslei 3:14). The Tilmud comments on this., sayinlthat the world was CTUled for the fnrofGod.'" Thi l i. mln's true PurJlOSC' in the W'Clrid, as we find allin. - The sum of the maller, when all has bttn helrd: Fear God and keep Hil commllKlmnlts, for Ihis ;1111 of man - (fule-



siastc1 12: 13). In the T . /m ....;\, Rabbi ElaUl' com~nlS on Ihis and sa~. - s.;,lomon is luchinl u. that all 1M world ",'U CTeated for lhe fur of God.·" When our "'11:'1 oay lhat the world "'1IS created for Ihe fear o f God, they ue not conlradictin, Ille leachinllhat il .... as Crt'lled.S. vehide for His &0«1. W1u.t Ihey au dQillJ is uprtSlil\l whal this &ood IIltimUe! y is. II is a lnowledlC of God Ihal is most perfe.;tly uprnsed by Ihe ",,,(re nee .nd . _ thai "~'e call the -fear of God.The ul timale pla~ whell: ...·c " i ll be lO'OI'thy of Ihi s vision and perttption .... ill be in ....hal "''' call OIam ffa&1t- The FulU", World or the World 10 Come. Ii is a world of absolute life and coodne,,- It is of Ihe vision of the World 10 Come Ihal tbe Pylmist is speaki n, of when lie says. -I believe Ihal I will JUe upon God in lhe land of the livin,· (Pulms 27: I J). This - land of the livi n,- is lite Future World." It is Ihis fut ure world Ihal is the 10&1 of all <:nIllion. 0 ... , ~ Ihus teach us. '"This world is like .n antechamber befo re the World to Come, Prepare yoof$O!l f in the antechamber before you enter Ihe ~ "

this Future World is the ulli!Julte ""I of crealion , il i. also Ihe p!a~ of ult imate ]I00(I. In the lanlUa&!' of the T almud, it is called, ~Ihc World where IllI i. &OOd.~" It i. a &OOd that lurpaooes.nythinl Ihal Ihi. world may pOSsibly hl" e 10 o ffer. This i. what our IaIH man when they sa y. MOnc momenl o f dcli&ht in the Future World is more than alltbe ]I0O(I o f this "''OI'ld.~'' We can oblain 5Qme idea of what th is Future World will be like from . common sayinl of Ra v, qllOted in Ihe Talmud. " He ""id, ~ I n the Future World, thct'e will be no eatina. drinkin" cltildbc.ri", or businen. Neith<:r will there be jealousy. hatred or slrife. The riaht00\1. ""ill .il ",i lh tbeir crown. on lheir he.ds, deli&hlinl in tbe nidiantt of 1M Oi"ine Presc:nce. ~ Our sqes teach liS that Ihis ~radian« of the Di vine Prncnce" is, percq>tion of the Oi"ine." [n the Fllture Worid. wC will pcII% ive .nd comprehend God in the .,.ealesl de&= possible. Th is pcrcq>tion of God in the Future World i. totall y beyond our preloCnt ""'P. 'That of the lUll o f liS will pale tile achj.evcmenlS oflhe arealest satct in this world. Slili. ofOO\lfSC, il will be impossible to pcrttive God in Hi. enlirety_ This is impossible for any bci", other Ihan God HimloClf. AItIlOllp. inoomparable to .nylhina in Ihi. lifc, our pcrttplion will still be less th.n • drop in , n infinite O<%an. NC\'ertheless, it .... ill far ex~ .nythina possible in this world." [n order thaI we may a pproach Hi m. God crealed, dimension of nea mess to His beina. By movina Ihrou&h this dimension , _ are able to come c loser and closer 10 God, c" en thoup. _ can never actually reKh Him. This dimeluion is ",hat _ call Ihe spiritual

wof1d. Our saRes call tile hiJhe$\ s.pintual world Allilul-lhe World of Nearneu. All the . piritual ",..,r1d. " "C'" C",,-Ied as >"chicle$ throu", ..-lIi,h " 'c may draw near 10 God. [n • seO$\", they $\'0"'" as I. fiher, allowinl uS 10 dnw near. and ltilL not to. obIiler.lled by H i, infinite Licht.''' In a number of places, our sages sj>(ak of Ihue worlds as the Celestial Treuuril:$. Th u$, bnlel sings 10 God, "The Kin, will brinK me into Hi. (hamber" (Son& of Songs I :4). The s.agcs comment Ihll God will briol Ihe ri",leOtls inl0 His erlestial eharnbeOl and allow them 10 probe tile treasuries on hisb.This is also the mea.nio, of the liJ,hl1h.U ...·u made 00 the firsl day ofcl'Hlion. Our Yin leacb uS Ihal;1 "'"as not mere physicallilJII. btH a wondcl'O\Is li&hl wilh whid! one could see -from one end urlhe uni'~nc 10 Ihe olner."" This was the tiabl of jJtJL~plion. shinio, in all the spiritual worlds. wilh wllich one could uperien« Illi. vision of God. OUT sa&eS thus continue. "God sel Ihis 1ielll aside for Ihe riellleous in Ihe World 10 Come.~" This is Ihe liJhl of pereeplion wilh .... hich we ",-ill partake oflhe Divine-Ihe fil1ldi.n~ of Ihe Divine Presen«.~ Elihu was Spe.kinl of Ihis when he lold Job Ihal God will "Ium bact his soul from deslruction, and illuminale him in Ihe lielll of life" (Job 33:30). Solomon infonnl uS thai this liellt is Ihe source of eternal life, wilen he says. " In the Hellt of the King" fl~ is lifefi (Proverbs 16: 1' )." God's ultimale I0Il1 in crealion was Iherefore the World 10 Come, where man could perceive a vision of God. NO! God Himself. of course. bul a ,"ision. Perhaps throoell many fillen. but slill, a ,"ision of God. The Ps.almist sinlS oflhis "isinn, "In riellleouSness, I will see Your face. when I ""Ike. I will be saliated wilh I ,"ision of You' (Psalms I 7: 15). The Psaim isl is speatilli of Ille lime .... hen Ile will a"'ake to Ihe delielliS of the FUlure: World . Our s.qes comment on this ,"erse. "God will s.atisf~ tile riellleouS wilh I vision of Ihe Divine Presence. ~" The bli!oS of tile Futu re World will be endl ...,. [n Hi , endl",. IOodness. God will live us a world oflood without end. The Psalmi$! i. qxatinl of Ihi. when he Cl.ebims.. "In Your presence is full""" of jo~, in Your ri&ht hand i. bli., fore"er" (Psalms 16: 1 I)." course, everything about Ihi. Futu", World is lotaU~ be~ond Our PD""tn of dncription. Even Ihe visions of the IITalesl propheli will pale in comp,:u iJon . II is somethinl thai nO human mind can passibl~ imaJine in Ihis life. II ClnrlOl. rome Ih roosl\ human undenland_ inl, bUI only as a Jift from God, and when He gives ii, we will understand. The propllel the",(o", sal'S " 'hen speakinl of the World 1 0 Come: -NeYff has Ihe ear heard it-no eye hn ,...,n it-ather Ihln God: Thai " 'hieh He will do for those who hope in Him~ (Isaiah 64:1)."




Thi. load i. noc &iv~n :as a re"'<ln!. blu as a direa resull of a penon's bi ndi n, himself to &ood. A penon auains thaI 10 which M auaehes himself."'


,Ml :'1;'10




1m( ..,;,


.C>tu':I V"UO 'lMI :I''T1C "WI' C>lTIl .C>1ll':.I V.,;,c "1TiI'tl nv'?v 110 C'l(l lV ~V O':.I:1lI( :w"V ;mn"eJ J"'lClV :.1":1 C>:J.'1lt( nv'?v .0011'CC :1V"\1I 0"T1C :w"V ;n:hv flthm ;nc,,, ,:.1;':'1 0'1t.l'!" ;W"'" O'lll(m ' lV O'11'CC ;W"\1I '?mt:Im ')1(:'1 ' :JPl 'l" 0''T1C

nv'?v :1V:.lV


'Il7'lY J'IlICC c'm:.l ~'IC IONl 1"0
' :Jl

"1('1 :I»m

.:1"~ ':Jl "11 inl( :'IlI 'iV "tV :m:.l :1t 0'Vl'1( 0"';'\ 'li'JI O'l" ':1\ "V :1V:.I"

"'v 0"117""



Eadr "", $/allds aloM


cu:u {U adlllXall

"", «II


alld all' rkcidn

M"'«'! I/"m.

n,H OpptWlt> Ilru, and 011' illh, ",I, drr:idillS boot",«,! 1Ir,,,,. 1l+'f'lw ,Ialld in Ml" T/r'tt'loOtt. tlr"., /ral" IIr,H giwli!' alld Ih'N kill TIr'H luw: 11r, IrftUl and tlr, ft1.f"$. T/rrN hat', Ih, Ii..." 1Ir, gall. and tlrl 10~. T/r,tf' giOtt lifo: Ih, 1111:1 IIM lrib and I~ splNII. TIr," kill: Ih, /111:1 lNifi<:u amllh .. mouth. Alld God foil1ifwJ Ki llS ruin 00>tr III,m all from 11/1 iroIy habilal/Oll ulI /ii " "lIily of ""lIili(!$. O il' OIl tlr,H

11r,« 011 ~II sn....11 ()II I"~.
Alld allar, bound,
OIl ..

10 alloth".

One aclS as an adl'OCale
See 2: 1 and 3:1 .
Sf'\'ef!: three opposite three


The s.equeoce three. seven, \""1",,, can be defined in a number of W'Y5. One, ",hith "" ha~c discussed carlin (1:2). involved the lines coRRenin, the Sefirot. Ho.... evef, there is another importanl
s.equence Iha! also yields Ih<':5e numbeR.

This second sequence can also be upress.ed in a number of ways. The mo:Il 00'1;0115 involves the fint three rqular pol)'COns. The simple5~ p01YCOn, Ihe Inan&le has thrtt points. Wilen inscribed in I ""uafl', one Ihen has seven points. Finally, '... hen both I~ inscribed in a pentqon, Ihue are. lotal of twelve poinl" See fi,,,,", 64 on PIIIC' 2S2 . On • ~ sophisticated level, this sequena: can b. rtp~nled

by a lrianlle, I tetrahedron. and a


Another silnifkanl ICqUoente that yields ulclly the oarne resul\ is Ihat of 1l1Inale<! triang\e$. Stt fl, ...,.., 65 on Pate 252. Sedion A (fillire 65) ronsists of three points. He,.." the one 10 Ule is the advocate, Ille one to tile left is tile accUIiU, and tile middle point is tile decidillj one. This is tile concept of thesis, an ti. tllesis. a nd syntllesis, discussed earlier (2: I ~ Fi,ure 66 (on pale 2S3) consists of seven points in a truncated. trianllie. This can be d ivided imo t-..-o trian&Jcs, eacll repcesentinl tile oriJ,inaltri.d, and a center point in the middle. In tile top leCtion of r\lure 66, we can clearly sec seven distinct steps from rilht 10 left. We . bo lIa ve t ....dve points in a truncated. trianaJc shown in both ('lures 65 and 66, Here tllere are no IonlCr seven dislinct SICPS, since Ihree are duplicued in Ihe lOp and botlom linn. The lliree on lOp are Ihe onn 11111 J,ivc life . ...-bile the til...,., on the Ibe Ih...,., Ihat kill. The trian&Je 10 the rilht represents love, while thai 10 Ihe left are tile tb...,., ""110 hate. (See section B in fi,ure 66). Hate can also be represented in this diqram by a la r&C in"erted IriallJle. II i. hale because lhe tllree points are separated. The smaller, inner lrian&le. wllert the points a re nol sePIIl~led. Ihen reprnents lo\"e. Tile two lria""cs to Ihe ri&ht and len (in ('lure 66) are Illen life .nd death.


And God faithful King
The expression here is exacl1y lhe same used in [: S. The Hebrew word Mll'on for lIabitation has also been c1plained Ihere.









o o o
(k ... raI




000 0
0 0
fonnul.l: n in • W2

Fi/lltu OJ . TIw st"</WIl<V

of Ir1mnll~rJ Ir;""lil~x.



Fig"r~ 66. AI Tlvu opposil~ Ihru. aM""" is 1M "'" <kridi"~ Iw. t ..v,n lIu", . B } r ",',h", s/tmd in ..."r: Tlrru iQ'l'fl . Inrr .. i>ull', tlrra Ifil'"

lifl' .

<II'" tlrfn kill.


T ...."ty.t...... 'h1'tt on

",,,,,n on ,.....""

(A )


Fig"" 67. TIt,«


"" "....1 reI. 1'1k> IftMral ....


Ihl'« QfI ....·'11

/8 ), ..-/rid! MrooMS ........" irtu is 11(11+ I J (,,+8)'6 ,

One on three
The One is the ineffable, which is not ooumed in the leqllence.

Three on seven
WJH,n the tnlnal1ed lrians\e of m/ft is placed on thai of seven, one has a trullCllled pyramid OODtainint ten points. These re~ot the T en SeflTOl. Set: rll""' 61.



When lh;" in II,I. n, is placed (In the IrunC'aled tri.n!le eQntainin, lwelve points. this yields. trullCllled pyr2mid ...·;II! 22 point!. ~



of 111<: alphabe\.


;"1" "/'1;


Pi'" 1"~1:' J"I1'~ 0'11171 C'''WV 0:"1 J"I1N::!)' ;n.. ' ;"I'l~ 0':11:1/'1; 0';'1'1( ;"1"1, .,., i "



' JjN

11K C<t:l iYl 1l:l;'V



;'I""" 'W ~ 1W<t:!1' C'~
11K c,"'tC 1'C~1 C'"UlC

" 11)1 ;'1 "

m \ "Itt·;,!

IJ" tire 'IWtII}'/1I1:) Inlrrf

"'ilh "'/ricl!

Eitym, la/l. YlfVlI Elcl! im. Yl/ VII, rHVH T:aO/lOf. Eloliim TzanWI. £1 Shadd(Ji,
Yl IVJJ Adtmcy, And Ii'iIA rh, m lie made Ihrff BIXJic$, a1ll1 ,,';/Ir He (Troti'd IliJ /JrIiw"e. and lie formed "'illl 11r",,, al/lhal II..., "'" jcnnnJ, all/har ~ will M formnl.



This is very similar 10 I: I. The len divi ne names IH:re ...,P,..,..,DI the Ten Sefirol in <iesttndinl order. Stt Table 5S.

Table 55 n." ten divi ... names.

Sdin.h Kele.
Chakh mah

Na me Ehyel!


(I Will Be)

Sinal! Ch=l

YH VH (pronounced Elohim)

EO Elohim
YH VH Y HV H T U>'aol (Lord of Hom) Elobirn Txavaol (God of H osts) EI Shaddai (Alrnishty God) Y HVH Adorwy

Ti fere,
N CI'laCh


Mal k hu t


6:7 ";"I l'''v 1'n :mn ppm 1'"' 'llolUV ;1n',vl '11 'it'll ~nJ lV"
;'1W~:1 ' 1'::1 InN; .,'11

r ;!:TI ;lIn1 C':L1 ;'1 '~' U·~ C~ I'!.:IVJ


1"VU lOll "WI( t?01;'1 M l 0'17\,1 'lOt? ".:IT1'

c71V 111 l!1"l'1L" "


~l ':J"~ ~ ~""
' ;0

r ON", "'ICl(1t? 1t'!I r J 11W";'1 n'U 1(1 1'"1' rov;!]'/( 11:?V 1';1 ;;1 0""11 ""'j?l 1'1'"0 :(1;'T1 " '11 1TI!1;!]'/C ' 1'0 1lN 6 ;'1"'11 llW":I ~, ",.~ trm::'l ;'IV;!:';! ~;! mu j\7V1 Wit;! 1 i'7T O'ID P'Oll ,nrll.C 117V 0'11:7:1 11:'11

"-1.:1 " m :l1 ..,."y " .,;!t1n'l

' ' ' 0.,

And "'hrn Abt-ahllm our f alhn. may h~ rrs/ ill proa. lookM. .sa.... IIndentood. prlJbftJ.

englawri and ronnJ.
1ft ""'-f

suansjul i n crNliOfl. it i$ " rillnl, "And Iht $()u/s that Ihey made i ll lIaran ' (Grnnis

!mmedia/tly 1M' /' lOW
IfI' ;JIocnJ him in HIs Mam , and kJs.std him


/0 h,m Ilrl' MQ.J /n llis /!<lm/' be blnwd forI"'"'



Iris Irl'ad.

and H I' cllflt'd him. "Abroham my IN/a.m" (Isaiah 41:S ). III' made a Cl:...enant ..'ilh him

and with Iris drifdrt'll aft" him for...f f. QJ ;/ is "Til/I'll.
"Ami he bt/i~ ill God, and lit COfI$idl'rtd and 1I~ CMJid~ il riglil«JW$nm" (G~ndiJ IJ1O). Ill' rmufr "'ilh him a ro'~1UI111

tNl ,,'n n Ihr UII fi"l"1 ofhis lramu Ilril iSIIr~ ro ...nanl of Ilrr 1000000r. QJld M"W'II 11r~ I~n IOd of Iris fNIIlris jSIIr~ «»O"nanl of c;rcJlmci.ioll. And Ill' bound 11r~ 12/~1I", of 1M Tqralr 1 lriJ 10nlfUr 0 and H~ m'Nlni 1 Irim His mrslrry 0 HI' drl'Yl' Ilrrm i n ""111'1", lie flamni Ilrl'm "'illr fiff. Ill' agilalni IIII'm ...illl Brraill. HI' burnni IIII'm "'ilh Ihl' _ n lpianl'lsj HI' dir«Ini Ihem "'ilh Iht Iwtl... COfUlrilalilmS.

And when Abraham ollr /mhef ...
It is from here tllal a IllIdilion ;5 derived linkin, Abraham to Ihe Sefer Yelzirah.

Engra\'ed and caned
Hue ...-e clearl y sec Ihal
itative (1: ' 4).
ledmiqu~." ~cnaravin,w al~ady

and "carvin," involve med"""n di""ussed j'lrevKIIII.iy

Thi5 hu

Ikfore one can enpae in these techniques. I\o.'"c,·cr, one m1UI,
"look. see, uno:knllnd. and probe." Thne techniques have all<) been discussed (1 :4).

And he was successful
The complete >'trw q UOted he", ,..,Iates 10 Abrallam', lnvillj Haran al God's comman d, and ;1 'Ialts, "So Abram ~n\. as God had told him ... and Abram look his wife Sarai. and his nephew lAl, and aU Ille , ubstance lhal they h.d IIItheml. and the lOu), Ilial they had made in Hallin" (~nnis 12:~). Th is implies lbal before God had spoken 10 him and loki him 10 leave his land. "bniham had already mUlcTed tile mysteries of Sefer Y( (zirah. The K.o.bbali.ts note lhal tile "elY says. -the souls thai IIIq made: i ~ tile plural. This indicates tllit one IttemptinllO make I GoIm1 should not work alone. but should do so in panntnhip with others.

He made a ct)W'nanl
See 1:3_

He drew them in water
Th i. indkalCS tha t tM symbolism or .... atcr and fire. diSCI.IssN earl ier ( I: 11.12). also relale to meditative tcchniql,ln..



APPENDIX I Other Versions of the Sefer Yetzirah

THE SHORT this lias !lotto translated in the VERSION (I n order to show lIow it can be done,
im ~ralive. ~

brackCled portions are Ih06C omil1ed by Donuh.)

Copyrighted material

Chapter 1
I. With 32 wondrol.l' paths of Wisdom envave Yah, Ihe lord of Hosts, {God of lsrae~ the Livin& God , Kin, oflhe univen.e, Almi,JI1Y God , merciful and aracious, Hi&h and Exa lted. dwelling in etemily, whose name is Hol y. and creale His univcn.e] wilh 111m: boob, wilh text (S,ph"l. wilh number (S,p/!ar). and wilh communication

2. Ten &firo\ o f NothinJlless plus lwcnty-\""O [foundation Jleucn:
Th roe Mot hers. $e-'cn

and Twel ve Elcmmtals.

J, Ten Sefi rO of NOlh inlneu: The number of Ihe len filljers, five I
opposite five, wilh . sinale oo'-cnanl preciscl y in Ihe middle, like lhoe circu mcision of the IOnl uC and thoe circumci.ion of t he membrum.

4. Ten $efirol of NOlhin,nn.s: Ten and nO{ ninc; len and nol elcvm. Understand with Wisdom. and be wiK wilh Understandi"&- Examine wilh them and probe from them. make I Ihina stand on it. euence, and ma ke Ihe Creator sit on His base.

S. Ten Sefirot of Nothinsness: Thti r meaSure i, t~n whieh have no end. A depth of besinning, a d~pth of end ; a depth of JOOd., a depth o f evil; a depth abov~. a depth belo ....., a depth east, a depth "'fft; ,. d~plh nonh, 1I d~Plh south . The Sinl ular Masl~r, God faithful Ki IlJ, dominatn them an from H is holy dwell inl until eternity of etern ities.
6. Te n Sdirot o f NOlhingr>e$!: Their vision is li ke Ihe "appearance of lilhtnillJ, ~ their limit has no end. Hi s Word in them is ~runninl and retu rni ns. ~ They rush to Hi! loIyinl like a whi rlwind, a nd before Hi, throne they pn)l;trale themscl'·es.
1. Ten Sefirot nf Nothio,"",,: Their end i. imbeddM in Ih~ir be&inniTl& and their be&inning in Iheir tnd, like 1I flame in a bumi", 00II1. Fo r Ihe Master is sinlular. He has no second. And before One, what do you count?

I .Te n Scfirot of N01hin",ess: Bridle your mouth from speaki", and your hean from thi nkins. And if your hean runs, return 10 the pl.aee, as it ;s wrilten , "Tbe ChayOi runnintl and retuminl~ (Ez~kiel 1:1 4). Repminl this a ro~'enanl was made. 9. Ten Sefirol of N01hin,"~,,: One is Ihe Breath o f the Livinl God, blessed a nd benMictM be the Name of Ihe Life of "'"Orl<.b. Voi«, Breath and Speech. This is Ihe Holy Breath (RuQ(h Hu.KodnJr).



10 . Two: Breath from Breath. With ;1 el1J!11ve and arve l"'UIy-lWO

foundation Ienen-11!1'tt MOIhen., seven Doubks. and twelve Elementals-and one Smuh is from them.
II . Thr«: Water from Brea th. With;\ enJ!1lve and carve chaos uw;I void, mire and clay. Enyave them like a "arden p101, carve them like

... ,... n, rover lMm like a C\";'in...
12. Four: Fire from ..... In". With il and carve the Throne of Glory, Seraphim, Ophanim, holy a..yot, and Ministerinl An&e11. From the three esUlblil.h His dwcllina. IS il is written , -He makes His


an,els of breaths. His ministers from flamin, fire- (Pulms 104:4).
Five: With Ihltt of 1M simple letters seal - above. · Choose thrtt and place t!>ern in His I mll Name: YHv. With them seal Ihe six extremities. Fate upward and IoUI it .... i\h YHv.

Six: &aJ - below." Fa« do.... n...ard and seal il wilh YV H.

Seven: x.I ·cast." Face m a i, ln .lIrad and seal ;1 wi lh HYV.
Elabl: Seat · west." Fate baci;ward and seal ;1 wilh HVY. Nine: Seal
~$Outh. M

Face- to


ri&hl and


it with VYH.

Ten: Seal Mnorih. Face: to Ihe left and se.l it wit h VHY.
14. These are the Ten Scfirot of NOIhinsncss. One is the Breath of the li vinl God . Bn:ath [from Breath]. Waler [from Breath], Fire [from waler. and the eXl",mit~J. up, down, eaR, " 'est, a.orth and SOUth.

Chapter 2
I. T~nl y_two foundation letten: three MOthen, seven Doubles, and

Elcmenlall. Tbe three MOIhen. AMSh, Iheir foundation is the pan of merit. the pan of li.bility. and the lonlue of d",ree decidin&

2. Twenty-two le\lers; Envave them, caO'e them . weiJ,h them. permute them , and transfonn them , Ind with them depin the soul of all th.t was formed and all thaI will be formed in lhe fUIUn:.

J . Twenty-two (foundation ] leurn: They are envaved with voice, carved ... ith brtath, and placed in 11K ITIGUth in fi ve places: ACbHO. BVMP. GYKQ, DTLNTh. ZSShR Tz.
4. T"""nly-tWO foundation Inten: They arc set in I cin:ie u 231 Gites. The ci rcle roUltes bad: and fonh . And Ihis is I siJn: There is


,oad hiJ,hcr Iha n d eligll\ (ONG). and

tiler<: is no evil lO""tt than

pla,uc (NGO).
S. Ho w" Wei&h tMm Ind lran.p05e them, Alef wi th each one. and

each one wilh Alef; Bet wilh each one, I nd each one wilh Bel. They
r<:peai in a C)'d e. Therdore.

formed and evcI')1 hin, spo-

ken emanau,,, in one name. 6. Form substance 01,11 of chaos and make nonexistence into existence. Carve ,",II pillars 01,11 of air 1hal cannO! be JIlIsped. This is Ihe si",: One fOlc:Kt:S, transposes, and makes all creation and all word. with one Name. And I sian of this: Tw<:nly-IWQ obj« u in I sinlk body.

Chapter 3
I. Three Mothers. AM5h: Their fO!J ndalion;$ the pan of liability, the pan of merit. and 1~ tonl"'c of dec""" de<:idinl bd ween them.

2. Three mothe", AM5h: A lIl=ll. m)'SliC<il, OOllO'aled 5t:CN:! , sealed with si ~ rinp. And from it emana te fire and "'ller, Sotparatinl themseh"cs as male and female. Th...,., MOIhcf'S. AMSh, a~ Iheir foundaliOll. and from them Ire born the Father'$, from which everylhin, wu crealed.

air. water. and fi~. Heaven wu cn:ued from fi re. carlh "''ll.S cn:aled from waleI'. and the ai r decides between Ihe fi re a nd the water.

J . Th= MOlhel'$, AMSh. in the Univnv


4. Three. mOlher'$, AMSh, in Ihe Year a~ fi~, water. a nd breath. The hOI is cn:ated from fi~. Ihe cold is crealed from waler. and the tem_ perale from b~ath decides belween Ihem. Th= MOlher'$, AMSh. in Ihe Soul a~ fire . ...·u er. and breath. The head is c~ated from fire, Ihe belly is cn:ated from water, and the chest, crealed from breath. decides between them. S. Three Mother, AMSh : Enlrave them, (I""e them. pe""ute them, and with them seal Ih= MOl hen in Ihe Univnv. IhTtt Mothers in the Year. and Ihree MOIhers in the Soul, mile Ind femlle. 6. Ma ke Aid kin, oVer brellh, bind I crown to it, and combine one with another. And w;lh them seal ai r in the Uni "e""" tile lempel'llie in the Year. and tile chest in the Soul, the male ,..ilh AMSh . and Ihe fe male wilh AShM. 7. Make Mem kin8 Over WIler. bind I crown 10 ii, and combine OIIe with .noiller. And with IlIem seal carlh ;n the Univ.,""" tile cold in




the Year, and the belly in the Soul, Ihe male wilh MASh. and the fem. k wilh MShA.
8. Make Shin kina oVer fire. bind a C'I"OY>lI 10 iI, and combine one wilh another. And wilh them _I he.ven in the Univerw. Ihe hoi in the Year, and the head in Ihe soul, 1M nWc [with ShAM], and the fcmak [with ShMA].

Chapter 4
I. Seven Do..bles. BGD KPRT: Their foundation is life. peace, wildam......,allh. sncc, seed, dominance. beh hiS two !IOUnds: B-Bh,

G-Gh. D-Dh. K-Kb, P-Ph, R-Rh. T-Th. [A Slr1.IC\lIT<: of] soft and hard, II SIn.>Cture of] $\1"1)01 and weak, double ~IUC they are ll11nsposes. The transpOSe of life i. death, the IranlpOSe of puce il evil , the transpOSe of wisdom is folly, the transpose or \Io'ttIlh is poveny, the il1lnspose of IflI(le is UJliness. Ihe transpose of seed is desolation , the transpose of dominantt is suhjuplion.

2. [Seven Doubln, BGD KPRT: Seven and nOI six, !le\'cn and not eiatot. Euminc with them and probe from IlIem, make each IlIilll stand on it! essence, and make Ihe Crealor Iii on H is base.)
3. Seven Dout>ln, BOD KPRT, paralJcllhe !iCv.,n cxl..,milies. "ll"Ine are lhe li~ exlremilies: up, down, eUI, ...-est, lIOr1h, soulh. And the Holy Palace prttisel y in thoe middle upholds Ihem an. 4. Seven Dout>les, BOD KPRT: EnJlll"e Ihem. carve them, combi ne Ihem • •• pJoIReu in the Univcnc, day. in the Year, and ptes in the Soul. From them enJlllve seven firmamcnts, seven earths, seven weeks. Seven is tht'n':fore beloved under an the heavens,
S. [How? Make Ikt kinl over life. bind .. crown 10 it. and wilh ;1 depict Saturn in the Univcrx, Sunday in the Year. and the n,ht eye in the Soul.

6. [Malte Oimel Itin" bind a crown 10 iI, and wilh il depict Jupiter in the Univ<:nc. Monday in Ihe Year. and the Id\ C)1' in Ihc Soul. 7. [Make Dalel kin .. bind a crown to ii, and wilh il depict Ma~ in Ihe Univenc, Tue-sday in Ihe Year. and Ihe ri&ht ur in the Soul. 8. (Make KIf kin" bind a CTO ...n 10 ii, .nd with il depkl the Sun in the Univene, Wednesday in the Year, Ind the left ear in the Soul.

9. [Ma ke Pch kin&, bind a !.TOwn 10 ii, and wilh ;1 depic1 Venll5 in the Univene , Thund~y in the Year, and the n&hl nostril in llIe


10. IMa" Resh kin&. bind a crown \0 il. and witb it depict MeTC\Iry in Ihe Univcnc:, Friday in the Year, and the left noslril in the Soul.

II . (Make Tn king, bind a crown 10 il. and wilh it depicltlie Moon in the Uni,-enc:, the Sabbuh in the Year, and the mOllth in 111e Sou1. )

12. The Seven Doubles, how does OIK permute them? Two stones build I....., Ilouses, lhlft build six houso:s. fO\l' build 24 IIolises, five
build 120 houses, six build 720 houses, and
speak and the ear amnot hear.

blli\d S040 hOliKI'.

From there on ,0 out and calculate thl1 .... hich Ihe mouth nonQl These aK the seven planets in the Universe: The Sun. Venus, Mercury. the Moon. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars. ' These are the seven dil}~ in the Year: The seven dl~ of creation. And Ihe Seven ,,"to:s in the Soul are the two eyes, the two ears. lite lwo "",,1riIs. and Ihe mO\llh , And with Ihem wac: enaraved the seven finnament', the seven eanhs, the seven hours. Seven is the",fo", beloVC'd for every desi", under heaven.'

Chapter 5
I. Twelve Elementals: HV ZCh TY LN SO TzQ. Their fO\lndation is s;&hl. hearinK, smell, s!)«Ch . laste. coi1ion, action, motion, an&«, lau&hler. thou&ht, and sleep. Their measure ;s the I...·elve diagonal boundaries: the nonh-ea51 boundary. the soullt-N$I boundary, Ihe up~r-cast boundary, the Iower-cast boundary, the up~r- nonh boundary. the lower_nonlt boundary. the IiOIlth-wnl boundary, the nonh-west boundary, Ihe up~r_weSI boundary, the lower-west boundary, 1M upper_uti! boundary, the IowCT-tOUth boundary. They continually spread for enr and ever, Tiley a", Ihe Arnn of the Universe. 2. Twelve Elementals: HV ZCh TY LN SO TzQ. Enarave them , (a,,'e Ihem, weiab them, permute Ihem, IranspOSe: Ihem, and with them depict Ihe twelve constellations in the UniVl!:iie: Arin, Taul"\Is. CXmini , Cancer, Lro, Vil}O, Libra, Scorpio, Sa,.ittarius, Capricorn. Aquarill5, and Pisces: Ihe lwelve months in the Year. NilSl.l1. IYilT, Sivan, Tamil':, Av. Elul. Tish",i. Mar-cheshv. n, Kislev, Te>-"t:I, Shevat, Adar: and the twelve d irtt"lOn in Ihe Soul: two hands, two feel,


two kidneys. the spleen, the liver, tile pll bladder, the hemMSS. lhe kiva, and Ihe IwrkAioll, [How does one I"'mtute Ihml? Make Heh kins. bind a crown to it. and with it depict Arin in Ihe Univese. Nissan in the YHr, and Ille ri&hl hand in the $OuI, male and (emale, [Make v .v kin&, bind a crown 10 it, .nd with it depict Taurus in the Unive~, Iyar in the Year, and the left hand in the Soul. [Make layin kin" bind a crown 10 it, and with il depict ~mini in lite Univen." Sivan in the Year, and Ihe richt (001 in the Soul. [Make Chel kin" bind a crown 10 ii, and with il depict Canter in the Uni\'cne. in lhe Year, and Ille IdI fOOl in Ihe Soul. [Make TCI kina. bind a crown 10 ii , and wilh it depict Lro in tile Universe, Av in the Year and the ri&hl kidney in the IIOIIL [Make Yud kina. bind . C'I'OWJl 10 ii, and with il depict Yir'JO in Ihe Univ...,.., Elul in the YHr. and tlte left kidocy in Ihe Soul. [Make l.amed kina. bind a crown to ii, and with it depict Libra in Ille Universe, Tilhrei in Ihe Year, and the liver in Ihe SouL [Make Nun kina. bind a cro"'l1 10 it, and with il depici Scorpio in the Universe, Mat-(heshvan in Ihe Year, and Ihe spleen in llle

[Make SoImekh kin" bind a crown to it, and wilh il depict Sq,il. tarius in lite Universe, Kislev in lite Year. and the pll bladder in Ihe


[Make Eyin kina. bind a crown 10 ii, and with il depict Capricorn in the Universe, Tevel in the Year. and Ihe irm.u u in lite Soul, [Makc Tzadi kin" bind a crown to it, and wilh il depict Aquarius in lhe Unive~, Shevu in the Year, and Ihe Iei.all in Ihc SouL. [Make Kuf kin" bind a crown 10 ii, and with it dcpict PiKeS in th e Universe, Adar in the Year. and Ihe korUba" in the SouL]

), Three Mothen ...,ltich Ire three Fllhers, from which eman..e fire, breath and ""aler. Three Mothen. seven Doubles, and Twdve Elementals. founded by tbe Blessed Holy One {Yah. YHVH of Hosts, God of Israel. lite Livin, God, hi&h and exalled] d_Uin, in eterni ly, ...'hOK name is Holy, (eulted and holy is He],

4. ThC5C are the lwenty-two !ellen which

Chapter 6
I . Three are the Fathen and their olTsprin,. se,'en are Ihe plaocll and Iheir hosl, and I_lve are Ihe dillonal boundaries. And lite proof of this, lrue witnesit'S, ate Ihe Universe, Ihc Ycar, and tl>e Soul. He

(Ten). Seven and Thrtt. and He appointed them in the Teli, Ihe Cycle, and the Heart. The thrtt .~ fi~, waler. and bl'l'ath; fire above, waler IIflow, and breath, tile dt:<:ree that de<:ides ~I""un IMm . A siln of this ;s \ha\ fire upholds water. Mcm hums, Shin hilSe$, and Alcf is Ihe decree thai decides

OOWttn them.

2. The Tdi in the Univcne is like a king on his throne. the Cycle in
til .. Year is li ke a kina in the province, Ihe Heart in the Soul is like a kin, in bailie. ~Aho every desirt', one opposite the other was made by God (Ettle":astes 7:1 4). c.-I opposite evil. aood from lood. evil from evi l. Good makes evil f«OI.lIizable, and evil makes ,00<1 reco&niuble. Good makes evil T«OIllizable, and evil makes good recognizable. Good is k~1 for thelOQd, and evil is kepi for Ihe wicked.

3. Th=: each 0'"' sland~ alone. Seven are di vided, three opposite three, with a deer« d«idillJ, between them. Twelve stand in war: tll= who love, three ",,110 hate, three who give life, and three who kill. The three ,,·Ito love IK Ihe hean, Ihe can Ind Ihe moulh; Ihe three who hate Ire Ihe liver, Ihe pll bladder. and Ihe 101liue. And God, Ihe faithful King dominal" them all. One over three. three over seven, seven over t .... el~e, and ~II of them are bound. one 10 another. 4. And when Abraham our father ",:.:ed. he looked. saw, dcived. underslood. enlJ'3ved. carved, permuted and depia<'ll, and he was l uocrslful. And the Masler of all , Blessed be He. revealed Himlelf 10 him, and look him in Hil bosom, [kiS$Cd him on the head, and called him, -M y bclnved-j, He made a covenant wilh him beiw«n the ten IOC$ of his feet-this is Ihe COVenant of cirrumcision-.and belween the ten fin&ers of his hands- Ihis it tbe Cnvenant of the too&ue. He bound the t_nty-Iwo Icllen 10 his to"*"e and revealed their fOllndatioo. He drew them in water, hurned Ihem in fire, agilated Ihtm with breath. He i&niled lhem with the sevea (planets), and di~ed them with the twelve constellations.



Copyrighted material


Copyrighted material

Chapter 1
L Will, Ihiny_' ''''' mystical path. of Wisdom enpved Yah, YHVH of Hosts, God of Israel. the Livinl God, God Almiahly, h'ah and culted, d well;n, in eternity on biah . and His name is Holy, and He ("~aled His universe ",ilh lhrtt books, wilh le~l, wilh number, and wilh romml.lnication. [They are] Ten Sdirol 0( Notllinaneu and twen ty-two foundation lellers.

2. Ten Sdirotlike the number of len fiDle,." five opposite five. The Sinlul,r covenant i. direo:tly in Ihe middle, like the circumcision of Ih e IOlllOt in Ihe mouth. and like Ihe circumcision of the membrum.

). Ten Sefirol o(NothiolOcn: Ten and nOI nine. ICo Ind nol eleven.
U ndenll.nd wilh Wisdom, and pr<>bo: wilh Unden1J.ndina. Di~m wilh them Ind probe from them. Make a Ihinl stlnd on its essence, and make Ihe Creator sit on His base, fOl' He alone is the Former and Creator, and then: is none besides Him . And His measure il ten a nd they have no end.

4. Ten Sefirot of NothiltJD.ess: Bridle Y01,lr hean from Ihinkin" bridle your mouth from spt."akillJ.. And if your hean nln5, re1um 10 Ihe place. as it is written , -And the Chayol t1,InnifIA and re1umillJ.. Reproina Ihis a covenant has been made.

S. Ten Sefirol ofNothillJ.lless: Their end is imbedded in their beJinni11J, and thrir beJinnina in Iheir end. like a flame bound 10 a bumina coal. Know. tbink and depict thilt the Ma.ter i. uniLl.ry. and !he C",atQ<" is One. IUId He ha no seoond. And bcf~ One. what do you 001,lnt7 6. Ten Scfirot of Nothingness: Their measure il ten ...·hich have no end: A depth of bcJinnina and a deptb of end; a depth nf sood and a deplb of evil; a depth of above and I depth of beloW; a deJHh of elSI and I deplh ofwesl. I depth of nonh Ind a depth of IOUth. Tbc unique Malte!". God faithful K..i .... dominate. lhem aU from His holy dwellin, until eternity of etemi tiel'. 7. Ten Scfirot of NothinEJIa5: Their vision is li ke Ihe Ippelrance of lialn ni.... Ind their limit has no cnd. They speak of Ihem I S -t1,Innilll and "'tumin" - they JIII"ue His word like I whirlwind. and befo", Hislhrone lhey proslrate themselves. 8. Tcn Scfirol of NothlnEJIcss and Iwcnl)'-lWO foundation ktle ..: Three MOIhe .... seven Double$. and IWl:lvc and Brealh is in each of them .



9. Ten Sdirol of NOIhinanas.: One i. 11K Breath of 11K Livin, Ood, His throne is established from eternity,' blessed be Ihe name of tile

life of Woods oonstanlly, fO","cr and ever: Voi-x. Breath and Sp«ch. Spel:Ch is II>e Holy Breat h (Rlioch HuKotiu h). Its inception
hll nO beJinnin" and illiermination ha. no end.

10. Ten Sefirol ofNOIhinan~ OM is Ihe of the Livin, C)Qd, \ .... 0 is breath from breath, thref: is wale. from breath, fOLl' is fin: from WOller, a nd up and down, el.l and "-nt, north and ~Ih.
I I. Two is hreJ.lh fl'()lTl O..,llh. With Ihrm He ellJ.'llved and arved the four direcl;o~'ll1s (rucllof/ of heaven: eaSI Ind We5I. north and 5OII1h. And breath (ruoch) is in each one of them.

he enlfaved Ind carved chaos and V'I);d . day and min:. He made tllem like. sanko bed , lie carved them like I Will, and he covered them like I ccilina. and be poured mow over them, and dust was made. [1 is thus written, ~ For 10 mo .... he uid. become canh (Job 37:6). Ch.aos is an alU~' [inc Ihal lurrounds alllhe world. Void ronsim o f Ihe l P(lnlY' rocks thaI a~ imbedded in the ab)'ll. from bel ...·«n .... hich ....ater emanates.'

12. Thn:e is water from breath. With


Four is fire from waler. With il H e e1IVlIved and e&rved Ihe Thronc of Glory, Serafim, Ophanim, holy Chayol , Ind ministerin, an,cls. And from Ihrae Ihlft He founded His abode. as il is wrilten, M makes his anarls of breaths. His miniSlers from flamin, fire He (Pulm.l04:4).

14. Fi.'e: He sealed "above. He seleeted Ihrcc lellen from amona Ihe Elementals and fixed them in His veal Nlme: YHV. Wilh tbem He SHied the si~ direcl ions. He faced upward and sealed il wilh YHV. SiA: He 'iealed -betow. faced downward. and ~ed it wilh YV H. $even: He sealed easl. raced forward. and sealed il with VYH .


Eiahl: He ..,aled wnt. faced ~bllrd, and ..,aled il wilh VHY. Nine: He ..,aled 5OUlh, faced to Hi, '-;abt, and ..,aled it with YV H. Ten: He sealed nonh. faced to Hi. left , and sealed it wilh HVY . Thrae a~ Ten Sefirol of NOIhinaness: One il the B~llh of the LivillJ God. twO i. bm.lh from Brealh , thlft is water from hreath. four i. fire from "-:Iter, above and below, CIlSI Ind ....esl. nonh and south.



Chapter 2
I. Twenty-t_ foundation letters: three Mot hers. seven Doubles. and twe!'-e "EJ<,men tal•. And aU of them an: enpved with voice. ,,,n'ed .... ith b""ath. and SCI in the mouth in five p!a<:a: the !enen AChHO, GYKQ, OTLNTh. ZSTzRSh. BVMPh, They a", bound to the IOnlut like a flame bound to II bumin, coaL ACb HO is pronouna:d wilh the base orthe tOlliuC and the throa t BVMPh is pronounced between the lips and " 'ith the tip of th e ton,ue. GYKQ is pronounced with the (back) third of the tongue. DTLh'Th is pronounced wi th the tip of the tonsue. tosethtr with the voia. ZSTzRSh is pronounced between the tceth, " 'ith the to n,lJe Iyina flat and sp",ad out.
2. Twenty-two foundation !ellers: They a"" set in the Cycle in 231 Gat es. The eyde OK;Uates bad and ronh. And a sian for this. if in the"" is nOthin, hisbeT than deliah l (ONG), and ifi n evil. the", is nothinllower than the plalue (NGO).


J. Twenty-two foundation letters: He envaved them. carved them. " 'ei&he<l them. and transposed them . Alef with them aU. And He permuted them. and wilh them He fO<lTlcllhe soul of aU Ihat was ever fonned. and Ihe soul of all thaI eVtr " 'ill he fonned.

4. How'! He wci&he<l them and lransposed them. Alcf with them all.
and aU of them .... ith Alef. Bet with them all. and aU of them wilh Bet. [rontinuina] likewise wi th all the [Ieuen]. And all of lhem oscil. late qclicaUy. Thus. they emerce throuah 23 1 Gates. and every thin, fonned and everythina $!lid emanates from one Nam<:.
5. from 0._ He formed .un-tan«. and He made thaI ..'h~h was not into that wh iCh is. He carved ""al '10,," o ut of air that ,annot be I ra'!)Cd.

Chapter 3
1. Thrtt MOlhers. AMSh: Their foundation is the pan of merit, Ihe pan of liabi lity. lnd the ton,ue of deeRe decidillJ b':I"-cen them.

2. Th rtt Mothers. AMSh : A I""at , concealed, mystical secret. rovered witb si _ rinas, From them emanale fi"" . ...... ter and bn:ath. They an: d ivided ., male and fema!e. Know. think and contemplate thai fin: suppons waler. 1. Th ree Mothers. AMSh : The Pro&eny of Ihc heavens is fin:. lhe progen y of the air is """ath, and Ihe pfOlCny of the earth is Wlter.


SEFER YETZIRAH Fire is abo~e and .... aler is below, and brealh is Ihe de<;rte decid;nl between them. From them were bom Falhers. and from Ihem all Ihinas ...·ere crealed. 4 . Three MOlMrs. AMSh . in Ihe Universe Ire breath. WIler and fire. The Ma'·en, were created from fire, the anh was created from wlter. and Ihe air from breath drridn bet~n them. AMSh. in the Year Ire the hot. the cold, and tile temperate . The hot was created from fire. the cold from watC'!". and the temperate from breath decides bet"'ttn them. 6. Thrte MOll1e~ AMSh, ;n the Soul ~ Ihe head, Ihe belly and Ihe chesl. The head was created from fire, \h(: belly _. crealed from ..... Ier, and the clIest from brealh de<;ides between them. 1. Thrn: MOIllers, AMSh: He e",",ved them, carved Ihem, permuled Illem . and Kaled wilh them Ihrte Mothcn, AMSh, in Ihe Universe. Ihree Mothers, AMSh, ;n Ihe Year, and three MOIhers. AMSh, in tht Soul, male and female. 8 . He mlde the ),eller Alef kirIJ over brealh. bound a crown 10 it, permuted one ...ilh anolher, and with Ihem formed lir in the Uni· verse. the temperate in tM Year. and Ihe chest in the Soul, maIc and female. He made the lener Mem kina over "'lIler, bound a erown to it, permuted one wilh aootller, and with IlIem formed tM eanh in \h(: Universe, thc cold in the Year. and the belly in Iht Soul, male Ind female. He made tile ktter Shin kinl nVC'!" fire. bound. crown 10 it, per_ muted one with anOiller, and with them fonned lbe heavens in the Universe, Ihe hot in Ihe Year, and the head in tile Soul, male and femlle. 9. How did He form them? AMSh AShM, MASh MShA, ShAM ShMA. The heaven i, fire, the. . ir is brelth. and tile anh i .....ater. M.n', head is fire. his belly is Wiler, and hi' llean i. breath. 10. Three MOlhen AMSh. With Aid He formed brellh. ai r, the lemperate. the chest, the tonsue of decree bet~n them. Wilh Mem: w'ler, tanh, the cold, the belly, Ihe pan of merit. Wilh Shin: fire, heaven, lbe bol , the head, Iht pan of liability. Thi s i. AMSh,

5. Three

M othe~

Chapter 4
I. St'·cn Doubles, BOD KPRT: Their foundation is life. peace, wisdom. wealth . seed. JIlIcc. and dominallCe. They fUlK1ion wilh two

loniues. the daublin. of o pposites: B Bh. G Gh . DOh. K Kh, P Ph. R Rh . T Tit. A 51ructure of soft and hard. siron, and weak. Thne are IMo Opposites: The o pposite o f w;$dQm ;s foolishness. Ihe opposite of wullh is 1'O"cny, the oppos.ilc of M:W is dewl.tion, Ihe opposite of life is dealh, Ihe opposite of domi nance is w bjuplion. I~ opposite of peace is war, Ih e opposite of &nee is u&liness. 2. Seven Dou bles. BGD KPRT: Seven and nOI si~, seven and not eish!. Tiley parallellhc si ~ ribs and Ihe lix orden.. and the Holy Palace is precisely in the cen ter. KBIeu.ed be Ihe glory of God from His Place~ (E~ck id 3:12). He is Ihe place of Ihe universe, and Ihe un i>"elV is not H is place. ' And He suppons them alL

3. Seven Doubles. BGD KPRT of foundation: He Cnp;ived them, carved them. permuted them. weiahed Ihem, transformed Ihem. and w;lh them He formed seven planets in the Uni verse, seven da~ in Ihe Year, and seven ptes in the Soul. KVen and KVen.

4. How did He permute them? Two stones build two houses. three stones build six houSl:s, four SlOnes build 24 hOiliiC5. five SlOnes build 120 houses. six siones build 720 houses. Sl:ven Slones build 5040 hOilSC:S. From Ihel"!' on &0 0iI1 and calculale Ihal which Ihe moulh cannOt speak and the ear can nOI llear.
5. He made tile Jener Bel king over ,,·isdom. bound a crown 10 il. permuted one with another. and wilh Ihem He fonned Salurn in tile Unive~, the Sabbath in the Year, and the mOilth in the Soul, male and femaJe .
6. He made Ihe leller G imd ki na over wealth. bound a crown to il. permuted one with anOlher, and " 'ilh Ihem He formed Jupiler in the Uni " erse, Sunday in the Year, and Ihe riabt eye in Ihe Soul, male and female.
7. He made the Io:11tr Dalct

lr.ina ""cr seed. bound a crov.ll to i~ permuted

" ith another. and with them He formed Man in the UniVCJK. Monday in the Year. and lhe left ~ in the Soul. male and female.

S. He made tile leller Kaf king

hfe, boun d a crown 10 iI, permu ted o ne with .nother, and wilh them He fOfllled Ihe Sun in the Universe. Tuaday in lhe Year. and the ri&ht noslril in the Soul. male and female. il. permuled one with ano lher. and with them He formed Venus in the Universe. Wednesday in Ihe Year. and Ihe left nostril in the Soul. male and female.

9. He made Ihe lener Peh king over dominance. bound a crown to



peace. bound a crown to iI, permuted one with anOlher, Ind wilh Ihem H e formed Mercury in Ihe Universe, in the Year, and the ri&hl ear in the Soul, male and female.

'" 10.

H~ m~fk

Ihe ktler Resh kin,


II. He made the ICller Tav kina over &JlICe. bound I crown \0 iI, permuted one wil li another. and with them He formed the Moon in the Universe. Friday in Ihe Yu r, and lhe left ear in the Soul, male and female. And wilh them He enaraved ""'cn firm.menll, $even earths, ilCven selS, seven riven, seven deserts, seven dIIys, ..,ven weeD, $even years. ..,ven sabbaticall, seven jubilen, and Ihe Holy Palace. He therefore cnaraved the seventh for every desire under Ibe heavens.

12. Seven planets in the Universe Ire: Satum. Jupiter, Man, Sun,
Venus, Mcrtllry, Moon. Seven days in Ihe Year If(> the seven da~ of tile week. Sexen &alI'S in Ihe !K>ul, milk and female, are the lWO eyes, lWO ear&, two noslrils, and Ihe mouth.

13. ~en firmamenl5 a n: Vikm, Rakia, S~hakim, Zl:V\lI, MJ,'on, MIChon , aDd AravOl. Seven earths are Adamill. Tevd, Neshiyall. 1'I:iylll, CI'Ialld, Eretz, Gai. And He made each one $Wld alone: The Univenc alone, Ihe Soul alone, and the Year alone.
1• . Seven Doubles BGD KPRT:


With Bet He formed SlIum, tile Sabbath, tile mouth, li fe and

With Gimel He fOnned Jupiter, Sunday. the rialn~, peace and e.,.il.' With Dalet He formed Mars, Monday, tbe left eye, wisdom and fooli.hne .... With Kif He formed thoe Sun. Tuesday, the riJIIt nostril, weal!b and pa.,.eny. Wilh Peh He formed Venu5, Wednesday, ~ kft nostril , 5Ced and delOlltion. With Resh He formro Mercury. Thursday. the risllt ea r. VICe Ind uiJincu. With T • .,. He formed the Moon, Friday, the kft elr, dominallCC' and s.ubjuplion. These Ire BOD K.P RT.

siJ,hl, bearin" smell , speecll, laSle. ooition. mOlion, Il1ou&lll, joy, and $Ie(op.


Chapter 5 1. Twdvc Elemcnlab, HV ZCb TY LN so 120: Their foundation is
2. ~lve Elemcntab, HV ZCb TV LN SO TzQ: Their foundation is
twelve Ind nol cleven, Iwd,'c and nOl \lIirteoen. The t_lve

. naer, Ial,lJh1cr,

bounduies peel otT IS


orders divided bel",,"" each direction: the

eastern lIpper boundary, the eastern northero boundary, the eaSlem lower boundary; Ihe southern I,IPpeT boundary, the soulhera eLltem bol,lndary, the southern 10""", boundary, the western upperboulldaT)l. Ihe ",esl<~rn southern boundary, tile WHlem lower boundary; \he northern upper boundary. the northern wntem boundary, the north_ ern lower boundary. ~ spread IIDlil e!cmily of elernities, and ;1 is they lhl\ are the Hei"'l. of the Universe.

4. Twdvc Elementab, HV ZCb TY LN SO TzQ: He engraved them, carved Ihem, pennulf~d Ihem, weiJh.ed them, IranslK sed them, Ind with them He formed twelve constellations in Ihe Univerx. twelve months in the Yellr. Ind tweh~ directo", in the Soul, male Ind femlle. Two ~joice {Om two slander (WZ). IWO advise (ron), two ...,joie<: (om ). And Ihey a~ the korla!bon, the teeth, tile tWO hands and the IWO feet. He made them like a controveny, lie arnnled Ihem like a war, one opposite the olber.
S. Seven: Th~e opposite three, and one deddinl between them. And twelve stand in war: Three aUies, three enemies, three lifepvers, and three killers. Three allies are the heln. Ihe eaQ and the ~. Three enemies are the liver. Ihe 13.11. and tile tODJUe. Three lifepven are the tWO nostrib and the spleen. Th~e killen I~ the two orifices and the moulh. Aod God faithful KiItJ dominates Ihem all from His holy DwelliltJ unlil etemily of eternities. 6. One over Ihree, three over seven, seven over lwelve. AU of Ihem are Inlched, one 10 the OIher. And I sign for th is is Ihe twenly-two obja:IS and one body. 7. Aod these I..., the lwelve directon: two bands. two feet, IWO kidney" the liver. Ihe pll. Ihe spleen , the MI'OMU, the I«xla!bon, and Ihe ki Wlh. 8. He rtI.Ide tile lene. Heh kin, over speech, bound I crown 10 ii, permuted them one with another. and with them He fOTlTlCd Aries in the Univerx. Nissan in the Year. and Ihe liveT in Ihe Soul, mile and female.


SEfEil Y£ntll.A.H

9. He made the kiter Va ... kin, o"cr 111001111. bound a crown \0 iI, permuted Il'Iern one with another. and with Ihem He fonncd Tau"", in tile Unh"cnc:, lyar in the Year, and the &all bladder in tile Soul. male and female.
10. He made the kttcr ario kin, over mOlion, bound a CI'(\WTl 1 it, 0 pcnnutro Ihem one wilh anolheT. and with them He formed Gemini in 1M Universe. Siv.n in Ihe Year. and Ihe &pittn in Ihe Soul. male and female.

II. He made Ihe kiter Chd kin, (WeT licht, bound a cro ..m 10 it, pennutrd them OM ",,;111 another, and with them He formed Cancer in the Universe. Tamuz in llot Year, ar>d Ihe Mmuu in Ihe Soul, male and fcmak.
12. He made the leller Td kin, ov~ hnrin" bo ... nd a CI"O"A'Il \0 it, permuted them One ",-illt anotMt-. and wilh them He formed Leo in Ihe Unh'cnc: , Av in lhe Year, and the ri&hl kidney in Ihe Soul, male

Ind female .
I 3. He made the leiter Yo.od kin, over action, bound ... crown 10 it, permuted Ih~m one wi th anoth~r, and with them He formed ViTJO in th~ Univ~I2, Elul in lh~ Year, and the left kidney in the Soul, male and female. 14. He made the letter Lamed kina over COilion. bound a crown to ii, permuled Ihem one wilh anolher, and wilh Ihem He formed lihra in the Univel2. Ti$hr~i in th~ Yea., and the Jwrhb<ln in Ihe So"I, male and female. He made the letter Nun )(illl o~r smell, bound a crown to il. permuted them one with another, and "'ith Ihem He formed Scorpio in the Univerv. Chesh,'an in the Year, and the kivaJJ in Ihe Soul. male and female. 16, He made Ih~ lelle. Samekh )(illl OVef s!rep, bo<Ind a crown 10 il. permuted them OM- ... ilh IJl<)lher, and ... ilh Ihem He formed Sa&ittarius in the Univerv, Kislev in the Year. and the "",I hnd in the Soul, male and female, 17, He the letter E~in kin, over . nlCr, bound a crown to ii, permuted them one with another, a nd with them He formed Capri. com in Ihe Univerv, Tevet in the Yaf, and the left hand in lM Soul, mal~ . nd fern. Ie. 18, He made the letter Tradi king over tasle, bound. crown to ii, permuted lhem one with another, . nd with them He fanned Aqua.ius in the Unive...." Sheval in the Yeaf, and Ihe riJhl fOO\ in the Soul, male .nd female.



19. He made 1M- leiter Kuf kin, over lau&hlcr. bol.lnd • t rown 10 iI,

permuted them 0t\I' wi[h aootMr. and wilh them He formed Piscn in th e Uni,"crsc, Adar in Ihe Year, and the left fOOl in the Soul, male
and female.

20. He divided the wilnessn and made cadi one stand alone: 1m. Univ<'1'Soe alone. the Year alone. and the Soul alone,
21. T""clve E1ementalt: HV ZCh TY LN SO TzQ: Willi Heh He formed Aries, Ni$Sllll, the liver, S;" " and blindness. Wilh Vay He formed Taurus. lyaT, Ihe gall, hearin, a nd

Wilh Za yin He formed (Xmini, Sivan, th e splnn. smell and tbe inability 10 smdl. Wilh Chct He formed Ca ncer, Ta ml.l7, the hcmuu, speecb and dumlmeu. With Tel He formed Leo, "'Y , the ri&hl kidney, lasle and hunJ/'r. With Yud He formed ViTIO. Elu l, Ihe left kidney, action and paralysis. With Lvned He formed Libra, Tim,.,;. the IwrkLoo". coition and impotence. With Nun He formed Sro..,io, Mar-<heshVlln, the kiva, motion and l~mcnet.S. With Samekh He formed Sapnariu., KisJev, the right hand . • nl('T and 1"",1< of liver. With Eyin He fonne<! Capricorn , Tevet, the left han d. lauJ,hter and the lack of spleen. With Tu di He formed Aqu;lrius, SlIe""t, the ri&ht foot, tlloll&llt .nd the lacl< of hean. With Kllf He fonned Adar, the left foot. sleep and insomnia. These are the twelve Elementals, HV ZCh TY LN SO T:tQ. And all o f them are alilched to the Tel i. the Cycle. and the Hean.

Chapter 6
1. Th= Mothen , AMSh ; seven Doubles. BOD KPRT; twelve Ele-

mentals, HV ZCh TY LN SO TzQ. These I K the twcnty-two ]CIICTli wit h .... hich formed YH YHV H of Hosts. God of I....d. the livinS God, £1 Shadd~i, hi&ll and cuhed, dwellinlJ in eternity, and His name i. Ho ly.

"YH YHVH"- lwO (divin~) N.. m.... "Of HOSIS" (Tzar", '.n}--BttauK He is .. si", (01) in His host (IM,'a )! "God or !srul" (YSREL}--A prince (StlR) befo~ God (ELI, "The Li vi n, God"-Three a~ called "Iivin,": the Livil\l God, livin, wlten. and the lree of life. "EI"-is h~rsh. "SlIaddai"-BttauK (He decreed): Unlil he~ is enouJ.h (da/V· "Hiah"-Beause He sitl in the beiahl of Ihe universe, IDd is hiah above all Ibe hiJ.h. "Ellaited" (Njsa) because He supports (naJa) and lusl~inllbose on biJh and below. All tbat suppon are on tbe bottom , witb IheiT burden below Ihem, but He is on top. ~nd His burden is below bim. He supports and S\l$tains Ihe enli~ Universe. "He dwells in etemily"-Bttause Hil kinldom exisli for eternily of eternit ies, withoul intemaption. " Holy is His Name"-BecaU:Ie He is boly. His ministers arc boly, and 10 Him Ibey uy. "Holy, holy, holy" (Isaiah 6:3). 2. Twelve below, seven over Ihem , Ind Ihree o"er :leven. From Ille three He founded His abode. And all of Ihem hanl from One and stand on il. And a . i", of One, He ha, nO 5eC(ln d." He niles .. lone in His universe. for He is One , and His name;s One. "

J. Three Falhers and their Pto&eny, seven sllbduers and ~ir hOSl, twelve dillOnal boundaries. A proof of this. truSled witnesses., I~ Ihe Universe. the Year. and Ihe SolI!. 4. The SefirQ{ of the Univen.e arc len Ind twelve: fire. brellll, ''''''Ier, seven planels... nd t ...-dve ronSlell"lions. The Sefirot orthe Year are len and lwelve: oold, hot. temperale, seven days. and 1~lve monlhs. The SCfirot orthe Sou.l.~ ten and twelve: the head, (hell. belly, :leVen ptes. and t ..."clve dirtaon. 5. A rule of len. three , seven and Iwdve, .. nd He .. ppointed them in the Teli. the Cycle. and the Hean. The Teli in the IIniverse is li ke a kina on hi. throne. the Cy.::le in the Year a kina in the province, and the Heart in Ihe Soul is like a kine in battle. 6. The ceneral rule i. th i", Some of theK combi ne with others, and some are the transpose of others. Some arc opposite of others. Ind olhers are the opposite of thes.e. If some exist, Others do DOt, and if others exill. these do not. And all of lhem are IIlached to the Tell. the ~Ie and the Hean.
7. Al so every desire. "'God made one opposite ~ other" (E«lniQln 7: 14). Good opposite evi l. and evil opposite JOOd. Good from JOOd,

and evil from evil. Good diSttms evil. Ind evil diSttms sood. Good is stored a"'"lIY for Ihe &00<1. and evil is ",ored a ...... y for tile wicked.
8. And ...hen AbraIwn ourfather, ofl,!o : :1 memory, (2JJ1e, be kxWd, saw. probed . undefllood. m&raved, carved, permuted, fanned, and thou&I\t. and he was successfi.d. The Lord of aD. may His name be bk II: 1 fOf eternity. ~ HimsdflO him, b-ed him on the head. and ealIed him, ~ AbraIwn My fri,:,od" (Isaiah" 1:8). He made a W 'ClWlI with him and his teed f~. "And he 1Jelieo,~ in God. and He romiden:d ;1 ri&lltcousness" (Gene5is 15:6). The Glory of God was dru tul upon him, as il is wrillen. - Befon: I fOt Ihat )'011 in the womb. I knew)'Oll" (Jemniah I:S). He made a W"\'enant m..«n the ten fmzom of his bands, and ibis ;$ the Holy Ton,ue (the Hebte"'lan&uagc~ He bound \he tto"Cllty-two Jet,. ~ on his 10IlJUe. and the BWmd Holy One n:vaoIed 10 him \heir mysIny. lIIem in "'"liter, ianited them ...ith fire, q:itated them with breath, burned lhtm with \he ~ pIaneu. and dim:ted lhtm ...ith the I",'e!\"e wnstcllaliom.

9. HeavCTl fire ileal head. Air brealh lemperale chest. Eanh waler w Id belly. This i. AMSh. 10. ~Ium ~bbalh mouth. Jupiler Sunday I'iJ.hI eye. Man Mondlly left eye. Sun Tuesday riaht nO$tril. Venus Wednesda y left nO$lil. Merc.. ry Th .. ~ay riah l ear. Moon Friday left ear. This is IlG O KPRT. II. And Ihne Ire Ihe t...,lve oon!lell al;ons: Aries Nissan liver siahl bli ndnen. Tau",.s l}Car p.II hearilll deafness. Gemini Sivan spleen. vnell inabilily 10 smell. Cancer Tamw: hemsns speed. dumbness. Leo Av I'iJ.hI kidney USle hun&er. ViTIa Elld left kidney action paral_ ysis. Libra Tishrei kt;w~n coition impale""". Scorpio Marcl!nh\'ln kio-ah molion lameness. Sqi ua rius Ki,lev ri&lllhand. IJllCr lack of liver. Capricorn Tevel Idt hlllld la uall ler lack of splee". AQurius Sht:vat rilllt fOOl thou&htlack ofbeln. Pisce1' Adar left foot sleep in!oOmnil. This is HV ZCb TY LN SO TzQ.
12. "Three enemies are the ton&ue. the liver. the pU. Three allies are the eyes. the ears. the heart. Three ijfqiven are 1M leeth, 1M nooe, and thc SJllr ill. Three Icillers are the lwolowtr orifICeS and 1M mouth.

13. Three nOI in one', wnlrol I re hi. e)"e1', his can a nd his "ose. ThT« &00<1 !oOllnds to the ~IT are I bleuina. cood news, praise. TIlT« bad ti&h tS to Ihe eye are In adllltTcss, and evil eye. a rovinl eye." Three cood sistlts are humilit)", a sood eye. a lrue C)"e. Three evil 10 the tQnl1K are lIande. , talcbcarin& sayinlone thinl wilh the moulh and another in Ihe hean. Three aood for Ihe tonlll<: are sile""", ",-atchinllhe 10n,Ue. and lrue speech.



Copyrighted material



Chapter 1


I, With thirty-two mystical Paths of Wisdom envaved YH. YHVH of Hosts. God of Israel. tile Livin& God, EI Shadai, hish and exalted. dweltin, in (temily and Holy is His name. He CTtale<i His uni,·c~ willt \hree boob. with Knpl, number and leHina. Ten Sefiro\ of NOlhin,1IelS. Iw(nl)'_I ...·o klters: three Basics," scven Doubles, 1"',lve Elementals.

2. Ten Sefirol of NOlhin&nen. like the number of ten finlers, Ii,'c
opposite five, with a ~nilary covenant directly in lhe middle , as lite circumcision of Ihe conguc and mOillh. Their masu", is ten wllidt have no cnd: A depth of be&innilll and a dcpllt of end. a depth of plOd_nd a depth of,vil. a depth of.boyc and a depth below.• depth cast and a depth W'l'S1. a depth north and a depth. south. And the uni·

tary Maslcr. God faithful Kin&. domin.," them abode. unlil Clcrnily of eternities.


(rom His IIoly

3. T,,'en ty-t wo letters, a foundation of thrtt Basics, ...,"en Doublfi, and twd"e Elementals, The three Basics arc AMSb. Tlleir foundation is a pan of merit, a pan of liabi lit) , and Ihe tongue of d«ree d«idin& bet","n them. The seven Doubles all: BGD KPRT . Their foundalion is life and peace, wiodom and ",'ca1th, seed, grace and dominance. TIM: I,..el~e Elementals af<: HVZChTYl NSOTrQ. Their foundation is silht, llearina. W1cll, speech, taSle, coilion, action and motion, haughtiness, laughter. lhoutVl1, and sleep. 4. Throulh them YH , YH VH of Ho.ts, God of Israel , the livinl God , EI Shadai. H ilh and E!<ahed, dwellinl on hilh and HoI) i. His name, enlraved three Fathers and their prOJeny. ",",,,en dire.:lors and their host. and twelve d ialona] bounda rieo. A proof of Ihio, tru e wilnesses af<: the U niverse. Year an d Soul, a rule of len. three, seven and twelve. He appoint ed t hem in the Teli, Cycle and Hurl.

Chapter 2
I. Ten Sefirot of No!hinsneu: len and nOt nine. ten and nOi eleven. Undersland with Wisdom, and IK wi$e wi th Undentanding. DiS«l'1l with them. p~ from them, and know, Ihin k and depict. Stand a thinl on ils e...,nee, and make the Crntor sit on His basis. And their measure is ten Which have no end. Their vision is like an appearance



ofli&/ltning, and their limit has n.o end. His WOld in t!Km M runs and M they punue Hi. sayirIJ li ke a .... hirl ...;nd, and before His return •• throne they prostrate themseh'es,

2. T went y-two Icners are a foundation of three Basics. seven Doubles. and t welve Elementall. The three Buies, AMSh. arc. Ifelt.
roncn led. mystiCl1. exa lted II«ret. from wh ich emanates tire. bruth Ind water. from which every thin, was created. The seven Doubles function with two ton,ues: &i Bhe i. " Gimd Ghimel. Dalel Dhalel , Kaf lUIaf. Peh Pheh, Resh Rhesh, Tav Thav. Hard and soft. they Ire .tr0lll and ",'uk structure •. They are doublel because th ey Ire opposites. The opposite of life il dellh , the o ppo.ite of peace il evil , the opposite of .... i!dom i. foolishness, the opposite of wealth is poverty. the o pposite of seed is desolation. the opposite of 1""« is u,liness. Ihe opposite of domi n.n« 11 subju,ation. ) . Seven Doubles. BOD KPRT: Seven and n01 six, SC>.U and I\Ot eish!. Six ribs for si x orders, ""ith the Holy Palace precisely in Ihe centCT'. Blessed by God from His pla«. His il the place of the universe. and the universe il not His pla« . • . r-lve Elemental s: Twelve and nOi eleven, twelve and not thir· teen. The twelve dillonlli !)ttl 10 six orders, separalinl betwttn one d irection and IIlOthCT: an east ItOnh boundary, In east uJlPl'r boundary. I nd east lower boundary; a nonh west bouodlf)', a ItOrtb upper boundary, I nonh lower boundary; a wat ,""th boundary. a west upper boundary, I west Io_r boundary; I §OUth eHt boundary, I south upper boundary. a south lo.... er boundary.


5. Wit h them YH. YHVH of Hosll. God of Israel. the Li vinl God. EI Shadai. Hi lh and Eulted. dwellinl on hilh and Holy il Hi. name. enlflved t""enty-Iwo leners and set them in the Sphere. He oscillated the Sphere back and fonh, and Ih e Sphere (cont inues to) oscilli le bad and fonh .....s a siln of this. there is nOlhinl hilher than delilht ( ONG). and there is nothinl more evil than plague (NGO). 6. Proof of this. lrustwonhy .... itnesses, are the Universe. Year and Soul. TIte $efirot of the Universe are ten; lhree are fire, breath and water; ijCven a", the se,-en planets; twelve Ire the t_lve a)nSlell.tions. The Scfirot Qfthe Year are len ; three I re lite cold, lbe hOI and the temperate; seven arc the lCVen days of creltion; twelve Ire the twelve lunar months. The Sefirot of lbe Soul are len; three are the ltead , chest and belly, seven are the seven ptes, twelve are the twelve directOR.




Chapter 3
I. Ten $efirol OrNolhilllneu: Bridle your moulh from s~akin&; bridle your hean from thinkin ... And if your hean runs, relurn to the place. for it is wrillen, "runnit\j an d retuminl- - Reaaniillllhis I rovenanl was made. An d their measure is ten .... hich hive DO end. Their end is imbedded in their bqinn in" and lheir bepnnini in their end, like I flame ItUtched 10 a bIImini 00«1. Know, think and lkpict that the Crealor is One, Ihere is no other. and before One .... hal do you count? 2. The t""enty-two letteR are I foundation of three Basics. sevCD DoublH, and I_lve The three Buia" AMSh, Ire fire, breath and water. The offsprin, of heaven is fire, the offsprin, of lir is brealh. and the offsprin, of eanh is Wiler. Fire is above, water is below, and b.-eath is the d<:<:ree Ih.1 dC(:id.,. bct~n them. Mcm hilmI, Shin hiues. and Alef is the decree deddit\j bctw~n them. AMSh is sealed with six rinp and cocooned" in male and female. Know, think Ind depict \hll fire upholds water.

1. The i1Cycn Doubles. BGD KPRT. function with two tonplCi: Bei Bhei. Gimel Ghimel, Dalct Dhalet, KafKhaf, Peh Pheh, Rtsh Rhcs.h, T.y ThIY. They . re soft and hard, a struct ure Ihlt is stronl and ...-eat. doubled bec.uiIC opposites. l1t( opposite of life is death. the opposite of ~ace is evil, the opposite orwisdom is foUy, Ihe opposite of wealth is po'"t:ny, tite opposite of seed is desolation, tile opposite of &net' is usJinns. Ind the opposite of dominance is suhjugation.
4. The t.... el~ Elementals are HVZChTY LNSOTzQ. He cn .... ved

titem, carved titem , pennuted them, wei&hed them and transfonned them . liD.... did He ~rmute them? Two stones build two houses, three bIIikl six houses, foor build 24 hOUSCI, five build 120 hooses. six bIIi!d 720 houses. i1Cven build S040 houses. From then: 00 ICI out and clkulate that .... hich the mouth cannot speak and the ear cannOl hear. 5. With IhCilC Yah, YHVH of Hosts, God of !srad, the Livin, God, El Shaddai, Hiab and baIted, d_llin, in eternity on hijh and boIy is His nanN:, en.... ved. YaH: iotwo nalnC$. YHVH is four namH. Hostl: (T:r.avaol) means lhat He is a silll (Of) in His hosl

Israel: He i. a prince (sa,) before God (£1;.

EI Shadd.;: EI is hard. Shaddo.i indiealr$ thaI until he.., it is enou,h (da;). His)l: because He S;lS in Ihe heiJ,ht of the I.lnivcrsc, and is Iti&/!




abo>'., all lhe hi&h. &ailed: because He upholds and sustains those on hilh and ~Io..... All others ""1\0 CI IT)' somelhin. an: on the bouorn and their burden is abov., them, but He is on lOp. and Hi. bu.rdcn is ~low Him. He upholds Ind sustains the entire universc. ~l1in, in flrmi ly: becauM! His killJdom nisls for eterni ty of
etern ities ....·;11>01.1\ interruption.

And Holy is His Name: Because He is I>oly, his ministcrlS an:
holy. and \0 H im they proclaim,
~ HoI y.


hol y.~

6. Proof of Ihis, INn""orthy witn~KS, an: the Un;ven.e. Year and Soul. Twelve Ire belo ..... seven are above them. and \11= are the seven. From I~ thrtt He founded Hi. abode, and all of them depend on One. As a &i"" this is a One that has no se.:ond. He is. sinl\ll~r Kinl in His unive~, whue He is One .nd His name is One.


Chapter 4
I. Ten Sefirol of NothinJlleu: One is Ihe Brealh of!be Livi", God , Life of worlds, His throne is ntabliu.ed from eterni ty, blessed and t..nedictcd is His nlme. constantly, forever and ever. This is the Holy Brealh (Ruadr HaKodesh). 2. T ....o: Breath from Breath. Wilh it He enarued and carved four direcl;ons (breaths) of hel~en: CIS\, wesl. north. and $Oulh. And there is . brealh in eKh onc of Ihem. 3. The twenly-IWO IettCI10 are. foundation con.isti", of tbree Basics. "Vcn Doublo. and t"",lve The letten are Clrved with enaraved with voice. Ind SCI in Ihe moulh in fi\"c pla".,., AHChO, BVMP. GY KQ. DTLI'fllt. ZSTzRSh. AHChO is pronounced .... ilh Ihe base ofthc ton~.nd tbe throal. BVMP is pronounced between the lips.nd with the lip oflhe lonlUC. GYKQ Uli. lizcslbe fi rsl lhird oflhe 10001ue. DTLNTh is pronou~ wilh half Ihc lonlue and the voice:. ZSTzRSh is pronounced,cn the leelh .... ilb the lonlue ~eepinJ. 4. The twenly·IWO letlers: He CTIJI"lI~ed Ihem , carved them. ~nnUled them. wciahed Ihem. lransformed them •• nd from thcm He formed IlIlbll WIS ever fonned and all Ihal would evcr be formed. How did He pcnnute Ihem1 Alef with Ihem aU and.1I of them .... ilh Mer: Bet

'" wilh Ihem Ill. I nd all of Ihem ",-ilh Bel; Gimd wilh Ihem all, and all

of Ihm! ...·ilh GimeL All of them oscillite C}'diatlty, Ind emer&e lhroUJlt 23] Gates. As I resull, C'o'erylhi lll spoken and everything formed emefl(S I S one Name.

S. He fonned subslan« from chaos, and made that ""hich was nol into that which is. He carved veat pillars from ai r that (annot ~ grasped.

6. Three: water from breath. With il He enaraved and carved ch_ and vo id, clay and mil"<'. He mlde them like I ,arden plot. He carved them like a ......11, and He d«ked them like a ceiling, He pouml waler on lhem. and it became dUSI, •• il i. wrinen, M 10 ,now He 5Iid. Fo, M(Job 37:6). Chaos i,the azure line thai , ulTOVnd,lhc become eanh universe. Void ronsi,l, of Ihe splil nones imbedded in Ihe abyss, from ~t,,-een " 'hi<:h ..."te, em~ ] 1 i, thus written. "He spread over ;1 I line of Chaos Ind .Iones of Void (isaiah 34:] I).

7. Four. fire from "'''tu. With it He en&n1"ed Ind carved Ihe Throne of OI<>l"}' Ind III the hosl on hiah. It is thus wrillen , M mIkes His He anlel. of breaths, and Hi. ministen of flaming firew (Pulms

8. He chose three Elementals, and IItt them in His areal name. And wilh them He scaled Ihe six directions. He sealed Mabove: faced upward. and sealed il with YH V. Si~: He sealed M~I<> .....M faced down"'ard, and sealed il with
YV H .

Seven; He sealed eaSI, faced forward , and sealed il wilh HVY. [ ilbt: He sealed "'·est. faced back'to"atd, and scaled it with

Nine: He sealed 5Outh, fattd to His rilbt, and sealed it ...-jt h VYH. Ten: He sealed north . faced 10 Hi. left. and sealed il wilh

These Ire Ihe Ten Sefirot of Nothi nanc:ss. One is Ihe Breath of lhe Livinl God. tWO i. breath from B...,.th, Ihree is wlter from breath. four is fire from water: above and ~Iow, easllnd "''CSt, north and soulh.

Chapter 5
l. He made Alef king o'"er, bound a crown to ii, permuled one wilh Inother, and wil h it He fonned lir in Ihe Un;""I"1t, the lem_



perale in I~ Year. and the chest in the Soul. male and female. The male w;lh AMSh•• nd Ihe female lOIilh AShM.
2. He made Mem kina o~er water. bollnd I crown 10 iI, permliled

one wilh .nother. Ind 1OI;lh il He formed eanh in Ihe cold in Ihe Year. an d the belly in the SouL

Uni ~ene .


J . He made Shin kina o~er fire, bollnd a crown 10 iI, permuled one with .nolher. and with il He formn! ""aven in Universe. Ihe hoi ;n Ihe Year, and the head in Ihe soul. As male Ind femlle, how did He permule them? AMSh AShM. MShA MASh. ShAM Sh MA. Helven is fire. lir is bmllh, earth is water. Man's head ~ fire, his hean is breath. and his bclly is walcr.
4. The IiC~Cn ()QublC'l are BOD KPRT. He eosraved them, carved Ihem. permU led them. ",~iahed Ihem, and transformed Ihem. With Ihem He farmn! planetS, days and plCl. 5. He made Bet kin" bound a ero....,., 10 iI, permliled them one with Inother, and with it He formed Salurn in the Universe, t~ Sabbath in the Year. and lhe mouth ;n lhe Solil.

6. He made Gimd kin" bound I crown 10 it, permuted them one wilh anolher. and with it He formed Jupiler in the Uni,·cne, Sunday in Ihe Year. Ind lhe ri&hl ~ in the Solil.

7. He made DaICl killJ., bound a crown 10 it, permuled them one wilh
another. and with it He formed Mars in Ihe Universe. Monday in the Year, and the left eye in the Soul.

8. He made Kaf kin" bollnd aCTO"'''''

10 il. permuled them

one wilh

anOlher, Ind lOIilh il He formed the Sun in Ihe Universe, Tuesday in the Ynr, and lhe risht nostril in Ihe Solii.

9. He made Peh kin" bound a crown to it. permuled them one witb
anolher. and ""ilh il He formed Venlls in the in the Year, and the left noslril in the Soul.


10. He made Resh kin" bound a crown to il. permuted lhem one
wilh another, ami wilh it He formed the Star of the Slin (Mere\lry)" in the Universe. Th ursday in the Year. and the ri&ht ear in Ihe SoIiL II . He made Tu kinl. bound a crown to it. pennutn! thl:m one with .nother. and wilh il He fonned Moon in the Universe, Friday in lhe Year. and Ihe left ear in lhe Soul. 12. He separated Ihe wilneucs and stood them alone. one by onc: the Universe .Ione. Ihe Year alone, and the Soul alone.

Chapter 6
1. ~ twelve E~men!als are HVZChTY LNSOTzQ. He envaved them, carved them. permuted them, "'"ci&hed them and tnmsfonned them, and with them He formed oonstell"ions, months and direc10rs. Two are extn:Im', two mbilize. two advise, and lWO ",joice, They an: the korknxlllJ" Ihe \wo hands, and the two fecI. He made Ihem like I dispule, and amm&ed them like a balllc. ~And God made one opposite anolher- (Eoclesiasln 7:14).

2. TII=: each one is 11o~. Seven an: divided, three aaainst three, wilh one u tile deer« decidinl MIWffO them. T ..-elve: twelve stand
in "'" three aUies. three enemies. Ihl'l'l' killers, and three lirqi~rs. ar, All of them are altaclKd, onc 10 another. A silll of this ii '''''enly-lwo objects In d one body.

3. How did He permute them? HV VH. ZO! ChZ, TV YT, LN NL, SO OS, TzQ Qn.
•. He m.ade Hell kine. bound. ero ...·" 10 iI, PClllluted one wilh Inothn, and wilh it He fo~ Aries in lite Univcl'$C, Nitan in Ihe Year, and Ihe li'"cr in the Soul. S. He made Vav kin., bound a crown 1 ii, ~rmuled one with 0 anolher. and .... ith it He formed Taurus in IN: Uni verse, lyaT in IN: Year, and Ihe pU bladder in tN: SouL 6. He made byin kin&. bound a crown to il. ~rmuled one wilh aROIN:r. and wilh ;1 He formed Gemini in the Universe, Sivan in IN: Year. and Ihe ",leen in Ihe Soul. 1. He made Chet kin&. bound I crown 10 it. ~nnuled one wilh anOlher, an d wilh it He fonne<!. Can"". in the Un iverse, Tamuz in tN: Year, and the m~ in Ihe SouL 8. He made Tel ki n&. bound a <.T(lWn 10 ii , ~nnute<!. one wilh anothe., Ind .... ilh il He fonned Leo in the Un iverse. Av in the YHr. a nd IN: n&hl kidney in the So\II. 9. He made Yud kin&. bound a cro .... n 10 ii, ~nnuled one wilh another. a nd ..ilh it He formed Virgo in Ihe Universe, Elul in the Yelr. a nd IN: left kidney in tN: So\IL 10. He made Lamed kin&. bound a cro,""JIIO il. po:nnUled one wilh anolN:r. and with il He fOTl1\ed Libra in Ihe Univl"1V, Tisrei in the Year, Ind IN: i«NknJtJn in IN: Soul.


He ma~ N ~ n king. bo~nd a CI'O"1I to it. another. and "" ith it He formed Scorpio in the in the Year. and I,", ki"ali in the SouL


one with Cheihvan

J 2. He made Samekh kin,. bound a

crown 10 it. permuted one wi th

and with it He formed Sagiltarius in the Univenc. Ki$lev in the Year. and tile nlht hand in tile Soul.

11. He made Er in kin,. bound a crown to il. permuted one with anotller. and with il He fonmd Capricorn in the Universe:. Tevet in IIIe Yur. and the left hand in I,", Soul. 14 . He made Tudi kin,. bound I crown 10 it. perm uted one with anOiller. and .... it h il He fonn-ed Aquarius in the Universe:. ~Vlt in Ihe Year. and the rilht fOOl in the Soul.

1S. He malk Kuf kin,. bound a crown to it. permuted one with InOlhn-. and with it He formed Pisces in the Universe:. Adar in ~ Yu r. and the left foot in the Soul.

16. He separated the witllftSCS and stood each one Iione: the Univenc alone.

Year alone. Ind the Soul alone.

Chapter 7
I. Air. temperate. chat. Earth . cold. Nlly, Heaven. hot. head. And Ihis i, AM Sh.

2. Saturn, Sabbolh. mouth. Jupiter. Sunday. riabt e)~. Mal'$, Monday. left rye. Sun. T~....,j · y. nlht noslril. Venus. Wed~y. left nostril. Sun Star (Mercury), Th ur'$day. riabt ear. Moon . Friday. left car. And this is BGD KP RT.

3. Ari«. Niwm. liver. Taurus. [yar. pli bladder. Gemini, Sivan•
• plttn. Cancer. TamUL ' rrfft'SJI. Leo. Av, rilht kidney. Virao. Elul . left kidney. Libra. TishK'i. J:orkma". Scorpio, Mar..::hesh van. kivalt. Sa,;n ariu •. Ki1k~. nabt lLand. Capnrorn. Tcvel. left hand. Aquarius, SlMovat. ri&ht fool. Pi sces. Adar. left fOOl. And tltne aK' H V Z Ch T

Chapter 8
L Wilh Aid He formed these: bK'lth. air. temperate. chat. and the ton,UI: of d~ree. Wi th ~ [ em He formed these: water. earth. cold.

AppnwA< /


belly, and tbe pan of liabilit y. With Shin He formed these: fire, hea~m , hot , head, and the pan of ~rit. 2. With Ikt He formNlthese: Saturn, Sabbath, mouth, life and death. With Gimcl He formed these: Jupiter. Sunday. riJht e~. peace and evil. With Dalel He formed these: Man, Monday. left e~, wisdom and foolishness. With KafHe formed th ~: Sun, Tl>t$day, risht noslril, weallh and poverty. With Peh He formNllhnc: VenU$, Wed nnday. left nostril . S«d and desolation. Wilh Resh He fonncd Ihese: Sun SliT (Mercury). Thursday. risht ear, vace and uslineu. With Tav He formed Iheae: Moon . Friday. left ear. dominance 100 .ubjuption. 3. With Heh He formed Ihnc: Arin. Ninan, liver, li&ht and blindness. With Vav He formed Ihrx: TIUl"\lS, IW, pll bladder, heann! and deafneu. With layin He formed tline: Gemini, Sivan, spleen, smell and inability 10 $ntell. With Oet He formed the$e: Cancer, Tamuz , mtseU, s~h and dumbneSlo. With Tel He formed It.ese: Lw. Av. risht kidney. IIste and hun&er. With Yud He formed IheK: Vi""" Elul, kft kidney, coition and castration. With Lamed He formed IheK: Libra, Tishrei , /wrkA)Q" , action aDd paraly~il. With Nun He formed these: SroT]lio, Chcshv;ln, kil'lllr, mOtion and lameness. With Samekh He formed Ihese: S.J,iltariUS, K..iskv, fi&bt hand, anger and lack of liver. With Eyin He formed these: Capricorn. Tev", kft hand. laUJ,hteT and lack of spleen, With Tzadi He formed these: Aquarius. Sheval, risht foot. thousht and lack of heart, wlJ.e-re il i, nOI. With Kuf He formed these: Pisces, Adar. left foot, sleep. dead and lOne. 4. And all of them are anached to the Teli, Cyde and Helrt. Teli in the Univenc is like on a throne, Cycle in the Year H like I kin! in the province, Heart in the body;, like a kin! in banle. The &eneral rule is this. Some permute with othe~ and othen permute wi th theae. Some Ire with othe~ and othen are with these. Some Ire the oppo:site of olhen, and othen are the o pposite of these.. Some Ire tbe paralkl of Olbers, and othen are the pa ralkl of theae. If not some. then not othen: al>(] ;f nOI othen. then nOl these, And .ll of Ihem Ire anached 10 the TelL the C'ydc, and the Heart. S. And When Abraham our father unden tood, Conned, permuted, probed. thousht Ind ,.,as slICCUSful, the Ble.sed Holy One revealed Himself to him. dttlarinllO him . "Before I formed you in the womb, I knew YOU. and before and emelJCd from the womb, I sanctified you. I have made you a prophet for the nations· (Jeremiah I:S). He made him His friend, and made a ",venmt with him and his c-hildren for_ ever and unlil Clemity.



Copyrighted material

APPENDIX II The Thirty-lWo Paths of Wisdom
Thirty_Two Paths ofWilldom an: prnented IS different slales of consciO<lllnen. This p~nUllion most probably dillIes from the Gaonic period (71h- IOth ~nlurin.). and is found in I number of K..bbalisl;c texts.' Thes.e stales an: also ",lolted \0 the 32 tima wilen:

God's name appears in the first chapter of Genesis.

Copyrighted material

,j14" did/

The Thirty-Two Paths of Wisdom
I. Myslical Consdo ... sneu ($&:Iln Mrifla). Thi. is th~ Lisht that was oriJinally conceived, and it iilhe First Glory.' No creature can attain i\$ excellence.

2. Rldiant Conscio ... sness (S,kJ!tl },flU·lliT). This;s the Crown of creation and the radiance of the holl1O&eneoIIS ... nity that ~eul\$ ilXlf above aU as the Held.·J The maslers of Kabbalah c:all ;1 the Soeond Glory.
1. Sanctified ConsciouSlleu (SAlIn M eKuJilJll). This is the fo ... ndalion of the OriJinal Wiidom, and il il called ·FailhfuJ Faith.·' Its roots aTe AMeN. It is Ihe rather of failh, and from ilS power faim


4. &lIled CODsciousnCSl (~khel KQ>"Ua). 11 is called this because all Ihe spirit .... l powcrs e~nale from il as the [moIIl] ethereal of ~m.l.Da_ lions. One emllllies from Ihe other throuah the ~r of the oriJinai EmaDator, may He be ble$scd.'
S. Rooled Consciousneu (~klln NiJllrilJ"). II i. called thil because il is lhe essence of the homogeneous Unity. It is unified in the euence of Understandinl. which emanllel from Ihe dom.i n of the OriJinal Wisdom.

6. Transcendental Innux COlISCioulness (SAllt l Slttfa Nivda/). It il called Ihis becuse throuah it Ihe inn ... ~ of Emanation (AI:i/lll) increlSC$ ilXlf. II beslOWS this innux on all bleuinp, which unify themselves in itl essence.
7. Hidden Consc10lWless (Sekirn Nistar). II is c:aIled this beca ... se ;1

is the radiance th.1 iU ... minlles the transcendental powcrs thl t Ire KC!\ wilh the mind', eye Ind with Ihe reverie of Flilh.'
B. Perfecl Conscioume.u (snurrl Slraltm). It il called this because it i. the Ori&inaJ Arrancemenl. There i. no root Ihrou&h whicb il can he pond~red, eu:cpt throuah the chambers of Grealness, which emlnate from the essence of its pt tlilinence.

9. PYre Consciousness (SekIIeI7lzilat'). It is caUed this because;1 puri· fies the Scfirol. IIlests the dalte of their Sll1le1UIC and the inner el5Vlce of their unily. mati", il alow. They aTe then unified wilhoul any cumff or separation. 10. Scintillaeina ConsciOllsneu (SekJtrl MiINOf::erz). It is called thil because .1 elevates itself and si ts on the Ihrone of Undentandi0l- It



shinl:$ .... ilh Ih ~ radian« of all 1M luminaries, and il bestow'S an influx of increase to th~ Prince of Ih~ Fa«.' II. Glaring Con5Ciou$ness (5n<~el MeT!IK~IMC~). [( is called this l> it is the esKnce of tM V~il which is ordered in the ~n&c­ ment of the system. II indicall':'S tM ,..,Ialionship of tM Paths (Mfil'Ol) wMreby one can stand ~fo"" the Cause of C.u~. 12. Glowing Con'ICiousnes5 (SekM Baltir). Ii is called Ihis l>ec.aulC il i. Ih~ .-ssence of the Ophan-wheel of O,..,aln_.' It is called 1M Visu_ alizer (C~atdatif), the place .... hich &ivl:$ rise la Ihe vision Ih.1 the Seen pen:rive in an apparition.' Unily Direclin& Cons.ciOUSnes5 (&/citrl Man~i8 Hailchdul). It i. called Ihis l>ec.ause it i. the ~ssen« of Ihe Glory.'· Ii represents the completion of the true essence of the unified spirilual beinp.

14. Illuminating Cons.ciomneM (~kJrel Mnr). It i. called th is l>ec.aulC it is Ihe I:$",nc:e of Ihe Speakinl Silence (C.... ashmal)." Ii aives instroolion ,..,,,,rdin, I~ mysteries of the holy secrets and their $\n.tC1u,..,. U. Stabih~in& Cons.cioUIllCM (5n<hel M il'amid). It is called this bcaiu", il 51abi lizes the ,.",nee of , ,..,.tion in the ~Glooms of Puri\}. ~" The ma.t~n of lheory said that this is Ihe Gloom [at SinaiJ." This is the meani", 0(, ~Gloom is its ,ocoon~ (Job 35:9)." 16. End ... rin. Conscioulllcso (&1<.... .., Nilzchl). II is called this because il is the Deliaht (Edt" ) of Ihe Glory. As il is. the,.., is 1>0 Glory lo,,-cf lhan it. It is called Ihe Garden of EMn. which i. p,..,pared for the oftheJ saints. 17. Consciousness ohhe Senses (&/cite/ HaJlerges.... .,. TIIi. is p,..,pared for the faithful saints so thalthe~ sllould be abk 10 clothe themselves in Ihe spiril of hoIinetOs. In Ihe .fTlngcment of tile .upernal Entitie&, it i. called Ihe Foundation of Beauty (}Qod Jlanf~). 18. Cons.ciousness of llIe House of Influx (SekJrf'l Bel HaSlttfa~ B~ probinl ....·ilh it, a s«ret my~tery (raz) and an allusion a,.., transmil1ed III thoK ...·110 ~d,,'ell in its shadow· " and bind themscivel to probi", itt substance from llIe Cause of Causes- It of aU Spiritual Activities (SeIche{ S<)d lfaPaulOi lfaRuc/",iOl Kulam). 11 is called Ihis because of Ihe innul that permeales it from Ihe hiah"'il blrsl;;1lJ :ond tile .up~me 19. Cons.ciousness of thl:


20. Cons.ciousnes:s of Will (&/citn lIaRalum ). It i. called thit because it is tile stn.tC1u,.., of all lhll i. formed. Throuah this state of ronsciousness one can kno .... Ihe «scnu IIf tile OriJ.inal Wiodom."


and Souaht Consciousness (~MI HIlCluifu/z I'dlaM~uka.sJl). It is called this bttause it receives the divine InfluJ so as to bestow iu blessin, to all thinas that ui$t. 21. Desired 22. flithful Consciousnen (snarr! Nf" ·fflIQJI). It i, called this bttause spiritual powers all: iocll:lsed Ihrouah ii, so Ihal Ihey can be dose to an who -dwdl in Iheir shadow.- '· 23. Sustaini", Con!icioulnc"i (& khrl Ka)I:Im). Il is called Ihis because it is the sustlini", pOwer for all the Sefirot. 24. App;o.riti~ Consciousness (&kIrr! DimYOlIIl It is called this becluSl: it provides an ,pp('aran~ for all created Ipparitions. in I fonn fi11in, their statull:. 2j. Test in, Consciousness (&kMf Nisyonillt is called this because it is Ihe orieinal temptation throuah which God tests all of His gints. 26. Renewin, Consciousness (&kht"/ Mt"ClrudaJlr). It is called thi$ because it is the ~.ns throuah wh ich the Blessed Holy One bnnp aboul all ~ Ihinp which all: brouaht into beilll in His cll:ation. 27. Palpable Conseiousnns (~MI MU,.lU/t). It is called this bttause the oonseiousness of alilhillJl cmlllcd umkr the emill: UppeI" sphcll:, as well IS . Utlleir sensations. well: created throuah it. 28. Natural Consciousness (&UrI AlulbtJ). It is called Ihis beaUIe the natUIl: of alltlli t uist under the spbere of the sun was compleled throuah it 29. Physical Con..:iousnO$ (&kht l AlugJham). II is called this because it depicts the 1I"O",h of everythin, that becomes physical under the I)'stem of all the Iphern. 30. General Consciousness (&klrrl KriDIll l! is called Ihil be<:aU$e it is Ihe meanS Ih""'ah which the -aeneralizers oflhe heavens' collect their rules reprd illlthc Itars and constellitions, formin, the theory that comprises their knowled&c of Ihe Ophan_wheels of the sphcTn. 31. Continuous Consciousneu (St"kh.rl Thmidl) . Why is it called thi.? BcCIIux it directs the palh of the lun and moon aewrdinl to their IIWI of natull:. elch one in its prop('r orbil. 32. Wonhiped Consciousness (&kJIrl Nf" ·t"'I'mfJ. It is called this beause it is pll:pared so as to destroy all who enPIC in the woBhip of the seven planets.



Copyrighted material


Copyrighted material

The 221 Gales 01 Rabbi Eliezar Rokeach 01 Wormes
The tables on pllft J04.3O'I are prescnled here exactly as Ihey are printed in the Prtem ~1 edition, (1889), of Ihe commentary on &fer Yelzirah. [n onkr to den"c the proper arrays from lh_ tabk$, lines ronllininl only duen !etten must be doubled. The other linea, which conllin twenty-two kmers. Ire left as they ~. All the ICllers are then paiml inlo &TOups of two. One can see how Ihis is done by comJW'in. the "ble for Alef ....il11 tile array aiven in chaper 2:4. The$( are the 221 Olles Ihal Rabbi Elieur prescribes for U~ in creali",_ GoIem. They can also be IIsed from less advance:! meditali,'C ncn;:iK1 When ulilizin, any klier, the appropriate .""y m\lS\ be uK<!.


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The 231 Gates According to the Later Kabbalists
tables appn, in Emi!k HaMr l,/dr. (Amsterdam, 1563). pales 4 10 6. Acc:ordin& to the later Kabbalitts. ,hey can be used for crea,;n, a G<Jlcm and for similar medil.,ions..



Alef: Partluf of Keler

Bel: Partlllf of O.khmah


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Copyrighted material


Copyrighted material

Printed Editions
Mantua 1562,4' 108 ff. First Edition. Includes commentaries of Raavad, Rambll n D, M .,.~ BotTil, Sa.1dia B, Elieur of Worm~1 B. Major lUI is the Short Version, but also includes the Lon, Version as an aj)pendixlff. \02-108 ). Published by
Yakov ben Nahal; Guola. LcmbnJ, 1680. Contains six venian! of the leu ' Amsterdam. 1713, 12' 48ff Abo includes 1M ZLJ/Jaric Sifra lHTtf'fliula an d para of the T.lm",dk lra(:! of Tamid. With introduction by R. M<»he (ben V.... kOv) Hqiz.'

Constan tinople, 1719, 8' 23 Jf. Includes abridaed commentaries of
Ru""d, Ramban D, and the Ari. PublisMd by Yonolb bn! Vukov IlIId Yeshiah Ashkenazi. Con51a n!illQP!c , 1724, 4' , Same as 17 19 edition. Zol kiev, 1745, 4' , Contains 111 commentaries in Mantua edition. as _II as that of the Ari. Also contains 1.01\1 Yenion. !(ore\:<, 1779. 4' 36 if Includes commentary Ol:llr HaShl'm. allributrd 10 R . Moshe ben Yittthak of Kiev (q.v. ). Grodno, 1797. S' , Includes commentary Pri Yil:chai<, by R, Yitzcllak Isaac ben Yekuliel of Mohelo ... (q.v.). Grodno, 1806, 4" 86 ff. With ... ocalized le~1 and all commentaries in Mantua edi tion. Also includes commentary of An and R. Gaon of Vii ..... (Gno). Edited by Men.them Mendel of Sklav. Dyhrenfu rt h, 1812.' Vil..... -Grodno 1820, 4". Conlai ns al! commentaries as in Mantua edilion. as well as Illal of Gra. SIIlonica. 1831.'

Cracow. 18- .' Prque. no date, 4". Contains commentaries as in Manlua edi tion. Lvov, 1860, 4- 170 ff Com ains com mcmaries as in Mamua edition, a$ well a$ Otza. HaSh~m, Pri Yilzchai<, and commentaries of An and Gra.. Published by flenjamin Biscllko.


Jerusalem. I 874-85. lhrtt volumes. I 86 fJ Contains oomrr>(nlary of Ora. roilro Dy hi. d isciple R. Moshe Shlomo of Tulchin. Also indydn lupnromrr>(ntary on Ora. Told« Yiluir(lk, by R. Yil~thak tw:n ¥ehudah uib K.l.hanah (q.y.). Wanaw, 1884. 4· 1()6 ff. The .Iandard roition;n CUrRn t uS(. Consists of lWO sections. The lint Stttion contains aU comrr>(ntari(oS as in Mantua roition, as "''ell as Ot:(lr HiJShml. ll\( rommental)' CII(lK(lmoni, by R. ShaDb.iuai Demello, is printed S(paraleiy al the end of thili section. Second Sttt ion COfIuins Prj Yit:dr(lk and oommcnury of Ora, wilh comm<:ntary of Ari .1 Ihe end. Also conlains Lona Venion al end. This edilion rontains many l)l'OIr.IPhical t non in lht comrr>(nlari~ London . 1902. 8- 79 pp. With commemary by Donash ibn Tamim
(q.v.) Jcruy.lem, 1962 . Reprint of Wa rsaw edi tion. ]cruAJem, 1965 . 204 pp . Lona Venion, wilh commentary. YOl: .... Or,

by Denlzion Moshe Yair WeiMlock. bracl. 1970. Reprinl of London ]902 edition. Jerusalem. 1912. ]43 pp. Cri\ic:al edilion of linl chapler, hurd on aU printed edition •. oommcntari~ and manulCripts, by YisTlIe1 Weinslock. ' uBiruf Ha""us«h she! S<j.... Y (l/t.· nmiritl n:i' 1:9·61.

Other Books Containing The Sefer Yetzirah
CMmt'tf Elohim. by R. Scnyamin HaLe"i. Kabbalistic pra)'!'n and readinp for the enliK ~ar. Contains vocalized It X of Ari I (Ora) Venion. In laler edilions (1772), !be Int i. from a manus.::ri pt from the library of R. Denyamin HaLevi. owned by hili fa lher, and ediled by the Kabbali. t , R. Sh uliman ibn Ochlla, OnC of the main discipl~ of Ihe Ari.' IsmiT. 1738. Venia: , I H6, l Uff. Vtn ice , 1766. Venia:. 1772, 122 If. Venice. 1787. 108 ff. Livorno, 1793. Ven ice, 1793. Livorno, 1797. SalonicI, 1800.

l ivomo. 180 1. lj vomo. 1303.
Livomo, Li vomo. Li vomo, 1821.


Livomo. ISH.
IkI&Tlld. 184 1. 12" 127JJ Edited by R. Chaim ben Da vid Chaim. Li vomo, 1342. li vomo. 1861.

1866. ISMer) Kiryal MoM. Kabbalillic and oIlier n:adinas for Ihe nilbls o f
the Sevenlll of Passo'Oer, ShavUOI. Hoshanah Rlbba h. and Ihe Seventh of Adar (ann iversary of Moses' death). Constantinople, 1136. Livorno, J141.


Constantinople. 1754. Veni«.1756.
Pi.... 1786. Li,-omo. 1195. Vienna. 1801.

L vomo. 1805.
Vicnna. 1822. u vorno, IUO. Livomo. 184!. u vorno. 1865. Vicnna. 1870.

Uk"lt'}' r:.;, KQI Be. Waruw (Levi n-Epstein), no da le, p. 105. Fi .... ' and Last sta nzas. as p,lrt of Shavuot niJ,h1 ~rvic:e. Misbnarol (vocalized), Venice. 1704. Same, but in a IIOmcwhal d iffeunl version. Venice. 1737. N("tdo.f BaKiJdnlr. Contains An (Gra) Venion, 1000lhcr willi lara R(J.biIa, Jdr(l ZUla. and Sif " INT:lfi~lll. as reciled on Shavu.ol T ni",l. Introdllction by R. Moshc H"';L' Am5lerdam . 1721. ~61! Is mir, 1738. Ismi r, 1746. lsmir, 17 5S, 8' 70 1! Fl'(>m manu.cript in li brary o f R. Iknya min HaLe ... i . edi ted b y R. Shuliman ibn Ochna (~ Chcmffl £ lcI!im). Shlltl"y TZi(m, ediled b y R. Na th an NOlch ben M05he Hano\·C!'. Prayen and read ings for va rioll5 occuion. based on 11K Icach_ inp of\he An , Prque, 1662.

l ivomo. 1892. go 259 JJ



With addition,: Tikkun ~uday, Kaddish, by R. Yenni)-ah of Veni.h. Am'lerdlm. 1672, 54 J! Pralue, 1682. PnlIUt. 1688. S2 if Wilhelmsdorf. 1690. Pral ue. 1692. Desuu. 1698. Venice. 1701With additio ns by R. Mordttai Ma rk;1 ben Yi~el Nissan Diherenfunh. 170S. Amsterdam, 1706. Venice. 1707. WilMlmsdorf. l7 1l. Amsterdam. 171 8. Amsterdlm, 1720, I II Jf Constantinople, 1732. Amsterdam. 173(;. A wm,e .... h.t different venion. Venia:, 1736, 187 if Sulzbach. 1747. Amsterdam. (7SI. Ven ice. I n!. Venice. PH. 187 ff Am.terdam. 1760. Amsterd.m, 1764 . Amsterdam, 1766. 123 ff Amsterdam. 1770. AmSierdam , J 774. Amsterdam. 1779. IB if SulJ:ba<:h. 1782, 142ff Amsterdam. 1784. Novydwor. 1788. Po ritzJr.. 1 7 ~ . Li vomo. 1795. Vienna , 179S. Dihemfunh. 1798. Pi... 17?9. Dihemfunh. 1804. Vienna , 1804. Vienn., 1309. MinkO"itz, 18 12. Amsterdam. 1817. Gorodno, 1819. Medzyboz. 1823.

Dihemfunll, 1828.
0511'OL 188 ff


IISSi, 1843. Zitamar, 1&49. Livomo, 186 1. Vienna, 1864, 142 pp.

Lvov, 1863. LV 1811 . Qv,
Prumysl , 19 17, 12" 1% ff With commentaries, l'rxNCIt Sltao.rim, SlrtUlTt'}' Ora". MiUlSi m Torim, as ~Ills Tikkun JlaKdali, by R. Nachman of Breslov. New York, 1974. Reprint OftM above. Tikkun LQyi SJrafll<H. RudinI' for SltavUOI oishi aa::ordinl 1 ~ 0 order IrnllJ(d by R. Shlomo AIK.abIIL Contains fin! and last stanas of the Lolli Version. Vcni~. 1648. Venia, 16~4. Venia. 1655.
Hij9. Amsterdam, 1700. Amsterdam, 1708. hnh , 172), .. 70 If

Funh. 1728, 12" l 83ff

Venice, 1730.
Venice. 1739. Furth , 1739, 96 ff Venia:, 174), 97 ff Frankfort 1m Mei n, 1751. Sulz1)ach, 1754. Venia:, [766. 1·42D Vienna. 1194, fit 141 ff. Vienna, 1803. WYorno, 1805. Blizorb., 1808. Sklav, 1814. o,tl'OL 181 4. 0$11'01. 1823. Blilo,-b. 1824. Livomo, 1831.



SUER ,(ETZ!IlAH Slawi!a. 1836, 40 16Sjf. Sudylkov, no date. Zilamar, 1867, 1686 Vienna. 186 1. Vienna. 186<4. Josefow. 1865, l40fJ. Brody. 1876. SO 128 JJ And mlny othen.

Arj (Gra) V"siQI/
Je ..... i!.h Theol(l&ia.1 &m inary, Ml. Adler 1327. 161h
~n lury.

Short V"1ion
Brili!.h MU'fum, M,. 736, If. 4Qa-4Jb. 13 crnlury. Earlirsl and tUI of this vers;,;.n. Pari" Ms. 76J.8 la-la. 13th tomtury, Parma. MI. ])90,ff. 36b-J8b. 141h crntury . Pari" Ms. S02,ff. ~7b-S9b. 14th century. Hebt e .. Union Colleae, Cincinalti, Ms. sn. 141h «nlury. British Museum, Ms. Gaster 4U.JJ 29.-32 •. 14th century. V.tican, Ms. 441 ,ff. 11 8._122•. 16th (entury. Oxford, Ms. 2455 . .0: 3a-8b. 16th century. CIombridae, MI. Add 6<47• .0: 7b-9b. 16th crntuf)'.

umg VersiOn
Vatican, Ms. 299, ff. 66;o·7I b. Very ol d, prnbably from !be 10th Of 11th century. Th is is tM earliest and best complete manu5Cript of Sefe!' Yetzirah. Is Ilso contlins In introduction by an early lnonymo\lS ...·riter, publishro by Yisne! Weinstock. Tllrbilz 32:157 ( 1963). SilUli 54:255-56 (1964). The text in thil manuocript is often referrulto in R, Ychudah BllTCC'lon;'s rom menIIry on Seler Yettira.

Oxford, M •. IH1,ff 11>. 12• . 13lh ~nwry. British Mlllleum , M$. 7 ~ 2,ff 79._8Ia. 141h cenlUry. Contains same text iI$ Vatian 299. willi some errors. Bri tish MUKum, M s. 737,ff 3791;>.38 7•. 161h cenll,lfY.


Saadia Version
~ni1a Fr.I&m~nt,

Taylor &hedner 32.S. Illh century. This manu-

script Ipparently oonlairted the enl ire &fer Ycnil'llh on . si na1e~. Published by A.M. Habermann, Sifltli 10 ( 1947). ~nila Fragment, Cambridgc-Weslminltcr, T;llmud 23-2~_

British Museum , Ms. 7H .ff 2 12,..216 •. 141h Cl:nlUf}'. Paris. MI. 170, If 4la·45a. I Sth century.

Aaron (1x:1I Yote!) Sarpdo, 890-960. Portions of Ibis commentary are tiled by R. MOSM BoITiI (q .... ). AbrahlUTl (lxn Shmuel) Abulafia. 1240-1296. Galt Naul. Wriuen in

Sicily in 1289. Munich . Ms. 58. Printtd in part in Wtr HllPcliyah (&itT' HaKo/lalt), KOrell. L , PI'. SOC-S6e. 784 _ . Otuu Eden lIaGanuz. Also <:(Imains imp<)ru.m aUlobiQll'aphi_ cll malerial. indudinll lisl of Ihinetn e~rlier COmmentlria on Sefer Yellirah used ht Abul~fia. Wrinen in Sicily in \285. Oxford, Ms. Or 606. tltn David, ·Th~ RIlIl_ad. · Commentary printed in lhe M~nula. 1S62 edilion. as well as lotelher wilh Rinl~rs Latin translalion (Amslerdam, 1 6~ 2), and included in mOSI major ~ubsequenl editions. Ahhouch the Raavad i. usually idenlified IS R. Abraham ben David of Posqu~re!; ( 1120-1198). one ofthe early Kabb.oli.lS, the accepted opinion, both amonl KabbaLists and hi.tonans, is that he was not th e author of this commentary.' F rom internal evidence, it was wrinen in 1430. Many authorities attribute this commentary to R. Yosd HaAtukh ('I. v.) or R. Yosef (ben Shalom) AsIlkenui (q .v.~ ' Thi s COmmentlry appears to follow the sy"em of R. Yitzchak Bardashi (q.v.). oo Abraham ibn Ezra, 1092-1167. This commentary is """ntioned by R. Abraham Abulafia. where il is described IS combini", pbilOS()pht and Kabbalah ." In a leiter to hi. brother, Ibn Ezra himself



aim D pp;l"'ntly ",f~", 10 thi. (:(lrnmenl,ry. " No known copy of tlli. oommeml.ry i. uislenl. Abu SlIll Dooash ibn Tamim. Sec Donash. Anonymous Comnxntaries Jerusalem, Ms. 8' HO;26. 29, lO. Lriden, Ms. 24;6-10. O xford. Mss. 632.2 IH7:7,9 I ~94:$,6

1794: 10 194 7:1 2lSO:3

Pam, Mss. 680:6.7,8




An. Sec Yiuchak Luri • .

Azriel (ben Shlomo) of(it,rona, 1164).1238, masln orthe Rlmb.ln in Kabbalah. Commentary mentioned by R. Abrahi m Abulafia. Parmi, Ms. 1390, 141h cenlury. Accordi", 1 some scholars, 0 1he printed commentary anributed 10 the Ramban was let .... ally wrillen by R. Azrid." See M ~ been Nachman, Ramhan B. Barceloni. Sec Yehudah Barttlon i.

Barukh (ben Barukh) T arpmi, I 31h «nlury, M<ifi..rlooi HaXabbiJlaJr. Torpm; WIIS the muter of R. Abraham Ab.dafia. and the la\ter also mentions his wmmenlary. which consisls 111'I<'Iy of ,emluiol and other word manipulations. Pa ris. Ms. 170: 1, with fragments in Oxford. Ms. 159&:). Published in G. Scholem, HaK"hIKll,,1r Slrn S4'" H"Ti'muII,,1r V~SI!n Abrilham Abul'l/ia. Jeruukm. 1965. pp. 229-239. Bent~ion Mos~ Y.i r Weinstock. oontemporlry. YotZ" Or. Commentary on ttle lolli Venion anthoLos,izinl ranu,r ooun::n. Jcrusalem. 1965.204 pp. 8i rlwl YOK[. Sn: Yoscf EdICll Mhhnui. Chaim of Vidzy, 18th cen tury. Gall Yair. Commentary On 0111 Vcrsion, followinl lca<:hinp of An and GI1I. Wnllcn aroond 1800. Bll'slau. lU I. 4' 41 ff



Chakammri. See Shabbaui Oonnolo.
ea"id e babila, I Sgg..166L

in manuscript belon,in, 10 Ihe

laIC Wanaw communi ty.
Donaoh (or Adonim) Ibn Tamim, 10th century." Written in " air.... an, T unisia. in 9SS. based on the lecu.l~ of I)onal;h's masler. R. Yi lzcha k Israeti. Originally wrillen in Arabit, bul l~5laled in several , -ersions inlo Hebrew. Menlioned by Abraham

... bulana. Finl commentary on Short Version. ExiSlenl in manuKripts Berlin Or S· 243:4. Paris 1048:2. fraaments of " 'hieh "'~re publislled by Owrze5 Vajda. " A translation by R Nachum HaMaarabi is in Munich. Ms. 47. and parts ofil_n: published by Yehudah l<'ib Dukes, in his introduct ion 10 K iln/f a HaM~. Tubing.,n, 1846. The romplete lext was published by Menashdl GI'Q!.SIxI'l on Ihe basis o r Oxford, Ms. 2250:2. London, 1902. 8· 79 PI'. Reprinted, Israel. 1970. Eliner AshkenlUi. This rommenla11' is mentioned by Abraha m Abu lafia. wl>o says that it is deepl y Kabbal istic. No known ropy existent. " Eliaer Ha-Danhan Ashkenazi, Men tioned by Abraham •. " 'hO ,utr$ that he did not see it. E>:tant in manuscript , Munich uip.zig lO. Some identify this wilh commentlry of R. Elieur Rokeach of Wormes. " ElieIer Ha-Kali r, around sixth ~n t ury. Con~pt' found in Sefer Veuirah all: _"en in to some of his poetry." So~ authorit ies place R. Elieur HaKalir as early as tile sooond ~ntury. identifyin& him with R. Eliezer. SOn of R. Shimon bar Vochai. author of the Zohar.'· Elieur (ben Yehudah) R okea~h of Wonncs (Garm iu). 1160- 1237. His tll:ltmcnt to the first th= cha plen is hi&hly my~tical. but the astrolOllical coneepts in the laler chapten is taken la!'Fly from C"a/{{lmOlli . He is unique in utilizing 221 Gates, Tllller than 231. Brilish MUM'um. Ms. 737. 161h century . Edited by R. Tzvi Elimdekh Shapiro of Dinov. and published by his II1Ind5Oll. Moshc Shapiro. a. J>enW, HaRA M dillFm iw" Pn:em)'s1. 1888, 22 fJ _ . Abridltmenl of11\e aoo'·e. finl PIIblisiled in the Mantua, 1562, edilion."" EJehanan Yil:z~hak (ben Vakif) of London. middle 131h century. Based on lectures of R. Yil:zChak of DampicTIl:." Fulda Llndes.bibl>Otllek, Ms. 4, published by Georges Vajda. KoI:><n:

al roo

16:14S-1~7 (I ~66).

Eliahu ben Menachem Ha-Zeken, around 1000. Often cited in commentary of R. Moseh 801til. Eliahu (ben Shlomo). Gaon of Vilna, M Gra," 1720-1 797. Con sidThe




em!. one ofllle ~atnl ~n iu_ of all time. Purt:ly K.tbbalistic CQm"",mary on the Gra Venion , .... hid! h-e edited. Fint publislled in Grodno, 1806, and contained in subsequent editions, mOSt notably that of Warsa.... , 188<1. An edition edited by his disciple R. Moshe Sh1omo of Tulchill, and a1i1O contain in, I supcrrommentary, To/dol Yilzcllak. by R. Yitzchak ben Yehudah Lcib Kahanah (q.y.) WilS published in JeT\lAlcm, 1874. 186 pp. EZB, 11 57. 1238. Oisciple of Isaac the Blind , and masler of Rlmban in Kabbalah. His commentary on Serer Yetzirah is "",ntioned by R. Abraham Abulaflll. Some identi fy this .... ilh Ramban B (see Moshe ben Nachman). Gan rail. Sec of Vidzy. Gan Naul. Sec Abraham Abulafll. GillOt EIO:. See YQKf Gibtali• . Gnl. Sec Eliah u, Oaon of ViIDi. IIadr,), KDlinlt. See Meir Komik. Ha i (ben Sheri ra) Oaon. %9-1038. FraamcnlS of hi. oom menllllJl are quoted by R. Mosl>c. Bolli l. Jellin« Isscmbed these fraJlllcnts and printed tMm tosether. LiII"atllrillall dn Oricl1ls (OLB) 1851. pp. 546-556. _ . Sltcc/cl U"J)ItIl_ aJ &1" 1~lziralt . Quotion. and an._r1 rqardin, lM Srfc r Yetzirah . Vatican , MJ.. l it. Quoted in Bachya, commentary on E.\odus 34:6. Pallia RlmOllim II : I . Isaac. See Yitzchak. Isaac of Areo. See Yiuchak OeMin Acoo. tile Blind. See Yitzchak Saai Nahor. Jarob. See Yaakov. JOiCph. See YOiCf. Judah. See Yehudah. Kuzari. See Ye hudah HaLcvi . Luria. See Yitzchak Luria. Meir Ari$loIa. The cxisl.-nce ofl bi. commentary is men tioned by R. Shlomo AIKabatz (ISOS-I 584) in hi. ApmOfl SIIlomo, chlpte-r

MeiT (ben MOllIe) Kornik , 1752- 1126, lIadfey KDlin/t. Commentary o n fint and last stanzas of LoOJ Venion. IS found in T iUun u yl Shavuot (q. v.). Oihrt:nfunh. 1812. 16 ff MeiT (ben Shlorno) Ibn Sahula. Only kno"", rommenllry wrinen on Saadi ... Verlion, other Ihan that of Saadia himself. Wrinen in llJI. Rome. Anaelici Library, Ms. Or. 45. 14th century . Menachem Eps!ein. )~t:i'all. Odessa. 1913, 30 pp. A di~ion rcprd inl the Creal ion of I Goiem tbrouib Serer Yetzirah. based on the Tilmud Ind la ter sources. AlilO includes 10


lis of Ni!1aO{ Malwral MiPragu~, Piottrkov 1909. Moshe Botril, early 15th ~ntury. Written in 14(19, and Quotes many earlier sources no kmatT in e~istence. " Vatican, Ms. 441 , 15th century. Fint printed in Mantua, 1562. and in mosl subseQuent editions. Moslle Corde...ero. ~The R.mal:,w 1522_1570. [)ean of the Safed School of ~bbalah. Existent in manu.cript, Jerusalem S' 2646." The So:fcr YelZirah i, also di5CUSSed extensively in tile R.mak's olher ....urks. MO$Ile (ben Maimon) Maimnnides., wTI>e R.mbam,w 1135-1204. The e~i$tence of such a commentary is mentioned by R. Yechiol Ht ilpem in !min HaDcrot (~f (Uim., ~f" Y~lzirah). No ropy i. known to exist. and in ",nent. the Rambam'. philosophy .ppears to oppose Ihe appTOllch of the So:fer YetziBh . MMhe ben N.cbman, Nachmanides. wThe Rlmban,w 1194-1267. One of the leadin, Tllmlidistl .nd ~bba1iSts in his time. Commentary is mentioned hy Abqham Abularla, JCTU~m, M,. 8' 31O:28,ff. 259._26Ib, publilbed by Genhom Scho\em, Kir)'lZl ~fn 6:3SS-410 ( 1910). _ . Ramban B. Commentary fint printed in MantUi. 1562, and in many subsequent editions. ~ nOt coincide with many quoted (I CrptS from Rlmban's commentary cited in early SOUTttS, as d()e$ pre"iO\ls lex1." Accordin, 10 mMt authoriti\'$, this is commentary of Ezn Of AZliriah of Gemna (q. v.).'" Moshe ben Yaakov of Kiev, ]449-]HO, OrZQr HaSlr~m. Fint published in Koren, 1779, and included in many laler edilions. R. MMhe of Kiev is also kno,"1n as author of Shoslum Sodol (Koren. 1784). MMhe (ben Yaakov) ibn Shoshan. Written in 1511. Munich. Ms. 104." Moshc ben Yosd of A1isaL So:c Saadi •. Nlchum HaMllralri. See Donash ibn Tamim. Yitzchak Yisraeli. 0 101 U·Moodim. See YehMhul Eisenbach. Ot:ar Ede" HaGamn. See Abrahim Abulalia. O,zar HaSlrm •. See MMhe or Kiev. Peretz (ben YitIChak) Ha-Cohen. 13th century. In his noted work, MaarncJr~r Elokur, Mantua, 1558, he mentions that he wrote I commentary on Sefer Yetzirah.iO Pri Yitrchak. See Yilzchak Isaac of Mohalov. Raavld. See Abraham ben Dlvid, Yoscf HaArukh, Yoscf

Ramal:. ~ MOShe Cort!evero. Ramban. See Moslle ben Nachman. Azrial, EZIll. Rlmbam. ~ MMhe Maimonides.


alw known as Raziel HI Malakh and Razicl HaOadoi . An anrien t anonymou. mapal and Kabbal;Jljc te~t. Actually ronsists of t!tree books. Ra:in HllMa/akJr (or :kfer H. Malbush. pp. 2b-7.). Ro:in HaGatkJI (pp. 7b-33b), Ind 54'" Rozin (or M,.:ayin HaCbal<hmah , pp. 34.....Sb). The st'Cond book, Ra=in HaGadol, contains many importa nt rom~nll on Sefer Yctzirah. Some ,,\tribute this section to Abraham Abulafia." Fint publisM<! in Am$\erdam. 1701, 4' 46 ff Other editions include: Oorodna, 1793, Minkowitz, 1S03. L~o~> 1804. 42ff
McdI~. ISIS. 49 ff

KaPIIs' , 1820. L~ov, 1821. Ostma, 1821. 40 ff Medzyboz, 1824. Minkow:iIZ. 1827. Os'TOI. 1821. Os'fOL no dale. 4' . Lvov, 18H. Salonk•. J 840. Calcutta, IlI4S . 8' l .14 ff Waraw. no date, 40 ff Edited by R. Yi;sn,el (ben Shabatai Shapiro) Magid of KOlni lZ: Warsaw.IS12. Lvov, 1842. Lvov, 1840, 40 ff Lvov.1863. Lvov. 186S, 64 pp. Lvov. 1869. Josefov, J 873, 72 pp. Vilna. 1881 , 4' , WaflOlw, 1881. Lvov, 1882. New Yoric (Nafl.aJi Zvi MlrSOlies), no dale, ISS pp. Sald il (ben y g..,f) Gaon, 891 -941 , n-Iifsor Klaar tflMabaiJi, wri\ten in Arabk in 93 1., M •. 15)3, 13th century_ Pub/isM<! wilb FmtClt translation by Meyer Lambert, under ~ title, CQmmelt/a;,e SII' Ie ~kr J'n zi'ail; QtI' U,u e M/li(," plJ' Ie G_ Saa4ja d FaY}\?IIJfI, Paris 1891. Alw published with Hebrew translation by y(lSd ben o.vid ICapach. Jerusalem, 1972, 143 pp.



. Trans.lated inlo Hebl'l:w by anonymous author in the 11th cenlUry. Vltian, Ms. 23 6. 16th cenlUry. This is the lell quoted in commentary of Yehudah Baruloni (q.v.). _ . Translated inlo HcbTt'W by R. Moshc ben Yosc:f o f AlisDa. Parma. Ms. 16!;, 14th cenlury. Url'lll! oflhis IraMlalion "'ffe publislu~d by A. Jellinek, Lilll'falurb(all d", Orimu (OLB). 1811 , p. 224. _ . Sudi. B. Fir1l puhliobed in Mantua, 1562, and in many laler editions. On Lon, Version, cannol be al1ribuled in ;1$ enli~y 1 Su dia Gaon , si nce i\ me ntions m any Lalcr sa&e$. such as 0
Abraha m ibn Ezra and R . Yaakov T am. Mo.l probably ",,"lien by a 13th century Ashkenazic $ClIolar, J'IOUibly named Sudi • .



A mOrl: complete venion, includillj an introduction not in primed editions is existent in manuscript, Munich 4O.1erusalem 8" 1136, ISth cenlury."' lnlroduction WIS published by M. Stcinsdmcider. Maga:in fib' die Wi5YlUChajl tin JudenlumJ. 1892, p. 8J. Shabb.:ltai (~n Oonrtekl. ~3-982. Chalwmolli or 1IIchktJmOlli. Wrilt~n in 946. and memionro both by Rashi."

and by Abraham Abllbfta. Panna, Ms. 41 7, I Sth ""Dtllry. and Mun ich. Ms. 36:2.'" First published by David Castelli, as II Co",m~II/O di StJblxlIJrtJi Donnolo SLIT Libro dr/f(l CTftI~iOlle. Firenze. 1880,8". Also included in Warsaw, 1884, edition, pp. 62a-74b. Published tOlCther wi th Kit!ur Ch<7>'C1 HaWa"". JeruuJ em, 1945.» Shklmo ibn Gabriel. I021-IOW. In a num~r of his poems, he ebbonun on the doctrine5 ofSefer Yeuirah. Sec Shi~ Shlomo ibn Gabriel, edited by Bialik and Rawnitz)::i, Berlin_Tel Aviv, 1924-29. Vol. 2, No. 58. Shklmo (~n Shimon) Toriel. 16th cent ury. Oxford, Ms. 245S:1. Shmuel (~n Saadi~) ibn Motot, 15th ceDtUry. M n hol'l"l' Nelil'Ol. Vatican, Ms. 225. 15th century, Paris, Mss. 769: 1, 824:9, 842:2. Shmud (~n Elisha) Porteleane. london. M •. Je .... Collq~. TIKhkamoni. See Shabbatai Ooonelo. 1OIdot Yiluiulk. See Yitzehak Kahanah. TzahalLel (~n Netanel) Gaon. Some of his poems upound upon the teachinp of Sdcr Yernrah. Publilhed by DavidloOn, 1I~ Union Colfq~ AnnllaJ j:225-55 (1926). with additions by E. Baneth. M OIIaluc/rrijl for Gt'1Chichl~ lind Wi_ "sch(lj/ dn Jwkntums (MOWJ) 7 1:426-42 ( 1927). Yaakov ~n Nisim of Kai r...-an. 908-9 76. Philosophical oomm~ntary based on teachinp of Yinchak Yisradi. and much like comm~ntary of Oonash. Munich . Ms. 92:20. Published by Yehudah Leib Dukes, KUfIITn II(lMr.wrt'I. Tubiogen, 1&46.><




Yaakoy of SaBOv;" His commentary is mentioned by
SUUel; lhal il is completely KlIbinlistie. No

kno"'n copy in ui$!encr." YehO$hua Eisenbach. OrOi U'Moaliim. Banfeld, 191)4, " . )5ff.
Yehuda h (ben Harzilai) Ba=loni. 1082- 1148. An eXlensive, 1TIO:511y philosophical and Talmudi~1 commentary, qUOlilll numerous

early sources, most notably $aadia Gaon. A most importam: oouroe book rqacdinl early Je .... ish IhcolocY. Published by Shlomo Zalman Cbaim H. lber!llam, Berlin, ]88S. 3O,)S4 pp.
Reprinted, JCf\I$IIkm, 197 1.

Ychudah (ben Shmuel) H.-chasid of Re~nsbura. 11 45-1217. Mentioned by Abraham Abulafia, who !\Otes that it follows Clrakamtmi of Shabbatai Donneln (q.v. ). Cf u,ipzi" Ms. lO. (The oommcnlary of R. Elieur Rokeach ofWonne5. II. disciple of R. Yehudah HaOtasid. often quotes his master, and litis commemary also often foliowl Cllaklinumi. ) No kllOwn copy in uillence. " Yeh udah H._Levi, 1068- 11 18. In his famed Kw:ari 4:2 5, be provides
a hi&hly insi&htful philosophical commentary on Sudia Version. Kwuui WIIs wri1t~n in Arabic, v a nsllted into H~bi, .. by Yehudah ibn Tebon (I 12Q..1 193), and fint published in Fano, 1506, 62 ff. ~ ha"" Iottn ov~r twenty"';x subsequent editions., includin, numerous translations _1>(\ rommentaries on this important classie. Yehudah (ben Nisim) ibn Maika, 14th century. Wri1t~n in Arabic, and quoted in oommentary of R. Mashe Botril, as well as in M~lIal $narirn (Yenice. 1554). a oommentary by R. Shmuel ibn Motot (q.v .) on Pelliateucb commentary of Abraham ibn E~ra (q.v. )." Paris. Ms. 764:3, In excerpt of wbich is in H inehfeld, Arabic o..., 1892. pp. 19-31. A Hebrew translation of this com mentary is in Oxford. Ms. 1536. Ste Grorae Vajda. Judo ~n Ninim ibn MallaJ: P~iIO:fp;,r juif Marocain, Pari •. 1954. Y l'uj,aIt. See Menachcm Eotei n. Yitzchak BardHhi, 12th century." Mentioned by Abraham Abulafla, ... ho matn specialllOl~ of hi. arrallJCtmnt of the 231 Gain." Here. his s)'Stem is almost cuclly the same II thll found in Raavad (see Abraham ben David). Y it~cha k (ben Leib) KlIhanah, 1824-1900, Told", Yil:cllak. SUP'C'roommelllary on commentary of R. Elilhu, Gaon of Vilna (Gra). Fint published in lerusal~m. 1874, and wilh additions, Jerusalem, 1879. Yilzchak J:>c,_Min Acco ([saac of Aero), 1250-!l40. OilCipl~ of Ramban . Commentary dra.... heavily on that of Yiuchalt Sqi


Nahor. Jerus.alem. Ms. 8' 404. published by Genhom Scholem. Ki r)'Cl/!kf1'l' 11:179-196 (1 9H). Yilzchak luria. M The Ari.M 1534- 1572. leadin, luminary of the Sared school, and the mOOt influential of all Kabbalisl$. Com· mentary weaves le.chinas of Sefc-r Yel~il1lh into the Ari', genC1"III scheme. Fint published in ConOiantinople, 17 19. Zolkiev, 1745. and in Other editions. [n-clu-ded at end of Waruw. 1884, edition. A discussion of the Thirty-two Paths of Wisdom by the Ari is found in Lilcul~ ShIJ!!. 1783, ff. 27a. b. and .Iso at end of Wanaw edition." Yiuchak $ali Nahor (haae the Blind). [1 6().1236. Son of R. Abraham !Jo,n David of Posqueres, and master of A2riel and Ezra of Gerona (q.v. l. Consider«! one of tile lV<'atest of all Kabbalisl •. His is 0"" of the few commentaries 10 openly diir CU"ll tile meditative aspects of Sefer Yct.irah. Rome, Anaelica library. Ms. 46. 15th «mury; Oxford. Ms. 2456:12; le~dcn, Ms.. 24:16." Publi shed b~ Gershom Scholem, al end of JlaKabOOfah Bd'rowtlCt'. Jerusalem. 1966." Yiuchak [!NllIC (b<'n Yd<utiel Zalman) of Mohalov. 1728-1806. Pn' Yilzchalc. Kabbalist ic commentary bas.ed on Zohar and tcachi"", of the Ari. Fint published in Grodno. 1797, 8' (also including additions 10 his B«'" Yilzchalc. his commentary on Ti*un~ Zd!ar. fint published in Zolkiev. 1778). Also included in l vov, 1860. edition , and in second part of War_ saw, 1884. edition. Yiuchak (b<'n Shlomo) Yisraeli. 830-932. One of tile ,",atesl sase' of his limc. Accordin& 10 his disciple. Oonash ibn Tamim {q. v·l. Saadia Gaon (q . v.l would often consult him ,.;th ..., to scientific matten. PhilOSOphical and a!lronom ical COmmenlary, much like thai of Donash ibn Tamim (Q.v.). ori&inall~ " 'ri llen in Arabic. hislent in manuscript. BibholC(]ue National. Paris, and in translation by Naehum HaMaarabi." A frailllent oflhis translation was published by Yehudah leib Dulees. Kum'ef lIaMaesoffl. Tubinp:n. 1846. pp. S-IO. Yo ...f (b<'n Shalom) Ashkenazi, 14tll c:..ntury. Acoordina to mosl schOlars. he i$ Ihe author orthe commenlary printed under Ihe name of Ahn.ham b<'n David (Ruvad, q.v.). Pouibly idenlified ...·ith Yosef HaAruleh. EAistent in manuscript, British Museum. Gastc-r 415 , 14th «ntul)'." Yasef Edels (Ashkenazi). Bi,lull YOH! Kabbalistic commentary on Gra Venion, base<! on teaehinp of 1M Ari. $alanica, 183 1, 12jJ. Yosef Ha _Aru kh (Joseph the Tall). 14th c:..ntury. See Yosef Ashkenazi. Abraham ben Davi d. R. Mo.he CoroC'o'cro cites the com-



m(nlary on the Thirty_Two P. lhs or WiMlom, appeaTin& in commentary of Abraham ben David (Ruvad, q .v.), a nd a llribulet lhem 10 Yosef H&Arukh." However. in I number of places. R. Moshe BotTiI cilet a commenlaty by R. YOId" HaArukh on Sefcr Yetzirah, and it does not coincide with Raavad .... Yowf GiullIlia. 1248-1323. One of lhe veatet Kabbaiisis. best known (Of his ShlUlfe,. DrIll!, fint pllblilhed in Riva di TrenlO, 1561 , a ~ r before the fint edition ofSefer Yetzin.h. The K"t>ond chapter of bis vinal Ego;: i. ~ntially a wm~ntary of Serer Yelzirah. Printed in Hannili. 1615, 2" 15 /f.; Zolkiev, 1773, MOhelov. 1798. 4"; Hlnnall edilion reprinted anon y_ mously around 1970. Yosd" o f SaPO" I. A fragmenl o f his commentary is Quoted by R. M05he 80tril (1 :12~ Y~r SaT Sh.alom. 151h cenlllry. Hi. wmmenllry is menlioned by R. Aaron AIR.1bi in his supcrcommen\.ll1' to RashL" Yosd" ben Uliel , lIid 10 be. diocipk of the prophet Jeremiah . Sec Introduction. notH 42, 43. YON/o.-. See Bentzion Moshe Yair Weinstock..

Saadi. 0""", 891 _941. In Sidduf c{Saadia Oa.>n. 01ford. Ms.. o.vid

Oppenheim 101 0."

Ot. klf Orie.e, 1921.

Ak in ben Joseph (pseudonym), ~ BooI< of Formalioll, 1970. M. Doreal. SIp"" }~zirah. Tn.nw.tion and analysis.. Denver, 1941,

48 pp.

.t;:,.< d'" II'


Alfred Ecknh .. im . 1825- 111&9, in his book. TIl, Uft anti Timn of Jnus. London. 1884 (and other editions), Vol. 2, pp. 692-698. Irvinl Friedman. Th, Book of erN/ion. Translation and comments. Samuel WeiS<"T, York B.-ach. ME. 1971. Isidor Kalish, -~her Yezira, a Book on Creoation or the leMsh Metaphl"liCli of Remote Antiquity." With prd'.ct, explan.tory notes and Ilonary. [n A SJ,;,tch of the Talmud. New York, 1817. 8' 57 pp. Phineas Mordel, !kftr )"tziroh. Heb..,w tut .nd tn.nsl.tion in. MW "enion deduced 10000ny by the auillOr, but not accepted in kabbalistic or Idtolarty eireles. Philadelphia, 1894,2. 10 pp. _ . TIlt Origin <J[ Uttl'TY and NummUs ocrordiltg /0 the &for " 'Uirall. Same as abo"e, but introduction OOIILl ins important historical data .nd quotes si&nifJCInt •. OriJinally published in l",~sh QUlnerly Review, Ne .... SeriH 2:~S7.~13 ( 19 12).3:'[7-544 (1913). Published separately, Philadelphia, 1914. Reprinted by Samuel WeiS<"T, York Beach, ME, 191$. Saul Rlr.kin . in Kabbalah in Ifq,.d and lllUlgt. Hebrew tut with Eflilish Ind Yiddish translation. New yo .... 19S2. 80 pp. Illustrated. Knut Senrin.. The BooI: of F()I'malion (!kpher Yn zirall). With introduction by Anhur Ed .... ard Waite . New York. 1923. 62 pp. Reprinted by KtlV , New York. 1970. William Wynn WestC()l1 , !kphtr Ynzirah. tile Bock of F{)f'matiun. Oased on tn t of Ritlan,,"1 (q.v.). London, 1887. Reprin ted with addit ional notes IS a vol\lme of ColI«lilMS IItrmalica. london. [893. 43 pp. Printed sepanlld)" London, 19 11 , 49 pp. The 1893 edition .... u ..,printed by Samuel Weiser, York B.-ach. ME. 1975.

Comtesse Cllomira de Cimara, !kphn l'Nzirall, Pari., 19]), 4' 27

". (Papus ), !kin Ye/tira, Plril, 1888. Enclusese

Karppc. Eludt Ju' In Originn . .. du ZoIuJr, Paris. 1901, pp. Me)·e. Lamben, Commtnlai,.. sur I~ !kf" rairah: Our CTtaliOlt par It GaOIt SaadjD dt FaYN"m, Paris, I 891 , pp. 1·1 I.


s.Ef't1l. YFTZIRAH

E. Bischof. 1913. Lazarus (Eliner) Goldschmidt. DaJ Burn dl!r ScMpfuf1g (~phl!r Jqirah). With introduction. bibliotmphy and notes. Heb.-.:w tats compa.-.: aU printed editions . ... valuable .-.:fe.-.:ntt work." Frankfon am Mei n. 1894,92 pp. Yohann Frcidrich von Meyer, DaJ Burl! )rzirah: die A/rlv Kabbalirlischen UrurtdN dn H rlJrtJn. Heb.-.:w text and German translation. Leipzi&, 1830. 4' Mi pp. Friehn. Alben von Thimu.. Die lIarmQltlka/e Shmb<JIik d~ Allnlhums. Analysis ofSder Yetzin.h. K()ln, 1868-76, Vol. 2.

Ikla Tennen. A nrftmlh K/JIIyr, Budapest. 19J I. 62 pp.

S. Savin i, 1923.

Athanasius Kirscher. [1" "Juo Oedipus AI't}'PIIlOU 2: I. Rome. 1653." Johannes Pistorius (John Piltor). 154~1 608, "Libn tk Crralloru C"ba /iJI;n;J. HebraiC'! ~~ Jnita. Auchore Abrahamo,~ in hi. Artis CabGliJliCQe 1'1« RLr:ondilae Thl'OlOgial " Plri/()<f()f!hiae Scripol'Um. Some scholars aUribute Ihis lranmtion ta Johann Reuehlin, or to Pau l Riec; (an ap<lState Jew also translated Yos.ef Gikatalia's Shoor". Orah into Latin). " At CM end of British Museum Ms. 740, tbere is a nOle that it " 'as ""rillen in 1488 b~ a Jew, Yitzcllak of Rome. Basille. I Sa7. Vol. I. pp. 869-872. Gulelmus PO'Ilellus (William POllell), ISI()..IS81, Abnlhami Palriar~lra Liber Jeziralr s;.,., FormaliQltls Mundi. I'rltTibt13 qUide," A /)rahilmi u mpoN prinhnlibilS rewJ/alus. Fi rst t/lmslation of Sefer Ycuirah . This translation is bawd on the Sllon Venian, but in a somewhaC different fQrm tban HIlIl published in Ihe Mantua . 1562 Wi t;Qn. A similar version is found in some ear-

lier manUKnpts. This translation was published ten yean. before tile fint HcbKw edition. Paris. IH2. 16" 84 pp. J<),iInne Stephaoo Rill.~lio (loon Stephan Rittangel). 1606-1652, Li~ Jr.:irWt. qui A brahamru l'Illriarc/ur AdJcribillir. ullanom

Comml!tUario R@i Abrllhum F.D. lll~ Jl ~milis Sllpilmlilr. a flUibus Liller Jairoh ;,,,ipil. Conlains Hebrew tnl, commenlit)' of R. Abraham ben David (Ru vad, q,v.). and I~ Thirty. Two Palhs of Wisdom. Notes and !IiusiT'llt;on,. Amsterdam. 1642. 4' 208. 8 pp.

Saul Raskin. KahN/ali in If.".d "lid Imagf. Conlains Hebrew text with En&lish a nd Yiddish translations. New York, 19S2, 80 pp.

Copyrighted material


Copyrighted material

L Tll i. is diK\l~ .llenl!h in my }.In/ita/ioll (l~d KllbbaJah, and

2. 1.


M Milation and tht Biblt (Yon Srach, ME: S.mud Weiser), Kuzari 4:27 . Barttloni. p. 100. This is in Ihe Bri tish MUSI'lIm, Ms. 600. M. Mal'lllliO\, Cala/~ of lJeIJrrN and Samarilan Mal1wsc,ipls in /hf BritisA M uU'\u'l, Vol. 2, p. 191. Also in the Vatican, Ms. 29'9. and Ille British Museum, Ms. 751. Another account also statH 1hal Ra v.. lind Rav Zein. pzcd (r:zajah) in the S4er )nzirair for \11= )"U~ (B.redoni, p. 268). Thus, in a num~r of placn in Ihe le~l, lite word Tzar i. used


instead of Yamu. This is


easily read in Ille imperative

lhan in the third person past. SanhnJrin 67b, Bam:loni, Ioc. cit. Also ~ Slr.uklran ArukJt. ONh 179: 15, Sif tt!y Coil.." 179: 13: nhUl'Of RIMibaz HOS.


Yehu dab Mn NilSim ibn Maj ka, Cammell/ary 0/1 SeIer Ynzirah (Oxford, Ms. I B6), QUOted in Geo~ v.,;.Ia, Juda ~n NiQim ibn MaIka. Plrilowphe j~if Marocailf, (Paris. 1954), p. 171: Genhom Schokm, Kobba/oll ond its Symbolism, (New York,

1969). p. I 77. Then: is O(!me qUr$lion as 10 wheiller Ihis Razirl is the same IS the publillhed edition. AbBham Ab!Jlafi • • IO(! menlions havin, studied this book, sef: SIr",'tl NniW)l llaClrakhmall, in A. lel1inek. PlrUosop;,;t und Kabba/alr, (Lripl i" US4), p. 21. 7. A. M . Haberman n, Sinai 100lb ( 1974) with reprd 10 Geniza frqrnent Tl ylor-Schechter 12:5. This is tile Saadil v enion, which is Ihe lonsest. 8. Yisrael Weinstock. "LeBiru. HaNuoach $MI s.,fer Yrui rah: 1fomiri" 1:20. nOle 41, 1: 16. note 31. 9, ~ Ne'n/or 8 aKocksIr. Sh(l(lre)' nian. 10. Ban:eloni. p. 105. In the Pinons lransiatioo , chapteR five and iix are combined . IS well a. in many ma.nUOCnpls.. S« Weinstock, Ioc. cit .• nOle n. The divisions in Donosll ."d Cllakomoni "l'Te put in by the printer. and do not exin in the anginal manuscripl" I!. Sudil Glon. Comml!ntary on Seier Yelzt,all, lranslated iOlo Hebrew by Yosd Kapach (Jcnlsalcm , 1972), p. 34. 12. See In troduction to RiJzit /; SIIjmuslr~ mil/im in TslluW)l R(lJllba 413; R. Moshc COfdc\"CT"O. Commenlll ry on Zollo. SIIi,




HaShi,jm(Jcruulem. Ms. 4" 74). in G. Scholem. Ki/vq Yad
8(1.KIl/)btllah, p.


Bairi' , Ed. Rc,,",-cn Mal'lOlios (Jerusalem 1951), Nos.. 95, 10 1. 106.

14. SudiaGaon. pp. 17, H. J S. Hai Gaon, qUOted. in 8aehya On Exodus 34'~, Pu,drs Rimo/t;", 11: 1. Kn~m CIr4'mN 8:57 ; DontJ¥Ir, pp. 16.26, CItaJ:aml/ni (in Warsaw. 1884 rolion). p. 66&, Kuzarl 4: 2' (Warsaw. 1880), 4la; Or HaSlrl'm 4:10 (V ienna. I 86Q). 9011, Tzioni on {knesi. 12:5;

NiMim ben

introduction 10 his oommenlary on &fer quoled in Goldschmidt. Vas Buell d~ ScMpfung

Yaako~ .

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.



2S .


(Frankfort am Mein, 1894), p. 31, nole 2. Rabbi Abraham Abulafia. however. a pparently "'"as not certain allo the authorshi p. and writes, ~lel;1 be "'hoever it is.~ Or IIaSd<MI 4:2 (Vatica", Ms. 233). p. 48 b, quoted in Landauer. Ullmllurblall lin OrientS (OlH) 1846, Goldschmidt. p. 8, nOlI' 4. Zoha, (f05d'\a) 2:2Ub ~ Zchar Ow"'"' 37c; Razift (Amsterdam, 1701 ). 80. INew Yorl:, MatJOIiet, no <.b.le, p. 171. Sa. nOie 3. cr. B~rtrlon i, p. 268. Saadill. p. 33. B... ~JOf! i, p. 100. Zohar 1:17b. Tzioni ad Iqc., Raa~ad Of! Sefer Yetzin!! 6:4. Abnham left H... nn ...1 God's command when he was 7S ~... rs old (Genesis 12:4). Accordinl 10 m():S1 ~ulhoril i~, Abraham made the oovenllnl wilh God menliono:d in Genesis IS when he was 70 y<:... rs old. before lie left H... ran. Sa. Sed" Oialn RabOOh I, Melllilla o n Exod us 12:40. Ramban, Si/Hi Chachalnim, Ibid; Rl shi, SiJIIl!rdrin 92b. ~UTa'II,~ T~.<lt JOb, " FeShn,· Al'Qt/al! Zarah 9_, ~U'Gemj.j: Rosh, Y eOO....." 6:12. This covenant mlly have been relllto:d 10 the s)'Stem o f Sefer Yelzil'llh, Ott below, chapler I, nOle 70 . Sa. R. Ehezer of Wormo, Commenlllry o n Sefer Yetzil'llh. p . la. Sa. note 9S. Also 5tt ZoIuu 1:7911. 2: 198a. 8.0=10-11;, p. 26(;. Cf Bolril on 1: 1; Sudi. B (Munich, Ml. 40), p . 771. qUOlo:d in Scholem, Ka/JOOlah arid ilS Symbolism, p. 171. Also Ott Saadia, p. 14 1. Barceloni. p. 99. Pe1ikla Cl!adala. in A. Jellinek. BI'I lfaMidrmh (uipzi&, 18H). 6:36, qlJOlw in B~~Jon;, p. 268, S4er RiJUad (Jerusalem, 1967). p. 19. and in lranslalion. in Scholem, K.:Jbb<Jlah arld;/J SymboliJm . p. ] 18. Sa. chapler 2, note 61 . Gene~i. 14:18. RlUhi, T ... 'Sum J. ad loc. PJ,l.lm ! 10:4. N,..Jariln 320, Ran ad loc. -U'Malki Tzl'lil'k ; Rldak. Ralbq, on Josh ua
10: I .

21. Pirkey Rabbi E/j~zer 48 (Warsaw, 1852). 11611.


"' is also uUJbt

that Moses studied lhe leiters on Mount Sinai, Ibid. 46
(lIOb). 28. Bawl Batra [6b. Abmllam "'ltS oonsiderN a leadin, fi&ure in his tilm', KiddusM .. 32b, Ramban of Genesis 40:\ 4. 29. Pirl.;ey Rabbi Elieur II (18b), Ran, loco cil. 30. Shabbal 156a. 31. A1IOdaJr wall 140. C/ Ba rceloni, p . 100. 32. S4nhedri" 9 1b, Be'~ SlraYil. ad foe.. ZohtlT 1:99b, UBb,

1:233., Ban;doni, p. 159. 33. Shnri LuclJtx lIaBril. Torah She&K·I~. ~aYt3"ht'\'( Lvov. 1860), 3:65a; Pil'h~ Tshu.ah. Yorllh /Hail 62:2. S« Ymalra/mi PI!IJh
1: 1, Rashi on Genesis 37:2. 34 . Bna/dwl 551.. Cj Barcelooi, p. 102, Raavad on 6;4 , MnUlrej UChaidrmllh (Jen.u.alem, n.d.), 2Sa. Also !Itt Ramban on Exodus 31:3. ACC(lrdi". 10 Ralhi, Iht ~mo"'ledge' menlio..w in Ihis verse reren to Ruac/r. HoKodr.;h. H. Ta"ch~mll, PW<.uJq 2, ZoJrar 2:1620. 36. ~ikla CIU1dQ/Q in 8l'1 'faMid,ash 6:37. A limilar tradition i. , aUributed 10 R. Ychudah ben Batirah in his ~f(1' Bilacllan. said 10 bo: ql,l()led by R. OJ.mai Gaon in his &/(1' lfaYidrud (Ihis book is qUOted in !'ardes Rinwllim 11:4), ciled in Avodal HaKQdn ll 3: 17 (Waraw. 1894), 80a Chel kak MeChokak on E wrn HaEI(1' 1:8. This is also found in Jewish Theolopcal Seminary, Ms. Halbentam 444. p. 200, alld ill Latill ill lolwlIle Reuchlin, IN ArlO' Caoo/isliru (1603), C(ll. 759. Also 5ee Peliyall (Korru, 1784), J6a, Yalkul RLu_i (Wanaw, 1884), 2Ob; R. Yehudah HaCbasid, ~f(1' lIaGemalria. quoled by Abraham Epstein. Beilr4ge IUr JildiJ(:lIe" AII(1'lumsiQlllth (Vienna. 1881), pp. 122-3; Sudia 8 , introduction 10 Stfer Yeuirah. publi~ by M. Sleinschnei<ier, MilIa:i" fu r die wiJurudrajl da.J Judl'nlunu, 1892, p. 83. Also 5ee Ra. Pa'alim (Warsaw. 1894), p. 41. For EnsliJh translalion, 5ee Scholem, Kabbalah alld its Symbolism, pp. 178-180; Ph iltC'u Mordell, Tire Origi" afUtlers Ii Num"al. Acrordi"g 10 Ihr Sefer 1~I.irah (New York, 1915), pp. St, 52. 31. A!fa Bela d..Ben Sirah, in Omu Midrwhim, p. 43. C/ CIIdol Mechokek on £ . ..." HaEu r 1:8, Mishnah La Melekh on Yad, Ishlll 15:4. See Ralli. Chagigah I Sa, -BrAmOOli. · J8. Seier Maharil, bqin ninl of Liklllim II end of book (Jerusalem. 1969),85 •. 39. Bn Chada.JlI, on Thr Yoreh IHoh 195 ·~"Lo ·(17b): Tu~ Z4hav, y.,...,;, Deah 95:7; Bel Shm uel, En"l'n HaE""r I: I 0, Birky Yo.«f. E"""n HaEur 1:1 4, Tsnul'Ol R. Yaako¥ Emdin 2:97, TIll,...",



SEfEil. Y£TZIR,o,H


4 \.



44 .

BllO" (JOa). Att:Ordin, 10 some IiOf.IItt$, Rav leira and Rav Pappa were born in the same manner, see Alia 8/'1a lHlk" Sirah, Otuu Midroslrlm p. 43, l1Iduill (Jen>salem 1962). 39c. Tu nwclr David (Warsaw, 1878). p. 26. St:d~ HaDoroi, llmaim V~Amot"Qlm , R. Zdra. 3 (Warsaw, 18a2), VOl. 2, p. ~'k.. Yosefhen UDe! is mentioned II !he ~ of Alfo &la DrBnI Sirah ( Ed. SteinsdUleider, Berlin, 1858~ in Ormr Midr4Jltim p. lS. 111= is also a dispute bet"'ftn UDd, too of BeD Sirah. and YOtft:f ben Uziel, Ibid. p. J.6. AI!c see pSI. 31, 39. There is also I tn::IWr ailed iJanj/a of 'tOM! bm Um, wIlich is said 10 be booed 00 teachinp that Jeremiah maIed to Itim, see.l.zipzi&. Ms. JO. p. 12, A. Epstein, HaCItokn', Cnc:ow-Vienna, 189}'9S, 2:41 ; MOfdell, p. 48. This Barril4 is Ippamltl¥ qooced ill Recanti 00 Gtr:u;' 3:24 ( I x), This VO!Iefben UzieI may be identified .. the &mI~lem of Judith. She is dc:acribed .. ~J lldilh. dauahter of Merari, IOn of <A, son of Joseph. son of Oriel. IOn of Hclki"" (Apoa)"Pha, Judith 8: I), Helkias or ChiUciah of c:oune, is the faem of 1eI-emiah (\: I), and the aeneratioos of Jemniah and Ben Siralt may ha~ been e!imirq,ted from the text, po:rlIaps due to the sensitivity rq,ardin& the binh <X the Ian .... In ar>Olher!Ol1l"Oe, J lldilh is identilkd ... "dauahter of the jM i¥*ts," ott: Nioslm ben Vaailov, OIibur )~ (Amsterdam, 1746). 22a, IJn lfaMidraJIJ I: 130, Ormr MidrasAim p. 104. q Ran. S/IahOOI (011 Rif lOa, 1Op~ KDi& 44, SllIddltlll Aruklt. Orr¥:h Chaim 670:2 in Ifagalt. See, ibt:eo- for SIeOOIk:I Sabbath of OwtuUh, md.. Pari!., Ms. 762. British Museum Ms. 15299, quoted by J .L Baraes in ~for ~Il (ed. S<:hneur Zan. Pari, 18(6). and also quott<! by McmkU, p. 49. Ha. Pa'aUm, p. 66. !iN" lfaDoro/, S(farim, ~for Yn:irah; O,:ar ~f"rim. !-W 386. There is a !1Ulnuscript thlt conclude!., "Thus ~n<h the Milhn~h of Abraham and Ihe Milhnah ofYose( bl:n U~H:,I: Oxford , MI. 1947:3, deKribed in Neubau~r, Cala""ue of the Manuscri pts in Ihe Bodleian Library (Olford, IU6-I9(6), 1941:3: Gokbmidl. p, 11 , nole 2. AlJo s«, Ms. David Qwenheim 965. This il dilCllued at lu&tb in Mordell, pp. 47_50. See chapler 5, note 38. BQWl &lIra I~a. MIUUeh Ikr?:flril was also revealed to Daniel, s« !iN" Olam HahN!! 29 (J~ru...:l~m, 1911 ~ p. 102: 1bn= ~Bej Eliuhu RahNh 17 (Jerusalem, 1963). 79b, from Daniel 2: 19. Reprdi nl • similar re" elation to u ra., sec Apocrypha, 2 Esdras 14:44 . BmlkhOf J3a. These were not put in """tin&. .nd were tberefore fO<&011en, sec Mrgillalr 18a.

TrzslrbtJl. 3:263: PrKhad Yiluhalc.


45 . 46 .

48 .

49 . 50.



Ym4Shalmi. SanWtin 7: 13 (4 Ia ), aooordini 10 ",adinl in Fra nk. La Cabbalah. p. 77. AI'Ol 2:8. SucraJr 283. Ba_a Balra I 34a. Clwsi8ah 14b, TOSt'fia 2. He was al..., upen in maJlC. see Sanlredrin 61a. Ser YO$efTzayach, Twror lIaChaim. Jews Collell'. london, M s. 318. p. 32a. ~ lIa'lilu;" (Paris. 1866). in Olza, Midrwhlm p. 564, also quoted in Machror Vilti (Ik.lin. 1889). p_ 674. Ser d,apler 3, note 38. A~ 2: 8. Chagig<lh 14b. TOSt'fta 2; Zohar Cluldaslr 7a. Sec Radal. introdllClion 10 Pi~ Rabbi Elil'zr, 6b. We thus find that he "'"tnt to the river Dismal, see Shabbol 147a. Rashi, ad 1«.. A~ Rabbi Nathan 14:6. In anotMr SOUKC. however. we find that he went to Emmaus where his wife WIQ, KiJIr~11'1 Rabboh o n 7:7. Sec Neubauer. Grograpl/il'du Talmud (Pari:s. 186IJ). p. JOO; Otw, Yis,an 2:79. Midrasl! Tanaim on Deuteronomy 26: 1) (Ed. David Tzvi Ho ff_ man , Ikrlin. 19(8 ), p. I H. Ser my inlroduction 10 Thl' Bahi,. nOle 37. Also see ~Iow, chapter 4, nOle j. Emmaus was a town near T iberias. 8allQ Balra lOb; Hl'I<hrlOl Rabbolai 16:} (Batl',. Midraslun 1:92). ChagigtJh 2:2 (Itia). Sec d iscussions in Ba.·/i and }m.shalmi. ad


55 . A1lliquilin 15:10:5 (Tr. William Whiston; New York. n.d.), p. 471. Sec fuchsi" 9d. Slrafshl'i1'1 lIaKabbofah (Jeflls;olem. 1%2), p. n, St'rkr lIaDorot. Tanaim. VI'Amoraim. ~M en a chcm.~ Samius mn. tioned in Anliquilil'$ 14:1 0:4 is most probably Shammai. 56. Wars 2:8:7. 12. 57. Anliquilin 15:10:4, p . 471. 58. M i1lach(Ji 29b. A text on tM $uh~ is al§O ~ribed to him , see Ball')! Mid'asllQl 2:471 . Sec cha pler J. nole 38. 59. ChagigtJh 14b. He also learned. the magical . pells in"oIYinl cucumbers from Rabbi YehOiihua. Sanht'dr fn 68a. 60. He was thus tile o nly one of the four ...·ho entered Pa..dise who ~emersed in peaa,~ Chagigah 14b. He "'.... ahle to describe synesthesia. a common e..perienoe of the mystical state. see Mekhilta on Exodus 20: 15. It was he who also tau"'t that God alnnot be seen in even the most abstract "ision, see Mekhilta o n Exodus 20:4. Barttloni. p . 14. 61. PardI'S Rimonim 1:1: R. Yitzchak de UU", respon. um al bqi nninB of Zohar; ShaLJlrl'ln llaKabbalah, p. 63. l'u,dl'S



R imOllim was completed in I S48, Ind fim publW>n.l in SaWniea, I ~84. The rnpOn~um of R. Yitzchak de Lattes was written in ISS8. Slra[sMln HaKabbalair was fi'lt publi"'ed in Venice, 1587. This, then, appeaA to be Ih e time !hil mis lI~d ition was in cirt:ulalion. II is Ihus tauJ,h! llIal an Inonymous M islrnalr i. IUbbi Meir, T0s4ra is Rabbi Nehemiah, Si/ra is Rabbi Yehudah. Sifrj is Rabbi SlIimon (~r Yacha;), Ind all follow Rabbi Aki~, Sanlrftirin 860., f~n Slrmralr Gaon (Jcf1.Isalem, 1972), p. 27. Also !Itt Gillin 67a, Ra"'i , ad loc. "O/zar,' A"", Rabbi Nallsan 18: 1, TQ.l'fia. 1:2, A mi"'nall of Rabbi Aki~ is men· tioned in StJnlrmrin ):4 (27b), "J'os,fia, Maaser Slreni 2: 13; SlriT /laSlririm RabbaiJ 8: I, Koheln Rabbcllr 6:2. This is appamHly related to the Mfi'lt Mislrnalr: which we find in Edu)lOl 7:2. Gillin 5:6 (SSb). Nazir 6:1 (34b). See Maharilz Otay«, lOnla S3b. BfTa/dwl 47a, Slrabbal ISa. &kJrorol Sa, Edu)IOI 1:3. See Rambam, introduction to M islrnalr, introduction to lad. See Mahari tz ChI}"I)I, Slrabbat 6b. See nOie 62. Ram~m, introduct ion 10 Mislrnah , inlroduclion 10 l ad; 1lhu,,"11 Sheriralr Gaon, Cf }i'6amOl' 49a, Sanhftlrin Hb, Minac/rol 7Cki, Clrulfn 601:>. Yerwhalmi, BmVcJwt 9:5 (681), Maharitz Chayot. SIraNJ.:s1 6b. See Saadia, p. 33, thaI &if'T Y~lziralr was likewise preserved. Ra"'i , Slrabbal 6b, "Mqillal. " Introduction to Yad. Chayot, Smah 20... from Bl'ushil Rabbcllr 9:5, 20:29. YmlSlralmi, Taanil 1: 1 (3a). See!kfrr ClraJidim 282, I I _II aI En/l'in lIb, S4b. Slrnei Lucitol HaBrii 3:23 la. Rashi , loc. eil.. BarD. Ml'l zia 92a, ·M~iIIat." Clrafigalr 2:1 (lIb). See my M ftiitarion aNi Kabbalalr, chapter 2: 1. HrlchaJOi Rabalai 1:1, TsIrUl'Q.llfai Gaon. in SlrmOl UTtIrUl'OI f{aGaonim (Lycit, 18(4). (m), quoled in HaKOIn QIl Ey;n Yaakov. ClsagifalJ 14b (.11); O/:ar lIaGaonim, CIrt'leIc lIanlruWJ/, Clragigalr, p. 14; R. C'hanlJN:1 on Clraglgalr 14b, Aruklr. "A. n"Y Slla}u~." For philosQ-pbn"'1 opillion, !Itt Yad, Yesod/o)'lIaToralr 2:12, 4:13; Rambam on Clrarigalr 2:1, M cnh Nffl/Clrim. introduction to pan 3; Or /laShI'm 4 :10 (9OiI, b). Rlmi (i n E)'in Yaako~). Clsagigalr lIb, "Ain Donirin " (C! Ra!.bi, Clragifalr 13_, 'SiITty Toralr, ' where he also includes !kfer Ytl: ira.'Jj. K.llar; 4:25 (Ha), !Itt KQI Yelrudalr , ad loc.: Or HaSlrem 4: 10 (9Ob), MnlOre[ Li'Clrakilmah 6 (23a, b).


64. 65 .

66. 67. 68.

69. 70. 71. 72.



74. We thus find thai a disciplf of Rabbi Yehudah the Prince npounded upon the Marta". before him, YmlJluJJmi, Cllagigalr 2: L (91 IOP~ 75 . SQ in '1l;utfol. Gilli" 56a "Agl"." Brl::ll0r0t 19. "INHat:h.· Cf Rash;, Sanhedrin 6~b, Shl/bl)Qt] I., £",.j" 63., PmK/Iim 68 .. Al1Jkh. "Tiltu..· T. 'Ium J. Ibn Ezra on (Xncsis n:9. where olher interpretations are found. Some say thaI il indicates a "lh= ~ar old calf," while olhers, "a calf a third Ille size of its mother." 76. Sanhedrin 6 5b. C[ Pesik/a ChadD/a. B~ HaAlidril$lr. 6:36, ..'lIkh Slales that they are the longue for the Saturday niabl

meal. 71. SanWr j" 67b.
78. Ihl,l5 find the lenn, "1'1.Iin of medicine" (hil/cJrol nt/iw), lmuha/m i, Y"""m(ll 8:2 (4 7.), Sifri (247) on Ikuleronomy 23:2. We al so find an npression, "h is a rule (ha/akllah) Ihal Esau hates Jacob," Sifri on Numbers 9:10. Ruhi on Genai!


B:4. 79. Baruloni, p. 268. Valican, Ms. 299. 661.. 80, Bartdoni, p. 103. Cf rad Ramah. Stl1lhed';11 6~b. 81. N" £/011;111, quoled in G. Scholem, HaKabbalah shft &1" H~I~I1IUllah V~SelrI Abrahal1l Abulafta (Jerusalem, 1965), p.
2 17.

82. nhUW1l Rashba 413. 83. Sallhedrin 17b. Pum~d;ta wa'I fOllnde<! ;n Ihe ~ar 2~~ , and stood for some 800 yean. 84 . CMgigah 13a. Cj Mah arua, ad loc NOle that on the bollom of Ihi, folio. Rav Ythl.ldah txpla ilt$ Ihe ChuhmaL 8S. 5« Rl$hl ,h, ad loc. 86. See nole 34. 87. Shabbal 1~6a. See nOle 30. See chapter 3. note 38. 88. Kiddl4l1ill lIa. Some sa y Ihal lhis NallH: is the rssence of MaaHh 8"n hil, TOM-f«, Chagigah lib "Ain Donllin.· The 42 leller name i, actually ~rived from the finl verses of Gcnnis, ..,., Zoha, I:JOa. r;l<unry 7-eJtar 13a. l'PIi)IG/t 37b, $LIn HaKanah (Cnr.cow. 1894), 88.&, Pa,dn Rjl1lonjm 21: 13. It is silnifieantto nOle Ihalthe inil;al letten or MaaHh B"~.Jhit, Mem Ikl , spell 0111 Ihe number 42. 89. Slrabhal 4la. 90. Ibid. 12a. Sola!! 33a. 91. Clragjgalr 11&. 92. Rash; staIn thai Ihe lexi of lfakJuJIOI Rabatai was the n.sence of Maauh Marko.a, Rash; (in Eyi n Yaakov) on CMgiga/l lIb.

See note 72.



93. See oote 16. Also see kyah Mrlrrm",.. "ZcItar 2:J8 7b; Tikll~ ZciJar 70 (l12b end). [t il I;anifkantthat most commentaton on S,f" Y~zirah. ~en th~ u latc a, R. Moshe Botril, ","110 li"ed over a a-ntury aflCT the 7..(J/rllr ,,-as published, do nQ1 quote the Zohar. 94. Chllgigah 13,. 95. f"ushalm i. Sanhedrin 1: I 3 (4 I I). Bunhil Rabbah 39: I 4. & 4:4, 1lJl)chul1I(J. L«h L«ha 12. Thil is also stated anon)· in Sifr; (32) to o-.utuooomy 6:S. AI\:H Rabbi Nalltan 11: 1, Rabbi Ela;ar said mil",. Ihinp in Ihr namr of R. Y ben 2imn:t. if asi 8fflJiJIol 32b. 96. Midrruh Trlrillim 3:2 (17.). Bracketed pOrtion is II<)t in III edi_ tions.The,.., i. al..,. tCKhin, Ihlt God placed Ihe s,kt" Yrlzirall in the Torah. see IHt lIaMidrash 6::J(i. 97. Sanhn/ri" 65b. 98. CIIII!in 122a end. 99. Sara Alnzia 85b. See below. chlpler ) , notc It. R, Zeira also had his throal wit Ind ",-al mirKUlousty I"CIUrT«ted, Mqillall 1b. 100. Barceloni, p, 268. q IHt HaMidrasIl6:36, 10 l. Sa"lItdri" 65b. Rash i saystlu!.t they ""«:nTiplilhcd this usin, the S(frr Yrt:ln:th, .100 xc Raavad on 6:4, Mrlzarr[ LlChakllmah 27a, b. The,.., ill question as to whethcr Ihi. ""as an actual CTealion or In illusion, if Yad Ramal ad Ioc. . Barceloni. pp. lQ2, 103, 1lIlu>'Qi Radba: ):405, IHt YQ.J(/ on Y"",,, l)mh 179, Tshlll()/ Ma/tllr$hlJl 98. Some Iuthoritin here ...,..d R.bbah instead of Rava. sec Yaako~ Emdin. ad Ioc.• M1fJOlios on Bahir 196. 102. Ballir 196. Cf Al'OdallfaKtxksh 3:9: Hillel orVerona. 1IIgmulry HaNrfi':Jh (Lyck, 1174), 9b, RiUIlban on ~nesil 2:1. 10). Cf nhll>'Qi Chadram fui 93. 104. PeIi}'Qh 2c: ~He ,..,"ened his name (RItt ) and c,..,aled (BIU).~ lOS . Ta"um 1. on (knesi. 1:27. The lum 612 il aoo the numerical VIIIII<' of Bril, mean;n, covenant. See below 1:3. 1:8. 106. It il lianificant lhat, when ..Tiuen !.h;. way, AbBCadabra CQn_ lains the word BRA (Bal'll), mean;n, to Creale , while the .... maininl kttcrs add up to 26. thc numerical value of tile Tetravammalon. Abrac;odabra is usually written in dC5CCndinl order, and similar devices arc found, sec Rubi, Al'Odah Zarah 12b, Ratiel 40b (139). Ora on )'"/tirair 2:4. 107. ~lUloni, p. !o2. 108. QUOlw;n Barcelon;, p, 104. Also see nOle 72. 109. SalOOn Ms, 2 18. p. described in Ohd Dawid (Oxford , 1932), p. 27 1. Also see L Zunz, Lillffmurgndidlu (Berlin, 186~), p.



32, Nehemiah Alolli. /laShit"/r HaA1IOtramii sllel HaMi/OffIll B~~fn' Yn zirah. nmirjll 1:69 (Jcruykm. 1912). Cf A. Mif1D, Sinai 65: 184 ( 1929); Id, m.. raJ/nil HaPiulim (Tel Aviv, 19S8),

flP. L 7.23. 110. See 80mta INSlrmuei HoKa/IJrI, be&innina of chapter S. III. Bu,l,{idiJw Rabbuh 14:12. All the KVell' in St-/n Ytl zirall are abo me.nioned in IlII(lthcr early Midrash. Pirkey Rabbi Elieur i8 (4Jb, «a). see below 4:1.
Ill. 1i>mirill, p. 21. t Ll. Donash ibn Tamim, Commrlliary 011 &1 Yn zjralr (London. " 19(2), p. 65; &rttloni , II. 138. See above, note 68. 114. Yaakov ben Nissan, Comml'"I<uy a ll Sefer }~lZiroll, Munich, Ms. 92;20, quoted in Gokl$chmidt, p. 30, note 4. liS . See RMl .. dn £dude,- Jui," (REJ ) 10S:1n .. 1l6, 140; nmirin, p. ! l. 116. QlZIlr Ed", HaGan,,: «bford, Ms. Or 6(6). p. 78b. 117. Saadia, p. 34. 118. Barceloni, pp. lOS , 116, 211 ; Oo .....h , p. 4 9. 119. Ramak, Comnvnlar.l'On &fer Y nzirail 1:13 (Jerusalem. Ms. S· 2646:2), p. lOb. C/ G. Scbolml, Kilwy }ad BaKgbbaJah (Jer\Iulem, (930), p . 93, Also s« Prulks Rinwni", 21:16. 120. Introduction \0 I'Frwh HtlGro on $4"n lH"D:n.iUlg (Vilna, 1843). p. iv. Th~Gra used \~n Vl!'niCllIi, choosing that of the Arl, but oonulinl cemin ~m)n in the printed editions.

Chapter One
1. 2.


6. 1. 8. 9.

Xuzari 4:25 (4 31-44a). Ruvad, ad lac.• Tilam'Y Zellar Chadash llle. Peliyajr 213a. l'rIrdn Rimonim 12: 1, MfMI ShMri", 5:2:6 , Elz Clmim. Sluulr HgT ul~", 2. AVOl 5:1. BaMidoorRabbdh 14: 12. Rosh HtJSlmMh 321, M~ilIgh 21a, ZoMr 1:1 5a. 1: 16b, Tikl/llry ZoMr 12 (2 71). See note 185, Ruvad, ad loc.. Peliyajr 49c. Bghir 106, Ban;e1oni, p. 106, Tikunry Zclr.lJI")O (7S&). See chapter 6, not~ 57. C/ Isaac of Acco, ad lac.. p. 19i1i. Barttloni, p. 107. Isaac of Acco, Otzgr eMi", (MOKOW, Ms. GuenzburJ 77'), p. 11 lb. Cf. Btlhir 147. TlKre is thus & U2di.




I L.



14. 16.

tion that God placed the ~for > nzirWr in the Torah. !Itt Bn HaS4" 6:36. Clraka",on/ (in Wana.w, 1884 edition), 661. Also see 01;01 DtRabbi Akib<:. end of Bet. hliyah 2d . Reclnti (Lvov, 188()), Ik , 1fJ/f'Tf'1 IItJTiJw, ClI~lo< IItJScd 2. Su R. Y<*f Tzayyach, E~" IIrzSltoIttJm (Jen.asaJem. Ms. 8' 416 ), p. 241. The ~M:ral formuLa for the amoy dUeussed below. 1:2, is I I n- I, and 32 is OM: of the only i'IO"1:n of two thaI ful· fins Ihis ...·hen " i. In inle",r. ZoIlar 2:3 11 bollom. Su CIIOlem TtJk)rnil (A msterdam, 186S), p. 101, Hirrh on p".]ms 119:3S. Also see Ramban on ~kr }'tf:iralr (Jerusalem . Ms. 8' )30: 28, published by G. Sd.oIem, Ki rJ'tJ/ &for, Vol. 6. 1930), p . 4{)212, Isaac of Acco on MIn Y nziroll 28313 . Su Raavad. S..dia, Ramban, ad /oc. ALso see ~is 18:1 4 , Exodus 1S: I I. 8: 18, Leviticus 22:2 I , Deuteronomy 17:8, Judces 13:18, Psalms 139:6, and commentaries ad kx" especially Hirrh. ZelttJr 3:193b.
BtJlri r 141 , Matlmclrn Elo11"l (Mant1.ll. 1558). p. 83b, Tiklin<'Y ZoIltJ' 32 (S7a), 19 ,"Ib). &llri, 14 1. Su ClrtJgiralr 13a, Ecclesiasticus 3:21. Note that this is attributed to s"n Sirah, who, accord;n8 to tradition, was

15. Ibid., Priiyalr JO..

18. 19.

involved with the Sd'er Yelzirah . Reprdinl qUOIinS from s"n Simh, see Ritva (in £),111 Yaakoo ), IJawJ Balra 98b. Slratlrq Oralr 10. Also see Tikullq 7PltJr4 2 (Sib).
RtJzirl9b (22 ). A>(JJ 4: L. Ari, ad 10f;" SIIatl, MatlmtJ"Y CIwZtJI (Tel Aviv. 196 1), p. )la, 68a. Cf. Ralhi on Exodus 3 1:3. 7bldcl Yatlko» Y <U(f. PPk"tky (Warsaw, 1881), p. 18b. q uoted in ~fn Batll Slrt'm :tlw, Xi Tnzr, note L. Tamld 32a. See note 37. Ibn Ezra on Exodus 31:3, Hirrh on Genesis 4 1:33. Slratlrq OrtJlI 8. Also see Tllr, Orad CIw;m S. Pardn RimCflim 27:27. Su ROl e 65. B"akJtci 6 I a, Tikll....,. ZoIuJ, Db. 14b, I 7• . See note 8_ See chapter 6, note H . Also see ZoIrar 2:201 • . Wllt'n the ..'Ord ClwkllmtJlr is spelled QUI, it adds up to 613 , R"zid 12a. The letten of the word CluIkJrmtJlr also spdl oul Ktx>clr />ftJlr, "the Slren&th of Wh",w ZoIrar 3:28a, 3:23Sb. Tilaurt'y Zohar 69 ( I02b). The word Koocll, hQv.~er, h... numerical val..., or 28. When the final leiters are counted, there: are 27 !ellers in the

20. See Ramban, p. 4{)2.

23. 2" . H. 26.

27. 28.



Hebrew alphabet. Tile number 28, then. n:p~nts Ihe level above this. which cannot be cxpres~ with lclle~ Peliy<lh 2b. 2~. See Hirsch on Genws 26:5.47:22. hodus 1~:25. 30. Thus, ..Titil\l by (",.ina i. called Cltak TokIrOl, Gillin 20a. Slrll/ Anlkil, Ora,," Cha;m 32:18. Also 5« OIzar Chlli,., 202b. Maarrldrl'l EIohUl 1~6b. Gra on !:l0 . 31. Cj Isaiah 10: 1. etc. 32. Zcha' !:IS •. Zohar HaRakia. M ikdash Mrll'kA ad f{)C;. . Slu,/a Tal 6 (Hanau. 1612), p. 45b fT., Em6 11aMndch (Am$ludam, 1653), 6b. LikUl~ 1/xall (R. Shneur Zalman of Liatli), B,chu/roUJi, 46b. Also 5« Razial Ila (27), R. Oananel on Clragigah 11&. Cf. Lil<lIll')' MolltmJn 64. AI..., 5« chapler 2, nOle


33. See Bahir 2. Ramban on Genesis 1:2. 34. Yil2chak Sagi Nahor, Yilzchak OeMin Aoco (301121 ). Ramb;ln A, • I , R. Ychuda h o.ayil. M inellal }r/rudah. on MaarrlQrl'l


£fohlll, 196b. Prli}'oh 2c.

36. SanMdrin 65b. See Introduction, note 97. 37. See nOle 23.
Baal Shem Tov. QUOted by R. Y~sachar B<:r o f Zlotchov. Mevaser Tudrlc. BHf'1lril (Dubno, 1798); Quoted in &J Baal tr Sh~m T"". Rt'tlr 8. 39. ~ Bl'rtShil Rahbalr 12:9. M idflllll lM-iIIim 11 4 :3, Ramban on Ger>e$is 4J:20, Tos4ot YQItl To_ on Surollr 4; 5. HaGra, tOrn. /Hair 276: 19. Also ~ Ra~hi on Genesis 2:4, Pulms 68:5. M idnulr 1Millim I I 3:3. It""';n I 8b, Ibn E~~ on Exodus 15:2. Rashi on EIodus 17:16. R.dak on Isa iah 26:4, Mincha! Shai on Psalms 94:7, 118:S, KUZ4ri 4:3 (91). MorrlJ Ntl'WdIim 1:63. 40. Eliezer of Wormes A. R.mlwln B, ad /0(.• from Sidra Rllbba ~Btr~slril I, in Balry Midrrlllu}{ 1;19. 4 1. Zo/,,~r 2:104b. 2:169b. 2:257b, 3:35a, Ti/n",1'}' Zonar 21: SlrlUlrry Oral! (Wana .... , \88 3), pp. 33a, JSb. 38.

42. Ramban A, Id Ioc:, 43. /HrakJwl JIb. Cj I Samuel 1:3. 44 . See Slraa ff}' Oralr 2. Also _ Mi)"r1.1r 2d, Ihallhis is Chakhmah
and Binah. AC"lually. ho .... ~ver, il i.lhrough 1M union of the 1""0, .... hich is Ihrouall Yesod. 45 . Balrir 17 1, Pardl'3 Rimonim IS. See Radbaz. Ma&en David, Dalet. 46. E,z Cllaim. Slraar A.iklr Anp;n 9; Cj 'Zohru 2:4b, 3: 131b. For viriOUS OIhe..- Oi>inions. ~ Rashi. Ibn E~~. Ramban. BlUllry T0s4ot. ad loc.• TOs.ifoi. Ra#J HaShanah 17b. "Silo/osl!.. · Sejer

ClrasMim 250.



41. $hoorryGanEden(Craco .... , 1881),2b. 48 . 1Os<>fot. KiddusJrl" ) b "INA.uar, " Kuzari 4:). Also see Leviticus 19:2, 21:8. lsaiall 6,). commenlaries ad I/X.• VaYi.l:ro RIJbIxlh 24:9. 49. Kuzari 4:2 5 (43b, 46b. 4 71). 50. OtiO! ~Rabbi Yilzchak (, 180] ), p. 3b, 4a. Cf. Girral £gC: (Hanau, 1613), 34a. 51. nhu..:N Ri.lJJ1r lS7, £ll'mah RalNIlal. £ yin KLJI 1;2; Radbaz. 1II1'1: udol /)()~id 2, Sham" £munim (HaKadmO/t) 2:64, 65, Ki~ Ml'leId! on Tiku1lI'Y Zohar 22 (64b) (Lublin, 1927), 94b

Sec SIt Chaim, Shatu Moehi" INTlI'II'm 5,8, Slraar Df1l.Jhq lfaT :rll'm 6, Shatu KiW)' lfaKavod S; Nalrar Shalom (in £I: Clraim, Tel Aviy, ]96(1, Vol. 3), p_ 170fT.; Gra on I:] (3a ). Sec cbapter 2. note 4 5. ~a' /:)/IJ_ Shi", Konwl! 15 (Warsa .... , 1883), 28&. AcroMinl 10 this. one could interpret Bl'limah, " .... itbout an)'lllina. ~ to india ne that Ibe vowels .~ .... ritten without lelten. lust lik.e the Sder Yetli .. b later .... rites, "Thrtt Mothen. AMSb,~ and ~Seven Doubln, BGD KPRT,~ he~ it writes.. "Ten Scfirot. witllou t anytbi na." In 1M li me of 1M Sefer Yctlirah, lhe~ "'.., no .... y of writ inl tbe vowels (see below, chaJl\er 2:5 ). Reprd illJ, tile ass;,.nment of the va_Is 1 Ihe Sefirol.. see 77ku"ry Zo/w, 70 0 (1 26a). f'prdn Rimollim I 9:4, 32:2. For other ')'lite m., I t t Ginal £gC: 66a lJ, SlroVran Sodot (Ko~tz. 1784). 74b; hrusJr HaNikkuJ (Pari., Ms. 774), p. 38b lJ Ras.h i. Ibn Ezn., RII~ ad Iot:., R_ Av .. bam ben Chiyall. H~ lIaNI'{n1r (LeipriJ, 1860), 3a, Chayit 2lia. Clruli" 891, Radak, S Mrashim, "BLM,· Ra:ift 8b, Ptlrdn Rimo"im 3:4. Ibn lanach. Shmulrim , "BUt,· actually qLlOtes Sefer Yetzin.h 1:8. AIO(l!ltt Appendix I, note S. Cf. Bacllya o n Deuleronom y 33:2 7. Yit:u:baI< DiMin Acro. ad Iot:_ 38Sf I. , Eliezer of Worm eS B on 2: 1, Raavad on 1:10, Ramban B on 1: 10_ Also see Abraham Abulafia, MaftNCIr HaRaJI)'Q" ( VIIi· can, Ms. 291), p. 300.. Cf. ClraJwmoni 661'_ Berakbot 55 •• Raavad on 1: 10. Sec Introduction, notes 34, 86. See Tdlillim 11'1:36. Cf. R. Schneur Zalman, Likull'Y Amarlm, Shaar IfIJYi(lruJ VeIJI'Emunah I. £ 1: Chaim, Shan, HaKlipot 2; Likl/II')' Ama,im, &for Shd Bl'lkmim 3. Slrablxll 5Sa, Bl'rl'jlril RIJb/';ah 81:2, }'ml:slra/mi SanlrNrl" ]; 1. from Je~milh ]0: 10. Sec Ras.h i on Job 28:27 , who quotes thil



57. 58. 5'1. 60. 61.

63 .

in tile name or Serer Yetzirall. One ruson why lllese letters are called MOlhers may be' beell.l~ in Hebrew, mother is Em, speUed Alef Mem. Ihe firsl IWO of IIIeIe Ihree fundamental Iette.,. Sudil IU'tJ$I;luln Um(}l, see Appendix I , nOle 14. 64. See Minc~at Slwi. ad loc. Also see Bmlk.iJ(}l HI, BaMidba, RabbaJi 10:4, Bahi, 104, ZoIrar 3:29Ob, Tilnmry ZoIra' 69
6~ .

66. 67. 68.

69. 70. 7 L. 12.






R;uvad on 1: 10, 2:1, Pa,dn Rlmonim 27:27; Yilzchak Sali N.hor 287. Ylzcllak DiM;n A<.:W 38.1/~; Maarrldln ElollIlI S3b. For reason why they are nOi called ~fllhers,M see Or HaGanliz on Bahl, 9S, S~lUlr Gan Ed"n 10.:1 . Yillchak Saci Nailor, hne 13. Pa,dnRimonim 1: 1. See Bahl, 124, 138, 188, 193. See Exodus 9:3), 17: I I, Levilicus 9:22, 16:21, Numben 27:23, Deuteronomy )4:9, 1 Kines 8:22. 8:38.2 Chronidc$ 6:12. Sam:loni. p. 141. Pardn Rlmonim 1:1. Cj Ruhi on Genni. 1~:IO. See Lona Version 6:8. Abraham Abul.fia, Otza, Ed"n HaGanlil 4b, Mafinxh lIaRaYJIOfI Hb. See nole 9. See SOIah 7;6, Bahi, 109, 123, Shaar lIaKatIQflol (Tel Aviv. 1962). Vol. 2, p. 263. Cj Maa,,,kh~ E/011111 147b. The lonlue and palale are al$O male and female. see Ell Clwim. Shaa' MaN U'MaD 13, p . 2S9. ShlUlr Rashbi (Tel Aviv, 1%1), p . 296. The fiYe Ind fi'l: Ilso aUude 10 Ihe fiye pllonetic families and the five primary vowell, see hrush lIaNikkud 39b. See below 2:3. Abnham, Si'fu lIaChnhi'k(Jewiih Theoloaical Seminary. M,. 1801). p. 9• . Thi, is quoted in ShlUlrry Kniushah, Pan Four (British Muesum , Ms. 749), p. 121. Rambin on Exodus 30: 19. II is for a very simillr reason lhat Ihe hands are wuhed Ixfore prayer, see Bml/cJr(}l 6Ob. nhll""l Rlnhba 191. See DnushOi HaRan #8 (Jerusalem. 1974), p. 128; Avodal lIaKod"sh 4:25. Cj B"rrsllil Rabbtlh 70:8. Also sec Numlxn 1:89. Abarbanel on 1 Samuel 3:3. This may Ix Ihe relson why God was $IIi d 10 Mdwcll.mona the ChefU'tJ$,M t Samuel 4;4, 2 Samuel 6:2. He is .Iso uid \0 Mride I Cherub,~ Psalms 18: 11, Cj Tarlum, tJd loc. See MlUlrrlch"l EloIIlIl 163b. AvodtJI IIIJ.K1Jdn/t 4:25. Cj Yoml 9b. TikllMy ZoIttJ, Chat/ash 112b. qlloted in 1'rlnin Rlmcnim 21:20 "K"ruvim. " See Yoma Ha. Cj CXne5is 17;12.

82 .

84. 8S.

86. 3 1.




92. 93.

95 . Wi. 91 .


99. 100.

Maha ral. Tifrrrt Yisron 2. q Ra mban. bal JlilAdam (i n KilW)' Ramba".leT\lo,a~m, 1%(4). Vol. l. pp. 302. 303. ~ Ion reprncnl Iht' Univenot of BeriYlh. Partin Rlm{)fIim 1:1. BeriYlh. ho_~er. is the le>'d of Nohamah . Slra"1I{N Ib, YaJ, In u"" Hiyalr 4:11 . Yor, 1r Dtalr 18S:4: Tikku",y ZoItar 69 (I lOa). W" OaJidim 113. SIrQ'.'I/OI18b: Zohar 1:9()b. 1:112a. 1:IHa. 3:431. 3:~61. }:246a, Zchar ClraJllJlr III. s.e., R. Yi ltthak Santa •. Wat Em, t (Berlin. 1781). p. 44b. Also see VaYil:ra Rabbah 3 1:4. Abraham Abulafia .ISO wriln Ihal the covenant circumcision mull pn::a<k Ihal of Ihe longllC . .... hich is the Tooth, _ soun;cs in nole n. !laredo ni. p. 141. Ramban B on I: 10, Partin Rimonlm I: I. Sec Ixlow. 2:6 . Ilamban A. YI~dtak $ali N.hor. aJ Ioc.. MaarktkJln E/oIrul 36a, 82b. Chayi1411. 47a, 113a (Pa=), Partin R im()rlim I:S. PrmJn R imOIlim 3: I. Sec YitlChak Sqi Nahor, Yi/x!rak DiMi" A«o (387). Ra mban A. aJ Ioc., Recanti on EKod us 3 1:3 (ISc), Pardn RimQltim 1:6. Abrah am Abulafia statn Ihat this is relaled 10 Ihe leach in, Ihal Ihe MarUvah ca n only Ix Ilu"'t to one ""ho is -wix. undersiandini with hi. knQwkdp'." Ollar Etkn lIaGanuz 7a. CIrOIt'm Thkh"il. p. SO. Hinch on Psalms 7: 10. Btl HaOllar p. 186. Cj Ramban A, ad /oc. Examplo of this include Shoar,y Orah; Pardn R lmOM;m. Shaw Arkht)' JlaKinliyim; Kt!hJlla/ Yaak".... One eln also u"" tile differen t divine names associaled with the £efirol.. see brio .... 6: 6. One can also use tile Telrasrammaton willi thoe vowels associaled wilh Iht' £efirol. s« noll' S4. This is diKUssed atlenllh in my M nJi/arion anti Kabh<Jlah. Sec Chol,m Thkhnil, p. 104. BOIh",-ordt, Bac/ra" and Clraka.r. occu r in J~remiah 17: 10. Yiluhak Sali Nailor. line 70. A .imilar uprnsion is found in Gillin 39b. RtprdillJ the meaninl of th~ _rd 8Qri, K!C: Raslli . ad Icc · VtI'~Emidli. I Kinp 3: 13. lui.h 4:5. Daniel 8:11. C[ Psalms 33: 14. See Sod,y Razya (Bilsorcy. 19J6l. p. 32. C/ Bahir 24. Zohar 2:37 •. A.ooa/ HalG1dulr 3:4 2. Shiur J(m"ah 2 1. C[ Morn. Nn'uchJm l:ll. Ramban A. ad l(le. (40111). See chapter 2. nol~ 76. Th i5 is based 011 Exodus 15:17. wheu the word Makh"" i. read as M'*lifa" . See Rubi, ad 1(Ie.. YtrWJhalml, &rokltm 'U. This leaches tt..l t~ T~m plc o n hi'" parallels I~ Temple {Btt



HuMiMash) belo .... The Temple is also called MllkJIO/!. sec note '.IS. ,I[alchon is .1'«1 On~ ofille ..,vell heavens, sec chapter 4, note

tOl. Radac, ad loe. Also sec lI'l'feslr lIaCllaim I:D, in Hagalr ·U'uFi. • 102. See Mnffhla AI:ilu/ 5, Partin Rimoltim 16. 103. The Universe of Yetzirah pal1l11els Ihe six Sefil'(>l: Chesed. ~vul1lh, Tifcret, Nellach, Hod, Yesod, Makhall is the si~1h of th e seven heavens. and hence. parallels Vnod-. 104. Ora. ad loc. See Keirilal raakc~ (lvov, 1870), Vol. 2, p. 22&. Also 5tt TikulI~ Zchw 1Sa, b. Also !ott note 109. lOS. This is obvious in the Saadia Venion 2:1. 106. Cf Ps.alms 11 1: 10, Bahir 49, 103, 142. 107. Chatigalr 141, Sanhedrin 93b. Raslli on Exod l.tll 30:3. lOi. Shaar /{aPnukim (Tel Aviv, 1962), p. 5. Cj Slr=r~ Oroh 63b. 109. Siddur ffaAri: Siddur R. Shtlbatai(LvQv, 1866). p. 67b: Siddur !WI Y"ako.' (Slavita, 18(4), p. 156&, Siddur R. Ashar (lyov, ] 788 ), p. H ... See Shoor lIaKa.anOf 2:208 . 110. Midrwh millim 31:6 (120a), 78: 19 (178b). II I . Cj Chayit 41b. The &firot contain the tssmce of tbe Di ... ine, see I'Drdn Rimonim 4: 7. 112. TiIne nercisa are aCI\lally describn'l by R. Eliezar ofWormes, Sodi Ra:ia, p. 41 . 113. Ramb.on B. ad loc .. Y,/zclralc SaKi Nalror. line H. 114. SIrIUlff)' Oralr 37b. 38a. '15a. Yiuchak DiMin Aceo, p. 3l1l1. nOle 109. I H. SanlrMrin Il Ia. 116. Ibn Ezra on Genesis )7:5, Gra on Psalms 22:29. 117. C/ Y "rushalmi. Nfdarim 9: 1 (2'1a), Riunban on \)!,uleronomy 22:6. s../I'r lIa Clrinuch 545. Shoml'r Emunim (HaKadmon) 2: II no. 4, Nr/esh lIaClraim 2:4. Also see Job 22:), Psalms 16:2, Radak, ad loc. 118. \)!,ulmmomy 26:15, Jeremiah 25:JO. Zechariah 2:16. 11'1. Radak ad loc.. Midr~It rrllillim 9fr. 10. Barceloni, p. 198. See Lonl Venion 4:2. Also see Bl'rnhil Rabbalr 68: 10, Slt'moI Rabbalr 4S :6, Ruhi on Exodus 33:2 1. IlQ. See Hirsch o n Lr ... ;tK:uS 1'1:26, Deuteronomy 33:27. Psalms 9(1:1 ; C itOltm Taldl1!iI. p. 111. Othen say Ihat lhe rool of the word is Eyin, meaninl eye. sin~ it is the place from wbich G<.>d looks down althe world. Ibn Ezra on Psalm5 90: 1. 12 1. Isaiah 65:11 , P.almJ 83:18, 92:8, 132: 14. See Yitzchak SaJi Naltor, lint 100. Also see C1wtl'm Tllkirnil. p . 200. 1l2. See 81'resliil Rabbah 3:7. Morffl Nrvuchim 2:30, Jilinm 2:18.




123 . Yi/zc!lIlk Silgi Nalux. Ra mban. Yi/uhak DiM"" Act'Q. ad /0(., O/zar EJ~l1 lIaGlUluz 8a. Sec IIt khalot Rabalal l : I. Cf TOYfot. Mqillah lb, " I't'Od. " 124. Bahir 88. Cf C/tolnn TakJrnil, p. I II: R. Shlomo Pl ppenheim, Ytfiot Shlomo, Vol. 2 (Roedelheim, 1831). p. 44<1: W~ltc iTM1". Slrtmol lIaNirdDflm BaTal1acJr (New York, 195). p. 136. Also see Ta'lum, Radak. on Isaiah 21:S. 12~. lIVd!lllOf I: I. S« SiJ(l(Jrt)' Orllir 31b, 'Ma. 126. ~ commenUilon dislin&uish belWffn Bazl2k and the more common Barok. which is lhe usual word for liJblD ina. Some say In.t & zllk means a opart:. Chll/<t",.Qlti, R.ulak on Ezekiel, and in SWlUhim. Othen say In.t il is sheelli&htnin.. Barceloni, p. 131. S« RasM, Ma ha n llano., Abarbo.nd on Ezekiel ]:1 4. ]n 111_ mudicallan&ul&e. Bazat aiel", ~IO can" or Mlhrow." see Bat/ll Bat ra 7la, So.nhftirill IOSb. ~ Tal mud intefl)relS Bazat 10 mean the sparks sIIootinl oot 0( an oven. CJraWJr 13b. 127. Bnnhil RahOOh 50:1. Accord irli 10 the first intefl)relltiOl1, Ihe word & zllk comn from Ihe word ZiW, munin& I meteor. A ZiW is liso a bubble, Cj Donash. Th e Ilabbalisls also say that lhere is a heaven called BllZllk. see Emd HIlA/dndl, Bmya/l 12
( l1la).


I/llKodch (Londot! , 19 11). p. Ill. This is very mueh like lhe Abub)'IJ menlioned in MdJr iltll on Exodus 20:4, Cf Batuloni. p. 14. Th is is an imace seen in "'·Iter. see Nftillrim 9b, Toyfta Nllzir " :7, S\>Ch imacn .... ere worshipped. as we find in Al'lXiah Ll,ah "7a, Ydamdmu, 11",0.">, M{)l, Ql,IOled in YalkUl Sh.illWlli 62 on JudVS 7: 2, 1IrukI!, Bmw. Such reflections were possibly u~ for id oialrouS medilalion.

129. Cj Job 28:3, Psalm. ])9:22130. C/ Hinch o n Genesis 4 1: I: SiJnnOf HaNirtklfi m SheBaTh~h. p. 290; C/tol~m ThkJrllit. p. 198. The ZoIrw mtn thai Ketz de nOles evil, ZOOar 1:62b, EI: Clrllim. Slrllll' HaYarmcJr S. Wltcn Acher b«ame a n Ip<KUt~, M '•.-" " u.;d 10 have CU I off (kal:mz) his plantings. 131. Shlomo Pa ppo:nheim, I'maI Shlomo. Vol . I (Diherenfunh, 17'''), p . 4b. 132. R. Do~ BIIer, Magid o f Mezntch, Imrt)' Tzadikim (Zil imar. 19( 1), p. 2Jd. lB. In Shaart)' Tzian il i. vocalized IS D<lbro. 134. Miri,ash Ltk4dt TO" lb. See ToidOi laako>- IbM/. Yitro (Warsaw, ]88 1). S-tb. Tuna (92br, Tza/MI PIUl1leach (Bb), KRln Shem T (Kehol. 1972), p. 12 1. Sec Abno.ham Abul.fia. Get at/ IfaSht mOf (Oxford , MI. 1658), 9~a; Yosrf Tzayaeh , Ewc1l IfllShoJmm 94b.

135. Raavad. They are allO said 10 M M""lth MctatrofI, and 10 "retum M run with Sanedlfon, ZoItar 3:229b. Yitzd\ak DiMin Aceo, p. 392. 136. AnoEMr possible inslance is Eul iel 43:2 7, see Rash i. Radak, ad loc. 137. B~lrll RIJbbalr SO:I. See Radal. Slrmulrim. RIJTl:IJII. Cf MouIr. NnllCirim 3:2. 138. ISiliah 2 1: 1. 29:6, Num~ ... 21:14. TafJIum J., ad loc.; Proverbs 10:25, Nahu m 1:3. Psalms 83:16. See chapter 6, note 46. 139. The Tal"Jum t",n~ales Ihi' as Alai . ..... hich means destructive, Stt ~IJJ'im 7:7. Rambam. ad loc.: P roverbs 10:25. Cf Radak, SIr"lWIim. "Slff. " Shemot I/IJNirda/im Slr f 801/J1IIKh, p. 243. 140. Hinch on Exod us 2:3. 14 1. Cf Ra::f'" 36a (123 ): MId,cult Kolllm (in Otza' Midrruhim). p. 257. 142. See Gra, Malbim . on Nahum 1:3. Psalms 83: 16. Hirsch on Exodus 2:3. The Midrash states Ihal SufoJr comes from Ihe word Ka.Jtif, meani na M white,M sin..,., it mak~, peOple blanch in fear, Sh;, HaSlririm RIJbbalr on ):4 . 143. See Abarbanel, ad foc. 144. Chllgigah 2: 1. See introduction, nOle 72. 145. Also see Je",miah 4: 13. See chapIn 6, note 46. Abo ~e Saadia. 146. This opposes Ihe philOSOphef1, who call God Ihe "Fi ...! c.use. M See M oulr Nro'uclrim 1:69. A cause-c:ff«t rdationship can only e ~ist within the frame",-on of time, and God is above time. 147. See Maouklre/ E/oi!U1 36a. 148. Cf Yittdulk DiMin Arro, p . 318. 149. To prove that llK-y all rnttt al a sinde point ......e ean imaJine the Ihrtt.-dimen.ional C(ln linuum as the $urfa<le of a four· dimensional hypersphere, Wilen tile hyperspher-e becomes infi· nitely Jal}e, Ihe C(ln linuum becomes flat. Still, all oUlsoinllina, mal in, Mveal circles" on Ihe hypersphere . mttl on its opposite side. Jocidentally. this has nothing to do with the curved spa..,., of Itneral relativity, sin..,., the entire discussion here assumes In idealiled lbl 5pa<le. ISO. See M orell Nro'ucllim , introduction to pa n 2. No. 16; Amud llaAvodaJr. VikulKII SItceI U·Mnlti •. No. <}9. 151. Cf Slrabbar 89a, B~hil Rabhah 48: 11. 1H. R. Moshc Luual1O, Piu:!...y Clroklrmall VaDaat No.3; SMfo.1/J1 3: I (481). 1H. 1bIdai Yaako>- Yosd Val~~ (1 7a). 1~4. ZoJrar 1:4. 155. &nshir Robbah SO:2. Tal"Jum. Rash;' o n Genesis 18:2, ZoIrar 1:1271.



156. Itmid Rl mQIf;m 6:6. See nole ISO. I Sl. Amud llaA>Odah (Chemoviu, 1863), p. Sk. oa. 5#" Cluuidim BO. Sodr)' Razla, pp. 9.10. Cf. ZoIla, UOlb. I S9. See lq.Yh S/ra'ak on £'Z Chaim. Siwa' Mati U'MaD 4. p. 192. 160. N~fosh lIaClraim 1:10. 161. See Slrlu, Kamah 23. 162. 1M MezTitcller Mauid uses I. similar idea with reprd 10 bRei, sec Maggid iH'Ia'QtI u)iJak<w (JerusaJem, 197 1), No. I , 123. 161. ZoIwr I:Wb. BolTiI on 2:1. q: Emutl(Jf Vt~ 6:4. AltO sec MlUlrMkJrn £/oIIul 16b. 164. See (in.. tuJ 1 See ShtkktlIlQ/(Qdl':$It, pp. 12J-124. 1M ZalrQr, 0(. /tx. (il. , Ill.., indiCIIIO:S Ihat one should contemplatc thc flame. 16S. Gn.. ad 10(. This i. thc ClIuhm.o.l secn by EzeUd. 166. O/zQr Ed~n lIaGQ"uz lOa. 167. S haarry Orah 68b. Thi. i'lhe lc"cl of Bin.h oonKiousnr:ss. 168. Tikun~y 7..e1lar 17 •. 169. Mort''' Nrvucltlm !:SS, K~zari 2:2. l/Wlrim 2:22 . 110. Thus, music WllS oflen uKd 10 anain I. medital i~ see Yad. )fo;wdr)'lIa1lxaJr 7:4, baKd on I ~muel 10:S, 2 Kinas l:IS . Howevcr. thc KabbaliSis ... rilc, Ih.llt.c would be $Iopprd once they ll'ached the desired SlaiC. See SlulIJrt}' KtdwsltQlr, Part Four, p. I ~b, 17 1. See nolC 2 7. In. Sce AbJUam AbuLafia, & fcy lla7imif( Paril. Ms. 114). p. lb. Also sec Razril1 4b (40), Gn J/aShrmct 9Sb, £"'VI JlaSltoItam 119b. q: Ramban A, Yifuhak DiM/" Aoco, p. 192, O/zar Edtfl lIaGan .. z II., ZcJw, 1:2Ub. I 73. C/ragigaJr 14b. Set: Ottar Clraim pp. 72b, 13a., 200a. 174. This. I.ppell'Tltly, ""l.S lhe npcrience of R. Chaim Vital. see Sluuv lIaGiI,ulim (Tel Aviv. 1963). pp. 140, lSI . I H. AI the e nd of I. meditation. Abulafi. thul advises the inilialc 10 ~eat IOrllCthina. drink IOmelh iD.J, smell. plenant fraJl"l.n<:C , and let your spirit Ona: ..... in ll'tum 10 its shealh,~ Chll)'Q)' O/am lfaiJaJr (Jewi.h Th~1 So:m inI.ry, fob. 2ISS), p . ISb, in A. Jellinek. PhillWJflh.i~ und KalAUah (Lcipzia. US4), p.
176. q: Xdlar 1:6S•. 177. R. Yehudah AlBotini. S ../"m llaA liyah 10 (Jerul&lem, Ms. S· ll4). quoled in G . Scholcm. Kilvty lad BaKabb41ah. p. 228. 178. M orelt N~udrlm 3:49. 179. Prvdn Rimonlm l:S_ However, others I&y thll Ihis is Oakhmah, q: Ch.yil l71b. Also sec Ruiel lOa (23), Sodl Razl" p. I , M~toclt HaR"y)'Oft lib, {)tz"r £d~ Ha<riln ..z lib, 14b. K ..z"ri 4:2S (Hb. SBI) I&ys Ihuthis is PUll' spiri t.



180. See ilLrulllj. tJd /«. Also set Num~rs 24:2. I Samuel 10:10, 11:6. Cf 1:2. lSI. See ChtJiwnwlli. R. ElicU"!" of Wormes (3b), Ora. ad /()(. Also 'Itt R... id lOa (H). 22a (73). Compa~ this to Elz Cllalm. Slt=r TtJflffA ~, from Psalm H:31. Nl'f~1I HaCllaim 1:1~. 182. It is lhus tushl lhal Yesod of Ankh Anpin (Ketcr) CJllcnds inlo Ycsod of ur Anpin, " 'hich i1 the t",c Yesod, MtJYO SIItlD.!"im S: I: 16. Also 'Itt EIZ Chaim. Sluulr Drrwltry ABYA I (298b). Cf Prliygll 2d. I U. ~ Ora, ad Ioc. Cf &Iti, 141. Also 'Itt ~kr IItJRazim (Ed. M. Ma flOlius. Jcrusalem.J Wi7), p. 108, line 23_2 4. quoled in n m irill . p. 72. Also in SlIas/tall Ynod OltJm (Sasoon, Ms. 290). pp.61-71. 184. nlllll\X R/J.$1!/;a U I. Cf Bo.ltir 4. 18S. RQsIt HaShtJ"ah 321. See nOle S. 186. Ibid. See R. Do y Baer. Magid of Mczri lCh. Or Throh (~hol, New York, 1972). p. 21. 187. Also sec Ru yad on 2:3. Raziel 1011 (2S), SIIltJlt HaAliyglt (Jerusalem. Ms. 8"' 1302), pp. lib, 12a. qUOted by O. Scholem in Kl')'ClI~" 22: 166. 188. Rash; on ~odus 31:3 Slales Ihal Kno"'ledce (Dul ) i. RUKh HaKodesh. Kabbalislically. n Ul is Ihe con fluence be!.weflI Chakhmah and Binah . Allhoush Ruach H. Kodesh is derived from Kelcr. ;1 ;s manifesl in DIal. See Elz ChtJim . SlttJtJ, Dmlhq ABYA 1. 189. See Yiuchak Slanoy. ~fol Emn. p. 44b. Some interpret 1M first Ruach I(> ~ spirit. and the second to ~ air, see Xll zari .:2S (S8a ). RtJziei lIb (29), 12b (32). Also see Chlyit 1%. HI. Othen say thaI they I", Ch.khmlh and Binah. s« commentaries.
190. £u Cllaim. Shaar llaAkudim 8. S. 191. See Ell ChtJim. ShtlD.!" Alik 4, SIt=, &ri" ABYA 1 (356). 192. See Ari on ~" Yn zi'tJlI. Also s« Lik.lllq AmtJrim. ShtlD.!" lIaYichlld VrlleEmllllllh 4 (79b). 193. See Don..h. 194. Tik.llllq ZQIItJ, 17a. 195. ltudn RlmOllim 10:S, KtJloclt Pilcltq ClttJJcJJmtJlr II. I Wi. II also means writin&. see Job 19:24. Also see Partin 16:9, 27:27. Yitrchal<. Sqi Nahor, line 138.

197. Wc thus find . MGod's~ voice carves (choll.e v) names of fi",~ (Psalms 2~:7). There is an indication that Ihi5 ...·ord misht indiCItc a ' YD<:5thetic procns, Cf MdUrilla on ~odUI 20:\S. See ~Iow. 2:6. 198. Gra. ad loc.




199. Ell Olllill1. SIIIlIl' TIl"',A 5 (p. 70). Cf Bilhir 119. 'ZdI1l' I :12b. OtZllr IIIlKa'lOd (~tmar, 1926), p. 371, Recanti 3b. A similar id ea i$ found in Ecclr$iast icus 24:25-11. Abo sec Rlltirl I2b (1J ). 14a (39). Maa'l'khn £ 1011111 J2 (16 7b). Chayi! 19b. 16 ~b. Yitzchak ~ai Nah",. li m: 142.

200. Sh 'lI1/){ Rllbbillr 15:22. 201. Raavad. (JI/ loco
202. See romment on t: I 2. 203 . 1Il1lIlil7 •. q SM, IIIlSJJirim RIlhbah 1:19. 204 . Hna,. a per"S(ln cannot prophecy at will. sec lad. Ynadt',. 1I1l1/:1rol! 7:4. S. lOS , Kllzlln" 4:1~ ( ~ibl. Also..,., 1Iqy<>n IlIlN({nIt 3b. Cf lIn'a hil R"hball 4: I, S:2. SlI'mOi Rabbllh. 1S:22. Midrosh TdtWim 104:7, from Psalm. 104:3; YrrwYr,,[m;, ChagitaJr 2:1 (Sb). M'*1tillll on Exodus 15: 11 . 206. BaJJi. 2. Ra mllan on Genesi, 1:2. II~ HIlNQ'nli 2b, 31.; R.zie! 12. (32 ). Chayit SSb, £1: Chllim. Sh.IlIl' TbNTA S (p. 70). This i. intermed iate between actuali ty and ex istence. ..,., Ru,·ad . Introduction to $#fn )nzirWr 21.. 207. Thus., in the Tzimtzu m-<:onSlrlction, the centc:r 001. ""hkh i. Ma lkhul, came inlO exiotencc: llefo", the other Sefirol, sec Elz Cltll i"" Druslt 1 ;'-8f)I;'" 1.. I<U~llr 2. ' 208. Ramban , ad /0(. Also sec Rashi, ad lor:. Cf Chayil 19b. PIlrd.., Rimonim 3:5. 209 . Chayi! I9\). 20a. Emel< IIIlMt'leI<lt 6b. c: Ell Cllaim, I« cil.; Also sec Raavad of N , Razid 12b (32). 14a (39). 210. Pllrd.., RimQflim 3:5. 211. Pi.kry Rabbi EN<"Zt'r 3. SoII'mOl RIlbbIlIt 13:1. Cf Yoma 54b, B"nit ll Rabbtlh. 1:6, Rrdd 141. 21 2. Cf Rashi. Ml lbim. ad loc. , SAabbal Bb, 8ercIIil Rabbillr 98 :4. See my WIlIt'f'J # EIktI. (NCSY . New York. ]\11 6). p. 62. See Pirkey Rabbi Elie zer. E ll Chllill1. /0( 21). 8ah.i. 165. 2 1". EI~ Ch"im. /tx.. cil. 1 15. Raavad, OiZllr IIllSh ..m, ad /0(.. b ut 1100 sec lkJoa Xllmll 4b. 2 16. Cf So.adia Gaon. p. 125. 2] 7. Radlk, Ibn EZra. ad loc. 21S. Ralirl 1 I b (29): 1Iicltkllmoni. Raavad . Otuu HaSht'm Ild lor:., Barttlon i. p. 197. See Bn : 1l 4:6 (33a). lU.hi. Ild loc., -M ;" HIlM llyill1.- Yad. )tim TO>''' :I, & It;. 188. 219. Cf & MidbllrRabbali ]4:12. 220. SIt'mot RlJblxlh 1S:22. S« ZJJh.1lr 1:J2b, ]:lOlb. Rada l On Ark..,. Rllbbi Elitt" 4:J.



221. Chaglgah 14b, Rash ;, ud IIX_. OlZlU Oaim 2a. See Htillalr.x Rahata; 26:2. that the e~perien~ is like ~inl ....sllro by thousands of waves of "'~tCT. AII') s« fWd/'! Rimallim 23: 13 (27b).
ZoIrar 4{) (3Ob). See Rash; on (Xnesi, 1: 1, Noo.m E/imri,jd" Cll"....y St.."h (b-ov, 1&88). p. l ib. I(I/zan" 4:2S (Sla). See INrdcl! lIaSMm ' :S, 4:6:13. See M.lb1m on uekid 1:1. See Prurks RifOOllim 23:22 "Siva/." &hi/fat ya.;ko. "Storaj (2311), Sod; Raria. p. 8. Ruvad, JlllrotiucriOll /0 &1" rn:lrall ole. KUlari 4:3 (22b). Rambll n on CXnnis 18:2, Exodlls 3:2. NUn!ben 22:31.


224. l2S.

226. 227.

228. Razjrl12a (3l). 229. Balli'3O. 230. See Rund, Ram","n B, on ):2: Erl Cllaim, Siloa, TaNTA 7. 23 L. Shaar HaXJr.llnot, Kmanct Na{","im (TtL Aviv, 1962), p. 310; SNJ. dur /faAri. $iddur R. Sha/Jalai, p. lOOt. Siddur R. Ashff, p. 38L 2)2. C/ Zollo. J:243b. lB. The Ten Sefirot "'ere originally derived from five, and this ;1 ...'hy lhey ..-en: lateT di\Oided into fi ve Panzufim. See Ell Cllaim.
Shll4r IIGMrlakllim S, p. lS I. 234. Sec Otzar Edl'lIf1aGallllZ 20a, /lJajtl'tKh flGRaYYCII 3]b. 23S. Sec Elz Chaim. Shll4r Akudim S. Shll4r !'I'llimiut VI'Chit zolliut ]0, 12. Rqardill, tile five ~t]$, see 8"/'$hil Rabbair 14:9, DI'\'arim Rabbair 2:9. S/uJar lIaGiwuim I. 236. It is thus on the k"cl of At~ilut. which is Qllcd ~nothi nl'\C». ~ ~",fo"" Befl yah , the world below ii, i. QlIcd "lI)fTKthinl 237. 238.



from nothincness." Sillam HaAli)'Qh 7 (Sa). CI ~kr HaClushrl< 22 •. Otzar Ed~ flaGaltu;: p. 16. Sec below, 2:6. Sec Raavad, MO$he Botri], ad loc. Sec QdOnl, M.. IS31 , P. 4~a (boltom). quoted in G. Sd>oIem, M ajor 11mdf ilt 1 .....'" Af~i&m, p. 361 , noIe 42. Also lee noIe 43. Sec note no. Sec Abraham Abulafil, ChG)'Q)' O/am IIGBah 18a, quoted in Philoscpllil' ultd Kabba/aJr. p. 45, wbe", such a method ;s <kscrihed in detail. This i•• Iso ",lated to tbe ~thod of the

flGkhillol Raootai. (hapten 17,26. Also see Sod" Razia, p. 32. CI Chapter 6, note 37. 242. This techniquc is described in ShlUllY)' KftiJl.Jhah, Pan Four. p. 16a. Sec chapin 6. note 37. 243. Ot::ilr C hGim 1073. b .

SEFElt YErlI Il. ... H

Chapter Two

2. l. 4.

Yirzc/rak $iJgi NlJ~, line 24). ~i/l:ra 167... q: RoM IItJSlflJIIlJlr 17,.. 5« Al'(II 2:1. AWN 1:6. See Lihrt')l M oII&lrall 211. See ClrilkamOlli. Ilarcdoni, on l :1. See Elz e lr&li ",. Shaar DfflWI". II&1Tzrl~'" 2. p. 13b.

Raavad. oJ loc. 6. Yirzehak $iJgi NiilIor, line 262 , Ollar l1&IKorod 19b. Rcprdilll ~pillars of Chashmal ,~ see RHiel 14b (40), and compare Ihis 10 !>dow, 2:6, 7. CluJgiph 13b (lop). See I?r 1Ia&klrrl 4:2 (4 8b). 8. Ollar Ednr lfuGonul 541. 9. See ~ Baal Slrm! Too. Bt:rnlrr"r 111-1l5. 10. Zclrar 2:54a. See !\Ole 54. II. See Rashi. Yalklll Rellveni, on Elodlls 2: 14. SIr'",O/ Rllbbah 1:30. 5« Shallr Ifal'nukim, Wewte)' baJr llaAri, ad Ioc. 12. Slrruhllll Sod« 72b. Also see OIlllr Eden lfaGallUl 6b. The "Zq/rar a)'$ th,t these ~pl(Kn . the 2S in tM YCn(, "Hear o Israel ... (Deuteronomy 6:4), "Zq/ror 2:l2b. 2:117" 2: 11%.



Tikwll.." Zohllr 6 (221). 11. See !\Ole 6l. 14. !itt Or lIaSnlrrl7:3 (94~ Get IIIISMmOI \lOla, Cha)"il 19b. 5« below, 4:) . I 5. See Sudia. InlrotillClion /0 Sd" Ymirolr. Eiah lh Theory, p, lO. Also see IntrOOlIC1ion, DOle 34.

16. See Ch.iPIU I. noles 237, 242. 17. Clrokak .manito write. sec chapler I. note 31. See OtZilr Ed~II IIIlGIlIIUI pp . 160-162. U. Bclinninl of SwlaJr llaAliyui!. Cf Of" 7: 1 (9011), 19. £WC1l lfaSlroiIllm 121, Shciril }IM/(Vicnna. ~h. 260~ p , 2b. Re.... rdinllhe cipbcr.s, see Pt",Je 21 : 13, 30:5. 20. Purdn Rimonim 27:27, Elt elraim, Slraar Dnlshey lIaTzN m 2, p. 12. Slraar RllJhbi 297. Zl;Jwr 2: 12la SlipponS t he usumption thai lhe tWO are the lutturall a nd palatal •. 21 . See Sudil. Eliaer wormcs, ad 1«., TikullC)' ZMtu 1321. ZoIta, 3:2281, etc.. Donl5h has a th ird orderi"" where the lut two Ire intCKhanlN. sec note 36. 22. £ 11 Chili"" foe.. cir. Cf Shaar Rwaclr IIIlKrxinil p, I ll. 23. Slraar~" "ZoIrar Q n Safrlm 9:1. 24. Slrabba/ l04a, M~i111l1r 2b , lIcrr$lr/r Rllbbalf US, BaMidbo., RabIx!lr II: 17. Tanc/ruma, ""'iKIf I 2, Pirkry Rabbi EIi~=" 48.



27. 13.

29. 30. 31.

Cf. Charit 19a. The fact that these lellen are nO! mentioned in !)<for Yl'Izil'llh may be indicative of its utmne antiquity. EI: Chaim, Shaar Rashbi, loe n l. See Barceloni. p. 140, G~ on 1:3 No. 2. Tikim~,. ZeIIar, Introduction {4b}, 70 ( 135b). Pardn Rimo,!im 21:1. Tikl/nr)' Zoiliu l<la, R. Elienr ofWormes 4b, Ell Chalm. Shaar TaNTA J, p. 66, Ginal EgoJ 24c. Also see chapter I, note 54. l'ardn RimOllim 27:27. w H ence,~. wom.n's "oi~ is • 'sexual orpn: B~kJwt 24.,

3:1 44. Ioc. cll .. Ell Clulfm, Shaar DmuII". RaslIbi p. 297.

Pard~s RimOllim, lIan~l~m 2. Shoor




37. 38. 39. 40.

4 1.
4 2.


KiM}' Afmkh on Tiku.n". ZeIIor 4b (1I1~ ACC(lrd in, \0 lhe Tiku.n')' ZeIIar 141., the order of PiIIl(II,), Clloum pII'Illels the; five phonetic families in alphabetical order. Another reason for this onkri. becalUl: they add up 1 'M~ri:II, 0 M alakh. YimlokJr. · See ShatU HaKirwJl'lCl, p. 1090II. Ell Clulim. SIIOllI' lJa)'ilMJrlr S ( I. 133), ltJrdn Rinumim 13:1. Also see )' /101 E lim , QUOled in KrhiitU )lIakM. Vol. 2. p. 31. 0 Tikl/nry 7.d1ar l<la. Si",ilicanlly, lhe fam ilies then come 001 like lhe reveRe of Donash's order. See nOle 21. Raavld, ad loc. See Em~k HoM~ddt 6b. Otl lU ClIlllm 1071. Sudi. B, ad /oe. Acronym of R. Yiuchak be Asher, d ied 1132. Scholem , in his KQbbolalr and ils Symboiism. p. 186. claims th.t this acrostic nlnds for R. Yishmael ben EIUha. In British MlUCum, Ms. 7S4, the a~i.lion is R. Tz., which Schokm sunniles m.y be • certain R. Tzadok. Sudia B. Ioc. cit. EnwI< HaMNkIr !k similarly ..-rites thaI if one says Ihem t.d;w.rd, he will be SIIo'allowed up by the earth. ClIokaml/fli, PrJrdn Rimonim 3O:S, R. Eliczar of Wormes, pp. Sa. 17bff; O1:oT Ed~n HaGan,,: 39., O1z0T Nn:llomad On KI/:arl 4:25 (6Ib), E.wn HaShoIw.m IS4b. SIIml )' ~ 91, SlIosllun J' -wd Oiam No. 4~4, p. 207. . RIIV.d, oJ Ioc. Abul.fll prese nts Ib illystem in the nlme of R. Yitu.:hal< Sarduhi, see 01;ar Elkn HaGan"l 16b, 371; Appen· di~ ~ , nol~S 10, )9 , Also in KoI YrIIlJdaJr on Kl/zlU; 4:25 (61.). The fact thaI each IrTly contains 231 pain, ",hid! is 21 limes 12, wi lh the leiters AL in 1M middle is aIl1.>ded \0 in th~ '"eRe, MOnly in You. 0 God (Ach &JcIr Eft (Isaiah 4~: 14), see ZoItar I:}lb. comment";". ad I()C., 0 .. on 6:4.



44. Emd< HaMrlrldr 4a If- (5« Appo:ndi~ III). Va takhri Ml1$ht (Zolkiev. 174 1). p. 7,., ShaJJr Gan Edtn Ill, Pri YuzcluJk (in S4tr Ytf=irah. Wan.o.w, ln4~ Vol. 2. p.:I&e 27a. b. The orilinal source Ipp.:lr<:ntly is Emrl: llaMdd<h , and he vin uilly p.:IllIphlllses R. Eliczn of Wonna in his formula for CTutin, a Golem. sec n(IIe 61. 43. Sec ch;tpter I , note 32. ShaJJr Gan Edt'n lie. 46. Glnal Ezoz 55b. Ouar Chaim 1081. Pmuh JlaNililld 4Sb, 49 • • lfaShoIram 134&. l71b. T:taror JlaChu /m (Jews CoIk&e. London. Ms. 318). p. 10.. Gan Yah 25b. Sec Chayay O/am UaBah 22b. 47. Bt'l"QAir Rabbah 1:4, Gan tah.lot. dr. 48. Emt'k HaMdrldr 6 •• Limlldl'}' Alzl/1I1 (Munhtch, 1897), 31. 22a: MiluJash Mtkkh on ZoI!ar I: 16b (Zolkiev, 1794), p. 31 b, R. Shncur Zalman of Liadi, Ublt'y Tht-aIt. Hom/ot on VaYikn:! Hb. Sec chapter L, n.ote 12. 49. Emd< HaAft'lt'kh 6b, Limudl'}' Alzilul 3• . The sum of 1M four names Ab (72) Sag (63) M alt (45) and Bnr ('2) also equals H2. It may he that the arrays of the Jlter Kabbalists relate to the Sefirot themselves, " 'hile those of the eanier KabbalislS relate to the lettt''''- Thn would rnoIve the diffe",nte hetween the two sratems. SO. Donw.. Barceloni. p. 20i. Sec Sudia. B.arttlon i. ad loc. Thne mention the r<:adina. but reject it 52. R. EIielar al Wor hW;S ad b:. po 5a. He abo aleS the previous mctbod in the name alhis fatlw:r, R. Yebudah bm Ko/yIUtnOI. H. Raavad on 2:3, from )brlUl 76a. Sec Btf Lni. Emtk UalaeM. ad Ioc.• quoted in M;lzpah E;lon , who live otber reasons for this numbet-. An elaborate com plu cakulation is aloo pTC'Wnted in AI....., RllSh on Eyi" Yaako>-. Thne commentaries obviously well: OOt a"'ale of what the Raavad ...-,.;t« her<:. 54. Cltll}G)' O/(llft HaBah 4b, qurned in Scho1em, Kitl't)' yoo BoKabbalal!. p. 25. OWl' Edt" UaGa""z 162b (bottom), Shoort')' T:tedrl: (Jerusalem, Ms. 8- 148). pp. 66h, 67a. quoted in KirJlflI ~for 1:135: S"lam llaAliyaJ. 10 (JcruYlem , Ms. S· 334). p. 981, quoted i" KilYr}' Yail Bakabblah.. p. 228. Cf. Psal ml 23:5. 45:8. I ()9: 18, 133:2. It may be mort than coincidence Ihlt the first two letters of the Hebrew word for oil. Sh.~m~". are Shin and MtIlI. sec abo'·e. IIOIe 10. SS. Omr £dm HaGanra. po 341, &for lIaTunq lOa, Gj",,1 Egoz 4Sb ("";!h ti ' '''.). This is abo the system po mteel b, R. MOIhc Bocril. who apparently attribute'll it to Hai GItOiI. In 01_ Edm 1IaG<uua. Abulaf", abo Ipparmlly ItuibuleS it to III earlier -lOUra'.






~. Ol:~

Edm lIaGan"z 38a. On pp. 75b, 76a, he apparently

speaiu of tile lOS, 432 com binat ions of 11 letters. 57. Also see Psalms 37:4, 100 22:26, 27:1 0. For other SOUJUS, _

rOiz.... Dr, p. 56.

S8. R. Bal'\lkh TalJOmi. Mafttdrol lfaKabalair p. 230. S(for HaTz"",! p. la, £n'('n lIaShcJtam, p. 177b. Sheinl Yost!: p. 168.a, Tzaror lIaChaim. p. lOa.
59. S« BI «:eloo;, p. 104. 60. Comm .."/tJrl' on ~fn }" rzirtJh 4b. l.Sh. Also see R..vad, ud loc.• ShruMn )Nod OIilm. pp. 100. 199, 20). Cf Ibn Ezra On Isaiah 26:4, Psalms 68:5. 61. R. EJio:ur ofWormn, ad Ioc. lSb, Emtk HaM rlf'kh !k. The lal-

ler is translated inlO Lat;n in Knorr von Rosenrolh, Kabbala IUl/udota II (actually III): Liber Sohal Tnlinnus (Sulzbach, 1684), pp. 220- 1.
62. See Introduction, noleo 8G-82 . Also see Sh .. ·..IQl HaZakLn 97 (Oxford. Ms. Neubauer 2396). p. 531, quoted by Scholem in his Kabb.lJalr ami ils SyrnOOlism, p. 188. note I. TMre also appears 10 be. similarity between Ihis and t~ PlU1zufim mentioned in tile Zollark literatu n: and in the writings of tile Ari. a relation"'ip wllk ll should be more explored. 61 0, 1Ia&kM18: J (I08bff)qllOted in Pa,d~ Rimoflim 21 :1. Also qUOted in Sulom llaAliygh 9 (95. fT.). in KI' ygl &/" 22:1 67 If The Ramal!: writ~ rqardin8 Abuldia's leacllina: MThis is cilber a direct tradi tiOfl , given over from mouth 10 mouth, or else it was TCvealed by a Ml&J!,id . 64. In Porrin RimOllim 2 1:2 Iliere is s))eCific men tion .-.prdinl u.i"3 Olhn !encn wilh a similar . ystem. 6 5. See Raavad. ad Ioc. 66. SanhNrin 38a. TOM/IO 8 (end). Yl'I'IISholmi 4:9 (23b). 67. Chogigoh 12b, Zona, 1:82., 1:1863,1: 231 • • 68, Ibn Ezra, ad fIX" Chol'Ol HoLro-avol. end of SIr4o., HoBoc/rino/r


69. 70. 71. 12.

Raavad. ad IIX. Dona"' , p. 68.

Pardn RimOllim 9:3. Bahi, 2. Rashi o n Genesis 1;2. We Ihus sec that Ben Zomab lit confounded (TolloII). B",Qllil RobbaJr 2: 4. See Appendix I,

notts 4-(;. 13. Sachya k. Po,des Rim onim 3:5, 2) :22, SIX Clloim, $hoo.' M/lN U'A/IJD 10 (248b). Shoo.T A/oo.morrp O ozo/ ISb. 74. ZohIJ' 3:27&. Cf. Blllti' 135. AI'O() see NOl=o,CII~on AI'OI' 5:7. 75. Raa vid on 1: 1 (hqinning). 76. Imlry nodiHm (Zitimar. 190 1), p. 11'0:. See C/rQ~ Olom

S[fEll VI!T'Z.I Il"H

lfaBah 21b. quoled in Kilvry l ild HaKabbalah, p. 28. Also Itt SkMt HaRan 4(). 77. We find . simi lar «m\Xpt in the Zd!llr. Ihat only MOK$ rould '$Semble the Tabernacle. ZoIrar 2:238b. U l!.wlq M oIIllrQlI 2:6. This is also meanl in meditalive ... nsc. 78. Emrlc IIIlMrlrIcJr 'k. in his d escript ion of how a Gokm is made.

Chapter Three

Th is is the last o f Rabbi Ishmael"s 1hi"«n Middot, Itt belinninl o f SijrQ. Thc-se Thinttn Millot an: .1.... in the
praye, book.

Sha.wOl 26 • . It is ~i",i fieant \hal in Ihe o~nin. statement in Ihe Ba/rir( *l), bbbi Nehunia ben HaX.ana al .... makes u... of Ihio d ialectic. £ 1: Clolli",. ShaD, Pirl:q 1111 Tu/,,,, 5. p . )J6a. J. 4. Se., above. 1:2. Also I t t Ukwt')' SIoIU (Ari). p. 211; Etz Cltlli",. Sltl/Qr Thf,'TA 6. p. 72. ~_ The ... me term i~ used by Ben Sirah: ~In what is m ystical (nluplrla) for you. do not prolloc." See chapter 1. nOle 17. 6. Raa vad. Ramban S.1Id 1«.. £Il Cltlli",. Sltllllr TaA'TA 7. 1. K,M/at Yallm.. "AMSIt" {I 4a ). AI .... I t t furdn Rimo"i", 23:1. -AM Sh." q Orza, £dffl IftlGll"wz 54b. 7Oa. 8. NQQm E/imrlrIcJr. Ba(36). This may be lhe Il:oon .... hy ~ :kkr rnzfl"llit can be read in botll the th ird pen.on and in the impen. tive. It is both a mystical aa;:O\Inl o f crnlwn, and an inslruction manual how 10 parallel ;1. !J. Cf Rashi. Ibn E~ra. on Exodus l{):ll. 10. See M id,tUlt lLkDI:lr 71w. S«Irri 71w. lid 1«. Also see furdn Rimonim. Ioc. 01. 11. Donash . p. 20. Ibn Ena on Ea:lesiastes 7:19, Radak. M ikl!/ol (I.yk, 1142). p . 72. Alto see Donash. p. 4S . 48. 12. Sudia B. lid Ioc. T his rnembles I lechniqo.oe of Ihe Indian raquirs. I t t &kr HIC"" im, Munich , Ms. 207.if. 1Od-II a (...Tit-

D. 14. IS.
16. 17. 18.

19. 20. 2!. 22.


24. 25.

27. 28. 29.

30. 31. 32.


35. 36. 37. 38.



ten in 1268). Cambrid&e, M!.. Add. 643.1, f. 91., qUOled in M. GiKlmlann. GnJriduf des £niifflu~ und dw CiJrur dw Judcn I (Vienna, 1880). p. 169; Mcoasbe G~ notes on Dorwh, p. 8; G. SdloIem, Ka"""'ah and ilJ Symbolirm, p. 181. Sec [ntrod~ion, note 99. RuVlld, Ramban, ad I()t:. Cf .HlU1rackl!n ElollUI 175a, b. Sec YiIzcllfJk SQSi Na"Of", !ilK 247. 2:235b, TikuMy ZiNlar 70. I4Ob. Cf Likul f)' MoIIQrQtt 3. Sec Raavad. introduction (2d), Cliayil 9b. Paroes RimOilim 2: I. K14:ari 4:25 (58a, b) thus statn \111\ tlK -fire w lIere is the ctller (al a/Qr). The word A" ir alloO refers 10 SPIICC. U in Gillitt 8:3, OIraIOf 3:3. pQrdn Rimottim 9:3 . RQzin lib (l0). Ba1!ir85. Tikutlf)' ZdlQr 4 (l9b). Cf RfJ:irlllb (29, lOj. &raklwf 6b. Sec lWIilm Y<Ulkcv. "RQ"Q)IliI" ( I II). S"'mo/ RQbbo" H: 7. Cf TQnc/rllma, Prk.uJ,y R. See my article, -On [mmortllity and tlK Sou[ ,W ftllm:om (Association ofOrtbodox Jewish ScieruiSl$, New Yort, May,1972).p. 6. A[1oO S« 7OIdOi )iJai:ov YW(f. Be (SOd) Knn- SlItm TO\' [08 . Cf Kedusllat Levi on AvO{ 2:5. Deuteronom y] 1:]4. Sec Radak, Shmuhim.. "YRH." Commentaries on Proverbs 11 :25. O ra ad lor., Elz Chaim. Shoo, ThA7'A 6. 7. Mafttoeh lIaRay)'O" 26&. Cf Donash. pp. 60, 68. RaaVlld. Chakam(llli, ad loc.• RfJZirl J 11 (21). Cf. Aootial lIaKodeslr. Ykhud ] 8. Also sec K~i1at )aakol; ·G~i)UII.· Bareeloni. ad /oc.. Tzio,,1 (lvov. 1882). p. 4e. Cf. Zdlar 3:223a, p(lNJes RimlJllim 23:3, "Ga.i)Uh." Rambin B. ad joe. Partin Rime"im. loc. cil. Nrgaim 6:7. TO$rfol Yom nw. ad /oc.. Pri Yilzel!Q/( lIere, Paron Rimo"im. loc. cil. Rambin. Sud;a, ad 1«. Tib/trY ZoIrar 17a. See ChapleT I , note 195. Pri Yitzelll2k. ad Ioc.. EIZ Clulim. Slwar ThNTA 7. Mi"ocIwt 29b, &=Ioni , p. 284. Note that this i. stated by Rav Yehudall in tlK name of Rav, !1ft Introduction , note 12. The statement tllat the !etten ShaTNrZ GaTz must have crowns, i, also that of Rava, the maker of the Gotem in the Talmud. OlIn risran. Vd;ICllanQn (Zilimar, 18(3), p. SOc • Elz CIIQ;III. Slwar ThNTA 1.

Chamai Gaon, ~fr.- HalWlln, in Likwlim MtRa. Hai G_ (Warsaw, 1798), p, 37b, and in A. Jellinek. Ginu,. CllakltmtU HaKabbala/t , p. II); KwztJl'; 4:3 (8b); Abraham Abulan .. Ma/INC!! lIaShtmOf (JewiVllMoloJical Seminary, Ms. 1897), p. S8., 0.. 1IaSri;/tti 4 :2 (SOb). Ibn Ezra On bodu. 3:IS, 0.. £,.nayim (Lvav, 1886). 9b. In tllne SO\IrttS, the Na me i. spelled in .Iphabetical order AHVY. Ii i. possibk that the oripnalterm he re ",u Avyiah (AVY H), but ",hen !he Greel< dcnved A.;, became popular, the laller term wu inad\'ertantly "IIbstitu trd. 42. R. Eben. of Woo Illes, p. Sd. 4l. Ril1itl II b (28). Cf. KDI }W!hudah on Kunri 4:1$ (64/)). U Soiah 17., Rashi, ad Ioc, "SIlrlcl!inall. " 4', klUi>ot 64b. KDI Yelrudah on Kuzari 4:2S (S6b). 46. See Ra;:,tlll b (29,30). 41.

Chapter Four


Aho mentioned in ZciJar 1:2SS b. TlJ"",~ ZMar 69 (l04b). 70 (mb). RadaJo:, M ikJrlol 481. 57.; Julio Fucntio, CQllCOl"danti~ (Liepzi" 1840). p. BU. R. Al.n)II .lItes that there an: only K"en casn. sa: note on M lkJrlol, lIP. 48a, Ha. Also see R. Mmhc Kirmchi , Mallaladr She-llri lIaDaa/ (Ha mbu. .... 1785), No. 10, R. A.ron (ben Moshe) ben Asber, DiMukly l/aTaomim, Res/! 7 (Lcipzi" 1838), R.A. Dablmesh, MiWtq A.'roham. Also _ &" }'mudah, Mi/in, "1/nIr, " "Davsh. " Orzar Yisrrle/. "I>agnll." Cj Radal<, MincMI SIIoi, on I Samuel 1:6, The Septua8im thus used • d ouble R in Sarah, sec: GtH" ilU Grammar (London, no date), p. 4). Saadi., pp. 79, li S, 11 6; Dona~h, p. 21; Barcelon i, p. 231 , M ikJrld. p . 81b. RosIt l/aSJuJnah )1., b, Sa"hftiri" lla, }'nwltalmi. PFrochim 4:2 (26b): Y KiddlUh lIaCllodnil 5:), SanlrNrln 14: I 2. aJ. SalOOn, Ms. S07. 5« Ohtl l)aK'id (Oxford, 1932), pp, 22·2). ocue, ~Thirty-Eicht Imporuont Hebre ... plate 2, Sothcby Call1 a nd Sam.ritan Manuscripts from the collection of the late D.vid Sok>mon Sa<W1l~. (Solheby, Parlr: &met &; Co., Zurich, No~ember S, 19"), No. 6, plales on pp. IS, 16. Also oee a.anodl y.lon, PIN,. Lashon (Jerusalem . 1971), pp. 176,





Macho. />fall usc, i/Q$ H~ y (Rom~. 197!), pp. 1S·16. 1\ i$lhu5 found in, ropy of MaciltOl' /(oma. wrillen in PnIlro. 1480; Sasoon. Ms. n. See Oh,,1 DIl"'id, pp. 2&9-93. pl.le 3&; Sotheb~ Catalogue No. 2&. plat.., on pp. 92.9~. AI..., u$ed in Toralr. KI'/II~im and HajlorOl, Sasoon Ms. 487, wriuen in Seville, 1468 . described in Ohrl Da"'id , pp. 1S-16; Solheby Cat· alOiuc No.7. plat .., o n p. 19. Also in Machzor /(oma, written in Peru'; •. 1 41 ~. Sa500n. Ms. 40~. described in Ollrl Dcno'id. pp. 2 76-289. plale 36: Sothcby CatalOiue No. 27. pI lle o n p. 89. Also in &if,., ~fiIOl. written in Spain. early 15th ""n lu ry. Sasoon, Ms. 59, described in Olrrl Dawid. pp. 298· 299: Sotheby CatalOiue No. 25. pp. 84-85. This devi"" was apparently also used b y Saadia Gao n in his comment.ry o n &/tT Yf'l~iTllIl. p.


8. nkuII"Y ZoIrar 5 (2Ob), Gnt (22. ). Ni/~u/ze)l 'Zcha, (35). ad IIX. Also see TikuII"Y Zc/Ja, 19 (39b). BI'tr Yilzdrak (54), N;I~III"1'J' MJra, (24). ad loc_ Tikllll"Y Zoiul, 5 (2Ob). 19 (39b ). 70 (128b), R. Yimr.el of Kmnitz, Or Yisrorl. ad IIX. Gra. ad loc. Bahi' 115. Etz Clraim, Shaar TaNTA S. p. 70. This is said 10 be related 10 the H"w'l DiGarmi in man. TikuII"Y ZoIwr 70 ( 128b). KISI'}' Mrl"ldr, ad loc_ ( 173b, No. 30). Cf. /(;SI')' Melric s Sa. Also see OIZD.' Clwlm 6a. Yilu/rak Sagl Nahor. line 31J. cit.., bQth opinions. See Ptli,-ah 39a. Cf. SicllOl HaRal'! 77. Ba.'Il Balra 2Sb. ZoIrar 1:26b, Slruldran Arukh. Oraclr Clraim 94:2 in Hagah. Seed is to the East. see Balli, 156. Gra. prj Yilullak, ad loco Tikul'!l'y ZoIra' 18 (32al_ Also see Kuwri 0(:25 (BI), 3: 17 (2 41). Ibn Ezra on Ecclesiastes 11:2. Sec Balri, 70 . Or l/aGal'!uz on Balri, ISo(: R'"""-n\i Ie, Otayi\ 179b. Balri,117.



I 3.

IS. 16.

17. 18.
19. 20.


Tifl'ffl YiJ,arl2.

22_ Radak on Ztthariah 4:2. Gitlat Etc: 3Sc. 23. ~ commentaries ad loc_. Ibn EVlI on Zechariah 4:10. 20(. See Ibn Ezra. ad loc. 25. Cf. Ett Clraim, Slraa, raNT 7. A 26. G ra . ad loc. 27, Balri, 70. 177.



28. Shabbal 15611. 29. S« inscl. 30. Thne an: described in detail in E.",," lIaShoIJam and S~'il YOM'/. Also !Itt Israel Reprdie. 11(1'0110 MilkI and Ur;, TalismI1-lU (WcllinlborouaJ! UK: Aqu.arian Pmos.. 1972). )1. Mooc:o.... , M5. Guo:nzb\l~ 77~, u nnllm~rd folios al ~linnil1l 32~-)J b (pp. 62.64 in my manllscripl). These a", ~lIribuled 10 Nobl niel Gaon, but no record of such 1 pon a islS. Also 5tt Tbidot Adam IS8, ,... hen: Ihe'le 'leals ~n: dra .... n and anribuled 10 lhe Ramban. They an: .100 fOllnd in SIr""lran Yncd Qiam, pp. 268. 322. 460. 32. ehagi,"h 14a. Stt MOI"rit Nt'I'uchim 2:6. 33. See Ba<;:hya, Abarhlnel. on Dellterooomy 18:1 4, Dndlt lIaSlrl'm 2:7. Aloo !Itt Selah !lb, ThJt'/cI. ShabbtJl 1S6a, lk.klUim 4:4. Many .... rilers 1"lIme Ihal Maimonides d id nol ~I ieve in ulroIoJy II all. based on ""hll he .... riles in Yat/, APOdal KoidIa>im 11:16 and in MOI"rh N~Hldim 3:)7. Elsewhere. how<:'·er. he a ppears 10 I d mil Ihll. II IuS! 10 some dqrtt. il an ~ used 10 predicl the fUlure, !Itt Yad. Ynodry lIaTorah 10:3. St'jn HaMir=_. P05ilive Commandmenl 31. AI:IO !Itt lIaKott'V on £ yin Yaako,~ Shabbal U6a: 8t'1'niIil Rabbalr 83:2, Rashi , SQlalt 36b. 34. &r.,slrir Rabbah 10:6, 'Z(Jra, 1:)41. 1:2511. 2:Ua, 2:Ub, r lOb. 2:8Ob. r I7Ib, 3:86a. H . AWar Yirul!ak 2, Or lIaShrm 4:3 (87a). See Shaa, Rashbi on ,,"ric Shirah (p. 299). 36. See note 32. Abo see Bf'fnhil Rabbah 78: I. H. Bn-Wlil RabCaJr 1:3, 3:8. SIr'1'IlOI RabCaJr 15:22. TallClruma. Chayay 54rah 3. Midrash TrlIillim 24, 86, 104, I'irkq Rabbi Elirln- 4. CI Bam:loni . p. 187. U. Bahir 21. Stt ~II on l'irUl' Rabbi £Iinn- 4:1. from Zoirar I: I7b. I: 18b. 1: ) 4a. I :46b. Also see Radal il)id. 4: I!. Ba<;:hya on Genesil 28: 12 reverses Ihi" and SlIles thaI pnmanenl anlCls "'-ere created on lhe second day, and tem porary anaell on Ihe fi fth . 39 . Slrabbar I S6a. 40. Niddah 16b. 41. See ChapleT I. nOle 155. 42. Abarhlnelon Deuleronomy 18: 14. Also see anonymous l'rrush on Yad. y~ lIa 7Qrah 2:~. 43 . 'Zi)/rar 3:169b. 44. Bvnhil Rabhah 78:4. Yajah JOQr, ad Ioc.. Sh'mo( RabCaJr 48 :2. Ballfidbar Rabbtlh 11 :7. Tlmchuma. Val akhrl4. Sifri on Numben 6:26.

45 . BlJrtlila DeShmuf'i IItlKulall ~. Bani/a Di MazaJOI 1S; Rule! 17b ($1), &for J/aKaNJh (Cracow, 1894). 86b, Yo/kilt R~I'MI J Sa. 46. PirUy Rabbi Elitzn 6, 7; Rashi. Bn",klIol S9b "SJ,D.1xJ,/ai, · Slrtlbbtll 129b, En/yin 561; CllakDmfl1li 70e, 72b, Ba"i/lJ DeSJJmur/ JlQKaUlII 3, Bam/a DiMazalOl 7, BalUloni. p . 247. 47. tad, t QQdt}' JluToroh 3:1, Baf?ila DeShmutl H aKDlan 7, Ba"ila DiMazalOl 12. Barceloni, Ioc. cit. 48 . See Ibn Ezra on bodu. 16: 1, R. Shmuel Falkaliilh. ~tr Avrollot (Prque. L 797). introduction, qUOted in BaIt}' Mid'ash« 2: 10; J/ad"y Kodl'$/t (Dibemfunh, 1812). p. 5b. Cj CllakilmOlli 7Oc:, 72b, R. Elie:zC'r of Wonnes. 49 . A similar concept;s found in SlIabNl 129b.

SO. StlnllN,in 65b, tod, A>'Odat KokAavim 11:8. TuT. Yonh


51. Cf n,o,UOOI Raslrba 148. 409, 7S1r1l1iOl Ra.shb<l


S3. S4.

j6. 51.

S8 . 59.


i.rRllm/:KJn 28), 1$1r1l1Pl M aluui AlSiId 2:24, nhu"'" AVllt)' Tudri:, y",rIr ON" 44 . Aloo 5tt YOI'm DNIr 179:2. Nimukq Y OM! on Sal/lln/,ill (Rif. llib). s,j" Clrtuidim 59. ZoIIfU I: 169b, ) :234.1.. Tikum'y ZohtJr 70 (128b). Kiw/r Mf'l~. (1d loc_ (S8a. No. 18). A.lso see Gra here. For. differenl orderin, of Sclirot .nd 111)"5, see MlUlrt khn EloIrlil 183•. Stt Pardn RimQnim 10 , 32:2. RU" ld, Dd Ioc. Stt SIrDar Rundr IIDKodrslr. pp. 86, 14S. Shoor Rllfl(h HllXodn lr. p . 31. from Tikllnry ZoIIIU 70 (129b), Silr", 1/)r(1h. ZoIIIU I: 108.1.. Gra.1UI kx. ZQlro, 1:4 1b-45b. 2:H5a-H9 • • Partin Rimonim 24. RO$h Iftl$JrDnDh 3] •• Sanhftirin 971. tlmdiih ZiJrDh 91. This appeaR 10 be Ihe opinion of PirUy RtWbi Elie:n-. see Radal. 1Ili Ioc. 18:48 . A.lso see MlUl,ann Elohlll 139•• Ruid lSa (43). 7amid 7: 4. ~for ~mllNJJr (Korell. 1784), 31.1.. MIUl,t!khn Elo11l1l lllOil. S,f" HDKDnDh 78b .nd Olher p1acu. TlhIlV()( RIJJhbo 423. Shiw K()fflDh 83. Radbn. MIl8,n, Gimcl. Dalct; M nzudcf Darid 298 , R. Yos.ef T zayach, T.:rJFf;w /la eha/If!. pp. 83b, SSb; ShDD"y GDtl Edtn. Oroc" T.zllliikim ]:1. Cj 8aehya, Ro:g.nti. Tzion i. on Le"iticliS 25:8. Ramban I)f\ Ocne5is 2:3. 54" lfaClrinw;" 330. Ibn Ezra on Genesis 1:5,8:22. For a detailed discussion. see Dr14Jh Or JlaChDim 3• .1.1 end of Ti/n-n Yisron I)f\ M islrNl)'QI N,ziki n. This i5 also apparently supponed by Ihe ZiJlrDr. see Radal .loc. cil. Thi! doctrine wu oppMed by lite Ari. see LiKulry TortJ" (An) Kfdashi m. V, )akJtrl MOl'" Ja. O':Dr Clulfm 86b If.



) 7l


61. 62.

Berdirll RabNh 1:2. ZoItu, 2:1 45b. Ct Sunirtdri>! 911. S« DrtuJr Or HuC"aim . 1«. 0161. B~il Rabbolr 1:19. 12:10, Rlshi on Genesis 1: 14. 1:24,2:4 , Morelr Nn'udrim 2:30, Rambin on Genesii I:!. 1:8. 1:24; Sir>!",' Luclwf /laBril 1: 19Ob in nole. 64. Berdiril Rubbair 1;1]. Y"d. niruWlir 1:7, Raavad. ad Ioc. Emunot VelH}of l:l , .'I:', Kllz"ri 1:67 (41 1). 6.1. MorrlI Nl"I'ucllim 2:21. ct Zelta, 1: 138b. AI'Oti<>Ir Za,,,1r 54b,
BmliJrol 60&.

Rash i, Ibn ura, Sforno. ad 1«.. Rambam. Il«"M Tdlycu HaMerim (WaTUw, 1921). p. 15. Rqardin. consen 'lllion of maner. s« EmulIOi I'e~ 7: I. 67. Chagil"h Db. from Job 22: 16, Psalms IOU. 1fn</i:;l. tJd Ioc. "1brdall. " Maharsha, ad Ioc Also 5tt 8..,-eslril RalXNllJ 28:4. KoIIelet Rabbah 1:31. 4:4, Tllnrlru ...a. UI<h Ldh" 11. Yilro 9, M id,ruJ, mill;m ]0.1:3, Tlllllw ~Bei E/i"hu RaMuh 13 (70a, n a). 26 (I OJa ). r"""" DtBei E/i"hH ZIII" 10 ( l SI). ~'" Cltasi· dim 1137. 68. ct lkrakltof 6 1a, Bern"'l R"bO<>h 14:3. 4. 10. R.mbln on Genesis 1:20. 69. Moreir J:SO. K.fZari 1:43 (32a); 1'rI,'kla 105b. Rb!It f(aSlw"alr lOb. )"eoultaimi. Avodalr Zarah 1:2 (3a). VaYlm Rabbolr 29:1 , Rabbi E/;,z" 8 (18a): Ran. Rl1Sh lIaSlllmalr (Rif 3;0) t1)m 7b\>. IWsIi HaShanalr 1:2 -BeRO$!t.Rluhi, &mhtdri .. 97. "8 eAlqjIm ,· YtJd. II : 16: Avod,,1r ZD,rolr h.
66. 70. 71. 72.

J:2J:.. ~,.,,~., " r

12, Sh"",TziYl'rO/_ 2.

, Pirkry Rabbi Eliezer 18 (43a),

73. 74.
75. 76. 77. 71.

BaWl BiII,a 2Sb. Bava BUIFll74b. Cf. Ymulrulmi. KtfUbof 12:3. Knilyim 9:3. Gra. lI.>rZtra; ulHx Cf Zenar ~ 78b, 83b, ZohDr 1:.12a. . BekJtOl'Of Ha. 79. (ira. Cf. Radal on Pirkey Rubbi Elinrr 11:47. Sec Midraslt r"",,);m 92b. 80. Gra. lid Ioc In itl entire history. Israel CelebnUM ~nlec-n jl,lbikn. '"' Arkll;,r 12b. lad; SJremifulr VeY oorl 10:]. 81. S« Bernltll Rllbbtll! INi. 26:2. BIlMidbar RubbWt 13:12 . 1Imclrllma. 8e, a lrll 6. Rambin , loI""mll' HaGel/11l1l (in Kitvry Rambin). p . 269. Rambam. commenta ry On Sa"lrtdri" 10:1. J~n T;cIrlyol UllMnim. p. 1]. Cf Knubix 39•.



. Ra!iel 15b (43). J6a ( 122).

Rabbi N"lh"lI 31.


32. Otrar HaClulim 87a. n Ibid. 87b.
84. 35.


Otzar Edm lfaGalluz H b. ltaav.d , Pri Yil. drak. ad loc. 36. See S,,/am llaAliyah. 87. Ibid. 88. Rush lfiJSlIanoJr 271, rqardina (he fact thaI Sham.". and ZochOf' were said ~";Ih one ...'Ofd." C/ )"d, Y/':JOdt)' HaTorol! 2: 10. 89. Ot:ar Ed~1I HaGan!;: 7S b. 90. &raklwl 32b. The C111culllion there yields 1.16<434 )( 10" . A variant n:.dine ~Id. to". See Razir/ lh (54). 91. See DOles "3 , 44.

Chapter Five



thus says thaI they include tbe five senses. See Dona~h, p. 64. CltahJmoni, IIowever, interpreu il as JWallowillJ,. TMre are v .nov. ditfc~t orderil\lS in Ihe 8ibk. In Jacob', bles$inllo the lri1:>o:. in Cknni. 29, 11M: order ;1 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, J udah , Zebulun, lsachar, Dan, Gad, AsMr, Nanali, Joseph, ~njamin . In ~nnjs 46, the orderins ilthe same, bul Ihe soos of Leah's lundmaid p~ !bose of Rachel's. In Num~ 1:5-15, the or<kr illhe same I. in Exodus l. eJloxp\ that Joseph preudn Benjamin, and tile order of the sons of the handmaids is Dan, Asher. Gad. In Numbers 13:4-15, the order is Reuben , Simeon, Judah, Is.achar, Ephraim, Benjamin , Zebulun , Manassah, Dan, Alher, Naftali , GMI. In Numbers 24:6-29, it is Judah, Simeon , Benjamin, Dan, Man .... b, EpIlraim , Zebulun , lsachar, Asher. NablL (Reuben and Gad I~ not included, sintt ~y remained on ~ other side of ~ Jordl" .) I,., Moses' blessi,.,.. the order il: Reubtn , J udah, Levi , Benjamin. Joseph , Zebulun, ISllchlr, Old. Dan, Nlftali, Asher. (Simeon is not mentioned, Ott Rubi on Deuteronomy 33:7.) I,., Delue ronomy 27: 12_13, for the bleuillp the ordeT is: Simeon. te ..i. Judah, ISIIch.r, JOKph, Benj.min; for the curses: Rnlben. O.d, Asher, Zebulun, D.n, N.ft. li. Genesis 30. H: 23. Otz"r CMim 201b, Rll vld ~I. Btml S(lt1"(J 11 8b, from Genesis 48:16. Slrn rir YaH I 21. T:;OII; 58<: iislS them in the order ofNumllen /

Sudi., p.



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Cj ).ford!




JO. 31. Elz ella/m, Sitaar Arlklr. AllJli ll 3. Also see Rashi. Radak, on Judges 20:43, Habal::kllk I :4, Psalms 22: 13: Radak, Shmullim.
"KTR. •

See chapler I, nOle .. J • Tzlani. ad IIX.• BntSlJi/ RIl/JbQh 68:9. Rashi on Avot 2:9. See ChapleT" I, note 119. q Mort" Nrruclrim. lot;. cil. ShWlFr>' Onih 10 ( L03a).



ChuUlI89a. SIt'mOl RQbba/r 38: 4. Accomin&IO Rashi. il il then read, ~from IInder. he is the arms of the unj,-cne." It thertfort rtfe .... \0 the penon who lowers him5elf 1 be -"nlk •." 0 Cllagip IZb. See Ra:WI !4b(<4(l~ 15b(.w~ See chapter 6. ncMe 30. SttchapteT l. IIOtt 143. Zohar 2:811, 2: 131&, 2:2011., 3:227•• Aurin Rim""im 15:7 , SIrM"y 0raJr S (SOb). These confu$C tlH: mind. 'ZoIw!' 3: t23a,

Tikl/"..,. ZoIIar lib. RnJril C/t"/d!",,,II. SA,..., HaYi"'" 4
(l6c ~

:Hi. The nexl verse. "And Israel d"-eli safety alone (biJdad). the eye of h.<;:Ob," aliio has mys1ical connotations. The word bodqd i$ often used 10 indicale meditation, 5eC Ibn Ezn on Isaiah 44:25. The '-ene can then read, ~And 1~J1ld d...-ell yfely mediati n&- ~ 37. Cj Badl)" on (;enesis 49:26. 38. The third is Habakkuk 3:6. This i$ I hiJ,hly mystical chlpter, dilCuued extensively in the Balrir 68-79, 147-148. 181-193. The quC'Stion mlY .nl.e " 'hy the Lon, venion UKS ~heiJ,hts of the uni"ene,~ wb k h it only in lhe blcuin, of Joseph, instead of ~Irms of the univtne.~ .... hich .pplies 10 III Israel. But if Joseph ~ Ul;el was Ihe luthor of Iht l.onJ Venion. ht mlY hive done th i'! to Illude to his nlme. 39. ZoItar 1:so.. I :214b, 2;221. Cj IWJh lfaShanair Ill, Sifri on Deuteronomy 31: 15. The An. h~er. states that lhe T"-el'-e Boundaries ~ in Tiferet. 5« Etz Clraim. SJeaar TaNTA 7. 40. Rash;. S/IDbIxlt ~, "Jlelt/#SS, ' ren<kn il Cenli~llio. Cf OIUU lfaSlram here. Also 5« l'a Yikr" Rabhalr 1:4. ShukluJn Al'tlklt. Yoffl, Dtvlr 48: I in Jlaplr . 41. Sud;a. p. 13S. CluJkamoni, Donash. R. EJitzer of Wormes., Tzion; 4d, Aruklr. MQJQS3. Cj Rasb; on E!;desiules 12:4. 42. Kollein Rabhalr 7:19. 12:1, Mid=1r T,lrillim 103: 1. Rash;, Slrab/)o.t Ula, Bmlkllot 61 b. 41 . R. Aaron o{Bqdad, ql>Olcd in 801nl. Cf Ibn Emo on mlniules 12:4. 44. ZCVIldrim 6'1 (bottom), Tl:>ralr "km;malr on mln;'sles 12:1. ", S. Hffllkiwf 61b. SlraalKu 15la. Rilhi im,nlifies ;1 with the He~. Alto l.eC AIOOl Rabbi Natlran 31 :3, Otklt DeRabbi




4 1.


S] .










AkibG, Lamtd; R ap'" 011 E«lmllSl4'J J1:4. IHriJlrDII. )\)rm DrIlIr 75. Tiku,,~ 7..tJi,ar 70 (1 4Ob). ZdJa, 2:234b, 2 : 23~a. Ruvad 4b, Ptmln RintOftim 23:19 •Kor/<LbD.1I .• Cllakal'l101li , R, Eliner of Wormn 10.. IS b. Sudia B, Barceloni, p. HIS, Tz;o../~. Sudia, p. IlS , says thaI it is the n (lm. In SIrt'WiI~ E m"NJir 4 (Wlrsa .... , U&7). p. 4 2b. we find that the TUlm is the ponion of the small intestine lhal follows the duodenum. DonlSh. Or::ar HaSlrml. Barcclorti, p. 2~ 7, SJrrtlri/~ EmulUlir. Icc cit. S«. ~for HaKa1r(l1l 14 1b. See Otzar lfaSlrem. oJ loc.. HwIr DrIlIr 4&: I in lIapJr, O/;;a, lIaslrem. CJrakam.tJlli, Donash. ElicIer Rokcach 10.. Su d il, p. 135. MON'II. Nn·uclrim 3:3&, Ramban, Bach)"a. on DelilCrol\Omy II:); Radbaz, M mutioJ Darid 271. /lmlkltot 6 1b. hilar 2:2)4b, Tileu"r)' ZelIa. ro (1401>), Pardes R irtll)tlim 23:1\1. OtiOi lNR abbi Aleiba. lAmtd. See JIId,... 4: 19. }Qnra l b. When I penon sJeeps.. his solll .... arms h is body, 8ereJlrit RabbaJr 14: I I. &rakltot 61b. Ad.,. par:allcl' Ja ...... lcr. and hence Pllri m i, I lilTK of joy and clowni"IA\>OdaIr Zarah 43a. AllfXial Koc/ra. im 3:1], The stan an: 10 luve had Ihe prtcise shapes of lhe 1;1"' or lhe Zodiac in the time of the Rood (Bach)"'1 61). Cf. rod. Avo.:ial 1: 1 Brit Mt"uchalr. bcai nninl- Sec esp«ially M idrlUll Rlllaim, p. 62, qouted in Tht'alr Sh/muM on (;enesi, 1:22. No. 10&. q. ToN/of. AllfXialr Zarah 4)1. "1.4 1/Ja.nI".• Raslrba ! 67. SlS, nhUrof MaWt 2:30, $iJsq Coitt'll (SI/Qd,J. Jilrth Deah 14 1:30. The tables In: found in the A /ma,est (Great Books. Chicqo), p. 234lf. A IIdlf'e w tr.MJation of these tabIQ may be fou nd in M l$hpalry H aMaza/ot, Sasoon. Ms. 823, pp. 118. 138. described in MilK''' Da ..·id. pp. 1041·1043, plale 32; Sotheby CaliloJuc No. 1S. plales on pp. 40, B ; MorilZ Slein!oChnridcr. Hebrai6elr~ UI!n=ZUllge1l drs MillnalleN (Berlin, 1&93), pp. 614-616. Thil manuscri pl . ...Titlen around 1350. conllins pictures of many oonslcUalions. See G ... ~n:.





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II .

I) .

T allY'" J .• Rallhbam . ad foe. Both opinions an: found in Ibn Ezra, wi Itx:.. Radak, SIIn'luAim , Ginat E,o: 32b. P(mm Rimon;m 21 ;8, C~ U'MnlJ.bai l3. Cf. ZMuu 1: 1251., Or lIaCllDmaIt, ~tk" Emtt, ad 1«. This is .Iso idcnl,rted with the Pole &rpent (N«/wIt &1'Ndt). Ct rnod OIum (Berlin. 1848). p. 16c. Abo _ Ba",i((1. ~SJrmwi IItlKtlllUl 2 (Ia). Thil is pouibly b..ed on VtlW. -He hanp (//I/ah) the eanh on nolbllllM'" (bf'limaltr (Job 26:7). 0tMn AlY !hilI il IltImQ from the word Til";'" _ina drqon, wilb !be n\ln ~~ by. la-u, KoI YtWwdo:IlI on KII;ari 4:25 (S4b). Anod~r pos.oi. bil ily PiUCIIled theft il lllat it il derj"ed from the word., -to Sprtad.- Thill. the T'/lum on IAiah 44:2S IflMlaIes, - He spread the bc'~.- u ThIll SJt,,~ S« Or HoG{lnu: on Bahir 95. ClraMfItO#Ii, &,rill:l INSlrmw/ lIaKllllI1I. Ril=i#I lOa (63, M), Ibn Ezra. Radak, on I~h 21:1. pjrlrry Rllbbi EIi,:er 9 (23&). Alto '" Ibn UIlI, IUmbml, on Job 26: 13, Rad.Jk, Sllmulrim. "N«lunll. " Ibn JanadI, SJrna.Jlrlm. "&uudt.· M ord«oi. A~ ZDrlllll (I.w). Or lIaS1rnINI4:1 (411 ). The l...C'\'ialhan is also ment ioned in Puolms 74: 14, 104:26. Job 3:8, .to:25, ~ R"Mg~ 1k/kT~sJ/11 • 7. in fhslt')' M idrtlsllol 1:28: M idrasl/ Ko;r~tl. KFifth Day. " in Am')' UwI_ (Venke. 1601). p. lb. Bet lIa}.fldflUh 2:26, Ot:ar M idr/Uhi m, p. 2Hb; R4zitl 14b (40). }"Iku, R",~n{ 17b; Ibn En', in troduction to Torah, foonh method, R. AVIlIIIam MUla;' C~~Hd uAvraJram 2:3. In o~ ancient lOUr«, _ find thai lhe K WI)rld rotates around lhe fin of thc k:vil illan,· M ldrasl/ Asnn lIaDibroi 2, in Bet Ha.l/idrw~ 1:63, Otza, M idr/Ulrlm, p. 4SOb. Ruz;" 18b (nil R.mblom, 8cncnoro, on AWJd<Jh Ztlrtlh 3:3; Monit'l:ai, Ioc. ell.. Radal on Pirkly Rabbi EIir.:tT 'r.31 . Gill hcn'. II is pouibly for lIIis IUJOII Ihal Ihe oommcnlaria state lIIaI Ihe Teli i, ;n Ihe ipIItn' 0( lhe $Un, Itt Chakil"..,nl, R. ElicHr of W()(JI1C$. Ptolem y. AIMa,~n 7, p. 2B. This is .110 u~ in aDcienl HcblllK touIUJ. I t t Misltpalt')' J/(l},lazaJof, Slisoon, Ms. 8B. p. II'. dctcribed .bove, ch'ptet ~, lIOIe 64. Ra:irl l'b (S8), Or lIaClulnudr (Ill ZoIIa, 1:12 j .. Cf /lJuirl 2 1. (97). R.mblom. M OIdtcQi, 1«. cit.. Sifgy C~. lbmt INaA 141: 18, ll.,~y loh.,., 141 :S. Ot=a, CluJi,., 61. AIM):Itt Ymulwlml, $luJbbQt 9: 1 (Hb), ~ Zartlh ) :6 (2la), Rim"'" on Silo/lbar IJb, · Ztlt,· R.avl n 188. is mentionw in Num~rs 22: 41. Judses 2:13, I Kinp 16:31-l2. ]8:21.26. Baal and Ash!erah might ~ the mile. IllKI female serpents, see notn 2] , 22. Also see Rash i on Isaiah 27: ], Sh'm<J1 Rabbal! 1:12. Tanchuma. VaE ...h 3. An allu.ion to the fact that the Baal is the Te]i may ~ fO\lnd in 1 Kinp 18:26, in th e ,,-oro vaYaHa1ioL. which can ~ rearnnlW 10 raid I'r HaJjoLY (and the Tdi). Thi, serpent may also ~ idenlifiw with tile serpent of Gennis. 14. Saadi • • p. 60, B.redoni, p. 209. Donash, Olxa, Edt l! HaGal!uz 55 •. Thi, is also mas! probably tile opinion of Cha/ulmcmi, R. E]iezar of Wormes. Also see 7:u,al HoArtl: 13 (Offenbach. I nO), p. 175, Shr>rilq EmUl!ah 2 (191). Ynod Ola", 2:1 (161). Srln Trc:hum,h (Jnusalt"'. 1967J. p. 59; Chnhbal! MailalrkMl HaKokha"im 69. IS. Donash, p. 69. 16. Knl YrhutkIA on Ku:ari 4:25 (54a), TOYfot Ya", n... on AwJdah Za,ah 3:3. Anonymous ~A on rad. KiJdwh "aChadnh
14 :1. ]7.


21 .





28. 29.

Sudia, pp. 59, 60; Blrcdoni. p. 209: Rambam on Avodah ZaraA 3:3: Kuza,i 4:25 (551); Anon ymousl'nllsh, toe. cil, Ot.a, Edr" HaCanu. 55a: Cf PrlijlflJr JOb. Or HaSrkhel 4:1 (41a); Cf Srln HaChtsheir. ]Ob. Bamla DtShmuei HaKalan 2: Sr/" TtdumM. pp. ]0 1- 104, Ibn Ezra on Exodus ): 15 (end): Job 28:3. Cf. Rashi. ad loe.: Bneshil RabOO}r 7:4. BaWl &lIra 7 ~ b; Mid,ash ChasnDf Vr lmror (Balq Mid,ashim 2:225). ZoJrar 2:34b; Ma",tkMI Eiairul 102b; Ra::it l 9b (22 ): Eml'k HaMril'kh 103a; Radal on Pirkey Rabbi Elir.n 9:31. Othe!'$, however, Slale Ihat the pole and roilw serpents a~ identical. since il is roiled around Ihe pole. R. Chananel on Bu.'ll Bum: 74b: Gra on Si/ra DtTu"iula 121: Gra on Tikunty Zollo, 49 (89b). Gra on Si/,a [Hr.,"iula. Itx. (il. Rllbaj: on Job 26: 13: Nrrzutzq Orot on zm,a' 1: 12 Sa. Razicl l la (30). 15a (42), 2 1a (63, 69), 221 (12 ). Tlli, river is mentionw in Daniel 1:1 0. SIlos!'an t~ad O{am, p. 220 (bottom). Also aiven is a metllod of induein, 1 dream IhroUjh " 'hieh communication wilh Ihe Teh is ntabhshw, lbid. No. 558. p. 247. Cf EI. Chajm, Shaa' Kil,~' ABYA 8. p. 403. K~ZQ'i 4;25 (S5a); Cf Eu Chaim, lor:. (il. Olza, Edt1! flaGanu; 55a. tm.s1u:.lmi. Chagigah 2: 1; Bacby. on Genesis 49:26; also ""e Razin 14b (40): see note 7.



32. JJ.

~ ehapler~, &llti, 106: Kt'





4 1. 42.


4$ .

46. 41. Bahi,I06.

noles n, 34. KeI!ilat laa.i:ort. "mi. " CIt{l8iph. 14&, Orm, lIaXurod. ad Icc. Cj SIt·MOt Rubbalr 8:1, TbnlW lHBri £Iialtll &bbaIr 30 (116&), Ylld. Ynodf'Y IIIlTorolI 1:9. Black hair iSI5SOCiated wHh youth. Kt' Ecclesiastes 11:10. Also Kt' MdcJliltll on EJtodus 20:2. Krdu.sJuu wi. Yitro(Jenna[em , 19S8), p. Ill. E/: ellaim. Shallr Arikh Anpin S:J. Cj Shallr lIaK(ffl1.nQ4, p. 46. Also see ZoIuu 3: 127b, 1: 132a. £ruvi,. 21b, Zohar 2:116&, 3:19b, 3:136b, 3:136&, Zohllr Chadas/! 6&. A .imilar e~pression is found in MiIWChOf 29b, with reprd to Rabbi Akibll. I'IlYikra RubNh 19:1, Shm ..'" S. Cf. Shir HaShirim &bbtJh on S:ll , Tomlr ~mimalr. ibid. Tbnclrllmu. Bfrnhir I, YmtShalml, Slrl"l«l/im 6:1 (2Sb), SIrIT lIiJShirim Rabbait. 1«. cil .. Zoirar 2:84-., 2:1141, 2:..226b, 3:132&. J: 154b. Tibn"" Zellar S6 (9Gb). See chapter L !KItes , 242, 243. Malbim, ad 10(".. ZeIIar 3: 13631, 1: 14Oa. The...ud foc IIaiT ~ is KnlIt:tih. and tItis is the only time in the Bil*: that this word is used. bc:sidcs Soq d Soup H . The ...ud "' '""'" (kN"' y mated '" Kef:, ~i .... tbom, and .... rdmin& 10 the: PQints and liM details (titles) in the Hebtcw letteR. Malhim. loe. cil.. nkllnq LNrar 10 (122&). The lhirt«n hain of this Beard.,.., ...,Iated 10 the lwelve Diaeon.1 Boundaries. Kt' Elrnw.1r Rabatai 3:4:3 (7la). lJffllkltot}()a, from 50111 or 50nas 4:4. ~ ZcJwr 2: II6&. Ram bin, ad 1«... Pirkl)' Rabbi Eliela' 3S (8lb). Cf Ibn EZI1l 01] P5alms 16:3, Radak on 2 Samuel 24:16, Radbaz, AI~nuJol David 304: Kllzari 2:14 (l1ab), ZohJJr 1:ISOb, 2:19a. Also Kt' Midrasil Trhi/lim 91:7, ZelIa, 1:13la, 1:72a: &rnhil RabNh 611:5 . Radlk on P5alms 132:2. Pri Yilw.ak on 6:3. SlIabbllt ISlb. 8Q\"<I Balra 16b. TITlI.UTI on Job 38:33. Cj R. Aaron of Ba,Mad, quoted in BoI:ril he..." 0111 here. Pt"$tIdrim 94b, &lro Barra 141, Rao:Wt on Psalms 71: 19. ~ Ukllt~ Moitanfll S:3.

48. Ibid.
49. Raz/rll la (27). ~. ~ Malbim. tUJ Ioc. ~I. &rQlril Rabball611: 12. n. ZeIIar 1: l lb. Also see Morrh ":fflKhim 2:30, Rash i on Cknffis 1:2. Cf. VaYik,a Rabbalr IS:}.

B. 54. 55. 56. H.

See nOle 37. Stt chapter 5. nOle 39.
Pniyah 4Sd. hi Yiluhal.:. ad 1«.. Pard", Rirrwn im 9:3. Stt Ell Chaim. Shoo, TaNTA 5, p. 71: Shoa' HaPQ'/1lifim 4, p. II S: Shoo, Tikkuff HaNlikva 5, p. 160; Elt mah Rabalai 4:5:3 (14Oc); Cf. ZoJrru 2:20Ia; Tik""q ZoJra, 30 (75.); ,hapler I. nOle 28. Stt K"1ari 4:25 (5 5b). /Il'rakhQf 9:5. Tik"ff~' 21 (49b), Zohar 1:155b. EI: Clraim. ShtUU Kilzli' AEYA 4. p. 399; &xl.,.i""tes J(U. Proverbs 18:2. Also see K"1ari. loc. cil .. Mafttadr Hal?aJI(JII 26&. ZoIrar 3:47b. Cf Ch"lin 6Ob. EmWlOl I'toDewt 1:4, end. introduction to 3, Or HaSlr"m 2:6:2, &/~ lIaYasha, I. Parties Rimo" im 2:6. Eu Chaim. Slroo, l1aK~lIim I. Rmil Clraklrmah. Shaa, HaTtlruvalr I , Sir"", LuchOl lIaETiI, Bel Yis,an (l:2Ib). Shomn Em"nim (lIaKadmon) 2: 13, lHr<'i<h lIaSlrl'm I :2: I. Al$o see ZoIIa, I: I Ob, I:BOb, 2: l66b. &/" HaETiI 2: 1:3. £stlr~ RaMaIr 10:14. Mid,tWr 'mrillim 3 1:7. Stt Derd:h HaShem 1:2:1. Slrill' &mah 13:3 (lOb), IHrekIr HaShem 2:6: 4. Ta'lu m, ad loc .• YtTU$lralmi. Btrakh1Jl6:I (<lIb). MOffh Ne\'uclrim 1:18 . ZoIIa, l: 42b, EmllnOl VrDewt, end of I. EI1 Chaim, Slroo' lIaKelalim I. Shill' Konwh, loc. cit. Rn lril Chakhmalr. Imroduct ion . Cf. R. Yonah on Proverbs 2:5. Slrabbal3lb. BnaklrOl 6b. Yad, Wrll"an 8:7; Cf 8 ,.,akir0l4a. AI'O/ 4:J6. /(iddl/.Slrin 39b, Clrllli" 142a.



62. 63. 64. 65.

67. 68. 69.
70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

15 . AVO/ 4:11,

76. BnakhQf \7•. 77. tad, Tthri>'ah 8:3, Toro/llaArklm. in Kil''f'Y Rambaff, p. 301. 78. Daat T"'"ffah (Tel Aviv. 1966), p. 9. 19. PQ,d", RimQflim 2:6. She/a Tal. end of 2, £11 Clraim, Shoor Dnvslr ..y A8YA I. 80. Midrash. quoted in SIrOOT HaGumul, p. 296. Also ZoIwr 2: 166&, UJculq MoiIa'an 215. SiclrOl flaRan 134. 81. ihmlril RaMaIr 12:5. Chagigah 12•. 32. Ibid" Bn",lril RaMaIr 3:6, Ra.hi on On""i. 1:4.





83. V"Yikra Rabbah 20:7, ZiJl,ar 1:135a. 84. BIl ..a /kma 10... 8~_ Emu"", J'~lHyot ~:~, Ibn Ezra on Psalms 16:11, Va Yikra R"bbah 30:2. 86. Beraklwt 34b. Sanhhirin 9"9a, Yad. TsJlu."h 8: 7. 87 . AvoJa/ lIaKoonil 2:18. Slrnri LucirOi lIaBril. B~I Chakllmah (1 :221). Amud llaA.rx/ah 101b, ,v~fnI! JlaC""im 1: 12, OlIn Yisrael. R 'eh (<;>n Deul~nlnom y 8:16). q. A I'OI 4:2. ,vislrmal Adam I (Pieter:t:ov. I ~ II). p. 16b. 88. Cf BarreIoni, p. 226. ~ JlaShem OI 9(Ja, OWJI" Eden ,,"GaD":: 161, 111.

Appendix I: Other Versions
2. 3. 4.


The order is Ihal of the pl. ncl$ <;> n Sunday mornin" the same as in Shabbal I 56a, Cf JlagahOl/kr Clradash (8«11). ad Ioc. A p;lraph",.., of Ecclesiastes 1: I. Paraphra5e of Psalm 9):2. The word Yllrok is uHlall1 t",n.lated as veen. Rashi. h<;>wever, identifi.-s Yarok with the Biblical ~blue wool" (TnJrdett, iCe Rashi on ElIodus 2S: ~ . Numben lS:H. &TUklwI ~b - Tekllrln, " Gillin lib -Sarbala.· Also iCe T~. Surrah Jlh "lIaYarok,· Chulin )7b "Ekh." Also ..,e R.n hi. Chagigalr 12. ' ~'iI Yashd_ · In Razirll2b (11). thi, is likened to the vee" line....,n on the horizon. when one climbs the ma.t of a ship in the middle of Ihe sea. This is also identi fied as bein, the..".., Klipah as the ~Iorm ..ind of Ezekiel, iCe Tikunf')' ZoIrar 17 (18a). Pardn Rimonim 25: 7. The Hebrew here is MePlrulamim. Rashi inlerprel$ this as meanillllTl();st (moisten), Cllagigah 12a. Betz" 24b, Wachim 45a. Alw S« Razi~1 l Ib (2~), R. Eliner HaKalir, quoted in Bol ril on I: II ; Yad. Bn II"Bt'Chiroh l:l4. KnejM ishnah. ad Ioc. Si n~ ," 'ater n:P'"""nts the prime>"al mauer (S« chapter I , note 20S ). this ,•.-~tMSS denoles material exiaten.::e. see R. Levi bet1 Shlomo of Lunil . quoled in Botril, loc_ d f. Othen $IY that lbe ...·or<! indicates un known , nameless SIOIl6, from Ploni AlmOfli (Ruth 4: l. see Rashi, Ibn Ezra, ad loc. ). Raavad . Ot:ar HaSh~m. on 1: 11 , R. Aaron of Baghdad , quoted in Botril, loc. cil .. Ralba, on ~ncsi. 1:2 (Veni~. I S47), p. 9.:.. Saadia Gaon siaies Ih. 1 il

means ~5pli! f(ld.$,~ from Ml'PhullUh. Sudi. on 4:6. p. 123. On p _ 124, ho,,"'cvn. he Stiles that Ihis denotes the bed r", k of the carlh, Another opinion is Iha! these arc ~incrrablc rocb. with MI'Phu/am comin, from Ihe word HOI/10m, since Bel a nd Peh inlcrchan&e. BolTil, loc. cil .. quolin, R. Yu kovben Mc;rofOy. n in T=ni! Mell/chalr (wc above I :8). Otliers interM


pret Ihem 10 be subSianuless. ethereal rocks. wilh the root Pa/am comin, from B ..limah. falhcr of R. Lrvi ben Shlomo of Luni r. quoted in BoITil. loc. cil. Others reille it to death. brca kin, PoImOI inm two words. Pol Mal. ibid. The root

POI/am is also relaled to the EnsJish Flume. sec Arukh PLM. Also see Ber1 enoro. Rambam On S/rabb/JI 22:6 (l47a). These can liso be seen as Mstone. of daTkncu." since Ihis exprcnion ; n Job 28:3 is rendered by the la',um as Arllnim M~Pllll/llmlm.
TheK stones are also related 10 the leiters of the .I phabet , as in S~f~r Yn :irall 4:16. I « T:ioni k. Liklltry MoI!",,,,,, 11:6. CllagipJr 12•. Ibn Ezno on Genesi. 1:2, ZoIzar 2:74b, 2:273b. ):27 •. ):279a, ):305b. Tiki/MY Zoirllr, Introdl,lction (II.), 18 ()6a), )7 (7Sa). ZoIrar CII./3dasll )2~, 55a, lOOc. I lOa. 119a. Ra:in l i b (29). 12b (33), 14a ()9). nhll>'Ol Ranw 6. 5« eh. pte r I, note 11 9, ~h,pler 5. note 29. Peaa and Ken as opposites from luiah 45:7. See Cllagigah 161, Zollar 1:61.. 2:232a. Tik.II"~y Zohar. Inlroduclion ( 12b). 12 (64b). Oil/,>' Yisrarl. VaErah (27a). Cf Cllagigall 12a. q. Ecc:!esiastes 4:8. Par.lphnlK o( Ze-l:hari. 14:9. T he Hebrew. MaNtd~t. here is obscure. InSlead of I mO/. mOlhers. Sudi. I,ISCS Umo/. This I,Isually means ~n .. ioni.~ Sud;a. howeve r. lr.nSllleS Ihem IS

7. 8. 9.

L 1.

Ll. 14.

Th is is an andenl. obsolele way of speUin, Ihe leller Bel. Note its reKmblena to Peh. 16. The Hebrew here. M,clllllhal, is obscure. Sec Ezekiel 16:4, 30:21. Job 38:9. 17, T his was the origin.l desi..,ation (o r the planet Mercury. Li ter. it was a bbreviated II Koc:ll",v .lone. KC SIl",bbal L56a. Th is would appear to indiclle that th is text antedate. t he Talml,ld. Lin,uislicaUy. this appears to be the most ancient venlon. 18. In plural. It mi&l\l deMOte both the 1.'Ic and small intestines. 15.



S ~ ff R


Appendix II : The Thirty-Two Paths

2. 3.
4. 5.

6. 7.


10. I I. 12.

I 3.
15. 16.

17. is.

Raavad. Inlroduction ( 11.1.). Pard~ Rim<mim 12. ShDs/latl SedOf l3b. 76a. ~/iyan 4Sa. prj Yilzc~ak (Warsaw. 1884). Pan 2. 28.1.. Set- No. 13. Paraphra~ of I Oronid<1, 29:1 1. l$.Iial! 1$: 1. TM word is M t·AI:iI. mannl lM $.IDle 1"001 WI Atzilut. Probably alludinllo No.3 . Thi5 allgd il idenlified al Sund or Surilh. !ott &raldwt Hoi., "una /Of Ralla/ai 16:4. Abo !ott Tikll./V}' l<J.Ira, 70 ( 127b, lop). Oth(T sources idenlify Ih is anael as s"n(i(iphon. !ott Zona, 2:26Oa. ZoIlar CIkuJasi! lSd. Cf KII.:ari ):65 . Greatness (GeduLah) is Ih~ earlier name for 1M Sefirah of Chned, ba~ on 1M ,'erse I Chronicles 29: i I. The Ophan is an anlel of Asiyah. Set- Pardn Rimcnim 1:7. Th is same idu i, found in &frr H"I,..,," (No.7) qUOIed in Pardn Ri mQllim 1:7. AlII) !ott Pardn Rimonim 12: 4. 23:8: Bolril on 2:). Su No. L. 2. Seo: chapler 2, nOle ,. IIra/alt")' Ta/wI" in Hebrew. The exprusion i. fo und in IIIe MU laf s.ervitt for RMh HaShanah" 1M. bqinni", of Shofro/, relalilll 10 Ihe revdalion at Sinai. AlII) !ott xf" "a /ylln. in A. / ellinek. (iltlzt J' Ch.akhmal "aKaixlllah. p. I I . where il il identified with Ihe Cha.Jllmal. b odu. 20:2 L. Deuleronomy 4: I I. 5, 19. Cf Psalms is: 10, 97:2, 1 Kinp 8:12. It is therefore a PO"'(T (hal surroundl and holds. Su Appc>ndix I. nole J6. Allud inlto Psalm 91:1. Se.. nOle 18. T he verse spc>aki of the Mshado ... of Shaddai,M the name aSSOcialed ... il h YHOd. Yesod il called Chai . ... hich has a numerical value of 18. T his is Iherefore the 181h stale of oonsdousl>C5S. SuNo.3. AUudinl to Psalm 91:1. See note IS .

Appendix IV: Editions and Commentaries
I, This edition ;s nOI ~nlioMd in Otu,. &f arim or in Btl EkM &fadm. It is only listed by W~. p. 10, and Waite, p. J.


See """'Na, BaKc>dt.$h in pan 2.
Not in Ol:ar &forim or Bet EkM &farim. Mentioned by Waile, p. 3. The sa~ is true of Ihis edition. Not in O/Zll' &[arim or Bel EW &farim. Men tioned by GoIdsclimidt. See Shem UaGMoIim. Samd::h 1: Mei, Iknayu, lbIdQl JI(lAri (Jerusalem, 1%7). pp. 43, 12, 24 1. Repnting Bl'lI.iamin HaLev; and his fu~r Shmlld. _ Sinai 43: 100 ( 1958). Much of Ihis boot w:a. taken from CIr..mdat !foYamim (Ismi., 1731). Also !ott Nt'Na, BaKodeJIr (IsmiT. I n~). Stt Amste rdam ( 1713) edition of &/« Yl'Itirah.. Sec £1: Chili,". Jnlrod U~lion. pp. 19.20. Sh"m JlaG~im. A.I~ 11, A. Jcllinck. UIIN'IlI"rNall d~ Orit'nu (OLB) 185 I. p . 425, G . Scholcm. Ki'}'fll &1'" 4:286 (1928). KiI''n' lad BaKlltKlllah 17:7. p. 48 . In Pardn RinrO/1im 12:2, Ihe 32 Palh. found in lhe Raa,'ad a n: anribuled 10 Y~r HaAru kh , Also s« Oizar ~ forim, Pel! 315; Sh~m HtJGMoIim, Seho lem. foe. cil. Especiall¥ in hi.lellin& up ofl he 23] Galtl. S« Oi:ar Ed~n HaGanu: 16b. 311; c ha pler 1, nOfe 43. Qr;:ar E4fll /{aGallu: ]6b. quoted in A. Jdlinek, Bn Ifa&f" ]:XU I. AI ... s« Oi:ar S,forim. Peh 316. R. Kir'lheim. Lilltraluri)/al/ dn Ori~IIIJ (Ol B) 1846. p. 666. quoted in Tfflli rin. p. 10, note 8. Also s« Ibn Ez!'l's Malll~ La.shc" lIaKodn h (Offenbadt, 179]), Introd uction. A. Jelli ...... , MOH:f de U-O" ""d Mill V...Il02/miJ lum Schar ( 1351). p. 46: G. Seholem, " iryal ~ftr 6:387 (J9 }()). H o .... ever, "" here R. Yehudah Char il qUOl.cs R. Azriel. Ihi. does nOi fitlhe prinled Ramban , ..,., Chl)'il 3Th, 112b. S« note 16. Donash i. menlioned Iry Abraham Ibn EUI in his commentary On Genesis 38:9. ImUf dn Eludn Jui,'l'S (REI), Vol. 105. 107, 112. 11 3. 119, 121. Cf Munk, MNolic sur Aboul W.lid,~ ./Qurltll/ AsialiqlU, 1850: A. Neubauu. Cala/opf of 1lt/:Jftr>' Ma macriplJ i ll Ihf

4. 5. 6.

7, 8.








18. ]9.

21 . 22,

Bodlria" Library No. I I I 8: f urst. Lmna/urb/al/ d~ Qrlm/I (O LB) 18SO. p. 897. It ~\d be templilllto identify Ihis willi R. E1ieur t;lfWonnC$. Ht;lwc ver. in Or:a' F A'" Ifa(;(l/Iu: \ 6b. Abulafia wrilC$ thaI the (()m mcntary of R. Y ittthair. Barda!hi ;,. un ique in il1 trellment of the 231 GatC$. Elkur of Wonnes utes . simil" S~tlcm .• nd therefore. Abulaf..,. rou ld not 1I",·c ~n IIi, CI(Immcntary. S« A. J~Hi""Ir.. &ilrlJV:II' (J~lrl!l~ dn Ka/:Jb<>lalr. Vol 2. p. 61: Yehudall l-e ib NIIdwl KtNJomim (Hlnovcr. UB), p. 3. Goldschmidt, p, 39; 01:10, &forim. hi! 3 L7. Tlti. should be rejC"Ctcd for the rel50llJiven in IlQ(C 16. Stc I n trod ~tion. IIOle 1()9. S« lbYfot. C/wsigah 13a. - V~Ra.f/t)( · fr(>m h$ikla ] 79a. Aloo 51:"( Rosh. IJnakltcl ~,2 1. MaadM)' )Om TIn. ad /OC, Stc S.D. LuzUl\o. UtI"alWf b/DU tIN Ori~"11 (OLB) 1847, p. 343; ~vid Castell i. 1/ rorn''Il'''k> di Sltabball!ai DonIlOh1. p. o. Stc A. Man.. H IlT..-o{dr ~: 195, G . Scllolcm. M'Tmtds. p. is. Aloo 51:"( Weinbel"J. in Jahrbu<:h dh JunJi~h·Lil"lllitdtnr
Grsft~NJfi 2():28).

14 .



27. 28.

OI:or S<fiuim. hi! 329, Mordecai Silmuel Girond i. ThJdol GNIakr YiJra,l..-I./..m 77. GoldSChmidt. p. 42. II is s(",(flCanl Ihal in his commenta ry on 2:3. hc UJCI Abulafia·s system for !he 23] GatC$. Set G. Scholcm. Ki/l'rJ' Yad BaKrWallalr 35. p. 93: M. StcinllChneider. CalajqguJ Lib<:>nlm H rl;1tuft)f1u" i" Bibliotlrfal Bodlrialla (Berlin. IIU2-60). No. 1793; "J'OIdm Gtd<JI<')' YiJrarl. M ..m 95, OI.a, &/a,im. Prlr JJO. Julius f llel"5t. Blblkxlrfal Judail"tl( UipziJ, 1848-63). Vol. 1. p. 187. for I Icn&thy d iscussion. Stt O. Scllolcm. Kiryal Wn 6:3 85 (1930 ). Cf. Chayit 48a. 91&. Sec note 11. Aoo Stt A. Jdlinek, Bril~ :W, r ~ltic~lr tkr kbbolah 1:9,2:49. Lillrn2lurb/all de Qrir " l$ (OLB) 1851. p. 502. f or I rounler I/"IUmen\, Stt o.aim Dov Chevd. Ki/J'l')I Ramban 2:452. Aloo sec Paron Rimottim 1:4 (end ~ Stc Calalopc MiJnbadr." (Munich. 1888 ) No. 104. Wundcrbar. LillfflJlW, blall rkr Orirnl$ (OLD) 1848. p. n 1. Riliel "'Ill • p$Cudonym of AbulafLl. "'hKh he uJCS in ~ fla£~. Mun Kh. Ms. 28S. publ ished in MOIItI»€ltrjft for Gnrlricltl .. und "'ilR1l~ dn JutimlUmJ (MOWJ) )6:5n, and in f(aKa/:Jb<>lalt S~rl S4rr lIa "flomu"ah Vr$h,1 A~m Abu/afia. p. 197. He 1lQ(C$ that il has the same numerical value and number of lellCI'I .. his name Abnham, Ott Or lIaSrklw/ 7: 1 (92a). CNJ>"a), O/am lIaBalr 70. Rnkl 24&, b actually con-


a small pOrtiQn from the bqinninr. of ClUlJllJ' Ofum lIu&1! rqardinr. Ih~ divine Names. [1 also makes use of the

Gemalria sty le ~mini5ttl11 of "bulafla. See DlMr ~forim, Rnh


Baley M idrtJJltcl l: I 2. Cf. Lndaucr. Lillnal",bloll dn Orintll (OLD) G. Sc~, Kil>'r)' Yad BaKabbalalr 17:8, p. 48. /:.'nM" j6a, " V~A;".·
! 2 l. AI", _

1 84~.

p. 214;

12. Tiler<: is another manuscript. Parma, di Rossi 399:2. which ;s also called Taclrukmcni. This. ho"'~'·cr. is more of a commentary on Ihe Bamra ojSlrmuft lfaKatoll. rqardinr. Ihe pllasn of the IIlOOfI in 746. H. T he introduction "11$ publi.tted 5epar.ltcly by A. Jcll;nek, Ptrwsh NolJSd, AdDm Dr 1::"lm, ,,,, (Leip~ig. 18~4). reprinted in Gi"zey, Jel'\lsalem, 1969, by A. Geiger. Pail/rlr. J/ol'anim No.2. Benin, 1860. and by Zusman Monlener, in Kilvry Rdualr. lerusalem, 1949. 34. Also _ (}f;ar ~farim, ""h 325; S. Munk.. MNotioe sur Aboul Wal id." .k!llnlO/ Asia/iIlU" 1850; Dayid Casti11i.1I romm"nlO di Shabbalhal DiHlnoIo. p . vi; M .H. Landa"",., Lilln'tl/wrb/all tk, Ori" nts (OLB) 1845. p_ 562 ff Munich manuscript oontains


J.6. 31.
38. 39.

4 1.

43. 44 .

commcntarin Saadi.. Yaakoy ben Nissan. SlIahbatai Donelo. and Yi t~hak Yisra~li. See A. Jel linek, BrilrlJgr :11' G~hichll' dn KablJalah 2:)9, ()f;;ar Sifarim. Prlr 326. Ot;;ar Stfarim. PrlI 322. Ot;;ar Stfiuim. P"h 32). Also in Marr:o!illl l;;"ah (Am,tndam, 1122), Cj S. Munk. NO/icesu, R. Saadia, p. 16. Sec Gabrial Falk. introduction 10 Ciloiam Talihnil (Amslerdam, 1865).p.7. Sec note 10. In UbI",. Sha.s 32b. there is also. oomment on the fint Mishnah of !kfrr Yl'lzi,ah. Also 'Itt £IZ Clraim. Shaa, TaNTA 5-7. SIrmlr Maamatry RaJltbi. p. 299a. Cj Lillnalurb!all dn Ori"nts (O LB) 1844. p. 481 ; Ol:a, SrIa,,"'. Prlr 328_ Theu are. ho_'-er, early citations thaI do nol appear 10 aVtt with thio publi,hed commentary. we Chayil 19b. 198b; Ot:ar Chaim 17b. Sec RLTu" tk, t./udn j"iPn (REJ) 107: 109 (1 947). Also we Shlomo Yehudah F~nd, lJu.f Buch Ilbn dn £/",,",1$ (lei pzi&. 1884).8:9_ Sec G. &hoIem. Ki,yat Sifn 4:286-302 (L928~ Also see M. Sieins""ide •. Ca/alcgu" MallCh"n", lf~riJdr", lIal1tiKhrf/ttn 115:3. Cj Botril on 2:1. 2:6, 6: 1.




4 '. See nolf 9. 46. See n<)le 44. 4 7. L Z\ln~. 111' Gahidr.," 1111 Li/l{'rQIII". p. 250: Otza"s,J4rim. Prlt 324. 43. See Otzar ~rim. YIId )34 (p-ublished by YiJrKl D.... id1Ol1. Smich.o. .usaf, and Y ioachar Joel. Jfru .... ~m. 194 1. 4' 30). 438 49.


shor1<;:Ominp in lhis work. Kf Rt"I'lIf tin Elwin Jllivn (REJ) 29:31 0.3 16. Acrofdi nl to fQrsl and Slci nsneidcr. see GokIschm idl. p. 36. Sn: J.Ch. Wolf. Bibli()tml (17 IS). Vol. 1. p. H. C. Scholem. Bibli()pQphia KabCI/iJtiar (Bertin. 19 H). ' PillonlU. • Trmirill. p . 27. note '3. S« H. Gfllell. Ifisl~)' o{llw J~ (New York. 1927). Vol . 4 . p. 466.

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