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Performance-based education poses a challenge for teachers to design instruction that is task-oriented.
Based on the premise that learning needs to be connected to the lives of the students through relevant tasks that focus on students’ ability to use their knowledge and skills in meaningful ways.
Product-Oriented Learning Competencies
Products can include a wide range of student works that target specific skills. Examples: Communication skills such as those demonstrated in reading, writing, speaking, and listening, or psychomotor skills requiring physical abilities to perform a given task
Using rubrics can help evaluate student performance or proficiency in any given task as it relates to a final product or learning outcome.
The learning competencies associated with products or outputs are linked with an assessment of the level of “expertise” manifested by the product. 3 Levels Novice or beginner level Skilled level Expert level
Other ways to state productoriented learning competencies
Level 1: Does the finished product or project
illustrates the minimum expected parts or functions?
Level 2: Does the finished product or project
contain additional parts and functions on top of the minimum requirements? minimum parts and functions, have additional features on top of the minimum, and is aesthetically pleasing?
Level3: Does the finished product contain the basic
The desired product is a representation of a cubic prism made out of cardboard in an elementary geometry class. Learning competencies: The final product submitted by the students must: 1. 2. 3. Possess the correct dimensions (5”x5”x5”) Be sturdy, made of durable cardboard and properly fastened together Be pleasing to the observer, preferably properly colored for aesthetic purposes
The product desired is a scrapbook illustrating the historical event called EDSA I People Power Learning competencies: The scrapbook presented by the students must: 1. 2. Contain pictures, newspaper clippings, and other illustrations of the main characters of EDSA I Contain remarks and captions for the illustrations made by the student himself for the roles played by the characters of EDSA I People Power Be presentable, complete, informative and pleasing to he reader of the scrapbook
Example for assessing output of short-term tasks
The desired output consists of the output in a typing class Learning competencies: The final typing outputs of the students must: 1. 2. Possess no more than five errors in spelling Possess no more than 5 errors in spelling while observing proper format based on the document to be typewritten Posses no more than 5 errors in spelling, has the proper format, and is readable and presentable
Product-oriented performance based learning are evidence-based
The design of the task depends on what the teacher desires to observe as outputs of the students. 1. Complexity. It should be within the range of the ability of the students 2. Appeal. The project should be appealing to students and should lead to self-discovery of information by the students. Creativity. It needs to encourage students to exercise creativity and divergent thinking. Goal-based. The project is produced to attain a learning objective. Thus, reinforcing learning.
Paper folding is a traditional Japanese art. However, it can be used as an activity to teach the concept of plane and solid figures in geometry. Provide the students with a given number of colored papers and ask them to construct as many plane and solid figures from these papers without cutting them (by paper folding only)
These are descriptive scoring schemes that are developed by teachers to guide the analysis of the products or processes of students’ efforts.
Criteria are statements which identify “what really counts” in the final output. Example: Quality Creativity Comprehensiveness Accuracy Aesthetics
Identify substatements that would make the major criteria more focused and objective. Example: Essay on “The Three Hundred Years of Spanish Rules in the Philippines” Quality Interrelates the chronological events in an interesting manner Identifies the key players in each period of the Spanish rule and the roles that they played Succeeds in relating the history of Philippine Spanish rule
When are scoring rubrics an appropriate evaluation technique?
Essay Evaluate group activities Oral presentations Where and when a scoring rubric is used does not depend on the grade level or subject, but rather on the purpose of the assessment
Checklists are appropriate for evaluation when the information that is sought is limited to the determination of whether specific criteria have been met. Scoring rubrics are based on descriptive scales and support the evaluation of the extent to which criteria have been met. If the purpose of assessment have been met
Benefits of scoring rubrics: 1. They support the examination of the extent to which the specified criteria have been reached. 2. They provide feedback to students concerning how to improve their performances
Process of Developing Scoring Rubrics
Steps 1. Identify the qualities and attributes that you wish to observe in the students’ outputs that would demonstrate their level of proficiency 2. Decide whether a holistic or analytical rubric would be appropriate In analytic scoring rubric, each criteria is considered one by one and the descriptions of the scoring levels are made separately while in holistic rubric, the collection of criteria is considered throughout the construction of each level of the scoring rubric and the result is a single descriptive scoring schemes.
3. Identify and define the criteria for the top level and lowest level of performance 4. Create additional categories such as average, etc. Each score category should be defined using descriptors of the work rather than value-judgment about the work Example: “Student’s sentences contain no errors in subject-verb agreements”, is preferable than “student’s sentences are good”
5. Test whether scoring rubric is reliable. Ask two or more teachers to score the same set of projects or outputs and correlate their individual assessments
Holistic vs. Analytical
Holistic Holistic rubrics give a single score or rating for an entire product or performance based on overall impression of a student’s work. The ratter considers all quality judgments in one big component and overall judgment and comes up with one single score.
Example of a Holistic scoring rubric designed to evaluate college writing samples
Major Criterion: Meets Expectations for a first Draft of a Professional Report Substatements: The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are apparent in the document:
1. 2. 3. Effective transitions are used through. A professional format is used. The graphics are descriptive and clearly support the document’s purpose.
The document is clear and concise and appropriate grammar is used throughout Adequate The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are apparent in the document:
1. 2. 3. Basic transitions are used, Structured format is used. Some supporting graphics are provided, but are not clearly explained.
The document contains minimal distractions that appear in a combination of the following forms:
1. 2. 3. Flow in thought Graphical presentations Grammar/mechanics
Needs Improvement Organization of document is difficult to follow due to a combination of the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. Inadequate transitions Rambling format Insufficient or irrelevant information Ambiguous graphics
The document contains numerous distractions that appear in the combination of the following forms:
1. 2. 3. Flow in thought Graphical presentation Grammar/mechanics
There appears to be no organization of the document’s contents Sentences are difficult to read and understand
Example of Holistic
Excellent level •Student shows complete understanding of the tasks and concepts •Clear identification of key concepts and important elements •Excellent writing style •Pertinent insight and demonstration of appropriate application of main ideas Good level •Understanding of most critical concepts •Shows identification of some key concepts but most of the parts are missing •Adequate writing style with minor errors, some limited clarity in expressions •Scarce demonstration of application of main ideas Poor level •Misunderstanding of majority of concepts or no understanding of concepts and processes •Irrelevant or illegible response that has no relation to the key concepts •Unsuccessful attempt to communicate •Lack of demonstration in application of main ideas
Holistic Rubrics Are Suitable for … Judging simple products or performances Getting a quick snapshot of overall quality or achievement; often used when a large number of students are graded Judging the impact of a product or performance more than the specific detailed parts of the performance. Disadvantages There is no detailed analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the performance or product, so holistic rubrics are not useful as diagnostics or for giving students detailed feedback on their performance. Holistic rubrics offer little in the way of help to students who would improve their performance.
Analytical rubrics divide a product into essential dimensions (traits), and each dimension is judged separately. A separate score is given for each dimension or trait considered important for the assessed performance. Scoring of each trait can be done by using a Likert scale (e.g., 1 to 5 where 1 is poor quality, 3 is average, and 5 is excellent quality).
Criteria Attractiveness 4 excellent The poster is exceptionally attractive in term of design lay out &neatness Several of the graphics used on the poster reflect a exceptional degree of student creativity in their creation and display 3 very good
1 needs improvement
The poster is attractive in term of design lay out &neatness
The poster is The poster is distractingly acceptable attractive messy or very poorly thought it may be a bit design it is not attractive messy
One or two of the graphics used on the poster reflect student creativity in their creation or display
The graphic are made The graphic are made by by the student but are the student but based on based on the design or the design or ideas of ideas of others. others.
Graphics are all in Most graphics are in Most graphics are in focus and the content focus and the content focus &the content is easily viewed easily viewed easily viewed & &identified from 6ft &identified from 6ft identified from 4ft away away away
Many graphics not clear or too small
Total A, excellent 10-12 B, above average 7-9 C, below average 6-5 D, needs improvement 4-0
Analytical Rubric Are Suitable for … Judging complex performances that involve multiple dimensions (skills that must be assessed). Each step in the rubric can be designed to measure one specific trait. Provide more specific information and feedback to students about their strengths and weaknesses. Can be used to target instruction to specific areas in need for improvement. Analytical rubrics help students come to a better understanding about the nature and quality of work they must perform. Disadvantages More time consuming to craft and use in grading Lower inter-rater agreement because of the many and detailed traits Less desirable in large scale assessment context when many students must be graded and when speed in grading is essential
Guidelines for Stating Performance Criteria
1. Identify the steps or features of the performance or task to be assessed imagining yourself performing it, observing students performing it or inspecting finished products. 2. List the important criteria of the performance or product. 3. Try to keep the performance criteria few so that they can be reasonably observed and judged.
Have teachers think through the criteria as a group. Express the criteria in terms of observable student behavior or product characteristics. Avoid vague and ambiguous words like correctly, appropriately, and good. Arrange the performance assessment instruments to use or modify them before constructing them.
Scoring Rubric for Response Journal Questions
3 – Excellent. Answers are very complete and accurate. Most answers are supported with specific information from the reading, including direct quotations Sentence structure is varied and detailed Mechanics are accurate, including spelling, use of capitals, and appropriate punctuation. 2 – Good. Answers are usually complete and accurate. These answers are supported with specific information from the reading. Sentence structure is varied. Mechanics are generally accurate including spelling, use of capitals, and appropriate punctuation. 1 – Needs Improvement. Answers are inaccurate. These answers need to be supported with specific information. Sentence structure is incomplete. Mechanics need significant improvement.
http://images.g0rgeousmekitel.multiply.multiply .com http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Example_of_scoring _rubrics_based_of_product-oriented_based http://provost.rpi.edu/node/31 Rosita De Guzman-Santos, Ph.D. ADVANCED METHODS in EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT And EVALUATION (Assessment of Learning 2)
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