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**Three-Phase AC Circuits
**

While the previous chapter dealt with a single-phase (1-c) AC that is transmitted through a transmission

line (consisting of a pair of wires) to a load, attention now turns to a three-phase (3-c) AC power system,

in which three AC sources operate at the same frequency but with different phases. A 3-c AC power

system has the following advantages over a 1-c AC power system:

1. The instantaneous power delivered to a load ﬂuctuates much less in a polyphase AC power system

than in a single-phase AC power system. Especially when it is used in rotating machinery like motors,

the torque on the rotor pulsates much less than in a single-phase AC power system.

2. It can deliver the same power with appreciably less conductors and components than a single-phase

AC power system. That is why almost all electric power in the world is generated, transmitted, and

distributed in the form of three-phase AC (at 50 or 60 Hz) throughout the world.

In one example a 3-c AC power system will be solved by using MATLAB and PSpice.

7.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages

It may be helpful in understanding three-phase AC circuits to see the rough structure and principle of a

three-phase AC generator such as the ones illustrated in Figure 7.1 or Reference [W-9]. Both of the two

three-phase generators consist of a rotor, a stator, and three separate armature coils with terminals a–a

0

,

b–b

0

, and c–c

0

that are placed 120

**apart around the rotor (Figure 7.1(a)) or the stator (Figure 7.1(b)).
**

Since each armature coil has a ﬂux linkage of lðtÞ ¼ Nc

m

sinð.t þ0Þ (N ¼ the number of windings in an

armature coil, c

m

¼ the ﬂux produced by the magnet, . ¼ the angular velocity of the rotor, t ¼ the time,

and 0 ¼ the initial angular position of the rotor) depending on its angular position relative to the stator,

the induced voltage between its terminals is

vðtÞ ¼

d

dt

lðtÞ ¼

d

dt

½Nc

m

sinð.t þ0Þ ¼ Nc

m

.cosð.t þ0Þ ¼ V

m

cosð.t þ0Þ

Thus, depending on the relative position of the three coils and the rotating direction of the rotor, the three

induced voltages across the armature coils between terminals a–a

0

, b–b

0

, and c–c

0

can be written as

follows:

Positive ðabcÞ sequence

v

a

ðtÞ ¼ V

m

cosð.tÞ. v

b

ðtÞ ¼ V

m

cosð.t À 120

Þ. v

c

ðtÞ ¼ V

m

cosð.t þ 120

Þ ð7.1aÞ

V

a

¼ V

m

ﬀ0

. V

b

¼ V

m

ﬀÀ120

. V

c

¼ V

m

ﬀþ120

ð7.1bÞ

ða-phase voltageÞ ðb-phase voltageÞ ðc-phase voltageÞ

Circuit Systems with MATLAB

1

and PSpice

1

Won Y. Yang and Seung C. Lee

#2007 John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd ISBNs: 0 470 85275 5 (cased) 0 470 85276 3 (Pbk)

Negative ðacbÞ sequence

v

a

ðtÞ ¼ V

m

cosð.tÞ. v

b

ðtÞ ¼ V

m

cosð.t þ 120

Þ. v

c

ðtÞ ¼ V

m

cosð.t À 120

Þ ð7.2aÞ

V

a

¼ V

m

ﬀ0

. V

b

¼ V

m

ﬀþ120

. V

c

¼ V

m

ﬀÀ120

ð7.2bÞ

Figure 7.1(c) shows a typical set of three-phase voltage waveforms in the positive ðabcÞ sequence, which

can be produced by a three-phase AC generator.

In order to operate more than one three-phase AC generators in parallel, their phase sequences should

be the same, positive ðabcÞ or negative ðacbÞ. Such a set of three AC voltages as these is said to be

balanced because they all have the same frequency and magnitude but are out of phase with each other

by 120

.

An important feature of balanced three-phase voltages is that their sum is zero:

V

a

þ V

b

þ V

c

¼ 0 ð7.3Þ

This zero-sum property can also be shown in the time domain:

v

a

ðtÞ þ v

b

ðtÞ þ v

c

ðtÞ ¼ 0 ð7.4Þ

V

m

cosð.tÞ þ V

m

cosð.t À 120

Þ þ V

m

cosð.t þ 120

Þ

¼

ðF.6Þ

V

m

cosð.tÞ þ V

m

½cosð.tÞ cosð120

Þ þ sinð.tÞ sinð120

Þ

þ V

m

½cosð.tÞ cosð120

Þ À sinð.tÞ sinð120

Þ

¼ V

m

cosð.tÞ½1 þ 2 cosð120

Þ ¼ V

m

cosð.tÞ½1 þ 2 Â ðÀ1,2Þ ¼ 0

The output voltage/current level of a three-phase generator depends on which connection of the three

armature coils is made, Y(wye)-connection or Á(delta)-connection. The two connection diagrams of a

Figure 7.1 Basic structure and principle of an AC generator

300 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

three-phase source together with the corresponding voltage/current phasor diagrams are depicted in

Figures 7.2 and 7.3, respectively. Especially the Y-connected three-phase source (Figure 7.2(a)) has a

common terminal of the three coils, labeled n, which is called the neutral (node or terminal) of the

source.

Figure 7.2(b) shows the voltage phasor diagram of a Y-connected balanced three-phase source, where

the a-phase voltage V

a

is regarded as the reference with the phase angle of 0

**. From this phasor diagram,
**

the relationship between the phase (or line-to-neutral) voltages and the line (or line-to-line) voltages can

be written as follows:

V

ab

¼ V

a

À V

b

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

Y

ﬀ30

ð7.5aÞ

V

bc

¼ V

b

À V

c

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

Y

ﬀÀ90

ð7.5bÞ

V

ca

¼ V

c

À V

a

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

Y

ﬀ þ150

ð7.5cÞ

Note that for a Y-connected three-phase source, the amplitudes of line voltages are

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

times that of phase

voltages and the line current is the same as the phase current:

V

l

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

Y

and I

l

¼ I

Y

ð7.5dÞ

Figure 7.2 AY-connected 3-c source and its voltage phasor diagram

Figure 7.3 A Á-connected 3-c source and its current phasor diagram

7.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 301

Figure 7.3(b) shows the current phasor diagram of a Á-connected balanced three-phase source, where

the a-phase current ðI

ab

Þ is regarded as the reference with the phase angle of 0

**. From this phasor
**

diagram, the relationship between the phase currents and the line currents can be written as follows:

I

a

¼ I

ab

À I

ca

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

I

Á

ﬀ À30

ð7.6aÞ

I

b

¼ I

bc

À I

ab

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

I

Á

ﬀ À150

ð7.6bÞ

I

c

¼ I

ca

À I

bc

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

I

Á

ﬀ þ90

ð7.6cÞ

Note that for a Á-connected three-phase source, the amplitudes of line currents are

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

times that of

phase currents and the line voltage is the same as the phase voltage:

I

l

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

I

Á

and V

l

¼ V

Á

ð7.6dÞ

Since not only three-phase sources but also three-phase loads can be either Y-connected or Á-connected,

there are four possible conﬁgurations of a three-phase power system: Y-Y, Y-Á, Á-Y, and Á-Á. However,

Á-connected three-phase sources are seldomused in practice because they make a loop of voltage sources,

which may have a large circulating current if the three-phase voltages are not exactly balanced and

therefore do not sum to zero. For example, a slightly unbalanced three-phase voltage source of

V

ab

¼ 207.9ﬀ29

. V

bc

¼ 208.1ﬀ À90

. and V

ca

¼ 208ﬀ þ151

**has an emf (electromotive force) around the Á-loop inside the generator as
**

V

ab

þ V

bc

þ V

ca

¼ 207.9ð0.8746 þ j0.4848Þ À j208.1 þ 208ðÀ0.8746 þ j0.4848Þ

¼ À0.0875 À j6.47 V

Since the impedance of the windings (coils) of a generator is very small, even this lowemf may result in a

large circulating current that will heat the Á-connected generator, making its efﬁciency and life suffer.

7.2 Power of Balanced Three-Phase Loads

A three-phase load is said to be balanced if the three impedance legs are all the same. In this section we

will ﬁnd the power of a balanced three-phase load to which a balanced three-phase voltage source with an

rms line voltage V

l

and an rms line current I

l

is applied:

Power of a Y-connected balanced three-phase load

Active power : P

Y.Total

¼ 3P

Y

¼ 3 V

Y

I

Y

cos 0 ¼

ð7.5dÞ

3

V

l

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p I

l

cos 0 ¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

cos 0 ð7.7aÞ

Reactive power : Q

Y.Total

¼ 3Q

Y

¼ 3 V

Y

I

Y

sin 0 ¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

sin 0 ð7.7bÞ

Complex power : S

Y.Total

¼ 3S

Y

¼ 3 V

Y

I

Ã

Y

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

ﬀ0 ¼ P

Y.Total

þ jQ

Y.Total

ð7.7cÞ

with 0 ¼ phase angle or power factor angle of the load

Power of a Á-connected balanced three-phase load

Active power : P

Á.Total

¼ 3P

Á

¼ 3 V

Á

I

Á

cos 0 ¼

ð7.6dÞ

3 V

l

I

l

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p cos 0 ¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

cos 0 ð7.8aÞ

Reactive power : Q

Á.Total

¼ 3Q

Á

¼ 3 V

Á

I

Á

sin 0 ¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

sin 0 ð7.8bÞ

Complex power : S

Á.Total

¼ 3S

Á

¼ 3 V

Á

I

Ã

Á

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

ﬀ0 ¼ P

Y.Total

þ jQ

Y.Total

ð7.8cÞ

302 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

Note. It is implied that regardless of whether a balanced three-phase source/load is Y-connected or Á-connected, the

power transferred from the source to the load is determined by the line (or line-to-line) voltage and the line current.

[Remark 7.1] Instantaneous Power of a 1-c System and a 3-c System

Referring to Section 6.5, the instantaneous power of a load (with the impedance angle of 0) supplied by

a single-phase AC source (with the rms values of its terminal voltage and current given as V and I,

respectively) varies with time:

pðtÞ ¼

ð6.25aÞ

V I ½cos 0 þ cosð2.t þ 20

v

À0Þ ð7.9Þ

By contrast, the instantaneous power of a balanced three-phase load supplied by a balanced three-

phase AC source (with the rms values of its phase voltage and current given as V

c

and I

c

, respectively)

does not vary with time, producing a constant torque for a three-phase AC motor:

p

3c

ðtÞ ¼ v

a

ðtÞi

a

ðtÞ þ v

b

ðtÞi

b

ðtÞ þ v

c

ðtÞi

c

ðtÞ

¼ V

cm

cosð.tÞI

cm

cosð.t À0Þ þ V

cm

cosð.t À 120

ÞI

cm

cosð.t À 120

À0Þ

þ V

cm

cosð.t þ 120

ÞI

cm

cosð.t þ 120

À0Þ

¼ V

c

I

c

½cos 0 þ cosð2.t À0Þ þ V

c

I

c

½cos 0 þ cosð2.t À 240

À0Þ

þ V

c

I

c

½cos 0 þ cosð2.t þ 240

À0Þ

¼ 3V

c

I

c

cos 0 : constant ð7.10Þ

7.3 Measurement of Three-Phase Power

It is no wonder that three wattmeters are used to measure a three-phase power. However, it may be

surprising that a three-phase power can be measured using just two wattmeters. Figure 7.4(a) shows how

to connect two wattmeters for measuring a three-phase power, where their readings are written as

P

1

¼ V

ab

I

a

cosð0 þ 30

Þ

P

2

¼ V

cb

I

c

cosð0 À 30

Þ ð7.11Þ

from the phasor diagram in Figure 7.4(b). The sum of these two readings yields the three-phase active

power:

P

1

þ P

2

¼ V

ab

I

a

cosð0 þ 30

Þ þ V

cb

I

c

cosð0 À 30

Þ

¼ V

l

I

l

cosð0 þ 30

Þ þ V

l

I

l

cosð0 À 30

Þ

¼

ðF.6Þ

2V

l

I

l

cos 0 cos 30

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

l

I

l

cos 0

ð7.7aÞ.ð7.8aÞ

P

Total

ð7.12Þ

Figure 7.4 A circuit and its phasor diagram for the two-wattmeter method to measure a 3-c power

7.3 Measurement of Three-Phase Power 303

On the other hand, the difference between these two readings turns out to be

P

2

À P

1

¼ V

l

I

l

cosð0 À 30

Þ À V

l

I

l

cosð0 þ 30

Þ

¼

ðF.6Þ

2V

l

I

l

sin 0 sin 30

¼ V

l

I

l

sin 0

ð7.7bÞ.ð7.8bÞ

Q

Total

,

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

ð7.13Þ

Thus this can be multiplied by

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

to get the three-phase reactive power Q

Total

and, furthermore, use can

be made of the ratio of the reactive power to the active power to obtain the power factor as

PF ¼ cos 0 ¼

Fig. 6.12

cos tan

À1

Q

Total

P

Total

_ _

¼

ð7.12Þ.ð7.13Þ

cos tan

À1

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

ðP

2

À P

1

Þ

P

1

þ P

2

_ _

ð7.14Þ

7.4 Three-Phase Power System

As discussed in Section 7.1, there are four possible conﬁgurations (Y-Y, Y-Á, Á-Y, and Á-Á) of three-

phase power systems. In this section, only the Y-Y connection will be examined since Á-connected

three-phase sources are seldom used in practice due to the circulating current problem and

Á-connected loads can easily be converted into their equivalent Y-connected ones (see Table 6.1 in

Section 6.4).

Figure 7.5 shows a Y-Y three-phase power system, where the neutral line connecting the two neutrals

of the source and the load is shown as a dotted line to denote that it is dispensable in principle for a

balanced system because no current will ﬂow through it. The three-phase power system with no neutral

line is denoted by ‘3c-3w’ and one having a neutral line by ‘3c-4w’. To analyze this power system, the

source-side neutral is set as the reference node (having zero potential) and KCL is applied to the load-

side neutral N to write the node equation as

V

a

À V

N

Z

A

þ

V

b

À V

N

Z

B

þ

V

c

À V

N

Z

C

¼

V

N

Z

nl

ð7.15Þ

where Z

A

¼ Z

al

þ Z

AL

, Z

B

¼ Z

bl

þ Z

BL

, and Z

C

¼ Z

cl

þ Z

CL

are the sums of each line impedance and

load impedance per phase. This equation can be solved to obtain the load side neutral voltage as

V

N

¼

V

a

,Z

A

þ V

b

,Z

B

þ V

c

,Z

C

1,Z

A

þ 1,Z

B

þ 1,Z

C

þ 1,Z

nl

ð7.16Þ

Figure 7.5 The Y-Y conﬁguration of a three-phase power system

304 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

and, furthermore, the line currents (identical to the phase currents for a Y-connection) and the load-side

(receiving end) voltages as

I

a

¼

V

a

À V

N

Z

A

. I

b

¼

V

b

À V

N

Z

B

. I

c

¼

V

c

À V

N

Z

C

. I

n

¼ À

V

N

Z

nl

ð7.17Þ

V

A

¼ V

a

À Z

al

I

a

. V

B

¼ V

b

À Z

bl

I

b

. V

C

¼ V

c

À Z

cl

I

c

ð7.18Þ

Note. With the mesh analysis, a set of two or three equations would have to be solved for I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

.

If the three-phase system is balanced with identical line impedances and load impedances

Z

A

¼ Z

B

¼ Z

C

¼ Z ð7.19Þ

Equation (7.16) for the load-side neutral voltage becomes

V

N

¼

V

a

,Z þ V

b

,Z þ V

c

,Z

1,Z þ 1,Z þ 1,Z þ 1,Z

nl

¼

V

a

þ V

b

þ V

c

3 þ Z,Z

nl

¼

ð7.3Þ

0 ð7.20Þ

so that Equations (7.17) and (7.18) become

I

a

¼

V

a

Z

. I

b

¼

V

b

Z

¼ I

a

ﬀ À120

. I

c

¼

V

c

Z

¼ I

a

ﬀ þ120

. I

n

¼ À

V

N

Z

nl

¼ 0 ð7.21Þ

V

A

¼ Z

L

I

a

. V

B

¼ Z

L

I

b

¼ V

A

ﬀ À120

. V

C

¼ Z

L

I

c

¼ V

A

ﬀ þ120

ð7.22Þ

function [VN,VABC,Iabc,SABC]¼y_y(Vabc,ZABCL,Zabcl)

% To solve a Y-Y connected 3-phase AC system (stored in an M-ﬁle "y_y.m")

%Input: Vabc ¼ [Va Vb Vc]: the three phase voltage sources

% ZABCL¼ [ZAL ZBL ZCL]: the three phase load impedances

% Zabcl¼ [Zal Zbl Zcl Znl]: the three or four line impedances

% optionally with Znl¼ the neutral line impedance

%Output: VN¼ the load side neutral voltage

% VABC¼ [VA;VB;VC]¼ the three load-side voltages

% Iabc¼ [Ia;Ib;Ic]¼ the three line currents

% SABC¼ [SA;SB;SC]¼ the 3-phase complex powers

% Copyleft: Won Y. Yang, wyyang53@hanmail.net, CAU for academic use only

Vabc¼Vabc(:); ZABCL¼ZABCL(:); Zabcl¼Zabcl(:); ZABCN¼Zabcl(1:3)þZABCL;

tmp ¼ sum(1./ZABCN);

if length(Zabcl)3, tmp¼tmpþ1/Zabcl(4); end % with a neutral line if any

VN ¼ sum(Vabc./ZABCN)/tmp; % Load side neutral voltage - Eq.(7.16)

Iabc ¼ (Vabc-VN)./ZABCN; % 3 Line currents - Eq.(7.17)

VABC ¼ Vabc – Zabcl(1:3).*Iabc; % 3 Load end voltages - Eq.(7.18)

% Complex power S¼VI* based on the rms phasor voltages/currents

SABC ¼ (VABC-VN).*conj(Iabc); % Complex power of load - Eq.(6.28):

disp(‘Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼’)

disp([abs(VN) angle(VN)*180/pi])

disp(‘Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers’)

disp([abs(VABCN) angle(VABCN)*180/pi abs(Iabc) angle(Iabc)*180/pi SABC])

7.4 Three-Phase Power System 305

This result implies that the voltages/currents for the three phases have the same magnitude, but differing

fromeach other in phase angle by 120

**and, consequently, the three-phase systemneeds to be solved only
**

for one phase in the same way as for a single-phase system. Another implication is that in the case of a

balanced three-phase system, it makes no difference whether the neutral line exists or not since no current

will ﬂow through it. Even in the case of a (slightly) unbalanced three-phase system, the current through

the neutral line is expected to be much smaller than the hot-line current. That is why a thinner and

cheaper wire is used as the neutral line.

A three-phase system is efﬁcient in the sense that it requires fewer conductors to handle the same

power as three separate single-phase systems. However, the solution formulas (7.16) to (7.18) are

difﬁcult to compute by hand. That is why the following MATLAB routine y_y( ) is introduced, which

can be used to solve a Y-Y connected three-phase system. A user is supposed to put the impedance of the

neutral line as the fourth element of the third-input argument (Zabcl) only when it exists, as in the case of

the three-phase four-wire (3c-4w) power system.

Figure 7.6 shows a Y-Á/Y conﬁguration of 3c-4w three-phase power system, where the load consists

of a Y-connected one and a Á-connected one. If there is no neutral line connected between the source-

side neutral n and the load-side neutral N, virtually for a 3c-3w system, the following steps could be

taken to convert the power system into a Y-Y conﬁguration:

1. Make the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected load to get the equivalent Á-connection.

2. Make the parallel combination of the equivalent Á-connection and the original Á-connection.

3. Make the Á-Y conversion of the composite Á-connection to obtain the composite Y-connected

load.

Note. Why not make a straight Á-Yconversion of the Á-connected one and then make a parallel combination of the

two Y-connected loads? The neutral of the originally Y-connected one and the resulting neutral of the Y-connected

one converted from the Á-connected one do not generally match each other in the case of unbalanced Y-connected

and Á-connected loads. However, either will do in the case of balanced Y-connected and Á-connected loads.

4. Apply the Y-Y system analysis implemented by the MATLAB routine y_y( ) as if there were only a

Y-connected load.

This approach is, however, not applicable for a 3c-4w system with a neutral line, for which a set of node

equations should be written in the four unknown voltage variables V

A

, V

B

, V

C

, and V

N

:

Y

al

þ Y

AN

þ Y

AB

þ Y

CA

ÀY

AB

ÀY

CA

ÀY

AN

ÀY

AB

Y

bl

þ Y

BN

þ Y

AB

þ Y

BC

ÀY

BC

ÀY

BN

ÀY

CA

ÀY

BC

Y

cl

þ Y

CN

þ Y

CA

þ Y

BC

ÀY

CN

ÀY

AN

ÀY

BN

ÀY

CN

Y

AN

þ Y

BN

þ Y

CN

þ Y

nl

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

Â

V

A

V

B

V

C

V

N

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¼

Y

al

V

a

Y

bl

V

b

Y

cl

V

c

0

_

¸

¸

¸

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

ð7.23Þ

After solving this set of equations for V

A

, V

B

, V

C

, and V

N

, the line currents can be obtained as

I

a

¼

V

a

À V

A

Z

al

. I

b

¼

V

b

À V

B

Z

bl

. I

c

¼

V

c

À V

C

Z

cl

. I

n

¼ À

V

N

Z

nl

ð7.24Þ

Note. With the mesh analysis, a set of six equations would need to be solved.

However, Equation (7.23) is formidable to compute by hand and thus the following MATLAB routine

y_dy( ) is introduced, which can be used to solve a Y-Á/Y-connected three-phase system like the one

depicted in Figure 7.6.

306 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

function [VN,VABC,Iabc,S_total]¼y_dy(Vabc,ZABCN,ZABC,Zabcl)

% To solve a 3p-4w system with Delta/Y-connected loads

%Input: Vabc¼[Va Vb Vc]: the three phase voltage sources

% ZABCN¼[ZAN ZBN ZCN]: the Y-connected three phase load impedances

% ZABC¼[ZAB ZBC ZCA]: the Delta-connected three phase load impedances

% Zabcl¼[Zal Zbl Zcl Znl]: the three or four line impedances

% optionally with Znl¼ the neutral line impedance

%Output: VN¼ the load side neutral voltage

% VABC¼ [VA;VB;VC]¼ the load-side end voltages

% Iabc¼[Ia;Ib;Ic]¼ the three line currents

% S_total¼ the total 3-phase complex power

% Copyleft: Won Y. Yang, wyyang53@hanmail.net, CAU for academic use only

YABCN¼1./ZABCN; YABC¼1./ZABC; Yabcl¼1./Zabcl;

if length(Zabcl)3, Ynl¼Yabcl(4); Yabcl¼Yabcl(1:3); else Ynl¼0; end

Va¼Vabc(1); Vb¼Vabc(2); Vc¼Vabc(3); % Voltages at the sending end

YAN¼YABCN(1); YBN¼YABCN(2); YCN¼YABCN(3); % each of Y-connected admittances

YAB¼YABC(1); YBC¼YABC(2); YCA¼YABC(3); % each of Delta-connected admittances

Yal¼Yabcl(1); Ybl¼Yabcl(2); Ycl¼Yabcl(3); % each line admittance

Y¼[Yal+YAN+YAB+YCA -YAB -YCA -YAN; -YAB Ybl+YBN+YAB+YBC -YBC -YBN;

-YCA -YBC Ycl+YCN+YBC+YCA -YCN; -YAN -YBN -YCN YAN+YBN+YCN+Ynl];

VABCN ¼ Y\[Yal*Va; Ybl*Vb; Ycl*Vc; 0]; % Eq.(7.23)

VABC¼ VABCN(1:3); VN¼ VABCN(4); Iabc ¼ Yabc(:).*(Vabc(:)-VABC); % Eq.(7.24)

% Complex power S=VI* based on the rms phasor voltages/currents

S_Y = ((VABC-VN)./ZABCN(:))’*(VABC-VN) % Complex power of Y-load: Eq.(6.28)

V ¼ [VABC(1)-VABC(2) VABC(2)-VABC(3) VABC(3)-VABC(1)]; % Line-to-line voltages

S_D ¼ V*(V./ZABC)’ % Complex power of Delta-load

% The sum of complex powers for the Y-connected and Delta-connected loads

disp(‘Total complex power’), S_total ¼ S_Y þ S_D

disp(‘Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼’)

disp([abs(VN) angle(VN)*180/pi])

disp(‘Phase voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase)’)

disp([abs(VABC) angle(VABC)*180/pi abs(Iabc) angle(Iabc)*180/pi])

Figure 7.6 The Y-Á/Y conﬁguration of a three-phase power system

7.4 Three-Phase Power System 307

(Example 7.1) MATLAB Analysis and PSpice Simulation of a Three-Phase Power System

Consider the three-phase power systemin Figure 7.7(a), where the voltage sources and the resistances/

inductances of the transmission lines and loads are

Three voltage sources : V

a

¼ 120ﬀ0

. V

b

¼ 120ﬀÀ120

. V

c

¼ 120ﬀ þ120

ðE7.1.1Þ

ð. ¼ 2¬f ¼ 2¬ Â 60 ﬃ 377 rad,sÞ

Three line impedances with R

al

¼ R

bl

¼ R

cl

¼ 0.6 . L

al

¼ L

bl

¼ L

cl

¼ 3.1835 mH ðE7.1.2Þ

Three load impedances with R

AL

¼ 16 . R

BL

¼ 14 . R

CL

¼ 17 ðE7.1.3Þ

L

AL

¼ 29.18 mH. L

BL

¼ 23.87 mH. L

CL

¼ 21.22 mH

The bank of three Á-connected capacitors connected in dotted lines with the systemwill be installed to

improve the power factor of the three-phase load to unity (100%). To ﬁnd the values of the

capacitances for PF correction, the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected load is made and the values

of the capacitances are found such that each parallel combination of a capacitor and a load in Á-

connections will be purely resistive:

Z

AL

¼ R

AL

þ j.L

AL

¼ 16 þ j11. Z

BL

¼ R

BL

þ j.L

BL

¼ 14 þ j9. Z

CL

¼ 17 þ j8

!

yd conversionð Þ

Z

AB

¼ 42.77 þ j31.52. Z

BC

¼ 45.78 þ j25.40. Z

CA

¼ 52.53 þ j28.94 ðE7.1.4Þ

C

AB

¼ À

Imf1,Z

AB

g

.

¼ 29.62 mF. C

BC

¼ À

Imf1,Z

BC

g

.

¼ 23.48 mF. C

CA

¼ 21.34 mF ðE7.1.5Þ

Note that in order to ﬁnd the composite impedance of a Y-connected load and a Á-connected load,

as a general rule the Y-Áconversion of the Y-connected one should be made, the parallel combination

Figure 7.7 PSpice simulation of a three-phase power system

308 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

of the two Á-connected loads is computed, and then, as needed, the Á-Y conversion of the composite

Á-connected circuit is made to an overall Y-connected circuit.

In any case it would be very time consuming to do Y-Á or Á-Y conversions and, moreover, apply

the formulas (7.16) to (7.18) with the above dirty values to compute the phase voltages and currents by

hand. Thus the MATLAB routines y_y( ) and y_dy( ) will be used and the PSpice simulation will

be performed to analyze this circuit.

(a) The program cir07e01.m is composed and run to perform the following jobs:

(1) It uses the routine y_y( ) to solve the three-phase system without the bank of capacitors,

where y_y( ) ﬁnds the load-side neutral voltage V

N

, the three-phase voltages V

A

, V

B

, and

V

C

at the receiving ends, and the three line currents I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

.

(2) It uses the routine yd_conversion( ) to get the equivalent Á-connected loads.

(3) It ﬁnds the bank of Á-connected capacitances C

AB

, C

BC

, and C

CA

that should be connected in

parallel with the Á-connected loads to make them purely resistive so that the PF will be

raised to unity (1).

(4) It uses the routine y_dy( ) to solve the composite three-phase system consisting of the Y-

connected loads and the Á-connected bank of PF compensating capacitors.

Note. Alternatively, the Y-Á conversion can be made of the Y-connected loads, the equivalent Á-connected

loads combined in parallel with the Á-connected capacitors, the Á-Yconversion made of the composite loads,

and the routine y_y( ) used to solve the equivalent Y-Y three-phase system with the bank of capacitors.

%cir07e01.m

clear

f¼60; w¼ 2*pi*f; jw¼ j*w; % The source frequency

Vabc ¼[120 120*exp(Àj*2*pi/3) 120*exp(j*2*pi/3)]; % Eq.(E7.1.1)

Zal ¼0.6þjw*3.1835e-3; Zabcl¼[Zal Zal Zal]; % The line impedances (E7.1.2)

% Y-connected three-phase load impedances from Eq.(E7.1.3)

ZAL¼16þjw*29.18e-3; ZBL¼14þjw*23.87e-3; ZCL¼17þjw*21.22e-3; % Eq.(E7.1.4)

% Analysis of 3-phase 3-wire power system without PF correction

ZABCL¼[ZAL ZBL ZCL]; [VN,VABCN,Iabc,SABC]¼y_y(Vabc,ZABCL,Zabcl);

[ZAB,ZBC,ZCA]¼ yd_conversion(ZAL,ZBL,ZCL); % Eq.(E7.1.4)

disp(‘Capacitances to be connected in parallel with the existing load’)

CABC¼ -imag(1./[ZAB ZBC ZCA])/w % Eq.(E7.1.5)

PFc ¼ 1; % desired Power Factor for correction

CABC¼ wC_for_PF_correction([ZAB ZBC ZCA],PFc)/w % Alternatively, Sec. 6.6

ZABC_C¼1./(jw*CABC); %Impedances of Delta-connected compensating capacitors

disp(‘After PF correction’)

% Analysis of 3-phase 3-wire power system with Delta-connected capacitors

[VN_c,VABCN_c,Iabc_c,SABC_c]¼y_dy(Vabc,ZABCL,ZABC_C,Zabcl);

The above MATLAB program cir07e01.m is run to get the following result:

cir07e01

Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼ 10.8893 À137.8994

Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers

1.0eþ002 *

1.1287 À0.0215 0.0623 À0.3305 6.2043þ4.2657i

1.1294 À1.2211 0.0616 À1.5319 5.3107þ3.4135i

1.1296 1.1784 0.0618 0.8743 6.4942þ3.0560i

7.4 Three-Phase Power System 309

Capacitances to be connected in parallel with the existing load

CABC ¼ 1.0e-004 * 0.2962 0.2348 0.2134

After PF Correction

Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼ 5.9233 À170.3062

Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers

116.7743 À3.0040 5.2124 À2.3953 1917.3þ1143.9i

116.6525 À123.3196 5.6847 À121.1170 0 À1143.9i

116.1562 116.8903 5.5684 114.0588

This means that

V

A

¼ 112.87ﬀÀ2.15

. V

B

¼ 112.94ﬀÀ121.11

. V

C

¼ 112.96ﬀ117.84

I

a

¼ 6.23ﬀÀ33.05

. I

b

¼ 6.16ﬀÀ153.19

. I

c

¼ 6.18ﬀ87.43

!

PFcorrection

V

A

¼ 116.77ﬀ À 3.00

. V

B

¼ 116.65ﬀ À 123.32

. V

C

¼ 116.16ﬀ116.89

I

a

¼ 5.21ﬀ À 2.40

. I

b

¼ 5.68ﬀ À 121.12

. I

c

¼ 5.57ﬀ114.06

**Note. Note the following:
**

1. The amplitudes of the voltages V

A

, V

B

, and V

C

at the receiving ends have become higher with the PF

correction.

2. The complex powers of the Y-connected three-phase load and the Á-connected capacitor bank are

1917.3 þ j1143.9 and Àj1143.9, respectively. Thus the composite complex power is purely real, implying

that the resulting power factor of 100 % has been achieved by the PF correction.

(b) Perform the PSpice simulation for the three-phase circuit in Figure 7.7(a).

– Draw the schematic as depicted in Figure 7.7(a), where the three VAC voltage sources are placed and their

ACPHASE values are set to 0 or À120 or þ120 in the Property Editor spreadsheet. Do not place the

capacitors yet.

– In the Simulation Settings dialog box, set the Analysis type to ‘AC Sweep’ with the parameters as Start

Frequency ¼ 59, End Frequency ¼ 61, and Points/Decade ¼ 200.

– Place V/VP/I/IP Markers to measure the magnitudes/phases of V

A

, V

B

, V

C

, I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

at the appropriate

points as depicted in Figure 7.7(a).

– Click the Run button on the toolbar to make the PSpice A/D (Probe) window appear on the screen as

depicted in Figure 7.7(b1).

– To get the numeric values of the measured variables, click the Toggle Cursor button on the toolbar, click the

graphic symbol before each variable name at the bottom part of the Probe window by the left/right mouse

button, and move the cross-type cursor to the 60 Hz position by pressing the left/right (Shiftþ)Arrow key or

by using the left/right mouse button. Then you can read the numeric value of the measured variable from the

Probe Cursor box (Figure 7.7(b1)).

– Modify the schematic by placing the capacitors as depicted in the dotted lines, click Run, and get the new

numeric values of the measured variables (Figure 7.7(b2)).

Finally, compare the numeric values of V

A

, V

B

, V

C

, I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

with those obtained from the

MATLAB analysis in (a). If they turn out to be (almost) the same, you may celebrate your success.

7.5 Electric Shock and Grounding

DC circuits have been discussed in the ﬁrst four chapters and AC circuits have also been studied.

Equipped with basic knowledge about circuit theory and electrical terminology such as voltage and

current, we may well relate the theory to the electrical devices and systems around us and begin to

think about not only the usefulness but also the potential danger of electricity. Electricity quickly

endangers our lives as well as meeting our convenience. But what use is all our knowledge if we

310 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

happen to get injured or die as a result of an electrical accident? At this point, let us put aside the

theoretical aspects for a moment and think about the electrical safety issue. However, while the safety

issue may require several volumes for a comprehensive treatment, our discussion on this aspect will

be very limited.

In the context of electrical safety, a question may arise:

‘Which electricity endangers our life, high voltage or large current?’

Even if this question may sound absurd, it should be answered sincerely as follows:

‘Both of them, but the former is dangerous as a cause, while so is the latter as a consequence.’

To be more speciﬁc, the fatality of an electrical shock depends on several factors such as how large

the current is and how long and through which part of the human body the current ﬂows, irrespective

of the voltage causing it. The voltage is just a potential cause of a dangerous accident. Even though a

person happens to be brought into contact with a conductor at high voltage, it would not be so

dangerous as long as the resistance of the path via his/her body between the points of contact or the

contact and the ground is large enough to keep the current less than a few milliamperes. Even an

electrostatic voltage higher than 20 kV, which may damage some electronic devices, yields nothing

more than a little discomfort to a human being because it usually causes the current to ﬂow mainly

over the body surface, and that for only a few microseconds. However, since the resistance of a human

body with wet skin can be as small as a few hundred ohms, a person may be killed by 100 VAC or a

much lower voltage of DC.

Before going into an example addressing the safety issue, note the following tips to avoid electrical

shock when you are going to touch electrical/electronic appliances:

1. Turn off the electricity without assuming that the circuit is dead. If they have a capacitor

of large capacitance, you should be very careful because it takes time to discharge after the power is off.

2. Noting that prevention is the best medicine, do not touch them when you are wet.

3. Respecting all voltage levels, use safety devices, wear suitable clothing (insulated shoes, gloves, etc.),

and use just one (right) hand, especially when touching a high-voltage system.

4. Use a dry board, belt, clothing, or other available nonconductive material to free the victim from

electrical shock. Do not touch the victim until the source of electricity is removed.

5. Make sure that there is a third wire on the plug for grounding in case of a short-circuit accident. The

fault current should ﬂow through the third wire to ground instead of through the operator’s body to

ground if an electric power apparatus is grounded or an insulation breakdown occurs.

6. The website <http://www.smud.org/safety/world/index.html is worthwhile to visit for more infor-

mation about electrical safety.

Note. How can birds sit on a power line without getting an electrical shock? It is because they are not touching the

ground and so the electricity cannot ﬁnd a path to ﬂow to the ground. However, if one catches one power line with one

leg and another line with the other leg, it will be killed instantly before realizing how serious the mistake is. Likewise,

if your kite or balloon gets tangled in a power line when you touch the string, electricity could travel down the string

and into your body on its way to the ground, causing a fatal shock.

(Example 7.2) Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) with Grounding to Prevent an Electrical Hazard

Ground fault interrupters are designed to prevent an electrical shock by interrupting a household

circuit when there is a difference between the currents in the hot and neutral lines. Such a difference

indicates that an abnormal diversion of current occurs from the hot line, which might be ﬂowing in the

ground line.

(a) Figure 7.8(a) shows the connection diagram for a GFI that is used to prevent an electrical hazard

against the case where the insulation of the motor winding inside the metal case fails and a user

7.5 Electric Shock and Grounding 311

touches the metal case. Note that in a normal situation with perfect insulation, the primary current

of the current transformer (CT) (Problem5.11) is I

A

À I

N

¼ 0 so that the secondary coil carries no

current to produce a force needed to open the switch.

(b) Figure 7.8(b) shows how the GFI detects a short-circuit and produces a tripping signal to open the

switch; i.e. in the case where the insulation of the motor winding inside the metal case fails, a large

current ﬂows from the fault position to the ground. This current will be I

A

, so that I

A

À I

N

0 and

a nonzero current through the secondary coil produces a tripping signal to open the switch. Since

Figure 7.8 GFI process for preventing, detecting, and tripping a short-circuit, and the consequences of no grounding

312 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

the metal case is grounded, the user touching it will get no electrical shock regardless of whether

the GFI works or not.

(c) Figure 7.8(c) shows the situation in which the metal case is not grounded. Everything is almost the

same as in (b) except that the fault current ﬂows to the ground not directly, but via the human body

till the switch is opened by operation of the GFI so that the user might get an electrical shock

before the circuit is interrupted. Besides, the fault current is less than that with grounding, possibly

causing some delay in the tripping operation of the GFI. This makes us realize the importance of

the grounding or ‘chassis ground’ for safety.

Note. Fuses and/or breakers are used to limit the current in most household applications. However, the typical

limit of current to be interrupted by them is 20 A and their tripping operation is too slow to prevent

electrocution. That is why GFIs are required by the electrical code for receptacles in bathrooms and kitchens,

near swimming pools, and outside. The GFI is expected to detect currents of a few milliamperes and trip a

breaker to remove the shock hazard.

(Example 7.3) Danger Hidden behind Help (Source: J. D. Irwin and C. H. Wu, Basic Engineering Circuit

analysis, 6th edition, 1999, Example 11.12 with Figure 11.20. Source: #Prentice Hall)

Figure 7.9 describes the situation where the power line feeding house A is interrupted because of some

fault and the person living in the house borrows electric power from his neighbor B (fed from another

power line) by connecting a long extension cord between an outside receptacle in house Aand another in

house B. After the fault is recovered, a line technician from the utility company comes to reconnect the

circuit breaker at the primary side installed on the utility pole. Not being informed of the fact that house

Ais fed fromanother power line and so the power transformer Ais alive, he/she might touch contact b (at

6600 V) without wearing any nonconductive gloves and might never see his/her family again.

Problems

7.1 An Unbalanced 3c-3w (Three-Phase Three-Wire) Power System

Figure P7.1 shows a Y-Y type of 3c-3w power system operated at the source frequency of 60 Hz,

where a bank of capacitors are to be installed for power factor (PF) correction.

(a) Find the voltages (V

A

, V

B

, and V

C

) at the load end and the line currents (I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

) with no

capacitors in the polar form as V

A

¼ 112ﬀ À1.58

**with three signiﬁcant digits.
**

(b) Find the three capacitances needed to raise the power factor of the three-phase load to unity (1)

in the form C

AB

¼ 49.3 mF with three signiﬁcant digits.

(c) Find the voltages (V

A

, V

B

, and V

C

) at the load end and the line currents (I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

) with the

capacitors for PF correction in the polar form as I

a

¼ 5.15ﬀ À3.33

**with three signiﬁcant
**

digits.

Figure 7.9 (From Reference [I-1]. Source: #Prentice-Hall)

Problems 313

Hint. Referring to the MATLAB programcir07e01.m presented for solving Example 7.1 in Section 7.4,

use the MATLAB routines y_y( ) and/or y_dy( ).

(d) Perform the PSpice simulation (AC Sweep analysis for 200 frequency points/decade between

59 Hz and 61 Hz) two times, once without the PF compensating capacitors and once with them.

Fill in the blanks of Table P7.1 with the PSpice simulation results and the theoretical analysis

results obtained in (a) and (c).

7.2 An Unbalanced 3c-4w (Three-Phase Four-Wire) Power System

Figure P7.2 shows a Y-Y type of 3c-4w power system operated at the source frequency of 60 Hz.

Performthe MATLABanalysis and PSpice simulation for the systemtwo times, once with the bank

of capacitors and once without it. Make a table similar to Table P7.1.

Hint. You can complete the following MATLAB program cir07p02.m and run it.

%cir07p02.m

f ¼60; w ¼2*pi*f; jw¼j*w;

Vabc ¼[120 120*exp(Ài*2*pi/3) 120*exp(i*2*pi/3)];

Zal¼??? þjw*??????; Zbl¼Zal; Zcl¼Zal; Znl¼? þjw*??????; Zabcl¼[Za Zb Zcl];

ZAL¼??? þj*???????; ZBL¼???? þjw*???????; ZCL¼???? þjw*???????;

ZABCL ¼ [ZAL ZBL ZCL]; % The Y-connected load

[VN,VABCN,Iabc,SABC]¼y_y(Vabc,ZABCL,[Zabcl Znl]);

CABC¼ [???????? ???????? ????????]; ZABC¼ À1./(jw*CABC); % D-connected load

disp(‘After PF correction’)

[VN_c,VABCN_c,Iabc_c,SABC_c]¼y_dy(Vabc,ZABCL,ZABC,[Zabcl Znl]);

Table P7.1 Results of the theoretical analysis and PSpice simulation

V

A

V

B

V

C

I

a

I

b

I

c

Before PF Theoretical 112ﬀ À1.58

correction PSpice 113ﬀ À120

5.25ﬀ85.5

After PF Theoretical 118ﬀ118

4.22ﬀÀ128

correction PSpice 5.15ﬀÀ3.32

Figure P7.1

314 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

7.3 Parallel Combination of the Unbalanced Y-Connected Load and Á-Connected Load

As mentioned in Section 7.4 and illustrated in Figure P7.3, the parallel connection of the Y-

connected load and the Á-connected load should be initiated by making the Y-Áconversion of the

Y-connected one rather than making the Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected one.

(a) To be assured of this assertion, solve the circuit with the capacitor bank in Figure P7.1 to ﬁnd

V

A

, V

B

, and V

C

in the following two ways:

(1) Make the Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected capacitor bank and combine it with the Y-

connected load in parallel (Figure P7.3(b1)–(b2)). Then use the MATLAB routine y_y( )

to solve the circuit and check if the results agree with those obtained in Problem 7.1(c).

(2) Make the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected load, combine it with the Á-connected

capacitor bank in parallel, and make the Á-g conversion (Figure P7.3(c1)–(c3)). Then use

the MATLAB routine y_y( ) to solve the circuit and check if the results agree with those

obtained in Problem 7.1(c).

Figure P7.2

Figure P7.3 Parallel combination of the Y-connected load and the Á-connected load

Problems 315

(b) Does the parallel combination of a Y-connected load and a Á-connected load work for a 3c-4w

power system like the one depicted in Figure P7.2?

7.4 An Unbalanced Y-Á Connected 3c-3w Power System

Figure P7.4 shows a Y-Átype of 3c-3wpower systemoperated at the source frequency of 60 Hz. A

set of node equations can be written in the three unknown node voltages V

A

, V

B

, and V

C

as follows:

Y

al

þ Y

AB

þ Y

CA

ÀY

AB

ÀY

CA

ÀY

AB

Y

bl

þ Y

AB

þ Y

BC

ÀY

BC

ÀY

CA

ÀY

BC

Y

c l

þ Y

CA

þ Y

BC

_

_

_

_

V

A

V

B

V

C

_

_

_

_

¼

Y

al

V

a

Y

bl

V

b

Y

cl

V

c

_

_

_

_

ðP7.4.1Þ

After solving this set of equations for V

A

, V

B

, and V

C

, the line currents can be obtained as

I

a

¼

V

a

À V

A

Z

al

. I

b

¼

V

b

À V

B

Z

bl

. I

c

¼

V

c

À V

C

Z

cl

ðP7.4.2Þ

This solution procedure for the Y-Á connected 3c-3w power system is cast into the following

MATLAB routine y_d( ).

function [VABC,Iabc,SABC]¼y_d(Vabc,ZABC,Zabcl)

% To solve a 3p-3w system with Delta-connected loads

%Input: Vabc¼[Va Vb Vc]: the three phase voltage sources

% ZABC¼[ZAB ZBC ZCA]: the Delta-connected three phase load impedances

% Zabcl¼[Zal Zbl Zcl]: the three line impedances

%Output: VABC¼ [VA;VB;VC]: the load-side end voltages

% Iabc¼[Ia;Ib;Ic]: the three line currents

% SABC¼[SAB;SBC;SCA]: the 3-phase complex power

% Copyleft: Won Y. Yang, wyyang53@hanmail.net, CAU for academic use only

Va¼Vabc(1); Vb¼Vabc(2); Vc¼Vabc(3);

YABC¼1./ZABC; Yabcl¼1./Zabcl;

YAB¼YABC(1); YBC¼YABC(2); YCA¼YABC(3); % each of Y-connected admittances

Yal¼Yabcl(1); Ybl¼Yabcl(2); Ycl¼Yabcl(3); % each line admittance

Y¼[YalþYABþYCA -YAB -YCA; -YAB YblþYABþYBC -YBC; -YCA -YBC YclþYBC þYCA];

VABC ¼ Y\[Yal*Va; Ybl*Vb; Ycl*Vc]; % Solve Eq.(P7.4.1)

Iabc ¼ Yabcl(:).*(Vabc(:)-VABC); % Eq.(P7.4.2)

VABC_Delta¼ VABC-VABC([2 3 1]); % Delta phase voltages

SABC ¼ VABC_Delta.*conj(VABC_Delta./ZABC(:)); % Eq. (6.28)

disp(‘Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers’)

disp([abs(VABC) angle(VABC)*180/pi abs(Iabc) angle(Iabc)*180/pi SABC])

Figure P7.4 AY-Á connected 3c-3w (three-phase three-wire) power system

316 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

(a) Make use of the MATLAB routine y_d( ) to solve the power system of Figure P7.4 for V

A

,

V

B

, V

C

, I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

.

(b) Make the Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected loads and make use of the MATLAB routine

y_y( ) to solve the power system for V

A

, V

B

, V

C

, I

a

, I

b

, and I

c

. Does the solution agree with

that obtained in (a)?

7.5 Comparison of Various Power Transmission Schemes

Figures P7.5(a), (b), and (c) show 1c-2w, 1c-3w, and 3c-4w transmission schemes, respectively,

where the mass of the neutral line is assumed to be half of that ðMÞ of a hot line. Verify that the ratio

of the power to the weight of power transmission lines for each of the three schemes is as listed in

Table P7.5.

Figure P7.5

Table P7.5 Comparison of various power transmission schemes

Transmission scheme 1c-2w 1c-3w 3c-4w

Transmitted power P

1

¼ V

2

,R

L

P

2

¼ 2V

2

,R

L

¼ 2P

1

P

3

¼ 3V

2

,R

L

¼ 3P

1

Weight of power lines 2M 2.5M 3.5M

Ratio of transmitted ð1,2ÞP

1

,M ð4,5ÞP

1

,M ð6,7ÞP

1

,M

power to weight of lines

Problems 317

300 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits

Figure 7.1

Basic structure and principle of an AC generator

Negative ðacbÞ sequence va ðtÞ ¼ Vm cosð!tÞ; Va ¼ Vm ﬀ0 ; vb ðtÞ ¼ Vm cosð!t þ 120 Þ; Vb ¼ Vm ﬀþ120 ; vc ðtÞ ¼ Vm cosð!t À 120 Þ Vc ¼ Vm ﬀÀ120 ð7:2aÞ ð7:2bÞ

Figure 7.1(c) shows a typical set of three-phase voltage waveforms in the positive ðabcÞ sequence, which can be produced by a three-phase AC generator. In order to operate more than one three-phase AC generators in parallel, their phase sequences should be the same, positive ðabcÞ or negative ðacbÞ. Such a set of three AC voltages as these is said to be balanced because they all have the same frequency and magnitude but are out of phase with each other by 120. An important feature of balanced three-phase voltages is that their sum is zero: Va þ Vb þ Vc ¼ 0 This zero-sum property can also be shown in the time domain: va ðtÞ þ vb ðtÞ þ vc ðtÞ ¼ 0 Vm cosð!tÞ þ Vm cosð!t À 120 Þ þ Vm cosð!t þ 120 Þ

ðF:6Þ

ð7:3Þ

ð7:4Þ

¼ Vm cosð!tÞ þ Vm ½cosð!tÞ cosð120 Þ þ sinð!tÞ sinð120 Þ þ Vm ½cosð!tÞ cosð120 Þ À sinð!tÞ sinð120 Þ ¼ Vm cosð!tÞ½1 þ 2 cosð120 Þ ¼ Vm cosð!tÞ½1 þ 2 Â ðÀ1=2Þ ¼ 0

The output voltage/current level of a three-phase generator depends on which connection of the three armature coils is made, Y(wye)-connection or Á(delta)-connection. The two connection diagrams of a

the amplitudes of line voltages are voltages and the line current is the same as the phase current: Vl ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 VY and Il ¼ IY ð7:5dÞ Figure 7.2(b) shows the voltage phasor diagram of a Y-connected balanced three-phase source. From this phasor diagram. which is called the neutral (node or terminal) of the source.2 A Y-connected 3- source and its voltage phasor diagram three-phase source together with the corresponding voltage/current phasor diagrams are depicted in Figures 7.2(a)) has a common terminal of the three coils. labeled n. the relationship between the phase (or line-to-neutral) voltages and the line (or line-to-line) voltages can be written as follows: Vab ¼ Va À Vb ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 VY ﬀ30 pﬃﬃﬃ Vbc ¼ Vb À Vc ¼ 3 VY ﬀÀ90 pﬃﬃﬃ Vca ¼ Vc À Va ¼ 3 VY ﬀ þ150 ð7:5aÞ ð7:5bÞ ð7:5cÞ pﬃﬃﬃ 3 times that of phase Note that for a Y-connected three-phase source. respectively. Figure 7.7.2 and 7. Especially the Y-connected three-phase source (Figure 7.3 A Á-connected 3- source and its current phasor diagram . where the a-phase voltage Va is regarded as the reference with the phase angle of 0 .3.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages 301 Figure 7.

Á-connected three-phase sources are seldom used in practice because they make a loop of voltage sources.Total ¼ 3SY ¼ 3 VY IY ¼ 3 Vl Il ﬀ ¼ PY. In this section we will ﬁnd the power of a balanced three-phase load to which a balanced three-phase voltage source with an rms line voltage Vl and an rms line current Il is applied: Power of a Y-connected balanced three-phase load Active power : Reactive power : Complex power : pﬃﬃﬃ Vl ð7:5dÞ PY.2 Power of Balanced Three-Phase Loads A three-phase load is said to be balanced if the three impedance legs are all the same. the relationship between the phase currents and the line currents can be written as follows: pﬃﬃﬃ ð7:6aÞ Ia ¼ Iab À Ica ¼ 3 IÁ ﬀ À30 pﬃﬃﬃ Ib ¼ Ibc À Iab ¼ 3 IÁ ﬀ À150 ð7:6bÞ pﬃﬃﬃ Ic ¼ Ica À Ibc ¼ 3 IÁ ﬀ þ90 ð7:6cÞ pﬃﬃﬃ Note that for a Á-connected three-phase source.3(b) shows the current phasor diagram of a Á-connected balanced three-phase source.Total þ jQY. 7.Total ¼ 3QÁ ¼ 3 VÁ IÁ sin ¼ 3 Vl Il sin pﬃﬃﬃ Ã SÁ. which may have a large circulating current if the three-phase voltages are not exactly balanced and therefore do not sum to zero.302 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits Figure 7. and Vca ¼ 208ﬀ þ151 has an emf (electromotive force) around the Á-loop inside the generator as Vab þ Vbc þ Vca ¼ 207:9ð0:8746 þ j0:4848Þ À j208:1 þ 208ðÀ0:8746 þ j0:4848Þ ¼ À0:0875 À j6:47 V Since the impedance of the windings (coils) of a generator is very small. However. where the a-phase current ðIab Þ is regarded as the reference with the phase angle of 0 .Total ¼ 3SÁ ¼ 3 VÁ IÁ ¼ 3 Vl Il ﬀ ¼ PY. Y-Á. even this low emf may result in a large circulating current that will heat the Á-connected generator. For example.Total ð7:8aÞ ð7:8bÞ ð7:8cÞ ð7:7aÞ ð7:7bÞ ð7:7cÞ . there are four possible conﬁgurations of a three-phase power system: Y-Y. the amplitudes of line currents are 3 times that of phase currents and the line voltage is the same as the phase voltage: pﬃﬃﬃ and Vl ¼ VÁ ð7:6dÞ Il ¼ 3 IÁ Since not only three-phase sources but also three-phase loads can be either Y-connected or Á-connected.Total ¼ 3PY ¼ 3 VY IY cos ¼ 3 pﬃﬃﬃ Il cos ¼ 3 Vl Il cos 3 pﬃﬃﬃ QY.Total ¼ 3QY ¼ 3 VY IY sin ¼ 3 Vl Il sin pﬃﬃﬃ Ã SY.Total with ¼ phase angle or power factor angle of the load Power of a Á-connected balanced three-phase load Active power : Reactive power : Complex power : pﬃﬃﬃ Il ð7:6dÞ PÁ.Total þ jQY.Total ¼ 3PÁ ¼ 3 VÁ IÁ cos ¼ 3 Vl pﬃﬃﬃ cos ¼ 3 Vl Il cos 3 pﬃﬃﬃ QÁ. and Á-Á. Á-Y. making its efﬁciency and life suffer. Vbc ¼ 208:1ﬀ À90 . From this phasor diagram. a slightly unbalanced three-phase voltage source of Vab ¼ 207:9ﬀ29 .

the instantaneous power of a load (with the impedance angle of ) supplied by a single-phase AC source (with the rms values of its terminal voltage and current given as V and I.4(a) shows how to connect two wattmeters for measuring a three-phase power. However. the instantaneous power of a balanced three-phase load supplied by a balanced threephase AC source (with the rms values of its phase voltage and current given as V and I .5. producing a constant torque for a three-phase AC motor: p3 ðtÞ ¼ va ðtÞia ðtÞ þ vb ðtÞib ðtÞ þ vc ðtÞic ðtÞ ¼ Vm cosð!tÞIm cosð!t À Þ þ Vm cosð!t À 120 ÞIm cosð!t À 120 À Þ þ Vm cosð!t þ 120 ÞIm cosð!t þ 120 À Þ ¼ V I ½cos þ cosð2!t À Þ þ V I ½cos þ cosð2!t À 240 À Þ þ V I ½cos þ cosð2!t þ 240 À Þ ¼ 3V I cos : constant ð7:10Þ 7.ð7:8aÞ ðF:6Þ ¼ 2Vl Il cos cos 30 ¼ 3 Vl Il cos PTotal ð7:12Þ Figure 7. The sum of these two readings yields the three-phase active power: P1 þ P2 ¼ Vab Ia cosð þ 30 Þ þ Vcb Ic cosð À 30 Þ ¼ Vl Il cosð þ 30 Þ þ Vl Il cosð À 30 Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ð7:7aÞ.3 Measurement of Three-Phase Power 303 Note. respectively) does not vary with time.3 Measurement of Three-Phase Power It is no wonder that three wattmeters are used to measure a three-phase power.7.4(b). where their readings are written as P1 ¼ Vab Ia cosð þ 30 Þ P2 ¼ Vcb Ic cosð À 30 Þ ð7:11Þ from the phasor diagram in Figure 7. the power transferred from the source to the load is determined by the line (or line-to-line) voltage and the line current. respectively) varies with time: pðtÞ ¼ V I ½cos þ cosð2!t þ 2v À Þ ð6:25aÞ ð7:9Þ By contrast. It is implied that regardless of whether a balanced three-phase source/load is Y-connected or Á-connected.4 A circuit and its phasor diagram for the two-wattmeter method to measure a 3- power .1] Instantaneous Power of a 1- System and a 3- System Referring to Section 6. [Remark 7. Figure 7. it may be surprising that a three-phase power can be measured using just two wattmeters.

Figure 7. the source-side neutral is set as the reference node (having zero potential) and KCL is applied to the loadside neutral N to write the node equation as Va À VN Vb À VN Vc À VN VN þ þ ¼ ZA ZB ZC Znl ð7:15Þ where ZA ¼ Zal þ ZAL . The three-phase power system with no neutral line is denoted by ‘3-3w’ and one having a neutral line by ‘3-4w’. and Á-Á) of threephase power systems. there are four possible conﬁgurations (Y-Y.ð7:8bÞ pﬃﬃﬃ QTotal = 3 ð7:13Þ pﬃﬃﬃ Thus this can be multiplied by 3 to get the three-phase reactive power QTotal and. This equation can be solved to obtain the load side neutral voltage as VN ¼ Va =ZA þ Vb =ZB þ Vc =ZC 1=ZA þ 1=ZB þ 1=ZC þ 1=Znl ð7:16Þ Figure 7. furthermore. where the neutral line connecting the two neutrals of the source and the load is shown as a dotted line to denote that it is dispensable in principle for a balanced system because no current will ﬂow through it.4).4 Three-Phase Power System As discussed in Section 7. Y-Á.5 The Y-Y conﬁguration of a three-phase power system . use can be made of the ratio of the reactive power to the active power to obtain the power factor as pﬃﬃﬃ 3ðP2 À P1 Þ QTotal ð7:12Þ. In this section. Á-Y. ZB ¼ Zbl þ ZBL . To analyze this power system.5 shows a Y-Y three-phase power system. and ZC ¼ Zcl þ ZCL are the sums of each line impedance and load impedance per phase.304 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits On the other hand. the difference between these two readings turns out to be P2 À P1 ¼ Vl Il cosð À 30 Þ À Vl Il cosð þ 30 Þ ðF:6Þ ¼ 2Vl Il sin sin 30 ¼ Vl Il sin ð7:7bÞ.1.ð7:13Þ ¼ cos tanÀ1 cos tanÀ1 P1 þ P2 PTotal PF ¼ cos Fig: 6:12 ¼ ð7:14Þ 7. only the Y-Y connection will be examined since Á-connected three-phase sources are seldom used in practice due to the circulating current problem and Á-connected loads can easily be converted into their equivalent Y-connected ones (see Table 6.1 in Section 6.

and Ic .ZABCL.Zabcl) % To solve a Y-Y connected 3-phase AC system (stored in an M-ﬁle "y_y.18) % Complex power S¼VI* based on the rms phasor voltages/currents SABC ¼ (VABC-VN). ZABCN¼Zabcl(1:3)þZABCL.Eq. Z VA ¼ ZL Ia .net. Ic ¼ . a set of two or three equations would have to be solved for Ia .*conj(Iabc).SB. wyyang53@hanmail. % Load side neutral voltage .17) VABC ¼ Vabc – Zabcl(1:3). If the three-phase system is balanced with identical line impedances and load impedances ZA ¼ ZB ¼ ZC ¼ Z Equation (7./ZABCN.Eq. Ia ¼ Ib ¼ Vb Vc VN ¼ Ia ﬀ À120 . % Complex power of load . the line currents (identical to the phase currents for a Y-connection) and the load-side (receiving end) voltages as Va À VN .SC]¼ the 3-phase complex powers % Copyleft: Won Y./ZABCN)/tmp. % 3 Line currents . VC ¼ Vc À Zcl Ic ð7:17Þ ð7:18Þ Note.Iabc.(7.m") %Input: Vabc ¼ [ Vb Vc]: the three phase voltage sources Va % ZABCL¼ [ ZAL ZBL ZCL]: the three phase load impedances % Zabcl¼ [ Zal Zbl Zcl Znl]: the three or four line impedances % optionally with Znl¼ the neutral line impedance %Output: VN¼ the load side neutral voltage % VABC¼ [ VA.VC]¼ the three load-side voltages % Iabc¼ [ Ia. end % with a neutral line if any VN ¼ sum(Vabc. Zabcl¼Zabcl(:). % 3 Load end voltages .(6. ZABCL¼ZABCL(:). tmp ¼ sum(1. With the mesh analysis. tmp¼tmpþ1/Zabcl(4).Ic]¼ the three line currents % SABC¼ [ SA.(7. VC ¼ ZL Ic ¼ VA ﬀ þ120 ð7:21Þ ð7:22Þ function [ VN./ZABCN). Ia ¼ Ib ¼ Vb À VN Vc À VN VN .16) Iabc ¼ (Vabc-VN).Eq. In ¼ À ZB ZC Znl VB ¼ Vb À Zbl Ib .SABC]¼y_y(Vabc.*Iabc.VABC. ZA VA ¼ Va À Zal Ia .4 Three-Phase Power System 305 and.18) become Va . Yang. Ib .Ib. if length(Zabcl)>3.(7.7. ¼ Ia ﬀ þ120 .28): disp( ‘Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼’ ) disp([ abs(VN) angle(VN)*180/pi] ) disp( Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers ) ‘ ’ disp([ abs(VABCN) angle(VABCN)*180/pi abs(Iabc) angle(Iabc)*180/pi SABC] ) . CAU for academic use only Vabc¼Vabc(:).VB. Ic ¼ In ¼ À ¼0 Z Z Znl VB ¼ ZL Ib ¼ VA ﬀ À120 .16) for the load-side neutral voltage becomes VN ¼ Va =Z þ Vb =Z þ Vc =Z Va þ Vb þ Vc ð7:3Þ ¼ 0 ¼ 3 þ Z=Znl 1=Z þ 1=Z þ 1=Z þ 1=Znl ð7:20Þ ð7:19Þ so that Equations (7.Eq. furthermore.17) and (7.

306 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits This result implies that the voltages/currents for the three phases have the same magnitude. the following steps could be taken to convert the power system into a Y-Y conﬁguration: 1. VB . Make the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected load to get the equivalent Á-connection. virtually for a 3-3w system. Make the Á-Y conversion of the composite Á-connection to obtain the composite Y-connected load. Note. which can be used to solve a Y-Y connected three-phase system. the current through the neutral line is expected to be much smaller than the hot-line current. Equation (7. If there is no neutral line connected between the sourceside neutral n and the load-side neutral N. 4.18) are difﬁcult to compute by hand. the line currents can be obtained as Ia ¼ Va À VA . With the mesh analysis. 2. for which a set of node equations should be written in the four unknown voltage variables VA . A user is supposed to put the impedance of the neutral line as the fourth element of the third-input argument (Zabcl) only when it exists. Another implication is that in the case of a balanced three-phase system. where the load consists of a Y-connected one and a Á-connected one. Figure 7.16) to (7.23) is formidable to compute by hand and thus the following MATLAB routine y_dy( ) is introduced. Zcl In ¼ À VN Znl ð7:24Þ Note. Why not make a straight Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected one and then make a parallel combination of the two Y-connected loads? The neutral of the originally Y-connected one and the resulting neutral of the Y-connected one converted from the Á-connected one do not generally match each other in the case of unbalanced Y-connected and Á-connected loads. and VN : 2 3 Yal þ YAN þ YAB þ YCA ÀYAB ÀYCA ÀYAN 6 7 ÀYAB Ybl þ YBN þ YAB þ YBC ÀYBC ÀYBN 6 7 6 7 4 5 ÀYCA ÀYBC Ycl þ YCN þ YCA þ YBC ÀYCN ÀYAN ÀYBN ÀYCN YAN þ YBN þ YCN þ Ynl 3 2 3 2 Yal Va VA 6V 7 6Y V 7 6 B 7 6 bl b 7 ð7:23Þ Â6 7 7¼6 4 VC 5 4 Ycl Vc 5 VN 0 After solving this set of equations for VA. however. as in the case of the three-phase four-wire (3-4w) power system. However. That is why the following MATLAB routine y_y( ) is introduced. However. it makes no difference whether the neutral line exists or not since no current will ﬂow through it. not applicable for a 3-4w system with a neutral line. Even in the case of a (slightly) unbalanced three-phase system. Make the parallel combination of the equivalent Á-connection and the original Á-connection. . either will do in the case of balanced Y-connected and Á-connected loads. This approach is. VB . VC . the solution formulas (7. That is why a thinner and cheaper wire is used as the neutral line. A three-phase system is efﬁcient in the sense that it requires fewer conductors to handle the same power as three separate single-phase systems. Apply the Y-Y system analysis implemented by the MATLAB routine y_y( ) as if there were only a Y-connected load. the three-phase system needs to be solved only for one phase in the same way as for a single-phase system.6. which can be used to solve a Y-Á/Y-connected three-phase system like the one depicted in Figure 7. 3. but differing from each other in phase angle by 120 and. Zbl Ic ¼ Vc À VC . However. a set of six equations would need to be solved. Zal Ib ¼ Vb À VB .6 shows a Y-Á/Y conﬁguration of 3-4w three-phase power system. VC . and VN . consequently.

VC]¼ the load-side end voltages % Iabc¼[ Ia. VABCN ¼ Y\[ Yal*Va. % each of Y-connected admittances YAB¼YABC(1). Vc¼Vabc(3). Ybl¼Yabcl(2)./ZABCN. YBN¼YABCN(2). -YCA -YBC Ycl+YCN+YBC+YCA -YCN. % Voltages at the sending end YAN¼YABCN(1).net. Yabcl¼Yabcl(1:3). % Line-to-line voltages S_D ¼ V*(V.24) % Complex power S=VI* based on the rms phasor voltages/currents S_Y = ( (VABC-VN). YCN¼YABCN(3). Ycl¼Yabcl(3). Ybl*Vb.Zabcl) % To solve a 3p-4w system with Delta/Y-connected loads %Input: Vabc¼[ Vb Vc]: the three phase voltage sources Va % ZABCN¼[ ZAN ZBN ZCN]: the Y-connected three phase load impedances % ZABC¼[ ZAB ZBC ZCA]: the Delta-connected three phase load impedances % Zabcl¼[ Zal Zbl Zcl Znl]: the three or four line impedances % optionally with Znl¼ the neutral line impedance %Output: VN¼ the load side neutral voltage % VABC¼ [ VA. Vb¼Vabc(2). CAU for academic use only YABCN¼1.28) V¼[ VABC(1)-VABC(2) VABC(2)-VABC(3) VABC(3)-VABC(1)]. else Ynl¼0. Iabc ¼ Yabc(:). end Va¼Vabc(1). disp(‘Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼’) disp([ abs(VN) angle(VN)*180/pi]) disp(‘Phase voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase)’) disp([ abs(VABC) angle(VABC)*180/pi abs(Iabc) angle(Iabc)*180/pi]) ./ZABC. % Eq.VB./ZABCN(:))’*(VABC-VN) % Complex power of Y-load: Eq. VN¼ VABCN(4).7.(7.4 Three-Phase Power System 307 Figure 7.(7. -YAB Ybl+YBN+YAB+YBC -YBC -YBN.*(Vabc(:)-VABC). -YAN -YBN -YCN YAN+YBN+YCN+Ynl]. Yabcl¼1. Yang.S_total]¼y_dy(Vabc./ZABC)’ % Complex power of Delta-load % The sum of complex powers for the Y-connected and Delta-connected loads disp( ‘Total complex power’ S_total ¼ S_Y þ S_D ). 0].VABC.Iabc.Ic]¼ the three line currents % S_total¼ the total 3-phase complex power % Copyleft: Won Y. YCA¼YABC(3)./Zabcl. Ynl¼Yabcl(4). % each line admittance Y¼[ Yal+YAN+YAB+YCA -YAB -YCA -YAN. % each of Delta-connected admittances Yal¼Yabcl(1). Ycl*Vc.ZABC.Ib. YABC¼1.(6.ZABCN. YBC¼YABC(2). wyyang53@hanmail. if length(Zabcl)>3. % Eq.23) VABC¼ VABCN(1:3).6 The Y-Á/Y conﬁguration of a three-phase power system function [ VN.

ZCA ¼ 52:53 þ j28:94 CAB ¼ À Imf1=ZAB g ¼ 29:62 mF.1) MATLAB Analysis and PSpice Simulation of a Three-Phase Power System Consider the three-phase power system in Figure 7. Vc ¼ 120ﬀ þ120 ðE7:1:1Þ ðE7:1:2Þ ðE7:1:3Þ ð! ¼ 2f ¼ 2 Â 60 ﬃ 377 rad=sÞ with Ral ¼ Rbl ¼ Rcl ¼ 0:6 . RBL ¼ 14 . ! Imf1=ZBC g ¼ 23:48 mF. LAL ¼ 29:18 mH. CBC ¼ À ZCL ¼ 17 þ j8 ðE7:1:4Þ ðE7:1:5Þ ! ZAB ¼ 42:77 þ j31:52. as a general rule the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected one should be made. yd conversionð Þ ZBL ¼ RBL þ j!LBL ¼ 14 þ j9.7 PSpice simulation of a three-phase power system (Example 7. LBL ¼ 23:87 mH. the parallel combination . ZBC ¼ 45:78 þ j25:40. the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected load is made and the values of the capacitances are found such that each parallel combination of a capacitor and a load in Áconnections will be purely resistive: ZAL ¼ RAL þ j!LAL ¼ 16 þ j11.308 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits Figure 7. where the voltage sources and the resistances/ inductances of the transmission lines and loads are Three voltage sources : Three line impedances Va ¼ 120ﬀ0 . CCA ¼ 21:34 mF ! Note that in order to ﬁnd the composite impedance of a Y-connected load and a Á-connected load. Vb ¼ 120ﬀÀ120 . Lal ¼ Lbl ¼ Lcl ¼ 3:1835 mH RCL ¼ 17 LCL ¼ 21:22 mH Three load impedances with RAL ¼ 16 . To ﬁnd the values of the capacitances for PF correction.7(a). The bank of three Á-connected capacitors connected in dotted lines with the system will be installed to improve the power factor of the three-phase load to unity (100%).

and Ic . It ﬁnds the bank of Á-connected capacitances CAB . the Á-Y conversion made of the composite loads. the Y-Á conversion can be made of the Y-connected loads.0618 0.16) to (7.1835e-3.ZABC_C.87e-3.Zabcl).(E7.VABCN_c.1. It uses the routine yd_conversion( ) to get the equivalent Á-connected loads.0eþ002 * 1.ZBL. moreover./(jw*CABC).5) PFc ¼ 1. In any case it would be very time consuming to do Y-Á or Á-Y conversions and.m is composed and run to perform the following jobs: (1) It uses the routine y_y( ) to solve the three-phase system without the bank of capacitors. Alternatively.22e-3. % The line impedances (E7.2657i 1. % The source frequency Vabc ¼[ 120 120*exp(Àj*2*pi/3) 120*exp(j*2*pi/3)]. % Eq. It uses the routine y_dy( ) to solve the composite three-phase system consisting of the Yconnected loads and the Á-connected bank of PF compensating capacitors.PFc)/w % Alternatively.4 Three-Phase Power System 309 of the two Á-connected loads is computed. and the three line currents Ia .6þjw*3.2043þ4.SABC]¼y_y(Vabc.1.4) % Analysis of 3-phase 3-wire power system without PF correction ZABCL¼[ ZAL ZBL ZCL]. the equivalent Á-connected loads combined in parallel with the Á-connected capacitors.6 ZABC_C¼1.1.4135i 1.2) % Y-connected three-phase load impedances from Eq.8994 Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers 1.SABC_c]¼y_dy(Vabc.(E7. %Impedances of Delta-connected compensating capacitors disp(‘After PF correction’ ) % Analysis of 3-phase 3-wire power system with Delta-connected capacitors [ VN_c. w¼ 2*pi*f. Thus the MATLAB routines y_y( ) and y_dy( ) will be used and the PSpice simulation will be performed to analyze this circuit.(E7.Iabc_c.1294 À1.0616 À1. and the routine y_y( ) used to solve the equivalent Y-Y three-phase system with the bank of capacitors. [ ZAB.0560i .0623 À0.1) Zal ¼0.3305 6.ZABCL. jw¼ j*w.(E7.8893 À137.1784 0.ZABCL.18) with the above dirty values to compute the phase voltages and currents by hand. Ib . and CCA that should be connected in parallel with the Á-connected loads to make them purely resistive so that the PF will be raised to unity (1).ZCL).3) ZAL¼16þjw*29.3107þ3. Sec. 6. VB .1287 À0.2211 0. The above MATLAB program cir07e01. and VC at the receiving ends.Zabcl). % Eq. ZCL¼17þjw*21.8743 6. the three-phase voltages VA . (a) The program cir07e01. the Á-Y conversion of the composite Á-connected circuit is made to an overall Y-connected circuit.Iabc.18e-3.(E7.0215 0. as needed. where y_y( ) ﬁnds the load-side neutral voltage VN . % desired Power Factor for correction CABC¼ wC_for_PF_correction([ ZAB ZBC ZCA]. %cir07e01. (2) (3) (4) Note.4942þ3.m is run to get the following result: >>cir07e01 Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼ 10.1. % Eq.VABCN. Zabcl¼[ Zal Zal Zal].5319 5.4) disp(‘Capacitances to be connected in parallel with the existing load’) CABC¼ -imag(1.1.ZCA]¼ yd_conversion(ZAL. ZBL¼14þjw*23.1.ZBC./[ ZAB ZBC ZCA])/w % Eq.7.m clear f¼60. and then. apply the formulas (7. [ VN. CBC .1296 1.

3þ1143.3062 Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers 116.3953 1917.8903 5. click Run. Ib . VC ¼ 112:96ﬀ117:84 Ic ¼ 6:18ﬀ87:43 VC ¼ 116:16ﬀ116:89 Ic ¼ 5:57ﬀ114:06 ! VA ¼ 116:77ﬀ À 3:00 . 7. Ia ¼ 6:23ﬀÀ33:05 . compare the numeric values of VA . and move the cross-type cursor to the 60 Hz position by pressing the left/right (Shiftþ)Arrow key or by using the left/right mouse button. Ib ¼ 6:16ﬀÀ153:19 . The complex powers of the Y-connected three-phase load and the Á-connected capacitor bank are 1917:3 þ j1143:9 and Àj1143.6525 À123.5684 114.5 Electric Shock and Grounding DC circuits have been discussed in the ﬁrst four chapters and AC circuits have also been studied.2134 After PF Correction Neutral Voltage(Mag&Phase) at Load side¼ 5. Ib .9i 116. click the graphic symbol before each variable name at the bottom part of the Probe window by the left/right mouse button.0588 This means that VA ¼ 112:87ﬀÀ2:15 . – In the Simulation Settings dialog box.0e-004 * 0.6847 À121. – Click the Run button on the toolbar to make the PSpice A/D (Probe) window appear on the screen as depicted in Figure 7. and Ic with those obtained from the MATLAB analysis in (a). Equipped with basic knowledge about circuit theory and electrical terminology such as voltage and current. click the Toggle Cursor button on the toolbar.9233 À170. (b) Perform the PSpice simulation for the three-phase circuit in Figure 7.7(b1)). and VC at the receiving ends have become higher with the PF correction. we may well relate the theory to the electrical devices and systems around us and begin to think about not only the usefulness but also the potential danger of electricity. and Ic at the appropriate points as depicted in Figure 7. – Place V/VP/I/IP Markers to measure the magnitudes/phases of VA .7743 À3.9i 116. VC . Ia . VC . Finally.0040 5.7(a). – Draw the schematic as depicted in Figure 7. 2.1170 0 À1143. and Points/Decade ¼ 200. Ib ¼ 5:68ﬀ À 121:12 .2124 À2.9.310 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits Capacitances to be connected in parallel with the existing load CABC ¼ 1. respectively.3196 5. VB ¼ 116:65ﬀ À 123:32 .7(a). Ia ¼ 5:21ﬀ À 2:40 .1562 116. But what use is all our knowledge if we . you may celebrate your success.2962 0. Thus the composite complex power is purely real. Ia .7(a). VB . Then you can read the numeric value of the measured variable from the Probe Cursor box (Figure 7. End Frequency ¼ 61. VB . Note. Note the following: 1. where the three VAC voltage sources are placed and their ACPHASE values are set to 0 or À120 or þ120 in the Property Editor spreadsheet.2348 0. implying that the resulting power factor of 100 % has been achieved by the PF correction. – Modify the schematic by placing the capacitors as depicted in the dotted lines. – To get the numeric values of the measured variables. The amplitudes of the voltages VA . Do not place the capacitors yet. PF correction VB ¼ 112:94ﬀÀ121:11 . If they turn out to be (almost) the same. VB . and get the new numeric values of the measured variables (Figure 7.7(b2)). Electricity quickly endangers our lives as well as meeting our convenience. set the Analysis type to ‘AC Sweep’ with the parameters as Start Frequency ¼ 59.7(b1).

Make sure that there is a third wire on the plug for grounding in case of a short-circuit accident. 2. Even though a person happens to be brought into contact with a conductor at high voltage. belt.’ To be more speciﬁc. our discussion on this aspect will be very limited. if one catches one power line with one leg and another line with the other leg. The voltage is just a potential cause of a dangerous accident. you should be very careful because it takes time to discharge after the power is off. Turn off the electricity without assuming that the circuit is dead. while the safety issue may require several volumes for a comprehensive treatment. it should be answered sincerely as follows: ‘Both of them. which might be ﬂowing in the ground line. The fault current should ﬂow through the third wire to ground instead of through the operator’s body to ground if an electric power apparatus is grounded or an insulation breakdown occurs. Respecting all voltage levels. especially when touching a high-voltage system. a question may arise: ‘Which electricity endangers our life.smud. 6. Even an electrostatic voltage higher than 20 kV. Likewise. let us put aside the theoretical aspects for a moment and think about the electrical safety issue. However. causing a fatal shock.5 Electric Shock and Grounding 311 happen to get injured or die as a result of an electrical accident? At this point. while so is the latter as a consequence. If they have a capacitor of large capacitance. irrespective of the voltage causing it. How can birds sit on a power line without getting an electrical shock? It is because they are not touching the ground and so the electricity cannot ﬁnd a path to ﬂow to the ground. Note. note the following tips to avoid electrical shock when you are going to touch electrical/electronic appliances: 1. Such a difference indicates that an abnormal diversion of current occurs from the hot line. clothing. yields nothing more than a little discomfort to a human being because it usually causes the current to ﬂow mainly over the body surface. Noting that prevention is the best medicine. Use a dry board. a person may be killed by 100 V AC or a much lower voltage of DC. it will be killed instantly before realizing how serious the mistake is. 3. which may damage some electronic devices. 5. gloves. etc. since the resistance of a human body with wet skin can be as small as a few hundred ohms. (a) Figure 7. or other available nonconductive material to free the victim from electrical shock. wear suitable clothing (insulated shoes. Do not touch the victim until the source of electricity is removed. Before going into an example addressing the safety issue.org/safety/world/index. the fatality of an electrical shock depends on several factors such as how large the current is and how long and through which part of the human body the current ﬂows.html> is worthwhile to visit for more information about electrical safety. but the former is dangerous as a cause. it would not be so dangerous as long as the resistance of the path via his/her body between the points of contact or the contact and the ground is large enough to keep the current less than a few milliamperes. high voltage or large current?’ Even if this question may sound absurd.7. use safety devices.8(a) shows the connection diagram for a GFI that is used to prevent an electrical hazard against the case where the insulation of the motor winding inside the metal case fails and a user . The website <http://www.). do not touch them when you are wet. and that for only a few microseconds. electricity could travel down the string and into your body on its way to the ground. (Example 7. if your kite or balloon gets tangled in a power line when you touch the string. However. and use just one (right) hand. 4. However. In the context of electrical safety.2) Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) with Grounding to Prevent an Electrical Hazard Ground fault interrupters are designed to prevent an electrical shock by interrupting a household circuit when there is a difference between the currents in the hot and neutral lines.

Note that in a normal situation with perfect insulation. in the case where the insulation of the motor winding inside the metal case fails. i. (b) Figure 7.8 GFI process for preventing. a large current ﬂows from the fault position to the ground. the primary current of the current transformer (CT) (Problem 5. Since .8(b) shows how the GFI detects a short-circuit and produces a tripping signal to open the switch.312 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits Figure 7. detecting. so that IA À IN > 0 and a nonzero current through the secondary coil produces a tripping signal to open the switch.e. and the consequences of no grounding touches the metal case. and tripping a short-circuit. This current will be IA .11) is IA À IN ¼ 0 so that the secondary coil carries no current to produce a force needed to open the switch.

and Ic ) with no capacitors in the polar form as VA ¼ 112ﬀ À1:58 with three signiﬁcant digits. The GFI is expected to detect currents of a few milliamperes and trip a breaker to remove the shock hazard. Problems 7. This makes us realize the importance of the grounding or ‘chassis ground’ for safety.9 describes the situation where the power line feeding house A is interrupted because of some fault and the person living in the house borrows electric power from his neighbor B (fed from another power line) by connecting a long extension cord between an outside receptacle in house A and another in house B. a line technician from the utility company comes to reconnect the circuit breaker at the primary side installed on the utility pole. VB . Everything is almost the same as in (b) except that the fault current ﬂows to the ground not directly. 6th edition. Basic Engineering Circuit analysis. and outside. Besides. (c) Find the voltages (VA . and Ic ) with the capacitors for PF correction in the polar form as Ia ¼ 5:15ﬀ À3:33 with three signiﬁcant digits. but via the human body till the switch is opened by operation of the GFI so that the user might get an electrical shock before the circuit is interrupted. the fault current is less than that with grounding. . Irwin and C. he/she might touch contact b (at 6600 V) without wearing any nonconductive gloves and might never see his/her family again. VB . After the fault is recovered. 1999. Source: # Prentice-Hall) the metal case is grounded. Ib . However. Example 11. possibly causing some delay in the tripping operation of the GFI. Ib .20. (b) Find the three capacitances needed to raise the power factor of the three-phase load to unity (1) in the form CAB ¼ 49:3 mF with three signiﬁcant digits. Note. the typical limit of current to be interrupted by them is 20 A and their tripping operation is too slow to prevent electrocution. (c) Figure 7.12 with Figure 11. (a) Find the voltages (VA . Not being informed of the fact that house A is fed from another power line and so the power transformer A is alive. and VC ) at the load end and the line currents (Ia .1 An Unbalanced 3-3w (Three-Phase Three-Wire) Power System Figure P7.1 shows a Y-Y type of 3-3w power system operated at the source frequency of 60 Hz. D. near swimming pools. H.Problems 313 Figure 7. the user touching it will get no electrical shock regardless of whether the GFI works or not.3) Danger Hidden behind Help (Source: J. That is why GFIs are required by the electrical code for receptacles in bathrooms and kitchens.9 (From Reference [I-1]. where a bank of capacitors are to be installed for power factor (PF) correction. Fuses and/or breakers are used to limit the current in most household applications. Wu. (Example 7.8(c) shows the situation in which the metal case is not grounded. Source: # Prentice Hall) Figure 7. and VC ) at the load end and the line currents (Ia .

jw¼j*w. .VABCN_c.m f ¼60. %cir07p02.314 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits Figure P7.m and run it.Iabc_c.VABCN.ZABC. Fill in the blanks of Table P7. Referring to the MATLAB program cir07e01.2 An Unbalanced 3-4w (Three-Phase Four-Wire) Power System Figure P7. once with the bank of capacitors and once without it. Zbl¼Zal. You can complete the following MATLAB program cir07p02.[ Zabcl Znl]). ZABC¼ À1. ZBL¼???? þjw*???????. Za ZAL¼??? þj*???????. (d) Perform the PSpice simulation (AC Sweep analysis for 200 frequency points/decade between 59 Hz and 61 Hz) two times. % D-connected load disp(‘After PF correction’) [ VN_c. Zabcl¼[ Zb Zcl]. Zcl¼Zal.ZABCL. Znl¼? þjw*??????.SABC_c]¼y_dy(Vabc. Hint.1 in Section 7.1 Results of the theoretical analysis and PSpice simulation VA Before PF correction After PF correction Theoretical PSpice Theoretical PSpice 112ﬀ À1:58 113ﬀ À120 118ﬀ118 VB VC Ia Ib Ic 5:25ﬀ85:5 4:22ﬀÀ128 5:15ﬀÀ3:32 7.Iabc.1. use the MATLAB routines y_y( ) and/or y_dy( ).SABC]¼y_y(Vabc.1 with the PSpice simulation results and the theoretical analysis results obtained in (a) and (c).m presented for solving Example 7. Zal¼??? þjw*??????.1 Hint. CABC¼ [???????? ???????? ????????].ZABCL./(jw*CABC). Table P7. Make a table similar to Table P7. % The Y-connected load [ VN. ZABCL ¼ [ ZAL ZBL ZCL]. ZCL¼???? þjw*???????. once without the PF compensating capacitors and once with them.[ Zabcl Znl]). Perform the MATLAB analysis and PSpice simulation for the system two times.4.2 shows a Y-Y type of 3-4w power system operated at the source frequency of 60 Hz. Vabc ¼[ 120 120*exp(Ài*2*pi/3) 120*exp(i*2*pi/3)]. w ¼2*pi*f.

the parallel connection of the Yconnected load and the Á-connected load should be initiated by making the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected one rather than making the Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected one.4 and illustrated in Figure P7. Then use the MATLAB routine y_y( ) to solve the circuit and check if the results agree with those obtained in Problem 7.2 7. combine it with the Á-connected capacitor bank in parallel. and VC in the following two ways: (1) Make the Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected capacitor bank and combine it with the Yconnected load in parallel (Figure P7. Figure P7.1(c).3(b1)–(b2)).3 Parallel combination of the Y-connected load and the Á-connected load . solve the circuit with the capacitor bank in Figure P7.3(c1)–(c3)).3.1 to ﬁnd VA . Then use the MATLAB routine y_y( ) to solve the circuit and check if the results agree with those obtained in Problem 7. and make the Á-g conversion (Figure P7. VB .1(c).Problems 315 Figure P7. (2) Make the Y-Á conversion of the Y-connected load.3 Parallel Combination of the Unbalanced Y-Connected Load and Á-Connected Load As mentioned in Section 7. (a) To be assured of this assertion.

Zabcl) % To solve a 3p-3w system with Delta-connected loads %Input: Vabc¼[ Vb Vc]: the three phase voltage sources Va % ZABC¼[ ZAB ZBC ZCA]: the Delta-connected three phase load impedances % Zabcl¼[ Zal Zbl Zcl]: the three line impedances %Output: VABC¼ [ VA.4. Zbl Ic ¼ Vc À VC Zcl ðP7:4:2Þ This solution procedure for the Y-Á connected 3-3w power system is cast into the following MATLAB routine y_d( ).4 A Y-Á connected 3-3w (three-phase three-wire) power system (b) Does the parallel combination of a Y-connected load and a Á-connected load work for a 3-4w power system like the one depicted in Figure P7.SABC]¼y_d(Vabc. and VC as follows: 2 32 3 2 3 VA Yal Va Yal þ YAB þ YCA ÀYAB ÀYCA 4 54 VB 5 ¼ 4 Ybl Vb 5 ÀYAB Y bl þ YAB þ YBC ÀYBC ðP7:4:1Þ ÀYCA ÀYBC Yc l þ YCA þ YBC VC Ycl Vc After solving this set of equations for VA.Iabc. Ycl¼Yabcl(3). VB . YAB¼YABC(1). VABC ¼ Y\[ Yal*Va.Ib.ZABC. A set of node equations can be written in the three unknown node voltages VA .28) disp(‘Load end voltages(Mag&Phase) Line currents(Mag&Phase) Complex powers’) disp([ abs(VABC) angle(VABC)*180/pi abs(Iabc) angle(Iabc)*180/pi SABC]) . % each of Y-connected admittances Yal¼Yabcl(1)./ZABC. Vc¼Vabc(3).(P7. Ybl*Vb. YBC¼YABC(2).(P7.VB. and VC . wyyang53@hanmail. CAU for academic use only Va¼Vabc(1). % Eq. (6. Ybl¼Yabcl(2). % Solve Eq. YCA¼YABC(3).*conj(VABC_Delta.Ic]: the three line currents % SABC¼[ SAB. VB .316 Chapter 7 Three-Phase AC Circuits Figure P7.VC]: the load-side end voltages % Iabc¼[ Ia.SBC. Yang.4./ZABC(:)). the line currents can be obtained as Ia ¼ Va À VA .2? 7.2) VABC_Delta¼ VABC-VABC([ 3 1]).4 shows a Y-Á type of 3-3w power system operated at the source frequency of 60 Hz. Vb¼Vabc(2). % Delta phase voltages 2 SABC ¼ VABC_Delta.*(Vabc(:)-VABC). -YCA -YBC YclþYBC þYCA]./Zabcl. % each line admittance Y¼[ YalþYABþYCA -YAB -YCA. Ycl*Vc]. YABC¼1.4 An Unbalanced Y-Á Connected 3-3w Power System Figure P7. Yabcl¼1.SCA]: the 3-phase complex power % Copyleft: Won Y. % Eq. -YAB YblþYABþYBC -YBC. Zal Ib ¼ Vb À VB . function [ VABC.1) Iabc ¼ Yabcl(:).net.

and Ic . Ia . VB .5 Comparison of various power transmission schemes Transmission scheme Transmitted power Weight of power lines Ratio of transmitted power to weight of lines 1-2w P1 ¼ V 2 =RL 2M ð1=2ÞP1 =M 1-3w P2 ¼ 2V 2 =RL ¼ 2P1 2:5M ð4=5ÞP1 =M 3-4w P3 ¼ 3V 2 =RL ¼ 3P1 3:5M ð6=7ÞP1 =M .5 Comparison of Various Power Transmission Schemes Figure P7. and Ic . VC . 1-3w. Ib .4 for VA. Does the solution agree with that obtained in (a)? 7. Ia . (b) Make the Á-Y conversion of the Á-connected loads and make use of the MATLAB routine y_y( ) to solve the power system for VA. VC .5(a).5 Figures P7. VB . Ib . and 3-4w transmission schemes. (b). respectively.5. and (c) show 1-2w.Problems 317 (a) Make use of the MATLAB routine y_d( ) to solve the power system of Figure P7. where the mass of the neutral line is assumed to be half of that ðMÞ of a hot line. Verify that the ratio of the power to the weight of power transmission lines for each of the three schemes is as listed in Table P7. Table P7.

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