Morelli, Freud and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method

*

by CarloGinzburg
INTRODUCTION by Anna Davin This article by an Italian comrade and historian is very different from anything we have included in History Workshop Journal before. It unselfconsciously draws on philosophy, quotes Latin, and ranges across societies and periods in a way which is extraordinary- even shocking - to the English reader. (How can anyone feel confident to discuss not only the disparate areas suggested by the title, but also neolithic hunters, Babylonian diviners, renaissance scientific thought, the origins offingerprints and so on?) In Italy, though still impressive, the range might seem less startling. There, familiarity with the literature and history of ancient Greece and Rome - 'the classical tradition '- along withphilosophy remains more largelypart of basic academic grounding, taught (as in France) even to schoolchildren. It is not, as here, associated chiefly with the educational institutions and political power ofa privileged elite, the irrelevant preserve of the English gentleman, the specialism of the few in their ivory tower. Philosophly there is still centrally part of political theory (as it wasfor Marx and other nineteenth-century thinkers), and the Italian historian can make political interventions within philosophy and the classical tradition. The larger, longer perspective this brings also perhaps gives greater confidence for generalising, for theorising, and for speculation. This aspect of the continental marxist tradition is something which still seems quite strange to many English marxists, in spite of attempts (for instance by New Left Review) to introduce and integrate it here. In this article as in his other work (mostly not translated), Ginzburg is centrally concerned with how people see the world, how knowledge is acquired and organised, the frameworks into which they fit information, beliefs, or observations, and the social structure which contains, influences and is influenced by these aspects of knowledge. He examines the relationship between 'formal' and 'informal' knowledge, 'high 'and 'low', lore and science. His concern, in short, is historical epistemology the history and theory of the construction of knowledge. In spite of the wide range of time covered here, the key point is the late 16th and early 17th centuries, the period during which the word 'science' lost its general sense, of knowledge, and acquired the narrower meaning we give it now. In an earlier article ('High and Low: the theme of forbidden knowledge in the late 16th and 17th centuries', Past and Present 73, Nov. 1976) Ginzburg suggested that for many centuries the opposition between 'high'and 'low' - one of the basic polarities around which human beings organise their perceptions of the world, like 'light and dark', or 'hot and cold'- was used to classify knowledge, and in particular to define forbidden knowledge, cosmic, religious and
*This translation is by Anna Davin; the first sections, however, owe a great deal to Susanna Graham-Jones's translation of an earlier, shorter version of the article, which she kindly made available.

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political mysteries which ordinary people must not aspire to understand, let alone challenge. This of course 'tended to maintain the existing social and political hierarchy... and... to reinforce the power of the Church'. The discussion in the present article partly relates to that: here he is looking at 'low'knowledge, the kind 'which exists everywherein the world, without geographic, historical, ethnic, gender or class exception', but which nevertheless is peculiarly the-propertyof those who within a given society are not in a position of power. It is informal knowledge, orally transmitted, based on everyday experience (often including the accumulated experience of forebears and elders) and careful observation, which allows the observer to understand much more than can be directly seen. He characterises it as 'conjectural' or 'divinatory' knowledge. Sometimes such knowledge is devalued - dismissed as trivial or unscientiJic- by the definitions of the elite, who at the same time may use its association with the powerless to devalue both them and their knowledge ('womanly intuition' is an obvious example). Sometimes on the other hand the knowledge is expropriated, as he suggests happened in a number offields in the 18th century, with the writingdown and codification offolk traditions and practice in, for instance, the use of herbs, or the care of animals. By following (and presenting) clues, he shows us how in the late 19th century the conjectural approach itself acquired a new academic respectability (and usefulness to the ruling classes and the capitalist state), after long subordination to the methods of experimental science as developed by Galileo and others in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, which demanded that every piece of evidence be directly observable and repeatable. But he also casts muchfurther back, and looks at knowledge in relation to power the emergence of groups controlling particular kinds of knowledge: Mesopotamian diviners holding the secret of written communication, lawyers with their command of case-law and precedent, and doctors able through theirfamiliarity withsymptoms and the behaviour of disease to make diagnosis and prognosis. These were laterjoined by academics and experts of many kinds, and by those exercising state power, like the British official in India who expropriated the idea of usingfingerprints for identification and turned it to the advantage of the colonialstate. Herein lies some of the interest of his discussion of the rise of 'disciplines'-specialisations of knowledge like medicine or law or philology (the stud)' of language), or palaeology (the study of ancient writing) and connoisseurship (expertise in the attribution of paintings). These disciplines are also discussed in terms of the different paradigms of knowledge which he sets up, the different approaches, conjectural on the one hand, and rigorously scientific on the other. This is of particular interest to historians, for often, as he suggests, 'the historian 's knowledge ... is indirect, based on signs and scraps of evidence, conjectural '; yet there is always the urge to achieve recognition as scientific. The contradiction between the qualitative and the quantitative nags: the demandfor more statistics, more proof, and less speculation or conjecture or indeed imagination, is one familiar to us all. So Ginzburg's forays into the theory and history of knowledge -in any case fascinating - are also political, and they relate to issues of special significance for the historian. In oursociety the status of science is higher than that of conjecture. Without abandoning or denigrating the scientific approach, Ginzburg shows that there is an alternative, with its own history and validity, deeply rooted in popular experience even if sometimes misappropriated, complementing and extending the knowledge obtained through science.

Clues and ScientificMethod

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Earsand handsby Botticelli,from Morelli'sItalianpainters(1892). The borderline between natural sciences and human sciences (or as it is sometimes seen, between science and everything else - social sciences, arts, humanities) has long been a difficult area, and is likely to remain so. The following pages attempt a fresh approach to the problem. In particular we shall discuss a theoretical model, or paradigm, for the construction of knowledge, which quietly emerged towards the end of the 19th century in the sphere of social sciences, and which has still not received the attention it deserves. Examining this paradigm, which came into use without ever being spelled out as a theory, can perhaps help us go beyond the sterile contrasting of
'rational' and 'irrational'.

CLUES Clues: the art historian Between 1874 and 1876 a series of articles on Italian painting was published in the German art history journal Zeitschriftfiir bildende Kunst. They bore the signature of an unknown Russian scholar, Ivan Lermolieff, and the German translator was also unknown, one Johannes Schwarze. The articles proposed a new method for the correct attribution of old masters, which provoked much discussion and controversy among art historians. Several years later the author revealed himself as Giovanni Morelli, an Italian (both pseudonyms were adapted from his own name). The 'Morelli method' is still referred to by art historians. ' Let us take a look at the method itself. Museums, Morelli said, are full of wronglyattributed paintings -indeed assigning them correctly is often very difficult, since often they are unsigned, or painted over, or in poor repair. So distinguishing copies from originals (though essential) is very hard. To do it, said Morelli, one should abandon the convention of concentrating on the most obvious characteristics of the paintings, for these could most easily be imitated - Perugino's central figures with eyes characteristicallyraised to heaven, or the smile of Leonardo's women, to take a couple of examples. Instead one should concentrate on minor details, especially those least significant in the style typical of the painter's own school: earlobes, fingernails, shapes of fingers and toes. So Morelli identified the ear (or whatever) peculiar to such masters as Botticelli and Cosme Tura, such as would be found in originals but not in copies. Then, using this method, he made dozens of new attributions in some of the principal galleries of Europe. Some of them were sensational: the gallery in Dresden held a painting of a recumbent Venus believed to be a copy by Sassoferrato of a lost work by Titian, but Morelli identified it as one of the very few works definitely attributable to Giorgione.

)We owe the recentrevivalof interestin his workto the art historianEdgar Wind. and differsfromallotherones.thatthereis no partof the humanbody whichvariesso muchas the humanear.3Butthis is unconvincing.and fell into disfavour.But let us look at 'TheCardboard The illustration Castelnuovo's of point:hereHolmesis as it were 'morellising'.. crudelypositivistic. closerto philology. Surprise wereboth for an instantto be readuponhis eagerface.It was called mechanical. carefulrecordsof the characteristic triflesby whichan artistgiveshimselfaway. Theartconnoisseur thedetective wellbecompared. placidfeatures.the authorin one caseof a crime.I perceived that her ear corresponded exactlywith the female ear which I had just inspected. The matter was entirely beyond coincidence.as a criminal mightbe ..in the otherof a painting.but I couldseenothingwhichwouldaccountfor evidentexcitement.I [Watson] hair. by ash Holmes'sskillat interpreting Examples Sherlock of footprints. thoughwhen satisfaction she glancedroundto findout the causeof his silencehe had becomeas demure as staredhardmyselfat herflat grizzled ever.you areaware. Enrico and Castelnuovo.hertrimcap. thoseattributed Arthur by Sherlock Holmes.andhadcarefully notedtheiranatomical peculiarities. cigarette andso on Box' (1892)for an arecountlessand well-known. Clues:the detective on Morelli's books [writes Wind]look differentfromthoseof anyotherwriter art.I had.Watson. and may from cluesunnoticed others.Morelli becomeexasperated theunthinking of geniusso current Morelliwasnot circlesin the Berlinof his youth. my companion's Lateron Holmesexplainsto Watson(andto the reader) lightningcourseof his the thoughts: As a medical man.though Wind did. come close to perceiving them.The implications his methodlay elsewhere. Eachearis as a rulequitedistinctive.8 Journal HistoryWorkshop of assurance because his almostarrogant Despitetheseachievements andperhaps when presentingthem-Morelli's method was very much criticised.Here is the expertat work: and [Holmes]was staringwith singularintentnessat the lady's profile. therefore. If we areto believe in with cult had Wind.There was the same . and weremuch richer.on lookingat MissCushing. herlittle her gilt ear-rings. (Thoughit seemslikely or of that manywho spoke disparagingly it went on quietlyusingit in theirown attributions. as we shall see.examined the earsin the box withthe eyesof an expert. case of ears startswiththe arrival two severed in a parcelsentto an innocentold lady. of They are sprinkledwith illustrations fingersand ears.who drewa parallelbetweenMorelli'smethodsof classification ConanDoyleonlya fewyearslaterto his fictionalcreation. when.. romantic at this tacklingproblems the levelof aesthetics (indeed washeldagainst him). a spottedby a fingerprint any artgallerystudiedby Morellibeginsto resemble rogue'sgallery..5 eachdiscovering. who suggestsit is an exampleof a more modernapproachto worksof art. Imagine surprise my then. of tendingtowardsan appreciation detailas wellas of the whole.4 This comparisonwas brilliantlydeveloped by an Italian art historian.butat a of more basiclevel. Inlastyear'sAnthropological Journal willfindtwo you shortmonographs frommy pen uponthe subject.

He . I at once saw the enormous importance of the observation. But on this point modern psychology would certainly support Morelli: our inadvertent little gestures reveal our character far more authentically than any formal posture that we may carefully prepare. 6 FRA FILIPPO FILIPPINO SIGNORELLI BRAMANTINO IMANTEGNA GIOVANNIBELLINI BONIFAZIO BOTTICELLI Typicalears. .Clues and ScientificMet hod 9 shortening of the pinna. showing how to distinguish copies from originals with certainty. Wind's comments on Morelli have indeed drawn the attention of scholars9to a neglected passage in Freud's famous essay. It was evident that the victim was a blood relation. In all essentials it was the same ear. and probably a very close one . . I learnt that a Russian art-connoisseur. To some of Morelli's critics it has seemed odd 'that personality should be found where personal effort is weakest'. and constructing hypothetical artists for those works of art whose former authorship had been discredited. the same broad curve of the upper lobe. 'The Moses of Michelangelo' (1914). Clues: the psychoanalyst We shall shortly see the implications of this parallel.we can here without hesitation replace the general term 'modern psychology' with the name of Sigmund Freud. fromItalianpainters. At the beginning of the second section Freudwrites: Long before I had any opportunity of hearing about psychoanalysis. Ivan Lermolieff had caused a revolution in the art galleries of Europe by questioning the authorship of many pictures. the same convolution of the inner cartilage. Of course.7 Meanwhile we may profit from another of Wind's helpful observations.8 'Our inadvertent little gestures' .

after his discoveries.Dresden.It musthavebeen before 1895.'. it is of but by that themafterthisletter. Freudand Morelli Beforewe tryto understand whatFreudtook fromhis readings Morelli. (whenFreudand BreuerpublishedtheirStudieson Hysteria). 'I was then greatly to interested learnthat the Russianpseudonym concealedthe identityof an Italian physician calledMorelli.Here we have an element which contributeddirectlyto the crystallisation psychoanalysis..from Freud'saccount.as we have shown. trifleswhichthe copyistneglects imitateandyet to of halosandsuchunconsidered which every artist executesin his own characteristic way. ' The firstof these can only be datedveryroughly.as some havedone. thelobeof an ear. too.Beforethathe hadhadno interest painting.. the passagequotedaboveassuresGiovanniMorelliof a In We specialplacein the historyof psychoanalysis.and Berlin.'It seemsto methathismethodof enquiry closelyrelated thetechnique of psychoanalysis'. now. he wrote. is accustomed is to of It.of our observations. I was then greatly concealed identityof an Italian the interested learnthatthe Russian to pseudonym physiciancalled Morelli.who died in 1891.the considerable on of To exercised himlongbeforehisdiscovery psychoanalysis. moreor lessplausible the attempts Thereis in any case no doubt that underthe cloak of anonymityFreuddeclared.of thingslikethe drawing the fingernails.or 1896(whenFreud firstusedthe termpsychoanalysis). or evenjust to the witharthistory.andby layingstresson the significance and of of of minordetails. andseveral havebeenmadeto explain coincidence. Freudcame across Morelli's writings before his work on psychoanalysis. fact. it were.moreover. It seemsto me that his methodof inquiry closelyrelated the technique psychoanalysis. Popper'Lynkeus'whichwas inserted latereditionsof The Interpretationof Dreams) just a coincidence noticed later on. influencethat Morellihad explicitlybut also in a sense covertly.'3 in of .'I havethrown off myphilistinism begunto admire and it'.Somehavesupposed thatMorelli's tastefor concealing authorship his behindpseudonyms somehowalsoaffectedFreud. aredealingherewitha documented connection. Ivan Lermolieff.improperly the of reduces significance Freud's own essaysconnected is to comment. of and not (as with the in passageon the dreamof J. or to divinesecretandconcealed fromthe thingsfromdespised unnoticed features. rubbish-heap.especially the perfectly plausible he shouldstartreading as firstcollectededitionof Morelli'sessays(Leipzig1880)containedthose whichdealt withthe Italianold masters the galleries Munich. 'LongbeforeI hadanyopportunity hearing of aboutpsychoanalysis I learnt that a Russian art-connoisseur." after 1883.10 Journal HistoryWorkshop achievedthis by insistingthat attention should be divertedfrom the general of impression mainfeatures a picture.'2It is hardto imagine beforethisdate that Freudcouldhavebeenattracted the writings an unknownarthistorian. confinethisinfluence to 'The Mosesof Michelangelo' essayalo'ne.whenFreud(inDecember) and wrote his fiancee a long letter about his 'discoveryof art' duringa visit to the Dresden in Gallery..of the two encounters. .we should of clarifythe precisetimingof the encounter or rather.not merelya conjectured as in manyof the claimsof 'antecedents' one or of 'precursors' Freud.'0 as 'TheMosesof Michelangelo' firstpublished was anonymously: Freudacknowledged it only whenhe includedit in his collectedworks.

carried A both nameand pseudonym.'5 Butwhatsignificance Morelli's did essayshavefor Freud. published Milanin 1897.A note in the front in recordsits acquisition: Milan 14 September. horribile dictu [howshocking].The ironyin this passagefromMorellimust of havedelighted Freud: My adversaries pleasedto call me someonewho has no understanding the are of spiritual contentof a workof art.'7In all three cases tiny details the provide keyto a deeperreality.thoughstillpresumptively. 'Flecteresi nequeo Superos.Morelli'sbook would have a particular interest for Freud.'8 . Lermolieff's namewasmadepublic for the firsttime on the title-pageof the Englishtranslation the collection.'6 Morelli couldhavemadegood useof the Virgilian so dearto Freud. for Holmes.Thepeculiar similarities between activities Holmes the of and Freudhave been discussedby Steven Marcus. At that time. that he came upon Lermolieff'sreal identity.were mentionedin Morelli's book.'4 Freud'sonly visit to Milanwas in the autumnof 1898. moreover.for Freud. whichis preserved London.or clues. in Even detailsbeingrepeated a certain way 'by forceof habit. whose names kept substituting themselves.of Holmes.which of cameout in 1883.browsing a Milanbookshop. then Hell shallbe unleashed').almostunconsciously'.CluesandScientificMethod 11 Freud's second encounter with Morelli's writings can be dated with more Ivan real confidence. in to morethan the reference the unconscious not exceptional this period. Both that painter.whichhe chose tag as the epigraphfor The Interpretation Dreams. copy of one of thesevolumescouldpossiblyhavebeen seenby Freudearlier later. generally 'beneath notice'.but it wasmost likelyin September or in 1898.In Freud'slibrary.the ear. and that betweenMorelliand Freud.shortlybeforethis. He had been working for several months on lapses of memory. in in thesemarginal detailswererevealing. Signorelli.thereis a copyof Giovanni in Morelli(IvanLermolieff)'s book. The Triple Analogy:diagnosisthroughclues We have outlinedan analogybetweenthe methodsof Morelli. view.andwhotherefore givesparticular importance to externaldetailssuch as the form of the hands. and even.because them to the artist'ssubordination cultural traditions gavewayto a purelyindividual streak. Della pittura italiana:studii storico critici-Le gallerie Borghesee Doria Pamphiliin Roma (Criticalhistoricalstudiesin Italianpainting:the Borgheseand in DoriaPamphiliGalleries Rome). and of Freud. from 1891whenMorelli died. furnishthe keyto the highestachievements humangenius. Morelli's Furthermore.Thesedetailsmaybe by of symptoms.inaccessible othermethods. in Dalmatia. hadhadtheexperience he (later in analysed The Psychopathology EverydayLife) of being unableto recallthe name of the of painterof the Orvieto frescoes.stillfar frompsychoanalysis? Freudhimselftellsus:the proposal an interpretative of method based on taking marginaland irrelevantdetails as revealingclues.to suchrudethingsas fingernails.whatis core of the artist'sindividuality linked is strikinghereis the way that the innermost with elementsbeyondconsciouscontrol. of Acherontamovebo' ('And if HeavenI cannotbend.or features paintings. We have mentionedthe connectionbetweenMorelliand Holmes.and Botticelliand Botraffio.for Morelli.stilla youngman. Here details considered trivialand unimportant.latereditionsandtranslations.

the sharp-eyed detective and the obtuse doctor. They learnt to make complex calculations in an instant. threads of saliva. often irrelevant to the eye of the layman. in the decade 1870-80). rBIAik ANTINO. famous for his diagnostic ability. represents the splitting of a single character. flLIPP\O. In all three cases we can invoke the model of medicalsemiotics. or symptomatology -the discipline which permits diagnosis. this 'semiotic' approach. In the course of endless pursuits hunters learned to construct the appearance and movements of an unseen quarry through its tracks . FRA FLPPO L!PFI. ANN'ON10 P01. had become increasingly influential in the field of human sciences. from Italian painters. BEIINAR1PNL 1)X. GIOVAN-NI IELLI\I CS0sU4 TrLDA.LLAjTJ. were far more ancient. though the disease cannot be directly observed. puddles. Typicalhands. snapped twigs. on the basis of superficial symptoms or signs. smells. (Incidentally. TTI I 'L1. snagged hairs or feathers. to observe. Morelli had a degree in medicine.OTO). ROOTS OF THE CONJECTURAL MODEL Hunters and diviners For thousands of years mankind lived by hunting. one of the youthful Conan Doyle's professors. CONTI. the HolmesWatson pair. Freud was a doctor.12 History WorkshopJournal How do we explain the triple analogy? There is an obvious answer. a paradigm or model based on the interpretation of clues. Its roots.)'9 But it is not simply a matter of biographical coincidences. or even of Dr Watson. however. Towards the end of the 19th century (more precisely. droppings. . to give meaning and context to the slightest trace.prints in soft ground. in shadowy wood or treacherous clearing. They learnt to sniff. Conan Doyle had been a doctor before settling down to write.

whilethe hunters'deciphering of whathadactuallyhappened.faintanddisan torted-of what those far-off huntersknew. to the according whichit wasinvented a highofficialwhohadremarked footprints by the for of deerin a sandyriverbank.to uncover tracesof eventswhich the observer cannotdirectly experience. the cause for the effect. So they'reaccusedof theft and broughtto be judged.The huntercould have been the first 'to tell a story' of becauseonly huntersknewhow to reada coherentsequence eventsfromthe silent (thoughnot imperceptible) signsleft by theirprey.originatedin a huntingsociety. Tartars.thoughacrossa verylong time-span.analysis.underthe saddleit carries skins. Threebrothers(runsa story from the middleeasttold amongKhirgiz. it mightbe reinforced theway this but by that evennow termsusedin the grammatical of deciphering speechdrawon hunters' methods. the other.couldbe extended indefinitely. opposedto spell as or exorcismor invocation.24 gavethegods(besides It and divinity theirother advantages)the power of communicationwith their subjects through written messages on stars. Its characteristic featurewas that it the permitted leap fromapparently insignificant facts.Wehaveno verbalevidence set besidetheirrockpaintings artefacts. Perhaps indeedthe ideaof a narrative. Droppings.animals'innards. they haven't seen it.couldnot.dropsof oil in water.the intellectual stages. Jews.and it blindin one eye. Thethreebrothers.At oncetheydescribe to him:it's white.Yet in termsof understanding. from the experience of interpreting tracks. it is and But it worthtryingto understand literally. This 'deciphering' 'reading'of the animals'tracksis metaphorical.But sincethe Mesopotamian matters more:the factthatdivination to our eyesanotherdifference pointedtowards was the future.as the verbaldistillation a historical of process leading.one fullof oil. in theory.The in the sameconnectionis suggested a Chinesetradition explaining originsof writing.Turksandso on)20 meeta manwhohas it lost a camel(orsometimes is a horse).feathers.stars. whichcouldbe observed. has been observedthat the inventionof writingmusthave had a great effecton Mesopotamian divination.their lore. (Thiswasan ideawhichin turnoverthousands yearswouldflow into .CluesandScientific Method 13 Successive generations hunters of enriched passedon thisinheritance knowand of ledge.to a which.but to and we canturnperhaps the folk tale. everywhere whichthe divinershad the task of of deciphering.In it particular.22 abandoning realmsof mythandhypothesis Or that of documentedhistory.hairs. footprints.Obviously is speculation.involuntary movements. Therefollows the triumphof the brothers: they immediately the show how fromthe baresttracesthey wereable to reconstruct appearance an of animalthey'dneverset eyes on. It is truethatthe secondgroup.humanbodies.towardsthe inventionof writing. theotherof wine.whichdate from at least 3.23 of the minuteexamination the real. diviners readsignsof the futurein moreor lessanything.relating the narrative to pole of metonymy definedin a well-known (as and essayby Jakobson)2I excluding the alternative pole of metaphor.however trivial.at least alike.the part for the whole.areclearly as carriers of the hunters' kind of knowledge. But only of coursein theory:the socialcontextswerequite different. two They must have seen it? No.and the model implicitin the texts of Both require Mesopotamian divination.comparison.unlikethe first. evenif theyarenot described hunters. sequence 'someonepassedthisway'.000 yearsBC.directly least. whichsometimes to carries echo .in the in one case. Andthesefactswouldbeordered at complexreality by the observerin such a way as to providea narrative -at its simplest. there are undoubtedly strikinganalogiesbetweenthe model we have been developingfor hunters. approachin each case was much classification identical. evenif the very recently.

we find this group of disciplines withnewlinesof studydeveloping.and to explaintheir differencesby the great distancein space and time from the societywhich we have been discussing.We find it in a wholeconstellation of disciplines anachronistic termsof course)with a commoncharacter.explaining past andpresent.with its doublecharacter.Bycomparison the a with is a towards intellectual actuality the footprint. like changesconsiderably. Thegrowthof disciplines basedon readingthe evidence Whatwe havesaid so far shouldexplainwhya Mesopotamian divination might text includehow to diagnosean earlierhead wound from a bilateralsquint. of Passingon to the civilisations ancientGreece. like divination. but In therewasa basicmodelfor explanation divination or whichcouldbe oriented towards on calledupon.27 So after a long detourwe come back to the questionsof symptoms. body.examining quarry's tracks. too. from symptomsto writing.towardspast. Towards pastor presentor future. the suggesting likelyfuture. discussa bodyof actualcases. the Mesopotamian legal textsdo notjustlistlawsandordinances.ought impliedby the introduction the for pictogram in itsturnsmallindeedbesidethatrequired thetransition a phonetic is to script. presentand future.'cuneiform'. the of cultureof the Greekcity-states.conveyed of it one thingthroughanother.26This also explainswhy the languageof Mesopotamian was divination infiltrated technical termsfromthe lawcodes.25 Thefootprint represents realanimalwhichhasgonepast.depending the formof knowledge future. legalknowledge. historyandphilology.It is less obvious that an importantpartof this changewas playedby a modelwhichmay be seen as .thatwas or or jurisprudence.andtowardspast. wayin whichthereemerged a historically groupof disciplines whichall of dependedon the deciphering variouskindsof signs. diagnostic. In fact pictographic and phoneticelementssurvivedtogetherin cuneiform writing.the pictogram already hugeadvance of But of abstraction. whichwe of coursearethe heirs.andalsothepresence by in theirtexts of fragments relatingto the studyof physiognomy (judgingcharacter fromappearance) of medicalsymptoms and (medical semiotics).) And the identificationof prophecywith the of was in deciphering characters divinelyinscribed reinforced real life by the pictographiccharacter this earlywriting.Butlurkingbehindthis modelfor explanation one in prophecy glimpses something old as thehumanrace:thehunter as crouched the a mud.that was the medicalscienceof symptoms. constructed only throughtraces.hints.symptoms. Again.29 short. speechandhistory wereall for the firsttimesubjected dispassionate to whichfromthe start investigation of the Thisdecisivechangecharacterised excluded possibility divineintervention. and with the newlyacquiredindependence termsboth of social contextand of (in of The theoretical like approach) olderdisciplines medicine.14 HistoryWorkshop Journal the image of 'the book of nature'.But it wouldbe a superficial Therewas a realcommongroundamongstthese explanation. like and temptingto distinguish and 'sciences'like law and medicine.to medical semiotics diagnosisfromsignsor symptoms. wasbasedon ecstatic possession):28 approach an involving analysis particular of cases.just as in the literature the Mesopotamian of diviners gradual intensification of thetendency generalise to fromtheirbasicfactsdidnot cancelout theirtendency to infer cause from effect. mightbe It (an between'pseudo-sciences' divination physiognomy.30 more or the generally. formsof knowledge we omitdivination which Mesopotamian (if throughinspiration. the capacityfor abstract th.that was divinationproper.andprognostic.

whichbasedits methodson the central conceptof thesymptom.) Followersof Hippocratesargued that just by and it carefully observing registering everysymptom waspossibleto establish precise histories eachdisease.But this evidentialapproach.All of whichexplains historians havenevermanaged workout a Galileian to why method.Hereof coursethedecisive shiftis theemergence a newscienof tific paradigm. sign. hunters.let alone in propheticdivination. on Theirinsistence the evidential natureof medicinealmostcertainly from stemmed the distinction (expoundedby the Pythagoreandoctor. to overshadowed Plato'stheoryof continued be merely implicit.CluesandScientific Method 15 Thisis clearestin the case of Hippocratic basedon symptoms signs. mariners. Alcmeon) between the certaintyof divine knowledge. individual or situation document itself. thiswasin factthe usualapproach a paradigm numberof spheresof activity:physicians.in spiteof theevercloserbondslinkingit to the socialsciences. Theywereaboveallconcerned withthequalitative.on thecontrary.conjecturalnatureof human knowledge.Galileiansciencewas altogether different.'judgeby the signs'(tekmor.not even medicine of the disciplineswhich we have been describingas evidential.alongwithchangesin conceptslike and 'rigour' 'science'.historians.based on the readingof signs. tekmairesthai Greekwordswhose meaningshifts interestingly betweenboundary.If realitywas not necessarily clear.(TheGreek wordwas semeion.Historyalwaysremains scienceof a very a .it wascompletely by whichheldswayin moreinfluential knowledge. whathas changedover not But these2.Thisfactaboutits sourcecannotbe hidden.whichmeant the case or in therewas alwaysan elementof chancein their results:one need only think of the of importance conjecture wordwhoseLatinoriginlies in divination)35 medicine (a in or philology.this semiotic paradigm.32 (significantly divination means domainof thegoddessMetis. then by implicationit was rightto of proceedby buildingup knowledge the wholefromthe parts. pledge. suggesting that evenin the 5thcentury the fallibility doctorswasalready BC of underattack.amongothers. womenin general wereheld.fishermen.31 and medicine.firstwife of Jove.politicans. would meet the criteriaof scientific to inference essential the Galileian approach. joiners.based on (but outliving)Galileianphysics.both in terms of theory of knowledge for (epistemology)and as a symbol.Using mathematics and the experimental method involved the need to measure and to repeat phenomena.500yearsis how the debateis conducted.potters. remains undiminished.who represented by of water)was markedoff withwordslike 'conjecture'.34 Now it is clear that none . circlesandhadmoreprestige.Even if modernphysics finds it hard to define Galileian(while not rejectingGalileo). the significanceof Galileo (1564-1642) sciencein general.33 Galileoand the newscientificwriting Partsof the Hippocratic havea surprisingly writings defensivetone.In the 17thcentury.to be and Such territory adept in the vast areasof conjectural the knowledge. whereas an individualising approachmadethe latterimpossible allowedthe formeronly in and part.usingthe conjectural and in whichwe havebeendescribing.conjectural. newgrowthof antiquarian the methods indicated the amonghistorians indirectly remoteandlong-hidden originsof historyin theconjectural model. conjecture).and the provisional. whence our semiotics.eventhoughthe diseaseas an entitywouldremain of intangible.it couldhavetakenoverthe scholastic est saying'individuum ineffabile'('we can say nothing about the individual').Thatthis battle is not over is presumablybecause relations between doctor and patient of the (especially inability thelatterto checkor controlthe skillsof the former) havein somerespects changedsincethe timeof Hippocrates.

to avoid the qualitative.is indirect. or is basically aboutparticular cases. Amongthe 'conjectextualcriticism grewup to be.whichusesdiseaseclassifications to analysethe specificillnessof a particular patient.38 radicaldecisionto excludeall but the reproducible (in in writing. and developedfurtherafter the second. texts. that is.philology.evenwhile that primehazardof the dealingwith individual examples.A textneedsto existin physical formin orderto survive. or sniffingfaeces.and it becomesclear or thatthisverynotionof a 'text'is itselftheresultof a cultural choicewhosesignificance is incalculable. and other For as geometricfigures'. hasbeenpurgedaway. however. All this to the seemsself-evident us today.and continued widenthe gap betweenthe therecould be no greatercontrastthan betweenthe fields of knowledge. of calligraphy Chinesepoetry.Certainly to deaf Galileian physicist.conjectural.and his afterlistening a wheezy to thephysician thesameperiod.) of notionof a textexplains textualcriticism. but referring back (explicitly by implication) comparable or theirstrategy findingthingsout. likethevolumesin whichtheypresent for theirwork.Historians particular kind. Galileoemphasised. socialgroups. shallsee shortlythat text (We historical discussion pictorial'texts'raisesquitedifferentproblems.circles.butit is not at all.but not smellsor tastes or sounds. Its objects were defined in the course of a drastic of resulted curtailing whatwas seento be relevant. while laying the foundationsof drasticconceptual modernnaturalscienceby a similarly reduction. nor in anyone copy.professionally to soundsandforbidden tasteor smell. as laterthe characteristics handof writing weresimilarly aside. or of to refinement.that 'we cannot in written thisgreatbookstanding the hopeto understand philosophy openbeforeour its unlesswe learnfirstto understand language eyes (andby this I meanthe universe) and to know the characterswrittenthere'. humanities.numbersand movements. likethe doctor's. for the philologist.himselfturnedto betweenworldand book assumed mediaeval philology.irremediably to seriesof phenomena. did) The as rigorously scientific. .whoventured diagnosis of chest. with the writingdown of the Homericpoems.the text is an sense entity. 'triangles.36 But the contrastI have suggestedis an over-simplification. whichledaway and anthropomorphism from anthropocentrism (from an approach explaining to in everything relationto humanbeings).Thischangewithinthe discipline and fromtwo significant first turning points:the invention of writing thenof printing.37 Firstthe elements related to voice and gesturewerediscarded redundant.or.whether concerning individuals.In this wayhistoryis like medicine. which fromthe livinganimalexceptas merewords'. evenwhile abstract Thisthoroughly why the could(andduring 19thcentury emerge to remaining a largedegreedivinatory.to be reconstructed throughandbeyondthe available data: 'figures.basedon signsand scrapsof evidence. its but identityis not uniquely boundup in thatphysicalform.The traditional comparison that both lay open readyto be read.a processin whichthe appealof the original ourvarious senses.or wholesocieties.Theresulthasbeena progressive set dematerialisation.deepandinvisible.16 Journal HistoryWorkshop cannothelpsometimes basedin the concrete. We know that textualcriticism evolvedafterthe first.39 the naturalphilosopher. when humanistscholars improved the firsthastyprinted on editionsof the classics.or tastingurine.It is surely significantthat Galileo.andparticularly one some ways at least.40 cannotbe separated on Galileoheresetthe natural sciencesfirmly a paththeyneverleft.And the historian's knowledge. afterGutenberg. did not severthe ties betweenliterary and calligraphy. Takefor example decisive of role in the voice in oral literature. in tural'disciplines . print)featuresof a text madeit possible. atypical. And the example Chinashowsthatthe choicewasnot an inevitable of of sincetherethe inventionof the press consequence printing replacing handwriting.

sincetheymovedin thesamecircles Rome.wasmadeby a doctor famousfor his brilliant diagnoses.4' for Mancini wrotea bookcalledAlcuneconsiderazioni appartenenti pittura come di diletto di un gentilhuomonobile e come introalla duttionea quello che si deve dire (Some considerations concerningpaintingas an for amusement a noblegentleman.impossible repeat46 areplain. and his interestin meetinganyonewitha reputation greatintelligence. the assumption mustnot passunremarked.Theimplications this for the market. andourselves.45 We may surely see more than coincidence in this double skill. the gentlemen wrotefor.butthetwo didprobably meet. it was aimedat noble amateurs in As rather thanat painters at thosedilettanti who in evergreater numbers flockedto the Pantheonfor the annualexhibitionof paintingsold and new. it wasto be calleda century as later.foundedby Federico in 1603.and they areconnectedwiththe But of arisesfroma cultural choicewhich emergence the connoisseur.42 its title says. chief medicalman to Urbano VIII(Popefrom 1623to 1644). describeshis atheism.47 copy of a Raphael portrait Thedifferingstatusof the copy in painting in literature and explains whyMancini couldnot makeuseof the techniques criticism of whendeveloping methodsof the the connoisseur.since (wrongly)it is taken to be obvious: it is that betweena canvasby thereis an Raphaeland any copy of it (painted.Butbecause started for help to otherdisciplines.It doesnot seemthathe knewGalileowell.wasthecentre a thriving Cesi of intellectual groupat this time in Rome.It is an assumption not declared. in his combination of the doctor's and the connoisseur's perceptions.*and had commonfriends. so that they can tell when just as antiquarians was refersto something written.So thisfirstattempt to establish connoisseurship. Mancini's problem first concerned datingof paintings.) We have alreadyseen how historicaldevelopments graduallystrippedthe not relevant.whoon visitinga patient'coulddivine'(divinabat) with one rapid glance the seat of the disease. and librarianshave for scripts.aliasGian VittorioRossi.from Siena.hehadto turn painting the actof writing. as one especially a different wasmadein thecaseof written worthof the paintings writings not partof thisarguor texts. do this.Inthe caseof paintings denuding writtentext of features considered this has not taken place (so far at least).his extraordinary diagnosticskill (detailedin wordsstraight of the divinatory out texts).whichsets out a methodfor identifyingfakes. This is why we think that whilemanuscript or the Furiosocan exactlyreproduce text Ariostointended. for tellingoriginalsfrom copies.43 Certainly most the original part of Mancini'sConsiderazioni that devoted to 'the recognitionof is paintings'. (Thepresumed eternal is ment.a printedcopiesof Orlando nevercan.or today photographed) of ineradicable difference. Butbeforeexamining Mancini's viewsmoreclosely." Thiswouldneverhavebeenwritten before. he said.A vividsketchof Manciniby Nicio Eritreo. introducing and whatneedsto be said).from FedericoCesito Giovanni Ciampolito GiovanniFaber.fromthePapalCourt in to the LinceiAcademy.we shouldgo into an assumphe tion sharedby him.CluesandScientificMethod A seventeenth-century connoisseur physician. .you the To had to acquire'a certainexperience recognising paintingof particular in the periods.whichhad a wide circulation manuscript. whichwerestilltakingshape.'The allusionto recognising scriptsalmostcertainly *TheLinceiAcademy. and problemsof identity 17 One such physicianwas Giulio Mancini.engraved.though he was basicallyestablishingan analogy betweenthe act of and he withthisanalogy.andso on.that a painting by is to definitionunique.

'flourishes'.is heregivena new twist.51 analogyis reinforced the use of technicaltermscurrent contemby Even on treatises writing. thatan impression as Mancini.50 imagination So the parallel betweenpaintingand writing. of said quotingHippocrates. the them.52 the dwelling porary an on speedhas the sameorigin:withnew bureaucratic developments elegantcursive . this rangethe protomethodsof an Allacciwouldnot work.48 'besides commoncharacteristics the of ancientwriting just to peculiar the individual'.which samecareshouldbe takento look for particularly or brilliant in for that themaster throwsoff withanassurance cannotbe matched.which may have more to do with the master'sbold thanwiththe truthof how theyactuallyhung.as in hair. Mancini.he would whichwereequally the in identifying elements painting achievehis aimof tellingoriginals fromfakes.a doctorfromBologna. The flourishesin handwriting. and one whichpreviously only been Filarete below).and is and writing painting madefirstat thegeneral analogybetween For then renewedat the otherend of the scale(theindividual).especiallywhereit would take mucheffortto sustainthe imitation.a chapter delloscritture which is probablythe first Europeantext on graphology.whichMancini maynot have (see hintedat.like 'boldness'.Hencehis adviceto checkwitheachpainting: whetherthe hand of the mastercan be detected.'What meanings'-the figura del chapterheadingruns. is.18 Journal HistoryWorkshop at the methodsworkedout in thesesameyearsby LeoneAllacci.'strokes'.all being (the of rooted in the 'characteristics' the individualbody. bold strokes. in a workby the architect in The known.the founderof palaeography the study developed a century of But the cameto be called). the that as 'we see amonghandwritings theyhavetheirdistinctive level(theperiod).librarian the Vatican -methods which weretaken up againand for datingGreekand Latinmanuscripts (as half laterby Mabillon.)He wasstruck.in hiscapacity physician.'therearethecharacteristics time'.whichMancinihas alreadymadein had variouscontexts.who was these'fineintellects' in all probability come da una letteramissivasi conoscanola naturae qualita includedin his Trattato on (Treatise how to tell froma letterthe natureof its writer).By of therefore imitating and handwritings theimpossibility variety different of to impossible imitate.Buttherewasin theseyearsone palaeographic for solitary attempt to apply analysisto individualhandwriting a new purpose. character 'spirit')could be drawnfrom whatit produced(its 'works').andif thecopyistfailsto getthemrighttheywilllacktheperfection the master'sversion.byone proposition thenewdiscipline. 'For this reason some fine a that arguing it is possibleto reveal person'sintellect of intellects ouragehavewritten that and theirhandwriting.if theyareto be reproduced of the painting. meaningthe shapeof the carattere). Curlsandwavesof to exactly. thiswillshowin hair.beardsor eyes. instance the folds and glints of drapes. But letteras it is drawnwith the pen on the paper.areverylaborious do.the handof the masterfromthatof the copyistor the follower.Mancini not interested the claimsof thisburgeoning their 'characters' the psycho(in to reconstruct by writers'personalities establishing (the logicalsense)fromtheir'characters' shapesof theirletters).49 in spiteof the wordsof praise in graphology was quotedabove.(Yetagainthe origins of the double meaningmay be traced back to an originallyshared disciplinary in that context.And thesepartsof a paintingarelike strokesof the pen and whichneed the master'ssureand resolutetouch.' of One andmindthrough person'swayof writing through CamilloBaldi. continues So characteristics'.'mayone readin the shapingof the letters?'(nella The word used here for 'letter'is 'character'.however.

Butthe useof identical termsmakesit all the morestriking the disciplines they were used (in the we have assembledshould be so diverse. an alternative modelbasedon an understanding the individual of whichwould(in some way yet to be workedout) be scientific. ants.Weshallcomebackto the were and of richimplications thesetwo points.Of coursethe decisionto ignoreindividualfeatureswould not of itself that to the guarantee the methodsof mathematics physicsindispensable adopting and Galileian modelwereactually goingto be applied. andthosebetween wormsor two ants .through the literaryfeaturesconstitutingthe 'commoncharacterof a of period'.54 for a European So the slight differencesbetween two (European)buildings were important.The more central were features to do with the the it scientific individual.to the individual'character' a styleof paintingor even writing. architect.In general.53 Studying in be touchcouldmost confidently identified partsof the paintingwhich the master's of (i)wereswiftlyexecuted.CluesandScientific Method 19 legal hand needed also to be fast if it were to succeedin the copyists'market.or Ethiopian as black.but on the otherhandit wouldnot excludethemaltogether.Thelikelihoodof obliterating individual features the emotional distance of the observer.and on the of and other.as with flies. Filarete. that they cannotbe told apart'. declining swiftly from the universal'characters'of geometry.goeson to admitthat thereare 'somecreatures whichareso alike. frogs.The relatesdirectly to reasonis obvious.whichMancini his contemporaries not yet in a positionto develop.How scientifically Galileian sense) varies too. Baldior Mancinideciphered actualpaperor parchment that canvas. of the originators respectively palaeography. sincewhatever firstimpression the therewouldalways completely be differences detail(justas 'Tartar of ones all snoutsall look the same. the stress Manciniplaced on decorativefeaturesis evidenceof careful of modelsprevalent Italyin the late 16th in attention the characteristics handwriting to how letterswereformedled himto concludethat andearly17thcenturies. draperieswhose folds had 'more to do with the master's bold thanwiththetruthof howtheyactually imagination hung'). wordmoreor lessas we useit goes backto about 1620. in a page of his Trattatodi architettura on afterarguing it is impossible buildtwo that to (Treatise Architecture).however of or tentatively.The first approachwas that taken by the natural sciences. moreimpossible becameto construct bodyof rigorously a knowledge. and Character individuality The 'Characters' (caratteri).and(ii)tendednot to becloserepresentations therealthing (details of hair. Of course. then. worms.and 'characters' or on those which Allacci. versustheparticular Scientific generalisation understanding of At thispoint.andonlymuchlateron bytheso-called humanor socialsciences.those between or Tartar Ethiopian two faceswerenot. to tryto develop. it is only a metaphorical relationship whichGalileowiththe eyesof the intellectsawin the book of nature. identicalbuildings. and manyfish.on the one hand. graphology connoisseurthat links the insubstantial ship. thereweretwo possibleapproaches: sacrifice to the individualelementin orderto achievea more or less rigorousand more or less mathematical standard generalisation. that the real This decreasing level of scientificcontent reinforcesthe argument was difficultyin applyingthe Galileian modellay in the degreeto whicha discipline concernedwith the individual.butwhenyoulook morecarefully theyarealldifferent wellasalike').It of occursin the writings the founderof modernphysics.

withthetinyincisions by madeso as to reveal internal the organsof thecreature. at the sametime satisfiedthe or military fiscalpurposesof absolutestates.Mancini.for the was of followers Aristotle.andPopeUrbanoVIII. in the firstdecades the 17thcentury influence the Galileian the model(evenwherenot direct)wouldleadtowardsstudyof the typicalrather thanthe of exceptional. A Tartararchitect.the Academy's and secretary.59 Thehumansciences. an in or antwouldrankthingsdifferently. Theirfirstquestionwaswhether two-headed shouldcountas one animalor as the calf two.anchoredin the qualitative at Theseincluded apparently least. This might be expected. methodevento the study to Filarete.20 Journal HistoryWorkshop simplydidn'texist.But he also the encapsulates differencesbetweenthem. as we have noted.an Ethiopianunversed architecture.It was the subjectof a discussion amongsta groupin the VaticanBelvedere it Gardens: included GiovanniFaber. GiovanniCiampoli(both.But if the patronsof the new science.statistics.wemay assumethat Faber's reportof the physicians' standpoint bringsus the echoof his contribution.but 'thecommoncharacter' (turning fromhistoryto naturalhistory)of the speciesas a whole. conjectural knowledge. For the physicians. Contraryto what it might seem.towardsa generalunderstanding the workingsof natureratherthan particularistic. the dissection thecalf so precisely of described Faber.giventhe limitsof their operations.Manciniwill haveexamined anatomyof the two-headed with the calf the samecloseattention customarily to paintings. instance thecontextof divination. the generalising model (as anatomistand naturalist).whoseinterest.Buttherewereattempts applythe mathematical of It that of humanphenomena.60 is not surprising the firstandmost successful these and concerned politicalarithmetic. symbolisedby the sharp eye of the lynxes in the crest of FedericoCesi's Lincei Academy. The naturalists from the LinceiAcademytook an interest.was entirelyin numbers.the heart.Thisdrastically and exclusivefocus permitted rigorousinvestigation.Cardinal of AgostinoVegio. ethnocentric. Of course even animals or mineralsor plants can be examinedfor their individual properties.and liable to other specificbias.friends Galileo).founded by Aristotle.perhaps.56 Mancini the only physician As was present. It was a continuation and refinement of the tradition of natural history.wasthe central organin thesedisciplines.In spiteof his astrological interests57 considered specificcharacter he the of the monster-birth the objectnot of revealing future. took as its subjectthe mostpre-determined bioand logicallyspeaking of humanactivities: birth. whichwerenot allowedthe extrasensoryeye of mathematics.thisdidnot mean that it wastotallycut off fromthe worldof whatwe havebeencallingthe conjectural .butof arriving a more with the at accurate definition whatwasnormal. Sight. in as werenot interested qualitative opposedto quantitative factors. thatis where analogy he gave But the withthe connoisseur must stop.58 donewiththeaimof establishing was not the 'character' peculiar thatparticular to animal.procreation death.thehumanor socialsciences wewoulddefine (as them today). To some extenta figurelike Mancinirepresents the the pointof contactbetween divinatory approach his activities diagnostician (in as and and connoisseur).the featuredistinguishing individual the brain.if only becauseof their stubborn in whichwe have alreadyillustrated the graphicquotationfrom anthropocentrism.andtherefore of repeatable fortheindividual of the species.In April 1625a calf withtwo headswas born near Rome.55 for in especially withcaseswhichshow But of of abnormalities. Knowledge basedon making individualising distinctions is alwaysanthropocentric.

from doing.65 fit it into a straitbut to .Thediscussions theuncertainty medicine between provided early in of formulations whatwereto be the centralepistemological problems the human sciences. whileat thesametimeinsisting medicine nevertheless was In lack Thereseemto havebeentwo basicreasonsfor medicine's of certainty. The abilityto tell an unhealthyhorse from the state of its hooves.62 in that scientific its ownway.Finally.In the secondplace. of theconcrete individual.a stormcomingup froma shiftin the wind. individual. In each case these kinds of knowledge of lore. 1713. locally-rooted withoutknownoriginor recordor history. of admitted lackof rigour.sincea diseasecould present in of itself differently eachpatient. descriptions particular of diseaseswhichwereadequatefor theirtheoretical in werenot necessarily classification adequate practice. theymightbelongto menandwomen of anyclass. Theexpropriation commonknowledge of Betweenthe linesof Cabanis's book thereshinesthroughan impatience whichis not In hardto understand.irreversably changed death. the first place.posthumous)).by the Frenchideologue unpredictable. in were kept well outside.6' Still.the proper rigourof the naturalsciencescould neverbe achievedby medicine.more embedded dailypractice.theyhad on been learntnot from books but from listening. the group of human sciences remained firmly anchored in the qualitative-though not without misgiving.64 Fromtime to time attemptswouldbe madeto writedownsomepartof this lore.Calculationsconcerningprobability(as in the title of classicTheArtof Conjecture(Ars Bernoulli's tried Conjectandi.likeconnoisseurship.A finecommonthread connected them:theywereall bornof experience. and Thatconcrete qualitywasboththe strength thiskind of of knowledge.but how did one of maketheleapfromthe corpse. or on psychology. Althoughprogresshad been made. this at Cabanis.Others. its methodsstill seemeduncertain. by the definition. fairlyrecentorigin.CluesandScientificMethod 21 (or divinatory)disciplines. especiallyin the case of medicine.out of reach.its results Such a text as The Certitude Medicine.to the characteristics by the livingindividual?63 Recognising doubledifficultyinevitably this meantadmitting thateventhe efficacyof medicalprocedures couldnot be proved.it couldnot makeuseof the powerful terrible of and and tool abstraction.werericherthananywritten authority the subject.becauseof its to in the to inability quantify(except somepurelyauxiliary aspects). its limit.whichappeared theendof the 18thcentury. disciplines of Some. or on weather.had beentackledby conjecture divination.theymightbe a particular or heritage. from watching. spite of the more or less justifiedobjectionsto its methods whichcould be made. inability quantify fromthe impossibility eliminating qualitative. wouldcertainly be learntfromtreatises the not on care of horses. the of the the stemmed and of the fromthe factthatthe humaneyeis impossibility eliminating individual resulted moresensitive evenslightdifferences to between humanbeingsthanit is to differences on of rocksorleaves. formulationto the same problemsas -in a totally to give rigorousmathematical and differentway.their subtleties couldscarcely givenformalexpression theymightnot evenbe reducible be to words.heldan ambiguous positionon the bordersof the acknowledged disciplines.or unfriendly intentions fromthe shadowin someone'sexpression. knowledge a diseasealways remainedindirectand conjectural: secretsof the living body were always.Oncedeadof courseit could be dissected. medicinefor all that remained sciencewhichreceivedfull a socialrecognition.Butnot all the conjectural faredso well in this period.

betweenthe pawprints.In a realcultural lore of artisansand the bourgeoisie more and moreof the traditional appropriated somenot.It was perhapsonly with of lore a medicine that the codifyingand recording conjectural produced realenrichofficialandpopular medicine stillto be has ment. it. same time intensifiedthe massiveprocessof culturalinvasionwhich had already the begun.we have alreadytold the storyof the threebrotherswho by interpreting a seriesof tracesreconstruct appearance an animalthey have neverseen.reworked firstvolumeof Travels.andI judgedwithoutdifficulty it was that a smalldog. of This book wentthrougha numberof editionsand translations firstinto German. who hadtherefore recently given birth . which came out in Venicein the mid-I6thcentury underthe titlePeregrinaggio ditre giovanifigliuoli del re di Serendippo (Travels the threeyoung sons of the king of Serendippo)..As the of number readers grew. of the whichhe hadread in the French translation.forinitiation And rites.whichZadigis ableto describe detailby deciphering tracks.thoughtakingdifferentformsandwithdifferent content.on a different level. one wouldalsohaveto analyse incidents as whenWinckelmann 18thcentury (the Roman learntfroman unnamed archaeologist) masonthat the mysterious little stoneconcealedin the handof a statue unidentified at discovered Porto d'Anziowas 'the stopperor corkof a littlebottle'.69 successof this storyof the sons of the kingof Serendippo what was led HoraceWalpolein 1745to coin the word 'serendipity'.66 the basisof freshformulations ancientknowledge was the during 18th and 19thcenturies.67 indeedit wasthanksto suchworksof imagination the 'conjectural that model'in this periodhad a new and unexpected success.as Winckelmann called them of elsewhere. This the of story made its European debutin a collectionby Sercambi.so accessto specificexperience increasingly through was had the pages of books.70 and 'by Someyearsbefore.someof it conjectural.during counterof reformation. Zadigproveshis innocenceby recounting the mentalprocesswhichhad enabledhim to describe animals had neverseen: the he I sawin the sandthetracksof an animal. theyorganised recorded andat the and peasants. Hunterto detective In connectionwiththe hypothetical originof the conjectural modelamonglong-ago hunters. in the thirdchapter Zadig. the makingof happy for andunexpected discoveries accidents sagacity'. Longshallowfurrowsacrossmoundsin the sand.68 subsequently It reappearedas the openingto a muchlargercollectionof stories. 71 . then.presented translations as into Italianfrom Persianby an Armeniancalled Christopher. duringthe eighteenth-century fashion for things oriental. treatises physiognomy of needonlythinkof thegulfseparating rigidandschematic the or from its perceptive and flexible (judgingcharacter mood from the appearance) or practiceby a lover or a horse-dealer a card-player. The novel providedthe bourgeoisiewith a substitute.into the main European The languages..In the courseof the 18thcentury offensive thingschanged.thatis foraccessto realexperience altogether.Thisusuallyconstricted impoverished One it.butthe storyof the relation between written.22 HistoryWorkshop Journal jacketof terminological and precision.The symboland crucialinstrument this offensive was the French But suchsmallbutrevealing Encyclopedie. hisversion camelof theoriginal In the becomes bitchanda a horse.told me that it was a femalewithsaggingteats.from cookeryto waterresources veterinary to science. The systematiccollectingof such 'little insights'.Voltaire.Accused in their of theft and takenat once beforethe judges.

markedwith the tracksof the criminal. When causes cannotbe repeated. a homoof geneousandcloselywovencloth.like 'a vast whitepage on whichthe for peoplewe aresearching haveleft not only footprints tracesof movements and but also the printsof their innermostthoughts.72 Poe inspired and Gaboriau directly. physicalastronomyand palaeontology: that is.Wehave now reachedthe point wherethey can be seen to makea compositewhole.the kindof jaws. They ConanDoyle.This singletracktherefore the observer aboutthe kindof teeth.but alternative descriptions. and neolithichunters.These disciplines. Forits modern we in praise 1834for the methodsand successesof the new scienceof palaeontology: Today. The cloth is the paradigm whichwe have summonedup from way back. connoisseurship. but MODEL USESOF THE CONJECTURAL Its complex character to in Thisinquiry maybe compared followingthethreads a pieceof weaving.conjectural. in orderof increasing reliability. Babylonianseers intent on readingthe messageswrittenin heavenand earth.of medicine.but of a verycomparable stand for so much that in 1880 Thomas Huxley.Monsieur Lecocq. and this conclusionis as certainas any tells that can be madein physicsor moralphilosophy.Clues and ScientificMethod 23 In these lines and in those whichfollow lies the embryoof the detectivestory.divining.geology.Thenameof Zadigcameto Morecertainperhaps. Butforthemomentit is worthremarking it is basedon a modelwhichis at onceveryancientandverynew.thereis no alternative to inferthem fromtheireffects.76 stirred' here we see filing past us the authors of treatises on physiognomy. out of various contexts.defined as 'Zadig'smethod' the procedure common to history. the making of retrospective predictions. coveredwith snow'. workedout for a numberof disciplines.75Last.being deeply concernedwith historicaldevelopment.the shoulder.who felt he wascrossing'anunknown territory.73 kind. Vertically. shallreturnto The extraordinary that someof the reasonsforit.74and abandoningthe Galileianmodel. and the pelvisof the animalwhichhas passed:it is morecertainevidencethanall Zadig'sclues. semiotic.could scarcelyavoid falling back on the or model (Huxleyindeedmadeexplicitreference prophecy to conjectural divinatory directedtowards the past). the haunches. in a series of lecturesaimed at publicisingthe discoveriesof Darwin. and identification through handwriting.Theseareobviously or not whichnevertheless synonyms.the hopes and fearsby which they are. the literarycritic.hunting.this gives us the sequenceSerendippo ZadigPoe-Gaboriau-Conan Doyle. To checkthe coherence the pattern castan eye we along different lines. Horizontally: juxtaposition the beginning the at of the 18thcenturyby Dubos. referback to a common epistemological model.themselvesoften linked by borrowedmethods or key words. Now betweenthe 18th and the 19th . Wehavealready discussed cognitive elements shallquoteCuvier's its ancientroots. .and perhaps indirectly we successof the detectivestoryis well-known.archaeology.someonewho seesthe printof a clovenhoof can concludethatthe animal whichleft the printwas a ruminative one. diagonally passingfromone historical contextto another: Gaboriau's like detective hero.

It is timeto takeit to pieces.andthe semiotic. snow-covered fields or droppedcigaretteash. and the the lesssatisfactorily namecanrepresent individual's a the identity withoutconfusion. the maintained the impossibility imitating that of handwriting intended naturefor was by the 'security'of 'civil society' (that is to say bourgeoissociety). But what area of medicine?Aroundthe middleof the 18thcenturytwo alternatives becamevisible:the anatomical of model. in spiteof thegreatsuccessof Marxism.(and variants) its broadly. and anotherto analysewritingor paintingor speech.of all the human sciences.Now Morelli's idea was to trace out within a culturallydeterminedsign-systemthe conventionsof painting.24 Journal Iistory Workshop of century. involvedattributing identitythroughcharacteristics whichwere trivialand beyondconsciouscontrol.faeces(animal or human). In Egyptduringthe Graeco-Roman period. Identification the individual society of in Everysocietyneedsto distinguish members. Bycomparison.colds.the human sciences ended up by more and more accepting(with an of important exceptionwhichwe shallcome to) the conjectural paradigm semiotics.whether talkingor writing.makeuse of withoutmeaning and to without noticingthat they do so'. And herewe returnto the Morelli-Freud-Conan Doyle triadwherewe began. which(likephrenology)77 disciplines changedprofoundly: were soon to fall. Fromnatureto culture So far we havebeenusingthetermconjectural paradigm.83Even signatures .usedin a critical passage Marx.82 But even so the chances of mistake or of fraudulent impersonation remained high.79 Thus Morelliinherited(evenif indirectly)80 developedthe methodoand logicalprinciples so formulated long beforeby his predecessor. or which(likepaleontology) wouldachievegreatthings. firstof all.butthemorecomplex society. Morellilocatedthe most certainclue to artistic identity.the constellation conjectural of new starswereborn.andonce againthe method net used.in the 'tinydetails.78 by expresses aspiration for a system of knowledge. justthat:in theseinvoluntary Not signs. the waysof meeting needvary its but this withp.for instance. as we shallsee. signs which like symptoms(and like most clues) were produced involuntarily. It becamethe referencepoint.81Thereis.lace time.The timeat whichtheseprinciples cameafterso longto fruitionwasperhaps altogether not random. corneas.but aboveall it was medicinewhichconfirmed highstatus.It coincidedwith the emergence an increasingly of cleartendencyfor state powerto imposea close-meshed of controlon society. thename.stars. signature the bottomof a contract a at was muchbetter:at the end of the 18thcenturythe abbot Lanzi. including scarsor any other particularmarks. explicitor by implication. at a time when the last great system of philosophy Hegelianism wasalready But crumbling.a would call them flourishes'such as the 'favouritewordsand phrases' calligrapher which'mostpeople.pulses. GiulioMancini.in a passageof his Storiapittorica (Historyof Painting) whichdiscussed methodsof the connoisseur.both sociallyand in the standing its its of theory.It is one thingto analysefootprints.a manwhocameto a notary wantingto get married to carryout some financialtransaction or wouldhave to set downnot onlyhis namebutalsobriefdetailsof his appearance.Themetaphor of the 'theanatomy thestate'.withthe emergence the 'humansciences'. The distinctionbetweennature (inanimateor living) and cultureis fundamental -certainly much more important than the far more superficial changeable and distinctions betweendisciplines.

Clues and Scientific Method 25 could of course be faked. was the bridgehead of a more or less conscious project of keeping a complete and general check on the whole of society. the repression of working-class opposition after the Paris Commune. European societies over centuries felt no need for rwore reliable or practical means of identification -not even when large-scale industrial development. and (ii) that the person in question was the same as the one previously convicted. In England from about 1720 onwards. Yet it was only in the last decades of the 19th century that new systems of identification .86 The problem of identifying previous offenders. the emergence of capitalist relations of production led to a transformation of the law. The idea of an immense photographic archive was at first rejected because it posed such huge difficulties of classification: how could separate components be isolated in the continuum of images?89 The path of quantification seemed easier and more rigorous. developed an anthropometric method (which he set out in various based on careful measuring of physical details. and towards the end of the century was about half of all cases brought to trial. Class struggle was increasingly brought within the range of criminality. It permitted the elimination of those whose details on examination did not match up. The ancient punishments which had involved marking or mutilating an offender for life had been abolished. which were then combined writings)90 on each person's card. So Bertillon proposed combining the . and the rapid growth of vast urban concentrations had completely changed the fundamentals of the problem. For this identification of previous offenders it was necessary to show (i) that a person had previously been convicted.chased out through the door by quantification. the social and geographical mobility which it produced. it came back through the window. which developed in these years. but less bloodthirsty and humiliating. but there was a still more serious defect in Bertillon's anthropometric system. and at the same time as a new prison system was built up. and above all.and not only in London or Paris. The lily branded on Milady's shoulder had allowed D'Artagnan (in Dumas's The Three Musketeers. the escaped prisoners Edmond Dantes and Jean Valjean were able to reappear on the social scene respectable in false identities.84in the rest of Europe (with the Napoleonic code) a century or so later. In France the number of further offences was rising steadily from 1870.85But prison produces criminals.91The elusive quality of individuality could not be shut out . or in Hugo's Les Mis&ables. bringing it into line with new bourgeois concepts of property. Alphonse Bertillon. longer sentences were imposed. set in the 17th century) to recognise her as a poisoner already in the past punished for her misdeeds . From 1879 onwards an employee at the prefecture of Paris. But in spite of these shortcomings. But in this kind of society it was child's play to cover one's tracks and reappear with a new identity .87 The first problem was resolved by the setting up of police files. and introducing a greater number of punishable offences and punishment of more severity. The second was more difficult.whereas in his The Count of Montecristo. but it could not prove that two sets of identical details both referred to the same person.88 Bourgeois respectability required some identifying sign which would be as indelible as those imposed under the Ancien Regime.began to be put forward. the fact that it was purely negative. These examples should convey the hold which the old off&nder had on the 19th century imagination. This followed on contemporary developments in class struggle:the setting up of an international workers' association.competing with each other . they provided no check on the illiterate. Obviously a miscarriage of justice could result (theoretically) from a mistake of a few millimetres. and refinements in the definition of crime.

that is. earsand so on) whichaltogether description analysing particular was supposed to reconstitutethe image of the whole person. and so to allow irresistablyrecall the identification. eyes.The pages of ears presentedby Bertillon92 Morelli'swritings. individualis genere'('Onthe generalrecognition indiin of 'De cognitioneorganismi of was vidualorganisms'). 'the being in every way determined(ens omnimodo in has determinatum)'.the The scientificanalysisof fingerprints de founderof histology[thestudyof organictissues]. As will be obvious.94 Galtonhimselfquiteproperly admitted.who as a youth that had studied philosophyat Prague. Some and individuals. quiteindependently. Let us leave Europefor the momentand look at Asia.Whatwasthedifference eyes?93 nose?How did you classifythe exactshadeof blue-green protuberant whichmadeboth the collectionand the classificaBut a methodof identification tion of data mucheasierwas put forwardin 1888by Galton. Purkyne him whichprovided with muchless obvious:it wasthe lineson thumband fingertips the hiddenproof of individuality. The mistake of physiognomyhad been to subject individual and this till to variation preconceptions hastyconjectures: hadmadeit impossible then the to establisha scientificdescriptive studyof faces. an identitywhichcan be recognised his everycharacteristic. a verbal details(nose.he said.Theremaynot whichin the sameyearsaccompanied illustrations how Bertillon.26 Journal HistoryWorkshop anthropometric method with what he called a word-portrait. the interestin these scarcelyvisiblelines whichcriss-cross skin of the hand.Anyonewho was used to deciphering . laterrevisedand expanded.95 distinguished ever described ninebasictypesof line in the skin.yet it is striking the detailswhichthe forgercould writing. The individual.in a memoirwhichwas As This. howeverclose he got to the original.was basedon fingerprints.thoughnot the philosophical. starting from diagnosis symptoms took different forms in different for differenttreatment theircure.therewas a customof imprinting a witha fingertip this of dippedin ink or tar:97 wasprobably consequence knowledge derivedfrom divinatory mysterious practice. And in lettersand documents Bengal. echoed the most centralthemes of Leibniz's thought. It hasto be supposed thereis aninternal of whichmaintains varietyof each specieswithinits limits:knowledge this norm the of (as Purkynepropheticallyaffirmed) 'would reveal the hidden understanding individualnature'.calledCommentatio examine on physiologicoorgani visus et systematiscutanei(Commentary the physiological He and examinationof the organs of sight and the skin system). whichweretakenup in a chaptercalled wereignored. but arguedthat no two individuals in The practicalimplications this of had identicalcombinations their fingerprints.Neithercircumstance outsideinfluence that normor 'typus' areenoughto explainit.as well as in China.96 it wasthephysiology (die to the individual was reallyfundamental this art. thereforeequallyrequired medicine 'the as modernwriters.haddefinedpractical But of artof individualising' KunstdesIndividualisierens). said(without he naming them). as is well-known.Knowledge the individual centralto medicalpractice. Abandoning studyof palmsto focusseshisown attention something on the 'uselessscience'of chiromancy. HerePurkyne. nor and eventhe mostimperceptible slightest.he was not the firstto suggestit. 'word-portrait' hookednoseanda hooked between protuberant a stillworse.We have The madethings notedthedifficulties already posedby measurement. beganin 1823witha workby Purkyne. also an experton handhavebeena directconnection. Unliketheir European diviners takenan had Chineseand Japanese and counterparts. Bertillon'smethod was incrediblycomplicated.took as sureindicesof forgery idiosyncratic not reproduce.

taking for himselfthe praisewhichhad been bestowedon his rival.to pursuehis research amongsome Indiantribes. of the concreteknowledge.Everylastinhabitant the and of meanesthamletof Europeor Asia thus became. Reality is opaque.Thisextraby extension the notionof individuality of ordinary happened because therelationship of betweenthe stateandits administrative policeforces.by a colleaguein the FrenchMinistry the Interior acquired identity. Bertillon. this case usedto developstill moresophisticatedcontrolsovertheindividual society. thematterwereQfno interest.DistrictCommissioner Hooghlyin Bengal.cameacross and thisusage.and to the eyes of a Europeanall looked the same. In 1880Herschelannouncedin Naturethat after 17 in yearsof tests.as Galtonwasto observe. Herschel's article servedGaltonas starting-point a systematic for reorganisation of his thought on the whole subject. His researchhad been made possible by the of the convergence threeseparate elements: discoveries a purescientist. it.and the politicaland administrative acumenof Sir WilliamHerschel.and thencegradually the restof the world(one of the in to last countries givein to it was France).98 wouldfind it easyto see a kindof messagein the printof a dirtyfinger.99 The had imperialadministrators taken over the Bengalis'conjecturalknowledge.In 1860SirWilliam of Herschel. deceitful. a veryshorttime the new method was introduced England. fingerprints beenofficiallyintroduced the districtof Hooghly. in but however. wily. Understanding societythroughclues But that sameconjectural in paradigm. in the tracesleft by birds.CluesandScientificMethod 27 messages the veinsof stoneor wood.or in the shellof a in tortoise.disputatious. He hoped. signs.thanksto fingerprints. to of he as we havesaid.there lain in was a greatneed for some such meansof identification: Indiaas in other British coloniesthe nativeswereilliterate. possibleto identifyand check. saw the practical In implications.Thuseveryhumanbeing. In a social structureof ever-increasing complexitylike that of advanced capitalism.anyclaimto systematic knowledge appears as a flightof foolishfancy. hadneverheardof Purkyne's which hadalready unreadfor half a century. had and since then had been used for three yearswith the best possibleresults. to recall Filarete'scontemptuouswords)now becamea seriesof individuals eachone marked a biologicalspecificity. this On the contrary. also.commonamonglocalpeople.faithfulservantof Her Britannic Majesty.Galtonacknowledged firstand the thirdof these.as Galtonboastto fully observed. befoggedby ideological murk.of the Bengalipopulace. of an wasonce and for all and beyondall doubtconstituted individual.)Butreally.'0' an In this way what to the Britishadministrators seemedan indistinguishable had mass of Bengalifaces (or 'snouts'. did not succeed.sawits usefulness.alsoholdsthepotentialfor understanding in society.To acknowledge is not to abandonthe ideaof totality. of (Thetheoretical aspectsof he Latindiscourse. but there are certainpoints-clues.Purkyne.and turnedit againstthem.whichallow us to decipher . thoughtto profitbyit to improvethe functioning the Britishadministration. '?? Galtonnot onlymadea crucial contribution theanalysis fingerprints. He also the tried to trace racialcharacteristics fingerprints.expecting find among to them 'a moremonkey-like pattern'.the existenceof a deep connection which explains superficial can phenomena be confirmed whenit is acknowledged directknowledge sucha that of connectionis impossible.tied in witheveryday practice.

(scrofula) French English by (to have each been takenas smallbut significant cluesto moregeneralphenomena: the outlook of a social class.It's a matterof kindsof knowledge whichtendto be unspoken.a is (It symptom.And evencrisisis a medicalterm. systematic approach.a clue:thereis no gettingawayfromourparadigm.becauseof the form taken by the knowledgemost closelyboundup witheveryday experience or to be moreprecise.Thiscouldof coursebeextended to worksof artorto horses.)Aphorisms thetitle was of a famous work by Hippocrates. Nobody or learnshow to be a connoisseur a diagnostician or simplyby applying rules."10 literature it can easilybe shownthat the greatest too novel of our time-Marcel Proust'sA la Recherche TempsPerdu-is clearlya du of rigorous '05 exampleof the application this conjectural paradigm. is an indication. In datingfrom Hippocrates.witheverycontext in whichthe uniqueand irreplaceable of character its componentsseemscriticalto thoseinvolved.In the 17th centurycollections of 'Political Aphorisms'beganto appear.whoserules. do not to easilylend themselves being formallyarticulated even spokenaloud.or of an entiresociety. Butthedoubtcreeps as to whether kindof rigour notperhaps in this is anyway both unattainable and undesirable. But if it is going to be used.Minutegraphiccharacteristics beenusedto reconstruct have culturalshifts and transformations directline fromMorelli.the linguisticinnovationsof Rabelais. flowingrobesof Florentine paintings the 15th century.With the this kindof knowledge therearefactorsin playwhichcannotbe measured: whiff.or one man. made itselfa placein a widerangeof intellectual contexts.'03 is Aphoristicliterature by definitionan attemptto formulateopinions about man and society on the basis of symptoms. whichis at the heartof the conjectural semioticparadigm.intuition.as we havesaid. or should they put themselvesin a strong scientific positionbut get meagreresults?Onlylinguistics succeeded(during courseof has the this century)in escapingthis dilemma. the aphoristic one gathers strength-whether through a Nietszcheor an Adorno.in crisis.thenwemustmakea distinction between intuition low and high.of clues.It wasoncesaidthatfallingin lovemeantover-valuing tinywaysin the whichone woman. as anotherway of describing instantaneous the running of through thethoughtprocess.Untilnow we havecarefully avoidedthis trickyword. or of a writer.and so offers itself as a model for other disciplines.'02 disciplineof The as that psychoanalysis.28 Journal HistoryWorkshop or has Thisidea. 'Elastic rigour' But is rigourcompatiblewith the conjectural The paradigm? quantitative antiand anthropocentric directiontaken by the naturalsciencessince Galileohas posed an awkward dilemmafor humansciences: shouldtheyachievesignificant resultsfroma scientificallyweak position.mostdeeplyaffectingthe human sciences. we haveseen.differedfromothers. a a glance. Eventhe wordaphoristic revealing.an intuition. Ancient Arab physiognomywas based on 'firasa': a complex notion which generallyspeakingmeant the capacityto leap from the knownto the unknownby . is basedon the hypothesis apparently negligible detailscanrevealdeepandsignificant Sideby sidewiththe declineof the phenomena.106 suchcontextstheelasticrigour(tousea contradictory In phrase)of the conjectural paradigm seemsimpossibleto eliminate. a and humanity a societythat are diseased.the healingof the king's evil and monarchs takea fewof manypossibleexamples).settlinga debt owed by Mancinito (in The Allaccialmostthreecenturies in earlier). whichto a greateror less extentthey have followed.

Naples 1956. G. besides his writings on art history.CluesandScientificMethod 29 The inference(on the basisof clues).107 termwas takenfromthe vocabulary Sufi of philosophy. pp. 'Giovanni Morelli. ed. Wollheim. being published by Einaudi in Turin. Bari 1938. Guida alIa storia dell'arte. Previtali 'A propos de Morelli'.32-51. and especially Donna Laura. Lettere dall' esilio 1853-1860. 4 Wind. Arnold Hauser makes a more general comparison between Freud's 'detective' methods and Morelli's in his The Philosophy of Art History. and the sources he quotes. Crisi della Ragione (Crisis of Reason).. would like him. and suggests that 'materialist indications' rendered 'his method shallow and useless from the aesthetician's point of view'.and as and suchit has nothingto do with the extra-sensory intuitionof variousnineteenthtwentieth-centuryirrationalisms. and the new edition of his Epistolario.it came to be used both for mystic intuition. Florence 1974. Or again G.It exists everywherein the world. who on p. 22 June 1882: 'Old Jacob Burckhardt. Risorgimento eprotestanti. 1979. 54. Art and Anarchy. Carteggio Minghetti. Argan and M. Fagiolo. Longhi.234 compares Morelli unfavourably to the 'great' Cavalcaselle. his early scientific education. without geographic. It was the heritageof the Bengaliswhom Sir WilliamHerschelexpropriated.' (Biblioteca Comunal di Bologna. women. (Morelli proposed De Sanctis for the chair of Italian literature in Zurich: see F. pp. And for the European resonance of his work see his letter to Marco Minghetti from Basel. 1978. Spini. 'firasa'is neithermore nor less than the organof conjectural knowledge. XXIII. Castelnuovo. La Vita' in Bergomum XXXIV. 1 On Morelli. The longer version given here appeared in Ombre Rosse (Red Shadows) 39.genderor classexception. 109 This 'low intuition'is rootedin the senses(thoughit goes beyondthem). of hunters. Revue de I'Art 40-1. 108 penetrating shrewdness In this secondsense. 1968. De Sanctis. Art and Anarchy. It formsa reallink betweenthe humananimaland of of otheranimalspecies. 101. 1973. see first of all Edgar Wind.40-1. mariners. Ginoulhiac. historical. his relationship with the German intellectual milieu. 1978. 5 E. H. and insisted on spending the whole evening with me. Croce. for a re-examination of his method R.C.97. and used to ask me a lot of questions . Revue de l'Art 42. as if he knew it by heart. add M. Art and Anarchy. 'Attribution'. note 9. Turin 1979. 'Giovanni Morelli and the origins of scientific connoisseurship'. thismeansthatit is very and whichis always to differentfromanyformof 'superior' restricted anelite. June 1979. B. Gargani. and is also included in a new collection of essays edited by A. Archiginnasio. On Art and the Mind: Essays and Lectures. 1959 (see also note 9 below). 3 Wind. Zerner 'Giovanni Morelli et la science de l'art'.ethnic. See also references below. On Morelli's life. knowledge. 1978.which flattered me a great deal. 1963. and (translated by Marta Sofri Innocenti) in Theory and Society/De gids 7. Saggi e ricerche: 1925-8. you. both in his behaviour and in his thinking. Unfortunately there is no general study of Morelli. was extremely kind to me. 2 See for instance R. and for the kinds of to whichwereattributed thesonsof thekingof Serendippo.42-4. pp. his engagement in politics.).782. It would be useful to analyse.. pp. Encyclopaedia Universalis II. his friendship with the great Italian literary critic Francesco De Sanctis. references are to the English editions of works where available: unfortunately there has not been time to check page numbers for all these references. . p.) On Morelli's political engagement see passing references in G. Florence 1967. Translator's note: As far as possible. 1940. whom I visited last night. A much shorter version of this article appeared in Rivista di storia contemporanea 7. He talked about Lermolieff's book. He is a very original man. This morning I am going to meet him again.

38965. Winter1977. Mayer.'The Cardin boardBox' first appeared TheStrandMagazineV.havenot beenableto see K.932and 6 A. HenryDoyle. Nordon.and V. Nelson(ed.208)that TheStrand Sherlock Holmes. 1953.pp. Paris 1964). Sir ArthurConanDoyle. 1973. CollectedWorks.ThePhilosophy ArtHistory. the man and his work. who madethe best possibleimpression me .ThePsychoanalytic Revolution: Sigmund Freud'sLife andAchievement. demRussischen Aus von ubersetzt Dr JohannesSchwarze.Robert. of Wollheim. von Freud'. Bremer.D.LayardPapersvol.I. TheAdventures Sherlock to of Holmes. 1966.R.A facin NewYork1976pp.Butin anycasesucha supposition not essential. 1958.Life of Freud. Bloomington .was madeDirectorof the DublinArt Gallery 1869(see P. 17 Seehis introduction A.x-xi.222. simileof thestoriesas theywerefirst Magazine. Diogenes66. Gombrich.92-5).It is curiousthat does not herereferto Freud'spassageon Morelli. AmericanImage 33. Richter.Della PitturaItaliana.whichat leastconfirms thenotionwas in commoncirculation duringtheseyears.'Lesmethodes la critiof et freudienne'.Baring-Gould VI. 'TheCardboard 937 (and for anotherstrikingexample'The BoscombeValleyMystery'.. Stuttgart1956. ths laterpublished unsigned an thinkstheauthorlikelyto havebeenConan Strand Magazine July-Dec. Simmons. Baring-Gould. TheComplete Holmes. Verdiglione (ed. T. published theStrand Seealsothebibliographical to per appendix N. Alas.'Freud'sAesthetics'.andall the moresincein LondonI hadthegood fortune me on to meet with the splendidMr Doyle. 11 See M.Add.Standard and NewYork vol.ed.Seealso J. in (British ratherthanDoyles. is since withtheMorelli uncle.-June1893.TheSeven centsolution.and 'Le gardiende l'interpretation'. 16 Morelli. 120v).).. Psicanalisi semiotica. Trosmanand R. OnArt and the Mind.Nevertheless.whichwassignedBeckles Magazine Jan.But'Ears'followedan earlier on artiDoyle.XXXVc.Thisdoesallowthepossibility ConanDoylewas.H. 10 SigmundFreud'The Mosesof Michelangelo'. Sebeok. Quel44. the possibleshapesof ears was presumably the samewriter. Leipzig1880.'LaGerarchia e Segni'. 8 Wind. Segre.anundeservedly successful novelwhereHolmesand Freudappeartogetheras characters. 1973. quede l'artet la psychanalyse Tel Revued'esthetique 1970.40.From TheAnnotated several mon1968.'The FreudLibrary'.4.30 History WorkshopJournal Sherlock Box'.Milan 1975. Ms. Journalof the American to Boriforpointing out this Psychoanalytic Association21.ThePsychoanalytic Revolution. tributions the Doctrineof Signs.1. 7 It is just possiblethat the parallelwas more than a coincidence. 2.pp. 15 ErnestJones.Encounter XXVI. and wroteabouthimto SirHenryLayard: DublinGallery interests verymuch. in A.ThefirstHolmesstory(A Studyin Richter 1876-1891.in A.I amverygrateful PierCesare to me. Seealsoin B. Jan.p. Doyle'sacquaintance the by Morellimethodis proved(thoughit could havebeenassumedin an art historian) the 1890 of Catalogue the Works Art in the NationalGallery Ireland.Art andAnarchy. in von italienischer undBerlin.Freudon Creativity the Unconscious. that his in was Scarlet) published 1887.p. treatise ears.). Robert.vol.publishing Holmes'santhropological Wilson(TheStrand cle on 'Hands'. ConanDoyle.whichwas thoroughly in of of translation Morelliappeared 1883(seebibliography guidance Morelli.familiar not Morelli'swritingswerecertainly the only vehiclefor theseideas. 12 See E.'Freudand Michelangelo's Moses'.-July1893). Edition.An uncleof Conan in Doyle's.see C.'Freudand the Understanding Art'. W.through method.). andG.Conto 1976.andwhich of of reworked Layardin 1887underthe by made use of Kugler'smanual.'Der "Mosesdes Michelangelo" Sigmund faltung der Psychoanalyse. 18 Fordistinctions and dei between symptoms signsor clues. Spector. of articleon the varieties the humanear ('Ears:a chapter on'. de 9 Hauser.H.whatpersonsdo you usuallyfind in chargeof galleries Europe?' with Museum.ThefirstEnglish von in Italienische im Morelliund JeanPaul Malereider Renaissance Briefwechsel Giovanni J. Lermolieff.Ein kritischer Versuch. Gombrich Dresden 13 I. R.p.we learn(p.In 1887 'Whatyou say aboutthe Morellimet HenryDoyle.whichhe edited. Baden-Baden 1960). 1969. EntVictorius.1893).XIIIp. 14 See H.J. 1976 discusses of Freud'sinterpretation 'Moses'but does not touchon Morelli. painterand art critic. 1966. ConanDoyle. Mitscherlich (ed.A.33. pageillustrating by that to doesirresistibly recallillustrations Morelli's work. Werke Die Meister den Galerien Munchen.'Lapartie le tout'. Damisch.S.

29 Bottero.p.a discipline and withalmostno deductive character (p.in Enciclopedia Turin 1977(andalso 1. themimeticfaculty'(Italian 'On in Turin1962. 24 Bottero(see note 23).192.which I shallbe returning whichcentreson so-called'feminineintuito. that humanslearntfirstto readand then to write).Les rusesde l'inLa telligence.Botteroon the otherhand(seenote23)stresses in elements Mesopota(p.pp. Vernant. Bologna1968. 20 A. pp. Peirce.while I am briefly.pp.p. 31 Seethe essayby H.1924. and the relegation intuitionto the low category. Feyerabend.'La and Chine:aspectset fonctions psychologiques l'ecriture'in L'Ecriture la psychologiedes de et peuples.thoughso to speakturningit insideout.'Alfabeto'.308-9.p. 23 Here I am making use of the excellentessay by I. the story'slaterhistorysee below.154-7). For 21 R. Detienneand J. Halle.His of counterposing the analogicaland the semioticapproachhas been modifiedby the reinterof preting thesemioticmethodas an 'empirical of analogy.74-5. wherehe argues.with bibliography. TheAnnotatedSherlockHolmes.the physician the and See also ConanDoyle.evenwhile. distinguishing from simpleinduction.Bologna 1978.'Paroleet signes muets'. Wesselofsky.on JohnBell. in and ecritures' J. Cazadeand Ch.beliedhowever hissignifiby cantanalogybetweendivination medicine. of 33 On all this see the rich study by M. Milan1971. or 26 Thereference to thekindof inference is whichPeirce definedas presumptive 'abducit tive'. Very thinkspsychoanalysis too close to magicto be acceptable.and 'Lalogicadell'abduzione' Scrittidifilosofia.1932. or I Timpanaro.Clues and Scientific Method 31 19 See A. 27 Bottero(see note 23). 1886.see the studieson 'autopsy' and can the recorded ArnaldoMomigliano 'Storiographica in by greca'.pp.168onwards).104andfollowing).induzionee ipotesi'in in Caso.La Scrittura.see and fromp. pp.270 and following. Iproblemidell'empirismo.Thedivinatory of characteristics Metisarediscussed (pp. Whyarewomenso oftencredited withsuperior powersof insightandintuition.154 and after. ConanDoyle. Bottero.'Deduzione. pp. of 22 See E. of BakerStreet'). andalso the controversial of remarks P.149-50.191-2.SeeE.'Eine Marchengruppe'. Vernant others. Fundamentals Language. fortheconnections between various the typesof knowledge listed here and divination. Metisdesgrecs. pp.pp.7 andafter. 1975p.89 and following. 34 P. Timpanaro is .45.Seealso discussion J. Gernet..70-1).convincingly paradoxically. Immagini 35 The coniectorwas a priestlysoothsayer diviner. M. p. (see 32 The inclusionof womenin this list is becausethey wereassociatedwith the goddess Metis and thereforewith divinationand conjecture.K.132). Rossi dellascienza.172. Jakobsonand M.TheFreudianSlip. if Etiemble.and his AgainstMethod.butseealso.Signes.25-6.C.pp.pp.pp. 25 Bottero.Theparallel suggested between two tendencies Mesopotamian here in the divination and themixedcharacter cuneiform of stemsfromsomeof Bottero's observations writing (pp.see Walter Benjamin.Divinationet Rationalite.33-8.Here and elsewhere drawon S.throughout. WatsonMD. tion'.Rome 1977.S. Dillerin Hermes67. 28 Bottero. and will be takenup in the final versionof this work.especially p.On medicine. Milan 1962. introduction ('Iwo doctors and a detective:Sir ArthurConanDoyle.20 andthosefollowing. Vegetti's of and see Introduction the works of Hippocrates.P. Paris 1963.especially translation AngelusNovus.55-87.But there remainsan importantand unresolved problem. Thomas.amoreelogica.Paris 1974. London 1976. and Mr SherlockHolmesof whoinspired character Holmes. Onthelinksbetween in writing divination Chinasee J.on relations the between followers Hippocrates Thuycdides. Thepresence womenin the domainof Metisis discussed Detienne Vernant of in and pp.Paris 1974.RivistastoricaitalianaLXXXVII. simplification seemsto resultfroma narrow one-sided and definitionof 'science'(p. Vernant.22-3 The links between to medicine historiography be explored otherwayround. Memories Adventures. Melandri.P.Turin1956.89)thedeductive miandivination.20 and 267.and Diller (note 31) pp.157. Thisdefinition oversimplifies the pointof distorting thecomplicated (to trait) so The jectorywhichBotterohimselfreconstructs well(p.105and following.in Divinationet Rationalite note 23).pp. Archivfur slavischePhilologie 9. lineae il ciruse' La in colo.297.25and following.London1975.190). 30 Bottero.p.145-9(mariners).The Hague 1956. John A.especially pp.22-3.On this subjectmoregenerally. deniedaccessto the domainof 'malerationality'? it a contrastinvented malechauvinism? Is by Ordoesit reflectthe sexualdivisionof rolesoverthousands years?In anycaseit seemsto link of withthe polaritybetweenhigh and low.P. 'Symptomes.

ed. Considerazioni sulla 2 of as The is pittura.79-82.Pinacotheca(see note 41). Havelock.451-65. and the individualising in Slip.Buthe onlydiscusses reproduction'.or the equating historywithart.the part on 'recognising' . vol.TheClassical Text: Aspectsof Editingin the Age of PrintedBooks. Berkeley1974. 'L'histoire scienceset l'histoirede l'histoire'.a rich and thoughtfularticle.95-6 contraststhe reproducibility literarytexts. Omeroa Platone.in AnnalesESC 30.G. 47 All of this reliesof courseon W. A.relying knowledge M. 'Galileoon primary p. 1962-3. 41 J. Paris1943. 1974pp.ButGilsontreatsit as an intrinsic to difference.106). 38 See S. Interventi see Pensee formelleet sciencesde Turin1977p. Rossi). Of of identifyhistoricalknowledge coursethesepagesare writtenwith an altogether differentintention.Florence1961. with 'bodyart' and 'landart'.Il Saggiatore.. Goody. third following. Bloch TheHistorian'sCraft. 126andthechapter ThePrivate 44 Mancini.doctrinaevel ingenii .knownas the Discorso di pittura.pp.93 and especiallypp.showshow of today'sbeliefin the absolutely uniquecharacter a givenworkof arttendsto elbowasidethe idea of the artist'sown biologicalindividuality. Timpanaro.264.1971.Neither thesepassages figures thebriefversion. Pomian.NewYork. 40 Galilei. Paris of 1958 p. Illuminations. Galilei. Like Rossi.wherehe discusses interpretation this e and otherpassagesfrom Galileofroma point of viewclose to minehere. Milan1965. And see E. in La Culturafilosofica del Rinascimentoitaliano: of the Ricerche documenti.Forthe historyof textual criticism aftertheinvention theprinting of pressseeE. sciencesof medicine philologywerepointedout by Timpanero TheFreudian and (i. Patronsand Painters:a study in the relationsbetweenItalianart and on Patrons. consequences literacy'. which confirmthe importance the unrepeatable. Marucchi. I.82 he tells how.pp.is full of good references too reductive his conclusions.J. 42 It was first printedonly twenty odd years ago: G.V. scienze e il simbolismodel "libro" '.219-53.On the connectionbetween del politici. is stressedby K.Considerazioni. pp. character historical of 36 Thereis a memorable passage the 'probable' not certain) on on 1954. with of as or performances.935-52. Hess.pp.in Comparative of 1977. Pintard. Onthispointseealso J.32 History WorkshopJournal suggesting not only psychoanalysis most of the so-calledhumanor social sciencesare that but of (see rootedin a divinatory approachto the construction knowledge the last sectionof this character the two of article). La 39 G.45.E. and so on. laude. Gilson. Mahonin his Studiesin SeicentoArt and Theory. Kenney.A. See also E.Manchester in des tracesor clues.279 and Jahrbuchder bildendenKunst.Its indirect nature. the text of the Discorso.133and following. Watt. FoucaultMicrofisica potere.like the one quoted at refersto 'librarians.In and secondary qualities'. Granger.Peintureet rjalit.seu praedictio'). In anotherpassage. 45 Eritreo. 37 On the repercussions the inventionof writingsee J. Goody and I. 'Note manciniane'.ableto dateancientmanuscripts in of bothGreekandLatin(p. (I owe this not one. there are other tendenciestoo. virorum Lipsiae 1692.e.Paris 1967pp.The individualising tendencyof magic. Generally speaking obviously posea different are but tendencytodayis awayfromthe uniqueworkof art ('multiples' an obviousexample). medicineand historicalknowledge M.l pp. 'The of Studiesin SocietyandHistoryV. a historical as I try to suggest. Mancini. pp.291 and following. pp. morelikely. vol.261-2.Bari1973..206 and following:His insistenceon the individualising historicalknowledge a suspiciousringto it.Journalof the Historyof Behavioural the passagesquotedfromGalileothe italicsaremine. 46 Engravings one problem frompaintings. Cambridge Da Cultura oralee civiltadellascrittura. 'Theworkof artin the age of mechanical worksof figurain London1973. importance Mancini a 'connoisseur' stressedby D. p.pp.38.in Mu'nchener in but series. vol.II Saggiatore. Rome1956-7. which Mancinifinishedbefore 13 November1619 (see Considerazioni. genesidel metododel Lachmann.especially paintings to be unique. 1975. Butfor another pointof viewsee G. Sosio.andnow J. 48 Hereare my reasonsfor suggesting Allacci.11 pp. paintings p.a diagnosis Mancini by whichprovedto be correct(thepatientwasPope UrbanoVIII)wascalled secondsightor prophecy('seu vaticinatio. reference RenatoTurci). J. becausetoo often it goes with the attemptto has withempathy.London 1947. tive art. Eritreo(G. Florence1963. Benjamin.Le libertinageeruditdans la du premiere moitie' xviiesiecle. here.xxx. TheDomesticationof the SavageMind. character of l'homme.A. societyin theageof thebaroque.N. L.p.A case like that of the painterDe Chirico'faking'his own works. Sciences10. Garin'Lanuova ed. Martinez. 43 F.. not long before.160-9. Haskell.XIX 1968. vols. Pinacothecaimaginumillustrium.Mancini particularly the Vatican'. Naude too called Mancinia thoroughgoing atheist ('grandet parfait Athee'): R.80-1.On p.

483doesnotidentify the II. Also quite useful is M. Cresci.Trattatidi scritturadel Cinquecentoitaliano. n. whichneverappeared. followingWhitehead.p.599 and following(thesepagesarepartof a sectionby GiovanniFaber. 10. 56 See Rerum medicarumNovae Hispaniae Thesaurusseu plantarum animalium mineraliumMexicanorumHistoria ex Francisci Hernandez novi orbis medici primarii relationibusin ipsa Mexicanaurbe conscriptisa Nardo Antonio Reccho.p.(Theeditorof the Considerazioni p.'Per una storia delle dottrine a dall' Umanesimo JeanMabillon'.Bari 1974. Carpo 1622 pp. Hacking. 51 A.Birthof the Clinic.600-27.see the entry in Dizionario biograficodegli italiani5.25. no. Casamassima. OttaniCavina. pp. p.160.. v.327-30). 53 See E. Grassi. 62 P. and TheBurlington Magazine1976.Libertinage. On the interestof this group in see II: landscape painting A.139-44.ed. Milan 1966.as theirrespective friendships before he becamepope above). p.whichis not clearfromthe title of its page).'Onthethemeof landscape Elsheimer Galileo'. Turin1974. recent studieson Allacciare listed pp. moresimply.26 n.in Romeat this time therewas no-one 1).. (UrbanoVIII.London1973andMicrofisica (see n. E. pp. (see .532.The Emergence Probability. Rossishow (seePintard. but see F.pointsconsidered Foucault by in Microfisica n.Considerazioni.. Cambridge1975.Trattato architettura. Milan 1622. 63 On this point see M.Ilsecretario.La Letteratura artistica.75-6. paleografiche further reference a sequel in whichalso mentionsthe Allacci-Mabillon thoughit promises link.Speculum astrologiae. 54 Filarete. 1964. S.. Kuhn.26-7. A.Trattato note 51). 134.notis illustrata.60. (see 55 SeeBottero.84.107. Schlosser Magnino.17-18and following.La certezza nellamedicina.25-8). 49 Mancini. Saggiosui PromessiSposi. BignamiOdier. 64 See also the author'sIlformaggioe i vermi. FinoliandL. see the veryrichbook by I.knownas Filarete.129.599.J.herescarcely touchedon. 'Storia e "preistoria" concettodi probabilita del nell'etamoderna'.107. 50 Mancini.28 (butsee generally to 'the pp.whoselibrarian Noteperla storiadi alcune biblioteche romanenei secolixvi-xix. The Vatican Library from SixtusIV to Pius IX. Giuntino vol.M. the importance On exceptAllacciskilledin Latinand Greekmanuscripts Mancini of Allacci's ideas on paleographysee E... as describes. For the friendshipbetweenAllacci and Maffeo Barberini Allaccithenbecame). Foucault.p. Ferriani. Vatican1973.to their presumed 'formalpoverty'as well as. the contrastbetweenBaconianand and On classicalsciencesee T.but they wereundoubtedly partof the same intellectual withG.S.to anthropomorphism.see p.) 58 Rerummedicarum note 56).thoughhe attributes lessfrequent the use (see in divinationof the mineralor vegetableor even to some extent animal. di Milan1972.192-3. Considerazioni p.The passageis referred as presaging Morellimethod'in J. G. text.pp.p.pp.. Scalzini.Feb.Now Allacci was appointed'scriptor'at the Vaticanin the middleof 1619 (J. 1978.Lugduni1573.Ill. p.Studimedievali. Rome 1651.Clues and Scientific Method 33 pp. History and Theory-Beiheft 4. 59 See Raimondi's interesting essay'Versoil realismo'.see G. Trattato. 60 See for example 'Craig's Rules of Historical Evidence 1699'. 57 Mancini. Rivistadiphilosofia.69-70.Venice1585.167-9. Moravia.. Philosophical of A Studyof EarlyIdeasaboutProbability.stressing importance. Raimondi.Vatican1952.in Il romanza note 56)-even (see he if.. 1. 65 HereI amtakingup.F.20.in 41 note circle.s. pp. p. ed.465-7.Turin 1976. collecta ac in ordinem digesta a Ioanne TerrentioLynceo.p. thoughin a rather differentsense. Casamassima.1n cosmo di un mugnaiodel '500.L'Idea. Induction and Statistical Inference. Rome 1963.AnnalesESC 30.vol.In the collectionof Allacci'slettersin the VaticanLibrary thereis no indicationof contactwith Mancini. whereherefersto a textby Francesco of on thehoroscope Durer.l.p.Sympt6mes note23)..9.36) pp. pp. Mercati. tendsto underrate oppositionbetween two paradigms. Baldi. Baldi also wrote on physiognomyand divination. C.36). pp. 1975.Considerazioni.It was Pope Urbanohimselfwho insisted (see that the illustratedaccount should be printed.128-3 And anyway.1. by Il romanza senzaidillio.Thereis an excellent discussion thisvolume.Averlino.pp.269v.Florence1977. 1964.975-98.p.pp. 52 See for exampleM. Giuntino.V.G.p. Cabanis. the the the abstract-mathematical the concrete-descriptive. 'Traditionmathematique traditionexperimentale et dans le de developpement la physique'.101. 61 On this subject.

71.132 year. withthe 'old practice'of the old detective theory'of the youthfulLecoqis contrasted risks 'chamionof the positivistpolice' (p.131. translations German.ears schoolof painting.whichon pp.Della Pitturap. R. 80 Someechoesof thepagesof Mancini Morelli through discussed mayhavereached here di ad . and of from the Peregrinaggio 1557. 79 Morelli.(Le operedei maestri. and Victorian of despisedit) see D. Berlin1967(Akten vol.Le radiche storicidei raccontidifate. Pomeau.184-90 editionsandtranslations..391. French.215 n. Gevrol.Norman The of an 'PetitesPerceptions: accountof sortesWarburgianae'.VIII. Novel' et l'influence lapenseescientifique.44. Cerulli. Berlin1952. 11.XVIII. 68 E.J.L.but doesnot lie in itsbackward forward theprophetic operation of of knowledge.) F.Conquest Mind. Internationalen the rich they are articles Heckscher extremely in ideasandreferences.25the 'young 76 E. in Novel'.11. de 72 Seein generalR. Diepolder 66 See J.B. (Oklahoma) Remer. and its laterindirect(through story (seebelow).) On p. following. fact (b) and (c) mightcombine.347 and following).ed. and (c) mannerisms in Morelli's pointaboutthe 'too brightfleshon the thumbsof men'shands'whichrecurs paintingsby Titian.498.p.Messac. in 77 On the long-livedpopularsupportfor phrenology England(whenofficial science Social Thought. a book whichI 'lavenot Thislist maybe checkedandperhaps (fromthe German). W. s.ed. Briefe. Journal Mediaeval Heckscher.Morelli Mancini'sConsiderazioni. Prophecyas a Functionof 74 See T.CCCLXXII1975.S.as with unintentionally etc.). Singleton(ed. pp.Rome1681.On the connection Paris1929(excellent Zadigsee p. Lettera nellaqualerisponde alcuniquesitiin materie pittura...in Science Culture.'Giovanni Paris1877.vol. Propp.I. Bianconiin Rome)and note on p. Interpretation. detective Danish English(fromtheFrench). Rome 1975 (on Sercambisee pp. been able to see: Serendipity the threeprinces: lists (See 1965. de Giustino. betrayed hands.245n. examine originsof Aby by methodfroma pointof viewwhichis closeto minein thisarticle.) and Renaissance of a 70 Heckscher. in the factthatit is theapprehension thatwhichliesoutof thesphere immediate the seeingof that whichto the naturalsenseof the seeris invisible'.S.1:L 'Enquete.Paris1729. in Atti dellaclassedi scienzemorali Nazionaledei Lincei.316 (letter30 April 1763to G.36. Winckelmann. into mentions 69 Cerulli in extended. 1974p. 78 'Myresearch of . 73 Messac Le 'DetectiveNovel'.Preface(1859)to A Contribution the Critique Political to Economy. Zerner(article citedin note 1 above)argueson the basisof of at this passagethat Morellimadedistinctions threelevels:(a) the generalcharacteristics the in detailsof theindividual painter.128-48. 'Una raccoltapersianadi novelle tradottea Venezianel 1557'.34 History WorkshopJournal and W. H.Thesetwo des XXI. Huxley.p.. pp.). Paris 1834.1.111. Morelli'. 'On the Methodof Zadig:Retrospective London1881. in Iconology'.G. 'Littleinsights'are referred in Briefevol. 'PetitesPerceptions'.vol. no.Paris1966.and whichcopyistsavoided. Dubos)Reflxions critiques lapoesieetsurlapeinture.In a laterversionI Warburg's suggests. Studies4.Le 'Detective it that 'evenin therestricted senseof "divination" is obviousthattheessenceof Huxleyexplains or to relation thecourseof time.andLanzi'shistoryof Italianart(seenote 83).pp.1. sur vol. Recherchessur les ossementsfossiles. On p.362-5(quotedin partby Zerner. giventheprevious and (Thiswasa lecture Science'.Le 'Detective the and between Travels thoughnow a bit out of date). 75 See(J. Rehm. Turin1949. p.4. 130-1developing pointmadein his 'Genesis pp. T. reached conclusion thatthe anatomy civilsocietymustbe sought the of in politicaleconomy. My attentionwas drawnto it by a reference Messac.211-12.And see E. trail plan to follow up the Leibnizian whichHeckscher 71 Voltaire'Zadigou la destine' in RomansetContes. Monsieur Lecoqvol.17 and following.185).pp.see note 1 above.Berlin1954.20)who stopsshortat whathe can see and therefore seeingnothing.ed. .11.p. Gombrich.174. n. 67 Thisis not only trueof novelsaboutearlylife anddevelopment to Fromthis point of viewthe novelis the realsuccessor the fable.35 and 'The Evidenceof Images'in C. p.H.p. vol.Stil und Ueberlieferung derKunstdes Abendlandes in fur Kongresses Kunstgeschichte Bonn 1964).34-35 (quoting G.Phrenology London1975. Baltimore1969. As faras I know.also pp.Memorie dell'Academia etc.'KarlMarx. See V.46.Cerulli's is withwhatis knownon theeastern articleon theoriginsanddiffusionof the Travels combined Zadig)outcomein the originsof the story (see note 20 above). to ('Bildungsromanen'). Cuvier.7-8.p. Gaboriau.(b)thecharacteristic In introduced. Baldinucci's neverreferred to pp.p.

98 See L. Agamben.And see Bertillon's Album..1.Aforismipolitici see cavati . problemi proe spettivedi una "coraggiosa disciplina" Studiurbinati '. Gernet. XLI. p. definitely (so biographies insist)suffered.10.London1973(firstpublished1924).to pronounce the authenticity the famous on of was his Because verdict favoured caseagainstDreyfus.AnnalesESC et 30. Thompson. 1975. la tortuea l'achillee'.Clues and Scientific Method 35 Claude 81 (Various L Seminaire authors) 'Identite.31.in samecollection. p.26-7he also refersto a precedent whichnevertook practical form:a San Francisco who photographer had identification members the Chinese of of proposedfacilitating community the useof fingerby prints.p.J.93 (whichalso quotesthe passageon earsjust quoted..M. was from like The ThreeMusketeers (both by AlexandreDumas). thereareno two identicalearsand .'Delinquance systemepenitentiaire Franceau xixesiecle'. 87 A.FingerPrints.vol. by 90 On Bertillonsee A.plate60b. . 'De (see pp.. 100 FingerPrints.'Petitsecartset grandsecarts'.L'Oeuvred'AlphonseBertillon. etc. whichfollowsseeFoucault 'Microfisica' note p. thispointhasbeenbrought by A. Caldara. 1892:it lists previouspublications the subject.especially L 89 See the difficultiesdiscussed Bertillon. 83 L. philosophique. 84 E. Theroyaltouch.158.68). Paris 1974.Paris 1883.68 (as in note 86 above). interdisciplinairedirigepar Levi-Strauss. p. Locard. L'identite. . in cases where the court requiresan assurancethat a particularold photograph"beyond doubt the represents personherebeforeus" . Onpp.Lyon 1914(takenfrom Archives demed&cine d'anthropologiecriminelle.vol. en 86 M. 101 FingerPrints.Lacassagne. and from Englishnovels. on 95 J. et Rousseau decreed law Paris 1909.The list of literary convictsfromthis periodcouldbe extended Dickens.L'oeuvre(as in note 90). la pensee E. and 85 MichelFoucault. Because his skillas a handwriting of expert Bertillon calledin duringthe Dreyfuscase.A. whichoriginally appeared Latinas partof in RealisPhilosophia(De politicain aphorismos digestata). Forthecomment (see 36).27-8(andseetheacknowledgement p.Die Wortbildung stilistisches als Mittelexan emplifiziert Rabelais.p.on p.1975. M. PerSee for old offenderswitha long record. out 'Palaeographia oggi. Warburg. Traube. AlphonseBertillon(seenote 90). Melun for is 1893.andexpulsion thoseconsidered rot. p. Lanzi. Galton. . Spitzer. p. Canini. vol.p.II.Finger on Prints.xlviii:'Butwherethe earis mostclearlysuperior identification purposes.In 1885the Waldeck L'identification recidivistes.'AbyWarburg la scienzasenzanome'.29-56. Settanta e July-Sept.15 (Warburgand Spitzerare quoted. TheCountof Montecristo datesfrom 1844. p. Capucci. 93 See Locard.and Traubementioned.OperaSelecta.27. 99 Galton..in Divinationet Re&alitW note 23).pp.newseriesB.VictorHugo's Les Miserables both for France(Vautrin 1869. Lacassin. p. G.67-91(esp.15.Melun1893(whichaccompanied otherwork).11.le savant. 'Delinquance'. Paris 1977. 1967..vol. Purkyne. 92 A. P. ed. Florence 1966(the first essaydates from 1893).TheOriginof the BlackAct.pp.E.seeF.L. 88 Branding abolishedin Francein 1832. AlphonseBertillon:L'homme.52 and following.Whigs Hunters. Munich1965(basedon editionof 1909)ed.FingerPrints.28).L'indicazionedei connotatinei documentipapiraceidell' Egitto grecoromano. 'identit. Vandermeersch.Storiapittoricadell'Italia.hiscareer the the memorandum.E. ed. Locard. p. Palaeographie der Zur und Handschriftenkunde.4).4. rinascita paganesimo La del antico.L'Identitedes recidivistes la loi de relegation. 82 A. du For Bertillon's admiration Sherlock of Holmes. Bertillon. Rapporti.p. 102 The reference hereis to L.Disciplineand Punish.1028. London1977. Campana. 94 F.169.Prague1948. signaletique. Studiin onore di ArturoMassolo. 91 Bertillon. Thebirthof theprison. p.p. Bertillon.pp.in note 8).17-8.pp. Lehmann. lgaleet depsychologie normaleetpathologique. des prison for irredeemable. Bloch.24 and following.'Geschichte palaeographie'. Mythologie roman policier.10). Lacassagne.Florence1968.sacredmonarchy scrofula and in EnglandandFrance.).pp.pp.Halle 1910. 96 Purkyne. London 1975.P.Identification new Instruction anthopometrique.Theexamples couldbe multiplied: see G. 103 BesidesCampanella's PoliticalAphorisms. Perrot. 97 Galton.Milan 1924.29 and following.1. if the earcorresponds is a necessary sufficientproofthatthe identitydoes too' exceptin the caseof that and the twins.1.

151-2).1-2. e 105 The point will be furtherdeveloped the final versionof this work.John Field.161-3. Laphysiognomonie arabeet la 'Kitab De Al-Firasa' FakhrAl-DinAl-Razi.Turin1977. Koselleck.pp.La Physiognomonie.36 History WorkshopJournal d'Italiadi FrancescoGuicciardini. Ricordidi egotismo.documentary essay Single issue ?2. 104 Even if it was originallyused in law. classifiesthe branches physiognomy follows of as from the treatiseby TashkopruZadeh (1560 AD): (1) the lore of moles and blemishes(2) chiromancy the readingof hands (3) scapulomancy divinationusing shoulderblades (4) lore of divination throughtracks(5) genealogical involving examination limbsandskin (6) the art of findingthe way in the desert(7) water-divining the art of findingwheremetallay (8) rain (underground) the artof foretelling (10)prediction (9) usingeventsof the pastandpresent (11)prediction usingthe body'sinvoluntary movements. linkbetween'firasa'andthe deedsof the kingof Serendippo's is raised. whichwillbe followedup. Messac. 108 See the extraordinary to adventure attributed Al-Shafi'i(in the 9th centuryAD of the Christiancalendar)in Physiognomonie. treasurer. of by THESOCIETYFORTHE STUDY OF LABOUR HISTORY BULLETIN 39 121pages Contents include Evidence of the Society to Sir Duncan Wilson's Committee on Public Records Statistics on Labour'sMunicipalElection Results 1901-13 Amalgamated Society of Boot & Shoemakers . Criticailluminista crisidellasocietdborghese.141-3. Wentworth Castle.Paris 1939. including two issues of the Bulletin?3-30 (old-age pensioners ?1) from: hon..pp. Fromp. 107 See Y. The NorthernCollege. between Arabstudyof physiognomy the and on research perceptions individuality the Gestaltpsychologists.29.And see entryunderAphorisms the Dictionnaire Littre. President of the Watermen's Union from 1959-71 Checklist of Theses in BritishLabourHistoryfor 1978 Trotskyand Britain:the 'Closed' File. in 106 Compare Stendhal. for a brief historyof the termsee R.letter from Palme Dutt to HarryPollitt OralHistory. 109 Mourad. old colt still unsteadyon its legs' (Stendhalexcuseshimselffor usingthe Frenchwordconin noisseurin the senseit had acquired English).Le 'Detective by Novel' (seenote 72 above).an interview with HarryWatson.25 ( + 30p.) Subscription to the Society for one year.37: 'Victor(Jacquemont) strikes me as an exceptional man:recognisable a connoisseur spotsa finehorsein a four-monthas . Scrittori dall'Historia politdci in italianidal 1550al 1650. Mourad's splendidand penetrating book. Rome 1949.60-1.p. 15Mourad proposing very is a interesting comparison.apsons propriately. Barnsley..Bologna1972. which is like somethingfrom Borges's The writings. Bozza. Venice 1625(see T. Autumn 1979 26 contributors .pp.pp. p.early days Document .

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