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Sam Walton's original Walton's Five and Dime store in Bentonville, Arkansas, now serving as the Walmart Visitor Center
Main article: History of Walmart Sam Walton, a businessman from Arkansas, began his retail career when he started work on June 3, 1940, at a J. C. Penney store in Des Moines, Iowawhere he remained for 18 months. In 1945, he met Butler Brothers, a regional retailer that owned a chain of variety stores called Ben Franklin and that offered him one in Newport, Arkansas. Walton was extremely successful in running the store in Newport, far exceeding expectations.  However, when the lease came up for renewal, Walton could neither come to agreement on the existing store's lease renewal nor find a new location in Newport. Instead, he opened a new Ben Franklin franchise in Bentonville, Arkansas, but called it "Walton's Five and Dime." There, he achieved higher sales volume by marking up slightly less than most competitors. On July 2, 1962, Walton opened the first Walmart Discount City store located at 719 Walnut Ave. in Rogers, Arkansas. The building is now occupied by a hardware store and an antique mall. Within five years, the company expanded to 24 stores across Arkansas and reached $12.6 million in sales. In 1968, it opened its first stores outside Arkansas, in Sikeston, Missouri and Claremore, Oklahoma.
Incorporation and growth
Walmart's first logo used from 1962-1968. No stores have the logo nowadays.
Walmart logo used from 1968-1981. There is only one store in existence still with this logo.
Walmart logo used from 1981-1992 This was also Walmart Canada's first logo used from 1994-2001. Very few locations still use this logo.
Walmart's former logo (1992-2008 in the US, 2001-2009 in Canada, and 1992-2009 in Mexico), though it is still seen on many American locations, though a majority of Canadian locations have this logo instead of the 1994-2001 logo with a hyphen.
particularly small towns with many "mom and pop" stores. Kansas. Inside a Walmart Supercenter in West Plains. a Professor of Economics at Iowa State University. entering South America in 1995 with stores in Argentina and Brazil.3 million. There have been several studies on the economic impact of Walmart on small towns and local businesses. An independent study by Steven Horwitz of St. Louisiana. it entered Tennessee in 1973 and Kentucky and Mississippi in 1974. Arkansas. This year also marked the completion of the company's satellite network. Missouri. While the company was overall lauded for its quick response – amidst the criticisms of the Federal Emergency Management Agency – several critics were nonetheless quick to point out that there still remain issues with the company's labor relations. buyingAsda in the UK for $10 billion. Kenneth Stone. In 2002. Missouri In 1988.7 billion. allowing the corporate office to track inventory and sales and to instantly communicate to stores.6 million "associates" worldwide. The company also opened overseas stores.The company was incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores.2 million. 1969.198 stores with sales of $15.800 stores in the United States and 2. presence grew so rapidly that only small pockets of the country remained further than 60 miles (100 km) from the nearest Walmart. and taxpayers.200 facilities around the world—including 3. found that some small towns can lose almost half of their retail trade within ten years of a Walmart store opening. In 1988. As it moved into Texas in 1975. It had 38 stores operating with 1. infrastructure. A later study in collaboration with Mississippi State University showed that there are "both positive and negative impacts on existing stores in the area where the new supercenter locates. Lee Scott became President and CEO. in another study. Walton remained as Chairman of the Board.500 employees and total sales of $340. and Walmart's sales increased to $165 billion.9 billion and 200.4 billion in sales. donating $20 million in cash. on October 31. Thanks to its superstores. it surpassed Toys "R" Us in toy sales in the late 1990s. more than 6.000 meals. and by its 25th anniversary in 1987 there were 1. 1. it opened its home office and first distribution center in Bentonville. Walmart was able to use its logistical efficiency in organizing a rapid response to the disaster. By this time. Walmart opened its first Texas store in Mount Pleasant on November 11. Wal-Mart introduced the "Neighborhood Market" concept with three stores in Arkansas. In 1970. and was soon listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Sam Walton stepped down as CEO and was replaced by David Glass. and the company also rearranged other people in senior positions. In the 1980s.500 employees and sales of $44. it was listed for the first time as America's largest corporation on the Fortune 500 list. as well as the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers. Inc. decision makers and other resources to provide emergency supplies and reopen stores well before FEMA began its response. it was the largest private satellite network. and Europe in 1999. a $24 million investment linking all operating units of the company with its Bentonville office via two-way voice and data transmission and one-way video communication. H. estimates indicate that the company controlled about 20% of the retail grocery and consumables business.  In 2000. as well as the arrival of shopping malls — and concluded that shop owners who adapt to changes in the retail market can thrive after Walmart arrives. he compared the changes to what small town shops had faced in the past — including the development of the railroads. The Home Depot and Lowe's made use of their local knowledge about supply chains. many critics worried about the effect of its stores on local communities. In one. By 2005. It began trading stock as a publicly held company on October 1. Walmart had $312. 1975.S." In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in September 2005. with revenues of $219. The first stock split occurred in May 1971 at a market price of $47.000 associates. food for 100.500 truckloads of free merchandise. except for 2006 and 2009. Walmart continued to grow rapidly. employing more than 1. Walmart was operating in five states: Arkansas. In 1998. In 2005. However. the advent of the Sears Roebuck catalog. there were 125 stores with 7. Missouri. At the time. As Walmart grew rapidly into the world's largest corporation.8 billion and profits of $6. .800 elsewhere. It has remained there every year. jobs. Lawrence University found that Walmart. Its U. 1970. the first Walmart Supercenter opened in Washington. and Oklahoma.
who questioned whether the new logo was as bold as competitors. 2008.35.  On February 22. The exterior has a hunter green background behind the Walmart letters. .8 million in profit sharing.800 trees and a million barrels of oil. the company confirmed it was acquiring video streaming company Vudu. 2009. The company also designed three new experimental stores in McKinney. soft discount stores and restaurants. The initial test is in San Jose. electronics. similar to Neighborhood Market by Walmarts. The company launched a new Supercenter concept in Plano. On September 12. Walmart announced a program to improve the nutritional values of its store brands over the next five years. Walmart has also recently created its own electric company in Texas. Walmart sought to appeal to a more affluent demographic. which equated to $957 per person or $2. and earnings per share rose 6% to $3.3% from the 2004 savings estimate of $2. Walmart unveiled a new company logo. Walmart also spent nearly a year working with outside consultants to discover the company's total environmental impact and find where they could improve. California. the company announced that it was testing its new "Walmart To Go" home delivery system where customers will be able to order specific items offered on their website such as groceries. Through this new venture. with wind turbines. Always" slogan. and household supplies. Walmart introduced new advertising with the slogan. which conducted the research that supported the ads. On July 16.Initiatives In October 2005. cash and carry stores.  On March 20.2% from the prior year. Texas. On June 30. 2010. 2011. photovoltaicsolar panels. for an estimated $100 million." replacing the "Always Low Prices. The new logo made its debut on the company's walmart. Walmart's U. Despite much criticism of its environmental record.  In March 2006. They discovered. as part of an ongoing evolution of its overall brand. reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% in seven years. a gain of 7. bodegas (small markets).500 per household (up 7. they could not only save $2. as well as reducing packaging and energy costs. Reductions in the prices of whole foods and vegetables were also promised as well as efforts to open stores in low-income areas. which included becoming the biggest seller of organic milk and the biggest buyer of organic cotton in the world. such as Target. Nevada. The new logo received mixed reviews from some design critics. The primary goals included spending $500 million a year to increase fuel efficiency in Walmart's truck fleet by 25% over three years and double it within ten. Colorado. a sushi bar. gradually reducing the amount of salt and sugar. featuring the non-hyphenated name "Walmart" and in place of the star. 2007. and the company has not said whether it will be rolled out nationwide. 2009. reported solid financial figures for the most recent fiscal year (ending January 31. membership warehouse clubs. the company expects to save $15 million annually and also lays the groundwork and infrastructure to sell electricity to Texas consumers in the future. that by eliminating excess packaging on their toy line Kid Connection. 2008. 401(k) contributions. An additional $788. On April 23. and other goods. biofuel-capable boilers.3 billion. intended to compete against stores seen as more upscale and appealing.S.2 billion in net sales. and cut solid waste from U. While the economy at large was in an ongoing recession. The company does business in nine different retail formats: supercenters. the largest retailer in the U. found that Walmart's price level reduction resulted in savings for consumers of $287 billion in 2006. wines. a coffee/sandwich shop with free Wi-Fi Internet access. and Walmart International. and xeriscape gardens. Aurora. reduce energy use at stores by 30%.6 million in bonuses to every full and part time hourly worker of the company.S. water-cooled refrigerators. Walmart Canada started to adopt the logo for its stores in early 2009. at the urging of Michelle Obama and her staff. stores and Sam's Clubs by 25% in three years.food and drugs. CEO Lee Scott said that Walmart's goal was to be a "good steward for the environment" and ultimately use only renewable energysources and produce zero waste. which it had used for the previous 19 years.  Operating divisions See also: List of assets owned by Walmart Walmart's operations are organized into three divisions: Walmart Stores U. which was used for 18 years. The new store has wood floors. locations were to update store logos in the fall of 2008. In January 2011. Walmart took a few steps in what is viewed as a positive direction. toiletries. and more expensive beers. Texas Retail Energy. Walmart announced it would implement several environmental measures to increase energy efficiency. and eliminating trans fat.S. general merchandise stores.. such as the Target bullseye or as instantly recognizable as the former company logo. Income from continuing operations increased 3% to $13. Texas. wider aisles.S. and Las Vegas. with $401. and hundreds of millions of dollars in merchandise discounts and contributions to the employees' stock purchase plan is also included in this plan. a symbol that resembles a sunburst or flower. Inc. instead of the blue previously used at its supercenters.329). Walmart announced that it is paying a combined $933. apparel stores. for example. Walmart announced plans to develop a worldwide sustainable product index.com website on July 1. 2009). where there are no supermarkets.4 million a year in shipping costs but also 3. Walmart also promised to negotiate with suppliers such as Kraft with respect to nutritional issues. Sam's Club. "Save Money Live Better. and plans to supply its stores with cheap power purchased at wholesale prices. "food deserts". Global Insight.
Supercenters. Maryland. or 63.1 m2).com.. The pilot program was launched at stores in the Tampa. Texas Walmart discount stores are discount department stores with size varying from 51. Walmart maintains that it is not selling at a loss. While it's little known outside of the drug industry. which include more grocery items. Walmart announced a pilot program to sell generic drugs at just $4 per prescription.3 m2). In September 2006. is the company's largest division. accounting for $258 billion.738. and Walmart Markets. Many of these stores also have a garden center.000 square feet (4.810. 2007. as of August 2010.A panoramic photo of a remodeled Walmart Supercenter in Laurel. or providing as an act of charity – instead. They carry general merchandise and a selection of groceries. Walmart Stores U. . due to low sales. compared to $102 for name-brand drugs. many of Walmart's low cost generics are imported from India and made by drug makers in the country including drug majors Ranbaxy andCipla.S.000 square feet (9. 2007. a pharmacy.000 square feet (20.The service was discontinued on December 21. Map of Walmart stores in the U. This division also includes Walmart's online retailer.S. Tire & Lube Express. Walmart Stores U.476. On February 6. which sold about 3. While the average price of generics is $29 per prescription. Walmart Discount Stores A typical Walmart discount department store in Laredo.1 m2) to 224. Florida area. It consists of three retail formats that have become commonplace in the United States: Discount Stores.S. walmart. The retail department stores sell a variety of mostly non-grocery products. with an average store covering about 102.8% of total sales for financial year 2010. and expanded to all stores in Florida by January 2007. they are using the same mechanisms of mass distribution that it uses to bring lower prices to other products. though emphasis has now shifted towards supercenters.000 films and television episodes from all major studios and television networks. the company launched a "beta" version of a movie download service.
Hypermart USA. The largest Supercenter in the United States. Walmart Supercenter A picture of a remodeled Wal-Mart Supercenter in Miami. pet shop. Walmart opened its first Bud's Discount City location in Bentonville.000 square feet (3. portrait studio. In 2006. Florida.7 m 2). dairy products.301.optical center. pharmacy. Tire & Lube Express. A similar concept. The first Walmart Neighborhood Market opened in 1998. Texas a year earlier. delicatessen.000 to 261. photo developing services. The Supercentre portion of the name is still used on supercentres in Canada.029 Wal-Mart Supercenters in the United States. In 1990. Walmart Supercenters are hypermarkets with size varying from 98. a cell phone store and a fast food outlet.9 m2). video rental stores.154. there were 3. As of March 2012. Supermercado de Walmart . Many Wal-Mart Supercenters also have a garden center.000 square feet (9. They are used to fill the gap between discount store and supercenters. local bank branches (newer locations have Woodforest National Bank branches). As of May 2012. is located in Crossgates Commons in Albany." since the company introduced the new Walmart logo in 2008. frozen foods. much like Big Lots. there are 199 Walmart Neighborhood Markets.000 square feet (18. South Dakota. Bud's operated as a closeout store.9 m2). covering 260. pharmaceuticals.5 to 24. baked goods. opened in Garland. and fast food outlets — usually Subway. the busiest in the world was one in Rapid City. Arkansas in 1962. with an average of about 197. All of the Hypermart USA stores were later closed or converted into Supercenters. portrait studio. which include full lines of groceries. one-hour photo processing lab.104. Walmart Neighborhood Market Walmart Market is a chain of grocery stores that average about 42. a bank branch. simply referring to these stores as "Walmart. such as cellular phone stores. Arkansas. garden produce. Missouri. or Tesoro Corporation ("Mirastar"). in Bentonville. including meatand poultry. and also include a full-service supermarket. Inc. but sometimes Dunkin' Donuts. These stock everything a Walmart discount store does. ("Optima"). Sunoco. and numerous alcove shops. The first Supercenter opened in 1988. The "Supercenter" portion of the name on these stores has been phased out. offering a variety of products. Many locations were opened to fulfill leases in shopping centers as Walmart stores left and moved into newly built Supercenters. in Washington.8 m 2) and two floors. McDonald's or Blimpie. Some also sell gasoline distributed by Murphy Oil Corporation (whose Walmart stations are branded as "Murphy USA"). New York.247. one-hour photo processing lab. Some also have gasoline stations. The first Walmart store opened in Rogers. health and beauty aids. and a limited selection of general merchandise. there were 629 Walmart discount stores in the United States. All of the Bud's Discount City stores closed or converted into Walmart Discount Stores by 1997.000 square feet (24. hair and nail salons. As of March 2012. and fresh seafood.901. optical center.
Sam's Club stores are "membership" stores and most customers buy annual memberships. Marketside Marketside is a chain of four grocery stores. Arkansas. and even gasoline service. "This is about access to breadth of assortment". by the end of its fiscal year in January 2012.Supermercado de Walmart in Spring Branch. Walmart also planned to open "Mas Club. non-members can make purchases . Walmart Express opened in Gentry. The concept is focused on small towns that are not able to support a larger store.000 square feet (3. from simple grocery shopping. Prairie Grove.600 m2) store in the Spring Branch area of Houston. and in large cities where physical space is at a premium. Walmart Express Walmart Express is a smaller discount store. says Walmart's Anthony Hucker. with a range of services. Sam's Club Main article: Sam's Club A typical Sam's Club store in Maplewood. Arkansas and Chicago. However. The opening was Wal-Mart's first entry in the Hispanic grocery market in Houston. vice president of strategy and business development. all in the state of Arizona. often in large quantities. to check cashing. Wal-Mart plans to build 15 to 20 Walmart Express stores. focusing on Arkansas. 2009. Missouri Sam's Club is a chain of warehouse clubs which sell groceries and general merchandise. North Carolina and Chicago. The store was a conversion of an existing Walmart. The Marketside branding is also used for some groceries found in Walmart. The first one. Arkansas. Houston Walmart opened "Supermercado de Walmart" locations to appeal to Hispanic communities in the United States." a warehouse retail operation patterned after Sam's Club. As of December 2011. Arizona. Gravette. In 2009 another Supermercado de Walmart opened in Phoenix. a 39. The stores opened in October 2008 and are said to be less than half the size of a conventional supermarket. opened on April 29. Illinois.
 Wal-mart did not disclose its losses from its ill fated German investment. With 2. which restricted relationships between employees and led to a public discussion in the media. 2010. Sam's Club's sales during 2010 were $47 billion. Fujian.7% of total sales. and Aurora. the company is the largest private employer in the US and Mexico. Inc in 1994. Wal-Mart is partnering with Dell and eClinicalWorks.000.. Walmart Canada Bank was introduced in Canada with the launch of the Walmart Rewards MasterCard. As of March 2012. Because of this. in Hamilton. As of July 2010. In the mid 1990s Wal-mart tried with a large financial investment to get a foothold in the German retail market. In July 2006. the company announced that it plans to enter the electronic medical recordsbusiness by offering a software package to physicians in small practices for $25. Oklahoma under the name "Sam's Wholesale Club"." Their current[when?] slogan is "Savings Made Simple" as Sam's Club attempts to attract a more diverse member base.S. A pomelo orchard near Xiazhai Town. Some locations also sell gasoline.com in this new venture. Also Wal-mart's "Big Box – Low Price" Model. .5% of Walmart's total sales. The first Sam's Club opened in 1983 in Midwest City. The 100th Canadian Supercentre opened on July 10.Pinghe County. particularly Wal-mart's "statement of ethics".Walmart Canada's first three Supercentres (spelled as in Canadian English) opened on November 8. Ontario. resulting in a bad reputation for Wal-mart among customers. there are 611 Sam's Clubs in the United States. Canada. with a local home office in Mississauga. or 24. it operates over 300 locations (including 100 Supercentres) and employs 82. Several reasons led to Wal-mart's failure in the German market. Walmart's international division sales were $100 billion. a price strategy that works well in the U. or 11. In the financial year 2010.1 million employees worldwide. Also Walmart's corporate culture was not viewed positively among employees and customers in Germany. Walmart also operates more than 100 international Sam's Clubs in Brazil. and Puerto Rico. Brazil. All Sam's Club stores are open early hours exclusively for business members and their old slogan was "We're in Business for Small Business. in Victoria. China. 2006. but they were estimated around €3 billion. Wal-mart's competitors in Germany were able to increase their market share.and the UK. London. There are wholly owned operations in Argentina. In March 2009. with a sign that says that this is where Walmart China (沃尔玛) sources its pomelos Walmart has operated in Canada since its acquisition of 122 stores comprising the Woolco division of Woolworth Canada. Walmart International Walmart's international operations currently comprise 4.263 stores and 660. and one of the largest in Canada.000 workers in 15 countries outside the United States. The stores were sold to the German company Metro during Wal-Mart's fiscal third quarter. Wal-Mart announced its withdrawal from Germany due to sustained losses. BC. In 2010. The German market at this point was an oligopoly with high competition among the companies which also used a similar low price strategy as Wal-mart. Wal-mart's low price strategy yielded no competitive advantage. Sam's Club has found a niche market in recent years as a supplier to small businesses. At the same time.either by buying a one-day membership or paying a surcharge based on the price of the purchase.3 billion (€750 million). In 1997 Walmart took over the supermarket chain Wertkauf with its 21 stores for DEM750 million (€375 million) and in 1998 Wal-mart took over 74 Interspar stores for DEM1. was not successful in Germany. Mexico.000 Canadians. Ontario.
 In November 2006. None of these was rebranded. Walmart has joint ventures in China and several majority-owned subsidiaries. consisting of more than 360 supermarkets and other stores in Guatemala. such as cold chains and logistics.  In 2008. and 101 Todo Dia stores. Asda (which retains the name it had before acquisition by Walmart). Wal-Mart Brasil.Bompreço in Natal. In 2004. The partnership will involve two joint ventures. With the acquisition of Bompreço and Sonae. Walmart's majority-owned subsidiary in Mexico is Walmex. On September 28. Bahia. larger stores are branded Asda Walmart Supercentres. Brazil. thus acquiring control of the Nacional and Mercadorama supermarket chains. Bharti Walmart opened its first Indian store in May 2009 in Amritsar. Walmart will operate through franchises and handle the wholesale end. As foreign corporations are not allowed to directly enter the retail sector in India. In contrast to the US operations. Walmart owns 51% of the Central American Retail Holding Company (CARHCO). Terms of the acquisition were not disclosed. "explore retail business opportunities in Russia and neighboring markets. and Salvador. respectively. Bharti will manage the front end involving opening of retail outlets. the company announced a joint venture with Bharti Enterprises to open retail stores in India. of Johannesburg. Walmart announced that the company raises its stake to 51 percent in Chinese Online Supermarket Yihaodian to tap rising consumer wealth and help the company offer more product. The stake expansion is subject to Chinese government regulatory approval. while Walmart will take care of the back end. Walmart announced it would buy Massmart Holdings Ltd. Honduras. and Costa Rica. it took control of the Brazilian operations of Sonae Distribution Group through its new subsidiary. São Paulo State. WMS Supermercados do Brasil. has its head office in Barueri. Additionally. behind Carrefourand Pão de Açúcar. Walmart owns 100% of Seiyu since 2008. In February 2012.7% of sales of Walmart's international division. Asda Sales in 2006 for Walmart's UK subsidiary. As of 2010. Pernambuco. In addition to its wholly owned international operations. but a . South Africa in a deal worth over $4 billion. Walmart named German retailing veteran Stephan Fanderl as the president of Walmart Emerging Markets-East in an effort to. Asda was originally and still remains primarily a grocery chain. Walmart's UK subsidiary. the leaders in the Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states. El Salvador. the operating company.Porto Alegre. It also runs 45 Wal-Mart Supercenters. Distribucion y Servicio D&S SA." The market is estimated to be worth more than US$140 billion per year in food sales alone. Vudu In February 2010. Wal-Mart is planning to open its stores in Ahemdabad. In late 2005. As of April 2010. 33 Hyper-Bompreço stores. and regional offices in Curitiba. Walmart was in 2010 the third largest supermarket chain in Brazil. but with a stronger focus on non-food items than most UK supermarket chains other than Tesco. Rio Grande do Sul. as well as Asda Superstores and Asda Living. Paraná. Asda had 345 stores. Walmart bought the 116 stores in the Bompreço supermarket chain in northeastern Brazil. Nicaragua. In January 2009. In Japan. some of which were former Woolco stores operated by the UK division of FW Woolworth. the company agreed to buy Vudu. the company acquired a controlling interest in the largest grocer in Chile. a Silicon Valley start-up whose three-year-old online movie service is being built into an increasing number of televisions and Blu-ray players. Recife. Gujrat. accounted for 42. 2010. 24 Sam's Club stores. In addition to small suburban Asda stores. giving the company its first stores in Africa. Wal-Mart operates 64 Super-Bompreço stores.
Arkansas. 2006. It is the third most popular online movie service. but this was discontinued in June 2007 and replaced with more modern and professional khaki pants and polo shirts. Walmart's director of brand marketing also serves as co-chair of the Association of National Advertisers's Alliance for Family Entertainment. a practice pioneered by founder Sam Walton and later copied by other retailers.person briefed on the deal said the price for the company. and by 1993 was the third most popular beverage brand in the United States. representing Walmart.and twelve-month. Private label brands Main article: List of Wal-Mart brands About 40% of products sold in Walmart are private label store brands." Entertainment In 2010. A 2006 study talked of "the magnitude of mind-share Walmart appears to hold in shoppers' minds when it comes to awareness of private label brands and retailers. as well as asking manufacturers to supply more popular products. This enables walmart. we are suspending our membership in ALEC. To that end. a brand of drinks produced by Cott Beverages exclusively for Walmart.' We feel that the divide between these activities and our purpose as a business has become too wide. Maggie Sans. two-hour family movies which featured the characters using Walmart and Procter & Gamble branded products. A Walk in My Shoes. 2006. citing declining use and increased costs.  On September 14. On May 31. sat on the Private Enterprise Board as Secretary of the American Legislative Exchange Council. and Smart Price in Britain. which raised $60 million in capital. which was introduced in March 2007. The wardrobe change was part of a larger corporate overhaul for the store in an effort to increase sales and rejuvenate its stock price. with a market share of 5. Sans said: "Previously. will air later in 2010 and a fourth is in production. Corporate affairs Walmart Home Office in Bentonville. The company's business model is based on selling a wide variety of general merchandise at "always low prices. 2006. The Jensen Project also featured a preview of a product to be released in several months in Walmart stores. the company announced that it would phase out its layaway program. The layaway location in most stores is now used for Wal-Mart's Site-To-Store program. Instead. Walmart began offering private label brands in 1991 with the launch of Sam's Choice. Other Walmart brands include Great Value and Equate in the US and Canada. was over $100 million. Greeters are trained to help shoppers find what they want and answer their questions.  Unlike many other retailers. such as increased use of six. All Wal-Mart stores in the US and Canada also have designated "greeters" at the store entrance. Wal-Mart now focuses on other payment options. the company teamed with Procter & Gamble to produce Secrets of the Mountain and The Jensen Project. associates were identified in the store by their signature blue vest. Arkansas Walmart is headquartered in the Wal-Mart Home Office complex in Bentonville. Walmart announced they were suspending their membership in the organization." They refer to their employees as "associates". zero-interest financing.com customers to buy goods online with a free shipping option. A third movie. Sam's Choice quickly became popular. For many years. we expressed our concerns about ALEC's decision to weigh in on issues that stray from its core mission 'to advance the Jeffersonian principles of free markets.3 percent. Wal-Mart does not charge a slotting fee to suppliers for their products to appear in the store. and have goods shipped to the nearest store for pickup. 2012. and required merchandise pickup by December 8. it focuses on selling more popular products and provides incentives for store managers to drop unpopular products. or products offered by Walmart and produced through contracts with manufacturers. Layaway ceased to be offered on November 19." Finance and governance .
five years of probation." Notable former members of the board include Hillary Clinton (1985–1992) and Tom Coughlin (2003–2004). The corporation's international operations accounted for $109. leading to higher sales. serves as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board. In May 2006. For example. Its stores were sold to German company Metro. for $882 million. a subsection of some stores called "Pennies-n-Cents. the eldest son of founder Sam Walton. Jim Walton. and its Asda subsidiary is the second largest chain after Tesco. 2011. James Cash. 2006. and the smaller BJ's Wholesale Club chain operating mainly in the eastern US. ShopKo and Meijer. primarily dollar stores. Competitors of Wal-Mart's Sam's Club division are Costco. Wal-Mart is governed by a fifteen-member Board of Directors. which is elected annually by shareholders. On August 11. Customer base Street sign for Wal ★ Mart Drive nearGordon. Presidential Election. of total sales. Wal-Mart's move into the grocery business in the late 1990s also set it against major supermarket chains in both the United States and Canada. After Walton's death.1%. and Coughlin left in December 2005 after pleading guilty to wire fraud and tax evasion for stealing hundreds of thousands of dollars from Wal-Mart. it found that Chinese consumers preferred to select their own live fish and seafood.For the fiscal year ending January 31. Target. such asFamily Dollar and Dollar General. Don Soderquist. Douglas Daft. Hart the Real Canadian Superstore and Giant Tiger.7% gross profit margin). after entering the South Korean market in 1998. Wal-Mart struggled to export its brand elsewhere as it rigidly tried to reproduce its model overseas. the latter having served as Vice Chairman. Sorenson. Wal-Mart's primary competition includes department stores like Kmart. Competition In North America. and Linda S." Wal-Mart also had to face fierce competition in some foreign markets.S. and the largest public corporation when ranked by revenue.2 billion. Pennsylvania . Chief Operating Officer and Senior Vice Chairman. Robson Walton.4 billion on $422 billion of revenue with a 24. formerly CEO. became known as the "Keeper of the Culture. Clinton left the board before the 1992 U. Christopher J. Wal-Mart announced its withdrawal from Germany. Michele Burns. Several smaller retailers. It is the world's 18th largest public corporation. Sam Walton died in 1992. Wal-Mart hopes to succeed by adapting and doing things preferable to Chinese citizens. Roger Corbett. Shinsegae re-branded the Wal-Marts as E-mart stores. according to the Forbes Global 2000 list. in Germany it had captured just 2% of German food market following its entry into the market in 1997 and remained "a secondary player" behind Aldi with a 19% share. David Glass. In 2004. Gregory B. Allen Questrom. Jim Breyer.Michael T. a local retailer. WalMart responded by testing its own dollar store concept. In China. Williams. Other members of the board include Aída Álvarez. Arne M. and Mexico's Comercial Mexicana and Soriana. and Lee Scott. and ordered to pay US$411. For example.000 in restitution. Penner. have been able to find a small niche market and compete successfully against Wal-Mart for home consumer sales. or 26. Wal-Mart reported a net income of $15. Wal-Mart withdrew and sold all 16 of its South Korean outlets to Shinsegae. Duke serves as Chief Executive Officer (CEO). he was sentenced to 27 months of home confinement. Wolf. Wal-Mart continues to do well in the UK. stores began displaying the meat uncovered and installed fish tanks. In July 2006. M. serves as Chairman of the Board. Canada's Zellers.
500 per year.." For the concern of jobs. Another study by Global Insight found that Wal-Mart's growth between 1985 and 2004 resulted in food-at-home prices that were 9. When a Wal-Mart opens in a new market. A 2005 story in The Washington Post reported that "Wal-Mart's discounting on food alone boosts the welfare of American shoppers by at least $50 billion per year. while only 23% supported senator John Kerry. found that its stores' presence saves working families more than US$2. Walmart customers give low prices as the most important reason for shopping there. He concludes that small towns are more affected by "discount mass merchandiser stores" than larger towns and that shop owners who adapt to the ever changing retail market can "co-exist and even thrive in this type of environment. empty-nesters. about 100 million customers. visit Walmart's U.S. Wal-Mart took steps to expand its US customer base. It argued that while Wal-Mart's low prices caused some existing businesses to close. while creating more than 210. the Economic Policy Institute estimates that between 2001 and 2006. This reflects the three main groups into which Wal-Mart categorizes its 200 million customers: "brand aspirationals" (people with low incomes who are obsessed with names like KitchenAid). by rejecting the American Family Association's recommendations and carrying the DVD Brokeback Mountain. The average US Wal-Mart customer's income is below the national average.S. 2007. and analysts recently estimated that more than one-fifth of them lack a bank account. population. "price-sensitive affluents" (wealthier shoppers who love deals). the affluent. or a shrinking pool of local leadership and reduced social capital due to a reduced number of local independent businesses.A price of 15 cents on folders and notebooks Each week. Wal-Mart's trade deficit with China alone eliminated nearly 200. ALoyola University Chicago study suggested that the impact a Wal-Mart store has on a local business is correlated to its distance from that store. A 2004 paper by two professors atPennsylvania State University found that U. Dr Raj Patel.S. the chain also created new opportunities for other small business. for example. Professor of Economics at Iowa State University.000 U. Another study at the University of Missouri found that a new store increases net retail employment in the county by 100 jobs in the short term.  A Wal-Mart financial report in 2006 also indicated that Wal-Mart customers are sensitive to higher utility costs and gas prices. Hispanics. median sales drop 40% at similar high-volume stores. a study commissioned by Wal-Mart with consulting firm Global Insight. The leader of that study admits that this factor is stronger in smaller towns and doesn't apply to more urban areas saying "It'd be so tough to nail down what's up with Wal-Mart".1% lower than they would otherwise have been. that a study in . found that some small towns can lose almost half of their retail trade within ten years of a Wal-Mart store opening. announcing a modification in its US stores from a "one-size-fitsall" merchandising strategy to one designed to "reflect each of six demographic groups – African-Americans. frequent Wal-Mart shoppers were rated the most politically conservative. said in a lecture at the University of Melbourne on September 18. Wal-Mart providing less local charity than the replaced businesses. to explain their results: This could be due to the displacement of workers from higher-paid jobs in the retailers customers no longer choose to patronize." Around six months later. A June 2006 article published by the libertarian Ludwig von Mises Institute suggested that Wal-Mart has a positive impact on small business. A poll indicated that after 2004 US Presidential Election 76% of voters who shopped at Wal-Mart once a week voted for George W. counties with Wal-Mart stores suffered increased poverty compared with counties without Wal-Marts.000 jobs in the U. Power and the Hidden Battle for the World Food System". in a paper published in Farm Foundation in 1997.1% lower and overall prices (as measured by the Consumer Price Index) that were 3." A study in 2005 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) measured the effect on consumer welfare and found that the poorest segment of the population benefits the most from the existence of discount retailers. When measured against other similar retailers in the U. stores. reflecting the "Low prices.  Studies of Wal-Mart show consumers benefit from lower costs. He compared the changes to previous competitors small town shops have faced in the past—from the development of the railroads and the Sears Roebuck catalog to shopping malls. author of "Stuffed and Starved: Markets. and so "the process of creative destruction unleashed by Wal-Mart has no statistically significant impact on the overall size of the small business sector in the United States. In 2006. and "value-price shoppers" (people who like low prices and cannot afford much more).S. twice the national rate. Wal-Mart has also made steps to appeal to more liberal customers. half of which disappear over five years as other retail establishments close. Economic impact See also: Criticism of Walmart Kenneth Stone.  Alternately. according to the June 2009 study by researchers at several universities and led by the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. They hypothesized. suburbanites and rural residents. 17% at supermarkets and 6% at drugstores.S.S. it unveiled a new slogan: "Saving people money so they can live better lives". a love story between two gay cowboys in Wyoming. Bush." One study found Wal-Mart's entry into a new market has a profound impact on its retail competition. nearly one-third of the U. jobs. always" advertising slogan that Wal-Mart used from 1962 until 2006.
treatment of employees and product suppliers. minimum wage drones". SuperValu. in 2010. .  Others decry low levels of health coverage or overpriced health insurance. two campaigns were launched: the (United Food and Commercial Workers) launched Wake Up Wal-Mart and The Center for Community and Corporate Ethics launched Wal-Mart Watch. paying employees below minimum wage. In the past. and sometimes inviting them to visit its corporate headquarters. They theorized that despite the noble rhetoric. In 2005. and started interacting directly with bloggers by sending them news. By the end of 2005. Similarly. and the impact of stores on the local economies of towns in which they operate. managed through its PR website walmartfacts. several of Wal-Mart's opponents have hired The Saint Consulting Group to support grassroots campaigns against Wal-Mart. and use of public subsidies. due to a social audit into alleged labor rights violations in the company's operations in the US and worldwide.  In response. and exposing employees to health hazards.78 per hour. Wal-mart has been accused of locking night-shift workers in at night. an operation managed by Wal-Mart to tell the company's side of the story. Wal-Mart's own "Standards for Suppliers" reports document extensive problems of this kind among the company's "directly-sourced" factories. and environmental groups have criticized Wal-Mart for its policies and/or business practices. and a "free-market success story". though the company reports that it offers rates as low as $5 per month in some areas ($9 per month nationwide) and that 92% of its associates are insured (though not necessarily through Wal-Mart). but critics point out that the starting pay can be far lower — placing some employees with children below the poverty line — and that payrates do not rise as quickly as with unionized companies. very. Additional efforts to counter criticism included a PR campaign in 2005. Christian organizations. and. and they aren't Wal-Mart customers thought of as "toothless. Penn & Teller devoted an episode of Bullshit! to an analysis of Wal-Mart criticism as a social movement.com. Others disapprove of the corporation's extensive foreign product sourcing. the real motivation of "Wal-Mart haters" was rooted in human psychology. and anti-union policies. widely considered "low-skilled. Full-time Wal-Mart employees earn an average of $10.Nebraska looked at two different Wal-Marts. several labor unions blame Wal-Mart workers' unwillingness to join their organizations on the company's anti-union stance. Although Walmart did not respond to questions from the fund's auditors. the company later claimed the decision "don't appear to be based on complete information". Wal-Mart stores are unionized in every country outside of North America. The company retained the PR firm Edelman to respond to negative media attention. "they had successfully destroyed the local economy. Other grievances regard poor working conditions. suggesting topics for postings. concerned that the presence of Wal-Mart will add more competition to their operations. which held stock values of about US$ 430 million in the company. In the other Wal-Mart. the prices were 17 percent higher". Criticism Employee and labor relations See also: Criticism of Walmart A protest in Utah against Wal-Mart Labor unions. In particular. in that community. as well as several television commercials. The most notable of these include grocery chains such as Safeway Inc. In June 2006. Many suggest that WalMart's high annual turnover-rate of ~70% shows that workers are dissatisfied and maltreated. they aren't WalMart workers. the first of which had just arrived and "was in the process of driving everyone else out of business but. They suggested that hating Wal-Mart permits a person "to feel better about themselves" for three main reasons: They "don't run a greedy international conglomerate". very low prices". unfavorable employer-employee relationships. Jay Nordlinger of National Review argues that Wal-Mart is attacked simply because it is a leader of the Fortune 500 list or the largest employer in America. Wal-Mart launched Working Families for Wal-Mart. and Ahold. to do that. they cut their prices to the bone. Walmart was excluded from the investment portfolio of The Government Pension Fund of Norway. environmental practices. there was a sort of economic crater with Wal-Mart in the middle. welfare-getting hillbillies"..
because it classifies employees differently. "The complaint details widespread wage-theft resulting from a piece-rate system for unloading containers. still intend to file individual discrimination lawsuits separately. Fujian. which would have been the nation's largest in history. Others have criticized the lawsuit as without basis in the law and as an abuse of the class action mechanism.Mart stores. they have been criticized in other areas. In 2007. Wal-Mart human resources managers warned that Democratic victories might result in passage of the EFCA and hence more unionization. was filed against Walmart. which is reflected in their 2008 rating of 40% (compared to Target at 80% and Kmart at 100%).. in a 5-4 decision that it could not proceed as any kind of class action suit.  The Wal-Mart store in Quanzhou. Inc. they were wrong and acting without approval. and which would require mandatory arbitration of labor disputes. covering 1. At one meeting. "If anyone representing Wal-Mart gave the impression we were telling associates how to vote. Wal-Mart's EEOC filings showed that female employees made up 65% of Wal-Mart's hourly paid workforce. while acknowledging that the meetings were taking place nationwide.". Impact Logistics and Premiere Warehousing Ventures. if department managers were included in the totals. in 2001. such as not renewing its membership in the National Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce. Dukes v. after years of fierce fighting. but rather they are an arm of the state "to secure the social order" and provide funding to the Communist Party. but only 33% of its management. In mid-2008. a measure of how companies treat LGBT employees and customers. A class action suit was sought. said." Gender and sexual orientation In 2007. "I am not telling you how to vote. whereas 57% were at comparable retailers. California were fined by the California State Labor Department for disregarding federal and state wage laws. Wal-Mart says comparisons with other retailers are unfair. At these meetings. 2012) noting that the conditions in this warehouse violate Wal-Mart's own 'Statement of Ethics'." In response. women would make up 60% of the managerial ranks. several plaintiffs. Wal-Mart's rating on the Human Rights Campaign's Corporate Equality Index. Wal-Mart was named by the National Association for Female Executives as one of the top 35 companies for Executive Women. from a low of 14% (2002) to 65% (2006).Wal-Mart has opposed the Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA). Warehouse Workers United (WWU) filed a complaint with Wal-Mart CEO Mike Duke (October. Senator Barack Obama. as well as for a new definition of "family" that included same-sex partners. has fluctuated widely during the past decade. Wal-Mart. failure to pay employees for the time they actually worked and other violations of state and federal wage and hour law. as well as of the presumptive Democratic Presidential nominee. the class action could not proceed as presented. Labor unions in China do not negotiate contracts. 2011. the United States Supreme Court ruled in Wal-Mart's favor. On June 20. and that most of the goods that move through the distribution center go to area Wal. Wal-Mart Stores. WWU received a 'Dear Customer' letter from Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart sub-contractors. a Wal-Mart customer service supervisor from Missouri stated. China According to a Newsweek article. including Ms. alleging that female employees were discriminated against in matters regarding pay and promotions. The court ruled unanimously that because of the variability of the plaintiffs' circumstances. In 2011. stating that the plaintiffs did not have enough in common to constitute a class. this bill will pass and you won't have a vote on whether you want a union. which were employed through Schneider Logistics warehouses in Mira Loma.  A WalMart spokesman. However. but if the Democrats win. . However. and furthermore.  According to a consultant hired by plaintiffs in a sex discrimination lawsuit. Just 35% of its store managers were women. "California Labor Commissioner Julie Su said in an interview that the Schneider facility on South Hamner Avenue is actually two buildings."  Several laborrights groups including the AFL-CIO have asked the Federal Election Commission to investigate whether Wal-Mart broke federal election rules by advocating against Democratic candidate Barack Obama in meetings with employees. They were praised for expanding their antidiscrimination policy protecting gay and lesbian employees. 2011) and with the Wal-Mart Ethics Office (January. which would make it easier for workers to unionize by removing the employer's ability to demand a secret ballot in union elections.5 million past and current employees of Wal-Mart. a gender discrimination lawsuit. Dukes. the company required store managers and department heads to attend meetings at which opposition to the EFCA was used as a fulcrum for criticism of Democratic candidates in the elections for the United States Senate and the House of Representatives. accepted organized labor in China.
government fines if it reveals senior managers knew about the payments and didn't take strong enough action." Alleged bribery in Mexico An April 2012 article in The New York Times reported that a former executive of Wal-Mart de Mexico alleged in September 2005 that Wal-Mart de Mexico had paid bribes to officials throughout Mexico in order to obtain construction permits." After the story broke. that Walmart investigators found credible evidence that Mexican and American laws had been broken. Walmart's "probe of possible bribery in Mexico may prompt executive departures and steep U. a "watchdog" group in Mexico. Hispanics. female and gay employees that meet at Wal-Mart headquarters in Bentonville to advise the company on marketing and internal promotion.S. the director of Transparencia Mexicana. . Asians.In January 2006. Native Americans. There are seven Business Resource Groups: women. Wal-Mart's stock price dropped 5 percent and commentators are talking about possible jail terms for company executives and major fines under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). African-Americans. corporate governance experts said. Wal-Mart announced that "diversity efforts include new groups of minority. According to an article in Bloomberg. and that Walmart executives in the United States "hushed up" the allegations. urged the Mexican government to investigate the allegations. Gays and Lesbians. and a disabled group. Eduardo Bohorquez.
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