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2

2.1

Analytic Functions

Complex functions

'(YJ.~.'. .s •

•

is a map

f

'

Definition 2.1 A complex function

f :S

C

CC---tCC

from a subset S of the complex numbers to the complex numbers. The set of S is called the domain of f and is denoted by Dom (f). The image set f (S) is call the range of f and is denoted by Ran(f)· It is important to realize that a complex function f(z) be written as can always

fez) = u(z) + iv(z)

]R

where u, v : S can define

C

CCr-+ ..

ar.e two real valued ma12s. Indeed, we .

u(z)

:= Re(f(z))

I

and

v(z):=

Im(f(z))

for all z E CC. part of f.

We will refer to u and v as the real and imaginary Notation 2.2 We may sometimes

f = Ref + iImf

to denote the decomposition of f into real and imaginary parts. We will use all of the following notations interchangeably:

and

"

f(z) = f(x +iy),

u(z) = u(x + iy) = u(x, y),

**v(z)' = (x + iy) = vex, y). VII) __- ~ .frS)~ IA(,.) "* t'V(;j
**

I

.

'

'

I'

·Example 2.3 Find the domain and the real and imaginary parts

of

J(z)

Answer:

=

z2

£.(:n~~)- (:JCH, J =

::;(X ..,__

1..

":I~H') (J(+I.:~)

it..) + ~ l"Jl 'j

'7",.-

12~£ ;: JC-j

I

1..

'1.

'17~ ,S .,_

Z~

J.

-------

~.4 Find the domain and the real and imaginary parts of J(z) = _ Answer: z . z: . :>c.zz -1 .--"t.Example 2. ~6(+. ~ J(.~ J .~'1 -I / 12 . _ JeH oj_ I-XH~I ~ I z: _.

2 Limits and continuity IIt1A @ Before discussing limits and continuity we first the notion of a neighborhood. we can now introduce the notion of a continuity. disc DX (ZOl p). It is conventional w = lim J(z).iWhen we say a neighborhood of a point Zo E C will will mean some open disk of the form: D(zo.2.zo I <j. Definition 2. Definition 2.p):= {z E Cl. z-+zo 13 .zol < p}. z-+zo IJ(z) - wi <E to write With limits define. Then J(z) has a limit w as z goes to Zo if for e¥ery E > 0 there exists a 0 < 5 < p such that wheneve\ 0 < / Iz .lz - zol < p} open disk: Anotne!%seful set for us will be the punctured := DX(zo) p) {z Eel 0 < Iz .5 Let J{z) be a complex function that is defined on the punctured.6 Let J(z) be a complex function that is defined in a neighborhood of zo0 Then J(z) is continous at 2:0 if r J(zo) = lim J(z).

/2.__ l'iJl( \ -r J (z) is continuous at any Zo EC.} ~ . 0 I~b)5(0) - I :::I~ 0 I:::211~ I / 2.7 Is the function J(z) = z2 continuous at z = 07 -£(o).f~)(2. J I Z~ ~#) ] e« ~('aoi) 16-1-]."Example 2. Ib-a' " Question (or you: Show that 1~~1::J::<1(l.-~J) ~.leu IJ.. } 14 ~'l~o}-+/~ I~o) 5 i.1 p q.0 J s I~ 1+ I~.

dl1 + Ilf~t1~J .jJ} .0 ...8 Let f () .. if z if Z = -I.O? Answer: . S(~ II)) = 1.. £or I.O~ Il~ f: c) 6~ '''''''f( Y. Is f (z) continuous at z .Example 2. 0.: ~ liJVI -b~4>+ t~i~ Z s- L 2- c. (t)) :::: 0 '1ft f(~) "~i1j.Z = {0 . ~ ~ i' ~("'J:: ~.1. . Re(z)Im(z) IZI2..0 .e :::.

y) 1. Yo) E R2 . An example of this procedure is the'following: 16 " . Example 2. Thus we can x + ~y conclude by Theorerrl 2. z Composition of continuous functions A useful property of continuous functions is that composition of continuous functions are again continuous: Theorem 2 . x -i. we have that Separating into real and imagi- x2 + y2 x2 + y2 Since u =x I( x2 + y2) and v = y I (x2 + y2) are rational functions.iy 'x2 + y2 =.11 If g( z) is continuous at Zo and J (z).(0. is contin- uous atwo ' g(zo). Then J is continuous at the point Zo = Xo + iy E Theorem 2.The next Theorem gives another method for checking the continuity of a complex function at a point.0). y) -tw(x. u(x. nary parts. they are continuous as long as (x.9 Suppose J(x + iy) v = • C.9 that "" J(x+'ty) .10 Let J(z) = liz. = 1 = x . y) is a complex function and that uand are continuous at the point (xo. Y f(z) =- 1 is continous for all z EC \ {O}.· J(g(z)) is In practice we use composition to build new continuous functions out of known ones. then the composition Jog(z) continuous at Zo.

g(z) is continuous at z = Zo by Theorem 2.11. / 17 .12 We know from thettbove Example that J(z) = 1/ z is continuous for all z -I o.Example 2. This if 9 (z) is continuous at Zo and g(zo) -I 0 then 1 J(g(z)) .

618 ~ ..) .--__ ""~ w . Find J'(z) for an z E C. • ~. Definition 2~13 A complex function J(z) is differentiable Zo if it is defined in a neighborhood of Zo and the limit at J'(zo) := lim w-----+O J(zo+ w) .I - if e 6- « .)o I '/ "" W ". " ..I.J(zo) w of J(z) at zoo exits. = Example 2.. The limit J'(zo) is called the derivative We will also use the notation : (zo) . - C~"" 0' . Answer: / £ ('3-)i ."...1. £/2... .-" w-?o . \ z.. we can define the derivative of a complex function..2...~..3 Derivatives and analytic functions In exactly the same way as for real variable functions.'. t\- I'M w...14 Let j(z) .f'(zo) for a derivative.

.1 _L' _ 1 l+w ~ '~ . I \ \N~O (t~w)~ _ r . Find J'(z) for all z Answer: =I o.(e~w J (~W) ~ - "'".1 w ~i) _ '\IV w .. - 19 ...M w.15 Let J(z} = 1/ z.j/~) w?'b '" :: r.Example 2.yo ::.-------- - -. fj/ei-W) .'t~ . G~) :::Ii..

'/y\ ~ -+ ~ .".z is not differentiable for any z E C.re4re !r(~):=.16 Show that J(z) .fSt'.if % W~D W w w 0<.'IV\ - .1 /k. 'tl+}r.." .~ IS no".6 t: ~fl' 20 .2: __..d.-tI~ l~ W ~.. Answer: - _ l. I.-Il.Example 2.

or using the product rule and induction.Complex differentiation satisfies all of the standard properties that you are familiar with from real variable calculus: Properties of the complex derivative (i) (linearity) (cf + g)'(zo) (ii) (product rule) = cf'(zo) + g'(zo) (c E C) (fg)'(zo) (iii) (quotient rule) = f'(zo)g(zo) + f(zo)g'(zo) f) . it is not difficult to show that (z'n)' = nz'n-1 for all n E Z~o.f(zo)g'(zo) g(zo}2 (g(zo) -I 0) (f 0 g)'(zo) = f'(g(zo))g'(zo) (f 0 g(z) := f(g(z))) (v) If f( z) i§ differentiable at Zo. 21 . ' (zo) ( g . then f( z) is continuous at Zo· Either directly from the definition. (iv) (chain rule) = f'(ZO)g(zo) ...

+t 1 )( -I-~Zg.f'-~"_c"'_) + t» (H 10 l:) _(l. ('_6~3-~)l-11 ..17 Let J(Z) = 2 + Z3 1.- 3~'-t. 0 22 .Example 2. . .z + z2 + (1 + 10z)2o.

./'t'2 ."jl<. I . /3/~ck bolltrcJ .fer1G.fo.~rtA. )..To.... _r.:: on 1/ o~ +~<t.. IYJ t~ -r~ t:J. .. f'lfroof IOD/.d5 I z I'" *L J ~ I til + .I ~L I .' Tr-li.1! 15eyl'~~n~ ~~.

4e iJ"l 4~ -forhJ . .J !. i! c:IQI(.>41 ~ ~+ I <:.ts '" I <C I~-~ol C~3+~t\+ . .« I II -#() I SM.'+ \ r<~ (eJ ..I" l&) t. Il. I£(~)-£(~o) ~ C.G..+ (lASf for.~ ~-j ~ .1\ e sf) m .t~- ~o J .~ 1~(a)-£{~4fJ .tJ oll1.

• .Before proceeding to the definition of an analytic function. we first recall the notion of an open set. {z E CI - 1 < Re(z) < 1 } are not open due to the presence of one of the restrictive inequalities: < or >. p) c U.1 < Re( z) < 1 } are two example of open sets. We are now ready to define analytic functions.18 A subset U c C is open if for each Zo E U there exists a p > 0 such that D(zo. Remark 2. the two sets {z and / EC Ilzl < 1 }. { z ~C I -". . t 23 -.19 For this class. On the other hand. it will be enough to know that a set is open if it is defined using only the ''. r".open'' inequalities: < For example the unit disk or >. {z and the strip E C Ilzl < 1 }. The "rest of this courSe will be about studying properties of analytic functions. Definition 2.

l . In the mathematics literature.20 Let U. Example 2. If U = C.{z since the derivative E Clizi > O} J'(z) is well defined for all z E U. the term holomorphic is often used instead of analytic.22 The function . Then J is analytic in U if J is differentiable at every point in U. = -~ z2 24 . C C be an open set an J a complex function with U C Dom(J). .21 The function (n E N) is entire since the derivative' J'(z) = nzn-l is well defined for all~z E C. then J is said to be an entire function.Definition 2. _ Example 2. I J(z) =- 1 z is analytic on the open set U = C \ {O} .

Yo) (2. Theorem 2. at the point Zo = Xo + iyo· Then the partiol derivatives au au OU[ l)x 0'0 0'0 AX' oy' ax' oy' all exist at the point (xo.1) (XO. 25 . Yo) and satisfy O'O[ (XO. In this section.2) Remark: f)quations (2. a'O[ aut ax.1}-(2. y)+i'O(x.Yo) . we introduce an alternative procedure that is quite simple to use. (2.2) are known as the CauchyRiemann equations (or Proof CR-equations for short).Yo) __:_ - ay ·(XO. (XO. y) is a complex function that is differentiable.4 Cauchy-Riemann equations Determining if a complex function is differentiable directly from the definition can be difficult.23 Suppose f(x+iy) = u(x.Yo) = ay .2.

V(xu.d~ 5/~d) = " Ll~~o 'I~ S~ ~~(. ~l:. ...' t ~) - . (' w::LlX' IJJ(..o~ '1.~ ""?d .))' . (()( (:X./JiJc-P> O<lJc ::. .) IIJ" J ) .)) -1..-J{i()):: lim ~ £( :.) .s.l ~()) . ~!: + ~. f. I.\ (~ .' J 26 t . + ~. E 112 .m ~~O' u(xo .H~d ~AX) -Jr~'H'~.~ (:V-f ~.JjxJ '1o)+~"v(xo+IJ~~) LiJ(.jJ.

J~) ~ 1f ()cOJ'jo) . I .~fo"t 2:-(~.~.Tkt.

au ax equations - av ay' av ax au ay' are satisfied at (xo..J(z) " where ux = Vy and 27 uy = =u« . Then f 'isrff. Yo) and J + iy) = .Riemann equations is that they imply a partial converse of the previous theorem.ifferentiable at Zo· Derivative Formulas (a) f'(z) (b) = lim. ' ZOJ (XOl Yo) and are continuous at (iii) the Cauchy-Riemann . y) + iv(x.~. Yo). J(z w-tO + w) W .The real importance of the Cauchy.·y) is a complex Junction such that (i) J is defined in a neighborhood of (ii) the partial derivatives au au av B» ax' ay' ax' ay' exist in a neighborhood of (xo. Theorem 2.24 Let Zo = Xo + iyo and suppose that J (x u(x.

t7- 2-J. "re'QYl-h~V\ ~~ \lY\C ~ . au ay" Vx av = ax' Vy av = ay' Example 2. (x. (~+I.. '.'j r Vx.) "".. 2~ V.l-x:.1I. Answer: -5(XH.f- z2 J'(z) = 2(1 + z). LX c 1t!1.' =: .rf':)) L1..) ::.2.Note: here we are using the notation au u = ax' x u y ..) + i (2') + 2x J ) LS~r I ... i 2") -II..:z:(z7C 4- Jt'!.25 Use the CR-equations to show that J(z) is an entire function and that = 2z -. + (:~H~J 1'i':"' ::.~) ~ . ~) V:x.:~) + (..J V.

. tA . +i 2~ I +Zf:X. 0 .. l-l-z'x. _ v.~ (Z"'l~) .r: IS " A\'\ £ :: I = \ 2AZ:t:.t CI~ '1""i ' on ([..S-J. + lVJ v J = .f...e 0' s~-I ).+L~ ) 29 . - -:..$!Ie:J ~ ~ r e -II..x V = -2". ~ ~. ~. i ~.~f 11: .... 'f ..

V~ . -Sfer! fA.'Example 2...) ~ "91. M~I t1'\ Ifj1'111 tvA c ... re. Answer: = x2 + y2 + i2xy .. e [ i.l~ z: 7L~ fo... . .2~ .re.d is-he.: 0 (.s 41\ It ~ ~ -Vt1::' 2~ ..' & t.e. dtr. -+J.+/It~ c1tf\.26 Determine where the function f (x + iy) is analytic..~. 1kqe. l.'''~'''l~S I . 71.j V~ :: 2JC.. ~ OY'\ fer'.fJ "'t-e . ~ .J.).(:1+ V~ -.~ Ctm.e.s l.:l~ .t.t rd:..r.-: 2x.:t:+ io I ~e-3011< 1:5 re~1 ff~.

.. 2 x..£ (..:uio) = ~ (~()' + .. \ \ I 31 .'I{(~ I / o] .

where Ur =or' OU Ue =8e' ou Vr =&r' ov Ve = Be' OV Also the derivative can 'be calculated using f'(reie) ~. Answer: J.d~ + ~ L32 .: t. form It is often useful for calculational purposes to express to CauchyRiemann equations in polar form. e) + iv(r..dx-f) d~ tt"\~ as .or dj +tl!a. Writing f(reie) .' ·_(ve .Vr 1 r --Ue.iue)· r Example 2. the CR-equations are given by Ur = -Ve. e-ie(ur + ivr) = e-ie . _a_ de d~ . . / f(z) = f'(z) zlO is an entire function and that = lOz9.27 Use the polar form of the Cauchy-Riemann equations to show that \. = 1 r e). .'. (J d:JC d -_ _ at:' d-x ---at" L .CR-equations: polar.u(r.

1 . -:: Ii). cR. e1" ~ .''4I\' rlt..}. ..\o"S uf\ .t{It ~ n eft"". .~ #'$ ~J <r: .r z: '0cos('I D.... q SlY' (10 &) . IV(\1f8 o J. v.. {IN'+.:I) (/tnc:J\ IV r 9 CuS (Joe) .So ~:r tA. v.. ()r\ sIww r #w.Oe J ~~( lie ~ \Orllclls (106) cc .1"11\ (.. {he. 33 .~ __ (~+»il (. + r 11._ ~ vi.\ At(St.L ((~.£ f ~otn' . <t -= -/ 01°...

IO~ e " li~ fO (' <l ~q~' 10 (rei.6J9 \ t/~ re.N~) -£ ': e ( tAr + id I -~g · i vr ) = e (IOr\~(I?e) + 0 fOr\'fI(IOeJ ~ 10(. .9 z: =: eia el. Cl\d h~· -&(~)~IO~1. .