SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT IN BUILDINGS

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Emerging Eco Friendly HVAC Technologies for Energy Conservation

Dr. S.C. Kaushik Professor & Head Centre for Energy Studies Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
IIT Delhi

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Indian Energy Scenario
India is a major producer and consumer of energy.

It is world’s 11th largest energy producer accounting for about 2.4% of the worlds total annual energy production. It is the 6th largest energy consumer accounting for about 3.7% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. Per capita consumption of energy in India is one of the lowest in the world. India’s energy use efficiency for generating GDP in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is better than the world’s average.

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The energy challenges for India

84 million house holds in the country (44.2% of households) do not have electricity in 2000. The peak power shortage varies from 0 to 25.4% in state to state with all India average of 11.7%(2004). The energy shortage varies form 0 to 20.1% with all India average of 7.3%. For 8-10% growth rate that we aspire for, our energy need will also increase. Along with the quantity the quality is equally important.

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Actual and Predicted Energy Consumption Pattern in India (MOTE)*
Year
Coal
Oil Gas Hydro Nuclear Total

2005 (Actual)

%

2030 (Predicted)

%

167
119 29 7 5 327

51.07
36.39 8.87 2.14 1.53 100

816
435 224 43 115 1633

49.96
26.63 13.71 2.63 7.04 100

World %

3.72

10.9

*MOTE= Million Oil Tones Equivalent
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If all the inferred reserves also materialize then it may last for 140 years. In situ coal gasification can increase India’s available energy from domestic resources. IIT Delhi 5 .Coal Supply Scenario     The proved reserves of coal at current level of consumption can last up to 80 years. If domestic production grows at 5% a year the reserves will run out in 40 years. Only 45% coal bearing areas have been surveyed.

Recovery in place reserves can be improved easily by 510%by adopting advanced mining of coal. Improvements can be made in energy extraction. 6 IIT Delhi . distribution and end use of energy. energy conservation. energy transmission. Oil and Gas recovery techniques. it can be increased up to 40-42% by using advanced conversion methods. The average fuel conversion efficiency is around 30%.Reduce Energy requirement    Improvement in energy efficiency or conservation is crucial in creating a domestic energy source base.

20% and Economy as a whole. Transport. electricity T&D and by adopting renewable electricity technologies.25%.30%.Energy Security through Energy Conservation   Huge Potential in reducing electrical consumption by improving supply side energy efficiency. IIT Delhi 7 . Sector-wise Energy Conservation Potential in the country has been estimated as: Industrial. Agricultural. Domestic & Commercial. demand side energy efficiency.20%.23%.

India will need to generate 3.000 MW of Nuclear power and 14.880 billion kilowatt hours of electricity in 2030 to sustain an 8 per cent growth rate. 78 per cent of our electricity would have to come from carbon dioxide emitting coal. IIT Delhi 8 . To achieve this. By 2030.380 in China).Indian Concerns  Indian per capita incomes today are 45 per cent of that of China and 25 per cent of Brazil. but just think: Brazil’s per capita consumption of electricity today is 1. while it is still 440 in India (and 1.950 units. we would need to max our hydro use. generate 63. Even then. we could touch present-day Brazil’s level.000 from wind farms.tap all our rivers.

000 MW of electricity generating capacity. wind or thermal energy.000. but energy from whatever source it comes from. we should care more for environmental management & carbon management. 2030. But right now as most Indians know.2006.  By. Which is of more concern today. 9 IIT Delhi . As for global warming. the problem seems to be having power at all. Use of Renewable Energy Sources & Energy Efficiency considerations can play & important role. we missed all targets and managed 40.China added 60. with all its negative implications for global warming. In five years of the 10th five year plan. In just one year. India will reach the current levels of US carbon emissions. Looked at any way. the choice seems to be not so much between nuclear. Green Buildings & Eco-Friendly Energy Technologies is a further steps in this direction.

IIT Delhi 10 . While the total energy consumed by all humans amounted to 4.World Energy Scenario Enormous energy flux is provided by the sun equivalent to 54.017%of the solar energy absorbed by earth Surface.3 x 10 17 kj / year which is equivalent to only 0.4 x 10 20 kj / year the earth .

In fact. Other technologies like Solar Photovoltaics (PV) and biofuels also recorded quite impressive growth patterns.Renewable Energy Sources: The Economic Growth  Renewable Energy (RE) technologies are fast gaining a foothold on a global level. It can be gauged from the fact that a colossal investment of around $ 38 billion was made on creating new RE capacities alone in 2005. Japan and India. Germany and China took the investment leads at $ 7 billion each followed closely by USA. biomass power production witnessed a 50-100% increase in annual production capacities in many countries during 2004. 11  . Amongst the RE technologies. Spain.

oil and gas alone. time seems to be ripe once again to pump large investments more so for technology up-gradation so as to attain economies of scale. 12 . Simultaneously though. RE technologies observed a phenomenal push for a holistic growth during the much talked about oil crisis of early seventies. steps should be taken to bring down the energy intake vis-à-vis the use of conventional power. Surely.Renewable Energy Sources: The Economic Growth   It is now becoming increasingly obvious that we will soon be unable to meet our energy needs via use of coal. The interim period between then and now has seen support for RE waxing and waning in accordance with the policy of the day. Historically.

13 . These relate to an increasing gap between demand and supply of conventional power. Surely. RE is poised for a second big leap forward to lead towards a sustained economic growth in the near future. accompanying transmission and distribution losses and importantly.Renewable Energy Sources: The Economic Growth  Serious thought needs to be accorded to evaluate the economic competitiveness of all available energy sources in the backdrop of three main parameters. the Climate change process.

There is a need for maximizing the energy efficiency of industrial operations. one that will bring economic growth.Energy Efficiency: The Environmental Solution  Energy conservation and Energy efficiency are presently the most powerful tools in our transition to a clean energy future. new jobs. technological innovation and most importantly environmental protection. building and infrastructure through the use of renewable resources. Implementing these solutions will enable people to step into a new era of energy. IIT Delhi 14 . decentralized co-generation and energy cascading techniques in a manner which optimizes integrated energy flows and minimizes potential global environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions.

Need of Energy Efficient Buildings  Demand for energy is increasing fast day by day and is likely to increase in tune with industrialization/ urbanization The building sector being one of the largest consumers of energy. particularly during the phase of building design. 15 IIT Delhi . has gained prominence over the past few decades.e. 5% energy is used in building construction.     In India energy used for air conditioning of commercial buildings accounts for 32% of the total energy consumption in the commercial sector in 1995. i.   Space heating load can be reduced by about 50%. cooling and lighting of building. when economicallyviable insulating measures are applied to the building envelopes. 45% of total global energy is used in heating. Energy consumption patterns can be substantially reduced by energy conserving measures. to ceiling and walls.

(Source : TERI & BEE. energy consumption is 200 kWh per sq.Energy Use Pattern in Buildings      Lighting Air conditioning Other applications 60% 32% 8%  In conventional Indian buildings. meter by applications of energy efficient building techniques Saving up to 60% can be achieved. Govt. meter This energy consumption can be reduced to 120 kWh per sq. of India presentations) Heat transfer in buildings IIT Delhi 16 .

retrofitting measures should be applied for energy efficiency   IIT Delhi 17 .Energy Conservation Studies in Buildings % of annual electrical consumption (Commercial buildings in India) 8% Lighting (60%) HAVC (32%) Others (8%) 32% 4% 13% 4% % of annual electrical consumption (Residential buildings in India) 10% 28% 60% 7% Lighting (28% ) Airconditioning (7% ) Fans (34% ) EV Coolers (4% ) Refrigeration (13% ) TV (4% ) Others (10% ) 34%  Energy consumption patterns can be substantially reduced by energy conserving measures It is essential to conserve the conventional energy by developing the energy efficient buildings In existing building.

Climatic Zones of India IIT Delhi 18 .

Technologies For Solar Space conditioning  Conventional Vapor compression based system for air-conditioning  Solar cooling options Photovoltaic Solar Cooling Systems Ranknecyle Solar cooling Systms Vapor absorption Solar Cooling systems Adsorption systems (solid and liquid desiccant cooling systems) Thermoelectic & Thermoacoustic Solar Cooling Systems  Hybrid cycles for space conditioning   Heat pipe based space conditioning Retrofitting of existing buildings 19 IIT Delhi .

Vapor compression cycle IIT Delhi 20 .

Scheme of Air-Conditioner IIT Delhi 21 .

Window Air-Conditioner Top View Side View IIT Delhi 22 .

R12 etc) used are non eco friendly * Resulting in ozone layer depletion (ODP) * Large GWP Leakage of CFC’s causing environmental problem Thus both energy shortage and environmental degradation Alternatives must be searched for as Montreal and Kyoto protocols demand phase out of CFCs.Draw backs of conventional vapor compression refrigeration and Air Conditioning systems  Large energy is consumed . huge electricity bills Refrigerants (R11. IIT Delhi 23 . mainly high grade energy  Compression work is very high again usage of high grade energy Although System’s Energy efficiency is large High grade energy cost is high .

Vapor absorption based cooling options (solar based)
 Instead of high grade energy, low grade energy is used  Power requirement is low as compared to conventional VCR  Addresses energy and environ mental problems * Solar energy can be directly utilized (Use solar as heat source) * No CFC’s leakage problem

Type of vapor absorption refrigeration systems for A/C
Closed cycle vapor absorption solar cooling system  Single effect  Double Effect Open cycle vapor absorption solar cooling system Intermittent and continuous system operation

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Closed cycle Vapor Absorption Solar Cooling System (single effect)

G
4 3

7

C
8

HE
5 6 2 10 9

A
1

E

Schematic Diagram P-T-X Diagram

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Closed cycle Vapor Absorption Solar Cooling System (double effect)

Gen I
11 4 5 HEX Gen II 3
6 7

14

C

SHX I

12 8

13

15

SHX II
9 10 2 17 16

A
1

E

Schematic Diagram

P-T-X Diagram

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Conventional Absorption System’s working fluids
Ammonia – Water Absorption System Water-Lithium Bromide Absorption System

* Refrigerant - Ammonia Absorbent - Water * High operating pressures * It is suitable for refrigeration and airconditioning * High generation temperature * Condenser is both water cooled as well as air cooled * Rectifier is required * COP is low (0.5 to 0.6) * No crystallization problem
* Health hazard as it is toxic * Inflammable
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* Refrigerant - Water Absorbent - Lithium Bromide * Low operating pressures * It is suitable for air-conditioning or heat pump * It is relatively lower * Only water cooling is necessary
* Rectifier is not required * COP is high (0.7 to 0.8) * Crystallization is a major problem * It is not toxic * Not flammable
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Open Cycle Vapor Absorption Solar Cooling System Vacuum pump Solar collector regenerator Main tap water Water vapor Absorber Evaporator SHE CT Cold stream IIT Delhi 28 .

Cacl2 Glycols with water * It is bulky * Pressure drop is lower * Good heat exchange * Adsorption – desorption is continuous * Modifications are necessary for coupling 29 . molecular sieve. alumina * System is compact * Pressure drop is higher * Poor heat exchange between air streams * Adsorption – desorption is not continuous * Easily coupled with conventional VC&AC system IIT Delhi * Absorption is volume absorption –a chemical phenomenon * More drying capability * Costly materials like LiBr.LiCl.Adsorption Based Cooling Systems (Solid and liquid desiccant based cooling system) Desiccant based cooling system offers an environmentally benign alternative to conventional system based on vapor compression refrigeration system SOLID DESICCANT LIQUID DESICCANT *Adsorption is surface absorption –a physical phenomenon * Less degree of dehumidification * Inexpensive materials like Silica gel.

Open and closed cycle cooling option IIT Delhi 30 .

only air and water are used as working fluids and no fluorocarbons are required thus there is no danger to ozone layer depletion Significant potential for energy savings and reduced consumption of fossil fuels achieved. their construction and maintenance is simple Desiccant systems can be used for summer/ monsoon air conditioner as well as winter heating when regeneration energy can be used for heating IIT Delhi 31 . * * * * * Advantages of desiccant cooing system: Since . Source of input thermal energy are diverse viz solar.Scope of desiccant cooling Desiccant cooling systems are useful when latent heat load is larger than the sensible heat load. A thermal energy input is used to regenerate the desiccant. Electrical energy requirements are 25% less than the conventional V-C refrigeration system. waste heat and natural gas. Since Desiccant systems operate at near atmospheric pressure. IAQ is improved due to higher ventilation rates and the capability of desiccants to remove air pollutants.

Desiccant based cycles Solid desiccant cycles Ventilation cycle (Pennington) Ventilation Dunkel cycle (recirculation) Modified Ventilation cycle (Dhar) Novel solid desiccant cycle (Kaushik) Liquid desiccant Cycles LOF Gupta & Gandhidasan Liquid desiccant system for ERM  Godara and Jain cycles IIT Delhi 32 .

Pennington Ventilation cycle Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 33 .

Dunkle ventilation cycle (recirculation ) Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 34 .

Modified ventilation Cycle Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 35 .

Novel Solid Desiccant Cycle (Kaushik et al) IIT Delhi 36 .

Schematic Diagram of Liquid Desiccant System (LOF) Block diagram IIT Delhi 37 .

Solar Space Conditioning system Using liquid Desiccant Cycle (Gupta and Gandhidasan) Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 38 .

Liquid Desiccant Cooling system (ERM) Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 39 .

New Liquid Desiccant Cycle (Godara) Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 40 .

high latent load conditions as in Supermarkets).g.Hybrid Cycles for Air Conditioning Useful for capacity up gradation and energy conservation (e. Dry Supply air Cooler Cool. dry Rejected heat Heat input Solid desiccant based hybrid cycle (V-C + Solid Desiccant cycle) Liquid desiccant based hybrid cycle (V-C + Liquid Desiccant cycle) IIT Delhi 41 . humid Hot. Outside air Dehumidifier Warm.

Conventional VC Air conditioner Desiccant Air conditioner IIT Delhi Hybrid Air conditioner 42 .

Hybrid desiccant cooling system Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 43 .

Solid Desiccant Hybrid space Conditioning (recirculation/condenser cycle) Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 44 .

Liquid Desiccant Hybrid Space Conditioning Block diagram Psychromteric diagram IIT Delhi 45 .

Various applications like Hospitals. Shopping complex e. IIT Delhi 46 . In HVAC system.t. hot and humid climate and in combination with indirect evaporative cooling is used.c witnessed the potential as energy saver Heat pipe’s presence is being felt in HVAC industry. used as summer winter application. It is popularly used as waste heat recovery device.Heat Pipe Based Building Space Conditioning Heat pipe is passive. novel heat transfer device emerged as a major energy conservation device. Library buildings.

Heat Pipe EVAPORATOR LIQUID CONDENSER VAPOR WICK .Passive heat transfer device with high effective thermal conductivity IIT Delhi 47 .Transfers heat from a source to a sink with minimum temperature gradient .

HEAT PIPE WORKING IIT Delhi 48 .

A T-S Diagram of working fluid circulation in the heat pipe IIT Delhi 49 .

ammonia e.c) IIT Delhi 50 .high reliability and long life Components of Heat pipe • Container (usually aluminum and copper ). • Wicking structure (capillary effect) • Working Fluid (water.Main Features of Heat Pipes     Heat transfer with small temperature drop Small pressure drop between the evaporator and the condenser Isothermal boiling-condensing cycle No moving parts -.t.

Characteristics of Heat Pipe        Very high thermal conductance. Variable thermal conductance (ability to control) LHP (Loop heat pipe) Thermal diode and thermal switch Flexibility and construction simplicity IIT Delhi 51 . Ability to act as thermal transformer. Isothermalisation of surface.

• aeronautical industry (airplane anti icing system) • aerospace industry (Iso Thermalisation of large surfaces.Various Applications • computer industry (note book cooling/laptop). • automotive industry (vehicle brake system cooling. satellite radiators) • Electronics Industry • manufacturing industry (die-casting and injection molding) air • HVAC industry (waste heat recovery in air conditioning) IIT Delhi 52 . electronics component cooling. engine pre-cooling).

Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger (Waste heat recovery) Gay (1929) Thermosyphon based HPHE Noju (1968) Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger with fins Joshi (1993) Studies HPHE in HVAC Noie-Baghban and Majideian (2000) HPHE for surgery rooms Mulauci (2006)Thermosyphon based HPHE for A/C application You (2006) HPHE for Building A/C IIT Delhi 53 .

Heat Pipe used in Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger Heat Pipe Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger IIT Delhi 54 .

HVAC applications  Operation of HPHE during summer and winter  Heat pipe based system for hot and humid climate   Indirect evaporative cooling systems with HPHE * Ventilation * Combination with Direct Evaporative cooler * Coupled with standard Air Conditioning IIT Delhi 55 .

HPHE Operation during summer and winter Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger IIT Delhi 56 .

Summer time. This kind of HPHE basically recovers heat and helps in reducing the cost of equipment by downsizing the system requirement. Thus reducing the size of the cooling coil as compared to what would have been without using HPHE. the HPHE preheats the cold supply air stream before it enters the heating coil. Winter time.” IIT Delhi 57 . Evaporative cooler could also be used if required. the HPHE pre-cools the hot supply air stream before it enters the cooling coil. This system helps in reducing temperature and increases RH. “For both seasons HPHE achieved savings in terms of electricity bills. Thus reducing the size of the heating coil.

Summer and Winter operating benefits and energy savings Benefits * No external energy required * No modification in ducts required Energy savings * Heating Equipment savings * Cooling equipment savings * Heating operating savings * Cooling operating savings * Indirect Evaporative cooling savings IIT Delhi 58 .

predominantly electrical energy.Heat pipe based dehumidifier for A/C application: Hot & Humid climate Humidity control for material processing. and industrial drying consumes significant quantities of energy. space conditioning of habitable buildings. Indian Context     Dehumidifier is good in hot and humid climate South India is the region where average relative humidity (70-90%) And average temperature (> 30oC) Relative humidity control is necessary 59 IIT Delhi . Cost of energy is heavy so it is always favorable to recover energy.

Conclusions  For building air conditioning option new technology are fastly coming up .  Retrofitting of building is desirable for energy conservation point of view. These are addressing the need of less energy & more comfort  Environmental concerns raised by VCRS are properly addressed by solar options using VAR and desiccant based cooling system  Hybrid systems are energy efficient for air conditioning  Heat pipe technology a new viable option of energy conservation. IIT Delhi 60 . HVAC industry will be reaping benefit from the passive heat pipe technology.

Thanks for Your Kind Attention Your questions are most welcome 61 .

Thanks for Your Kind Attention Your questions are most welcome 62 .

Thanks for Your Kind Attention Your questions are most welcome 63 .

novel heat transfer device emerged as a major energy conservation device. It is popularly used as waste heat recovery device. Shopping complex e. hot and humid climate and in combination with indirect evaporative cooling is used. IIT Delhi 64 .c witnessed the potential as energy saver Heat pipe’s presence is being felt in HVAC industry. Various applications like Hospitals. Library buildings.Heat Pipe Based Building Space Conditioning Heat pipe is passive. In HVAC system.t. used as summer winter application.

Passive heat transfer device with high effective thermal conductivity IIT Delhi 65 .Transfers heat from a source to a sink with minimum temperature gradient .Heat Pipe EVAPORATOR LIQUID CONDENSER VAPOR WICK .

HEAT PIPE WORKING IIT Delhi 66 .

A T-S Diagram of working fluid circulation in the heat pipe IIT Delhi 67 .

high reliability and long life Components of Heat pipe • Container (usually aluminum and copper ).c) IIT Delhi 68 . ammonia e.Main Features of Heat Pipes     Heat transfer with small temperature drop Small pressure drop between the evaporator and the condenser Isothermal boiling-condensing cycle No moving parts -. • Wicking structure (capillary effect) • Working Fluid (water.t.

Isothermalisation of surface. Variable thermal conductance (ability to control) LHP (Loop heat pipe) Thermal diode and thermal switch Flexibility and construction simplicity IIT Delhi 69 . Ability to act as thermal transformer.Characteristics of Heat Pipe        Very high thermal conductance.

engine pre-cooling). • automotive industry (vehicle brake system cooling. satellite radiators) • Electronics Industry • manufacturing industry (die-casting and injection molding) air • HVAC industry (waste heat recovery in air conditioning) IIT Delhi 70 .Various Applications • computer industry (note book cooling/laptop). electronics component cooling. • aeronautical industry (airplane anti icing system) • aerospace industry (Iso Thermalisation of large surfaces.

Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger (Waste heat recovery) Gay (1929) Thermosyphon based HPHE Noju (1968) Thermosyphon Heat Exchanger with fins Joshi (1993) Studies HPHE in HVAC Noie-Baghban and Majideian (2000) HPHE for surgery rooms Mulauci (2006)Thermosyphon based HPHE for A/C application You(2006) HPHE for Building A/C IIT Delhi 71 .

Heat Pipe used in Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger Heat Pipe Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger IIT Delhi 72 .

HVAC applications  Operation of HPHE during summer and winter  Heat pipe based system for hot and humid climate  Indirect evaporative cooling systems with HPHE * Ventilation * Combination with Direct Evaporative cooler * Coupled with standard Air Conditioning IIT Delhi 73 .

HPHE Operation during summer and winter Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger IIT Delhi 74 .

Thus reducing the size of the heating coil. Winter time.” IIT Delhi 75 . Thus reducing the size of the cooling coil as compared to what would have been without using HPHE.Summer time. Evaporative cooler could also be used if required. This kind of HPHE basically recovers heat and helps in reducing the cost of equipment by downsizing the system requirement. “For both seasons HPHE achieved savings in terms of electricity bills. the HPHE pre-cools the hot supply air stream before it enters the cooling coil. the HPHE preheats the cold supply air stream before it enters the heating coil. This system helps in reducing temperature and increases RH.

Summer and Winter operating benefits and energy savings Benefits * No external energy required * No modification in ducts required Energy savings * Heating Equipment savings * Cooling equipment savings * Heating operating savings * Cooling operating savings * Indirect Evaporative cooling savings IIT Delhi 76 .

predominantly electrical energy. Cost of energy is heavy so it is always favorable to recover energy.Heat pipe based dehumidifier for A/C application: Hot & Humid climate Humidity control for material processing. space conditioning of habitable buildings. Indian Context     Dehumidifier is good in hot and humid climate South India is the region where average relative humidity (70-90%) And average temperature (> 30oC) Relative humidity control is necessary 77 IIT Delhi . and industrial drying consumes significant quantities of energy.

Air Conditioning processes for controlling Humidity IIT Delhi 78 .

Schematic Diagram And Psychrometrics IIT Delhi 79 .

this pre-cooled air passes over the cooling coil. Coming slide shows the basic design of system and its principle on psychrometric chart. one end is placed in front of the coil and other is placed after the coil. which lies in the downstream side. temperature and moisture is reduced and condenser portion of heat pipe. releases the same amount of heat which is extracted from the upstream side of air thus reheating is done in a novel way and leads to saving in high grade energy.Heat pipe based dehumidifier for air-conditioning application: A Novel Design Heat pipe based dehumidifier employed heat pipe around the cooling coil. IIT Delhi 80 . Heat pipe is fitted around an air conditioning cooling coil. This Heat pipe is applied to Air Conditioning process. Evaporator section which pre-cools the incoming warm and moist air.

Hot & Humid air 1 2 A C co il 3 4 Dry and dehumidi fied air (Evaporato r) Precool (Condens er) Reheat Principle of Heat pipe based Dehumidifier Air conditioner Pre 1 cooling 2 3 Reheat ing 4 H u m i d i t y Dry BulbTemperature Psychrometrics of Heat pipe based Dehumidifier IIT Delhi 81 .

Indirect evaporative cooling systems with HPHE This system is the latest development in the use of HPHE. HPHE recovers energy from the return air & pre cools the fresh air. It not only slashed the power consumption but also reduces the mechanical A/C equipment Ventilation Need of reduction of temperature rather than air conditioning is obtained using HPHE Combination with Direct Evaporative cooler Indirect evaporative cooler is used with direct evaporative cooler to cool the space and add moisture where average humidity is low Coupled with standard Air Conditioning Makeup air is essential to meet the biological conditions for the required space. Thus reducing the sensible heat of the fresh air enables design of more economically IIT Delhi 82 .

HPHE with Indirect Evaporative Cooling IIT Delhi 83 .

Various studies reported energy savings using HPHE IIT Delhi 84 .Energy saving using Heat pipe (HP) based system for A/C Air conditioning has been energy exhaustive industry. temperature as well as humidity level must be maintained. For comfort.

These are addressing the need of less energy & more comfort  Environmental concerns raised by VCRS are properly addressed by solar options using VAR and desiccant based cooling system  Hybrid systems are energy efficient for air conditioning  Heat pipe technology a new viable option of energy conservation. IIT Delhi 85 . HVAC industry will be reaping benefit from the passive heat pipe technology.Conclusions  For building air conditioning option new technology are fastly coming up . Retrofitting of building is desirable for energy conservation point of view.

72 % Biomass elec 3.Biodiesel fuel 1.42 % Wind power 4.23% Bioetharnol fuel 0.16 % Photovoltaic 0.21 % Geothermal heat 2.08 % Large hydro 58.42 % Geothermal elec 0.17 % Solar heat 6.83 % Biomass heat 17.58 % Small hydro 5.12 % IIT Delhi 86 .

NEW AND RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGYPOTENTIAL AND CUMULATIVE ACHIEVEMENT (AS ON 31.12.2004) IIT Delhi 87 .

500 1700 20 140 1.20 Source: MNES IIT Delhi 88 .519.000 19.75 0. sq m 15.440 Mn. 120 35.000 Installation 1.70 Biogas Plants Improved Cookstoves (Chulhas) Mn.870 Small Hydro Power Biomass Power Urban & Industrial Waste Solar PV Solar Water Heating MW MW MW MW/ sq km Mn.Renewable Energy Monitor Sources Wind Power MW Units Potential 45.28 537. 12 3.17 25.

Thanks for Your Kind Attention Your questions are most welcome 89 .