ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO

ONLY IN INDIA

SLUM UPGRADING, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE & SCARCE RESOURCES

2012

NICHOLAS SOCRATES

SITE SURVEYS 4. 8. 10. 13. 14. 16. 18. 19. 20. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Land survey Water survey Cultural survey Site impressions Material survey Making the site model Nala direction Land use Landmark buildings on site: key Generic railway worker's housing blocks On-site Hindu temple Abandoned & built over old well Old / abandoned railway office New water tower Old water tower New railway office Meeting with the railway control officer

PHASE 3: THE BRIDGE 74. Danger crossing the tracks 75. Research: 15,000 deaths per year crossing the railway tracks in India 76. Danger crossing the tracks on-site 77. Initial concept sketches for the bridge 80. Research: Gandi & The Railways 81. Quantity survey: reusing the abandoned railway elements for the bridge construction 82. Initial structural diagrams for the bridge 83. Bridge construction sequence 84. Reconnecting two communities 85. Proposed figure ground 86. Renders showing the bridge's continuation of the existing access 87. Plan showing the bridge's continuation of the existing access 88. Bridge renders & sections 90. The market side 91. Examples of existing bridges within a walkable proximity to the site 92. Bridge renders 95. Making the bridge model 96. Stair access to the bridge 97. Bridge plan 98. Bridge isometric 99. Reused construction elements 101. Bridge assembly details 106. Bridge renders

MASTERPLAN 32. Initial masterplan sketches 34. Proposed masterplan 44. Phasing

PHASE 1: DEWAT 48. Location 49. Philosophy 50. Precedents 51. DEWAT Proposal 52. DEWAT and irrigation proposal 53. Research: Agriculture in India

PHASE 4: 'UNDER THE BRIDGE' MARKET & CONTAINER WALL 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 120. 121. Location Phase 4 proposal synopsis Shipping containers in site proximity Research: Health issues & the lack of affordable hospitals in the area Case Study: 'Smile on Wheels' Mobile medical clinic, Mumbai 3D cutout through the proposed plugin medical clinic container unit Research: Health in India (UNICEF) & 'Smile on Wheels' Mobile medical clinic Proposed 'Under the Bridge' market renders & sections Research: 'Doc-in-a-Box' Micro-Franchising model Research: Health situation in Agra

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING 56. 57. 58. 59. 64. 65. 66. 68. 69. 70. 71. Location Existing building Phase 2 proposal synopsis Sections & elevations Climate diagrams: Rain water harvesting Climate diagrams: Solar shading 1:1 prototype of the bamboo and sari silk shading wall & window element Research: Nutrition in India Ground floor restaurant / cafe proposal Research: Education in India Slum school proposal

CONTENTS

PHASE 5: UN-ZONED TRADING ROUTE / ROOF EXTENSION 126. 127. 128. 132. 133. 134. 135. Location Phase 5 project synopsis Sections & renders Research: To zone of not to zone Trading route market render Research: Why official planning does not work in hyper dense areas Trading route market render

PHASE 6-7 (b): VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER 176. 177. 178. 180. 182. 184. 185. Location Phase 6-7 (b) project synopsis Plans, sections & elevations Wireframe models Assembly details Detailed plan 3D assembly details

PHASE 6-8 (a): THE GRID. AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCKS 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 146. 147. 152. 153. 154. 158. 159. 161. 162. 163. 164. 168. 170. 171. 172. 173. Proposed masterplan Masterplan renders: Areas of density, enclaves, streets & squares. Case study: Residence Buffalo, Fernand Poullion Shipping containers in site proximity Research: Modifications shipping containers Making the 1:100 Housing block model 1:1 prototype for the bamboo and sari silk shading wall and window invention Affordable Housing / Container block occupied living units Wireframe model and mid-site section Sections & elevations 'Pour Flush Toilet' (composting latrine) plan 'Pour Flush Toilet' (composting latrine) section Affordable Housing / Container block elevations with shading wall and windows installed Climate diagrams: Rain water harvesting Climate diagrams: Solar shading 3D cutout through water tanks & toilet area Isometric housing block & elevations Isometric building elements Assembly details 3D assemblage drawings Affordable Housing / Container block occupied living units Render: Proposed idea Research: India's agriculture & composting process Render: Proposed idea

PROJECT SUMMARY 188. Proposed masterplan 194. Phasing 197. Proposal summary

CONTENTS

On location land survey, drawn on our first day on site. Here we had to map a part of the slum which was not present on any map before (centre). This preliminary survey shows signs of looking into nala flow direction, land use and locating areas of neglect. All of which were further realised on later surveys in the following days on site.

ON-SITE LAND SURVEY

4

The Map shows the flow and direction of the nalas (external drains), polluted swamps, areas of neglect and the flow of people (the routes they take and where they cross the railway tracks).

ON-SITE LAND SURVEY

5

On location sections through the route where the locals cross the railway tracks, from the slum dwellings to the market on the other side.

ON-SITE LAND SURVEY. SECTION: SLUM SETTLEMENT BLOCKS - MARKET

6

Sections through the route where the locals cross the railway tracks, from the slum dwellings to the market on the other side.

LAND SURVEY. SECTION: SLUM SETTLEMENT BLOCKS - MARKET

7

On location section through a polluted stagnant swamp. Several nalas flow into this polluted pond. It is the result of approxamately 40 homes wastewater. This neglected area has also fallen into a spiral decline as it now is also used as a small dumping ground. The pond is likely to exist at a very low point of the site, so therefore the water , due to gravity is not able to flow anywhere; creating a stagnant pond of polluted water. It may be possible that this pond has been man made as a flood relief zone, in times of monsoon. When on site we saw some children throw a live tortose into the polluted pond. For sure the tortose would die from this. This polluted area is an important area to clean and regenerate.

POLLUTED LAKE

8

On location drawings showing sections through a nala (an external drain, which was flooding on a regular basis and was causing dangerous situation for the locals. This polluted ‘pond’ is the result of an overflowed nala. Many nalas from the site flow this way and this particular nala overflows because it is a bottle neck and uncapable of retaining all the dirty water. As well as the dirty water overflowing the area becomes a spiral of decline as much rubbish is then consequently dumped here. Luckily this overflow is naturally made better than I first thought as the naurally growing plants filter the dirty water. This nala in times of flood will not work as a filter and the dirty water will spread, polluting the surrounding area.

POLLUTED POND

9

Personal Experience Several events, over the 10 days we were on site, took me back to the reality of what it could be like to live in this area in this way. On our first day as we were departing the site with 30 children following us, asking for photo’s and pens and shaking our hands continuously - we were overwhelmed: it was our first day and unaccustomed to it - we thought it was time to leave as the intensity grew stronger and louder. The children stopped following us as we moved away from the area in which they lived in and we all said good-bye. At this point we all decided to sit down on an old bench and rest, slightly discombobulated from our first days experience. At this point of stillness we saw a man walking very slowly holding on to his wife who had a single crutch, which was too big. She was hobbling along

with her husband and a crutch as support. The lady sat down at the same bench as us and she was in great pain. We asked her husband what was wrong and it was either her hip or her leg, which was broken. She was in a lot of pain and moving made it hurt even more. Someone from our group asked, ‘Are you going to a hospital?’ but for sure the answer was no. The second experience, which happened on site was when I was on my own. A boy was really insisting me to give him some money, I replied by saying that money was not a good idea and that he should continue to help me measure the water-tower, which he did, but was quite persistent asking me for money several times every twenty seconds or so, whilst holding the end of the tape. After a few minutes of this he got very annoyed at me, stopped helping with the measuring and started demanding money quite seriously.

This was quite disturbing, and he was very loud. I told him ‘no’ and I continued to measure on my own, which isn’t that easy for long distance measuring. The boy went away. One minute later he was back. This time holding his little sister of maybe only 6 months of age. He continued demanding and demanding, but I was busy measuring. I finally looked up and he was actually asking for money whilst showing me his little sisters wrist, which had a severe open wound on it. The baby’s wound was the size of a packet ten of cigarettes. It looked very bad, not that recent, and it was not being treated in any way. The third experience was the most sobering of all. Just as our fourth day on site was coming to an end our auto-rickshaw driver was there and waiting for us and we were all heading towards the ‘tuc-tuc’ car to go to home to the hotel,

when we all , at the same moment, looked over at once, and there was a girl of probably one and a half to two years of age standing in a large puddle of very dirty sewage water, and then we witnessed her bending down and drinking the water using her hands to scoop the it up to her mouth. She was standing there alone she was thirsty and she did not know not to drink it. She must of drank at least half a dozen handfuls of this brown water. We did not see this girl again for our remaining 6 days on site. For sure she got very ill from this. There is no first aid or medical centre anywhere close to the site. Because hospitals are costly and far away to travel, especially when not well, locals who get ill or women who are pregnant deal with what they have by themselves, this may result in extended illness, continued disease or unnecessary death.

Waterborne Diseases
Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden pollution. In many areas, the problem is exacerbated by falling levels of groundwater, mainly caused by increasing extraction for irrigation. In some parts of the country, Several million more su er from multiple episodes of diarrhea Access to protected sources of excessive arsenic and uoride in and still others fall ill on account drinking water has improved drinking water also pose a major of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, dramatically over the years. health threat. intestinal worms and eye and skin Most rural water supply systems, The lack of toilets also a ects infections caused by poor hygiene especially the hand-pumps girls’ school attendance. Of India’s and unsafe drinking water. generally used by the poor, 700,000 rural primary and upper are using groundwater. But primary schools, only one in six Unhygienic practices and unsafe inadequate maintenance and have toilets, deterring children drinking water are some of its neglect of the environment - especially girls - from going to main causes. More than 122 around water sources has led to school. million households in the country increasing levels of groundwater is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries. are without toilets. Even though toilets are built in about 3 million households every year, the annual rate of increase has been a low 1 per cent in the past decade.

CULTURAL SURVEY: PERSONAL EXPERIENCE & INDIA HEALTH RESEARCH

10

Introduction - North Group Our site in India is situated, north of the Taj Mahal, across the river Yamuna, somewhat separated from main-land Agra. The site is adjacent to, but set back from the railway lines, relatively close to a the Yamuna Bridge railway station. The railway tracks are not too busy. One train, either full of passengers or cargo of industrial goods or building materials comes or goes once every hour or so; more times than not just passing by without stopping. With a busy market on one side of the railway tracks, and a collection of slum settlements on the other; the two sides are separated. The slums, somewhat isolated from mainland Agra; exist as ‘Edge-Lands’ and they have a rural / urban-rural feel to them. As soon as we crossed the railway lines, from our site, to the side of the market, we noticed a sudden change in the infrastructure; where everything is paved, the sewers are concreted and they are working very well; the quality of living is evidently higher on the market side, where the proximity to the centre of Agra (across the near-by Yamuna bridge) is much more accessible. The market sells most things and has a general industrial feel to it; selling all types of building materials with various factories and workshops in the area; here, business is relatively booming. Our site (on the other side) is a large open space (owned by the railway company) and has 11 generic, low rise housing blocks, 7 of an identical type; handed and mirrored parallel to each other adjacent to the battered road parallel yet set back from the railway tracks - the other 4 blocks are of another type, existing at the back of the site in a similar way. These blocks are over 60 years old, built during the English rule in India, before 1945. They were built for railway workers and still today are occupied by only railway maintenance low-pay employees, which over the years, these buildings have become generally run-down, some seriously dilapidated, the majority of which are abandoned, only occupied by approximately 15%. The blocks are mirrored; they face each other, therefore all living and life takes place on the facing sides, but this leaves a dead space at the backs of the blocks, either swamped by dirty water or used as storage for railway material, however one back-to-back zone is actually used very regularly; it being the most direct path to get from the open space common ground (therefore the slum settlements) to the continuing path which crosses the railway tracks; to get to the other side; a journey made by many twice daily coming and going from work or school or visiting the near-by market. During our meeting with a superior railway controller in his, raised 6 metres first-floor railway control centre, over looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site said that these blocks will be demolished in 3 years times; to be replaced by a nation-wide training centre or institute for the railway company. Many residents of the area said the same. These centres or institutes are large in size and are usually uncompromising in urban design strategy and awareness; whether this will actually go ahead or not, especially in India, is uncertain. The two end blocks, of the seven, are more known to be demolished, as they are both completely abandoned and dilapidated. More locals know this, but whether or not all 11 blocks will be knocked down to make room for a training centre, is unclear. Maybe one of our projects of regeneration or transformation, if shown in time and, to the right people in India, will persuade the railway company to save these housing units, hopefully they will see our projects and realise the necessity and the potentials of our site; these housing blocks and the open space, as the common ground for the 3 surrounding slum settlements. Hopefully in our proposals we will communicate the need and the importance of our site, not only to remain but, for the greater good of the local people, to be regenerated and transformed and will make them put their railway training centre somewhere else.

NORTH OF KACHPURA SITE INTORDUCTION

11

THE COMMUNITY OF SLUM RESIDENTS WE GOT TO KNOW

12

Photos taken from the 1st floor external gallery of the new railway control office: Overlooking the the site; the tracks and the Blocks.

Photos taken in front of the Blocks looking towards the railway tracks. Note: Railway control office in the centre of the image.

Photos taken behind the Blocks, looking at them from the side. Still looking towards the railway. Note: Railway control office in the centre of the image; looking through two back-to-back Blocks, which is the regualr path used to exit or enter the large open space to or from the tracks.

SITE MONTAGE PHOTOGRAPHS

13

MATERIAL SURVEY: MEASURING THE ELEMENTS

14

CONCRETE SLEEPER = The foundations for the container homes & the banks for the nala’s channel.

WOODEN SLEEPER = Decking for bridge, ramp and decking for external galleries.

RAILWAY TRACK = Column for bridge and other constructions on site. Use four tracks back to back - in pairs

I-BEAMS = Beams for bridge, external galleries and other construction on site.

OHE PYLON 1 = Posts for the banisters of stairs and the saftey banister of the bridge..

OHE PYLON 2 = Beams for bridge and other construction on site and use for the cantilever of the bridge.

CONCRETE SEWER PIPE = Temporary accommodation, septic tank, possible large columns and idea for recycling unit.

On location, there was an abundance of ‘railway material’ lying around not being used. Sleepers, railway tracks, OHE’s, I-beams, etc, etc. I measured these materials with the intention to build with them. The theme of the project is ‘Architecture of Rapid Change

& Scarce Resources’, so therefore whatever materials which are readily avaliable must be utilized in the project. There were thousands of materials all over the place on the site, so not only is it wise to utilize them, they are already part of the site’s aesthetic.

MATERIAL SURVEY: MEASURING THE ELEMENTS

15

Contour Thickness : 1mm

+4

+3

+2

+1

0

1 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm

2 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm

3 Story buildings Thickness : 3mm

MAKING THE MODEL

16

104.500 103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000 95.500

98.000

98.000

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500 100.000 100.000 99.500 100.000 100.000 99.500 100.000 101.000 100.500

100.500

100.000

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500 105.000 103.500

103.500 103.000

100.000

102.000 102.500 101.500 101.000 100.500 100.000

MAKING THE MODEL

17

General Store

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Offices

Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings

Muslim Tomb

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5 Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory

General Store Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Office

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

DIRECTION OF NALA FLOW
School

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

14

1

13

2

12

3

11

4

10

8

= 9'-10"

7

1/2"

6

14

x8

5

9 8 7 6

9

5

10

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

4 3 2 1

14

New Water Tower
04

Dilapidated Building
15

02

General Store

Old Water Tower
15

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

05 19
7 6

8

x

6

1/4"

=

9'-10"

5 4 3 2 1

14

14

#DrgID #LayID

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center
01

LAND USE STUDY
General Store
#DrgID #LayID

School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Office
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hair Dressers
Hindu Temple

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop Cooked Food

Waste Pickers

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks Games Arcade Room Temple
Games Arcade Room Hair Dressers Electrical Store

Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Generic Housing Blocks
Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Office Railway Buildings (Private)
General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

N

General Store

1:1000

SITE SURVEY: NALA DIRECTION 1:5000

18

General Store

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Offices

Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings

Muslim Tomb

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5 Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory

General Store Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Office

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

Abandoned
18
1 2

18

15

14

x8

1/2"
6

= 9'-10"
4 5

1 2 3
14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10"

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

8

= 9'-10"

7

1/2"

6

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower
04

School

FLOW & MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE
General Store

3

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 14 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dilapidated Building
15

02

Old Water Tower
15

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

05 19
7 6

8

x

6

1/4"

=

9'-10"

5 4 3 2 1

14

14

#DrgID #LayID

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center
01

LAND USE STUDY
General Store
#DrgID #LayID

School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Office
1
1/4"

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10

11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Hair Dressers
Hindu Temple

22

x 8"

=

14'-9

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop Cooked Food

Waste Pickers

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks Games Arcade Room Temple
Games Arcade Room Hair Dressers Electrical Store

Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Generic Housing Blocks
Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Office Railway Buildings (Private)
General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

N

General Store

1:1000

SITE SURVEY: LAND USE 1:5000

19

KEY: LANDMARK BUILDINGS

20

KEY: LANDMARK BUILDINGS
THE MATHEMATICS OF THE IDEAL VILLA

21

Our site (on the other side) is a large open space (owned by the railway company) and has 11 generic, low rise housing blocks, 7 of an identical type; handed and mirrored parallel to each other adjacent to the battered road parallel yet set back from the railway tracks - the other 4 blocks are of another type, existing at the back of the site in a similar way. These blocks are over 60 years old, built during the English rule in India, before 1945. They were built for railway workers and still today are occupied by only railway maintenance low-pay employees, which over the years, these buildings have become generally run-down, some seriously dilapidated, the majority of which are abandoned, only occupied by approximately 15%. The blocks are mirrored; they face each other, therefore all living and life takes place on the facing sides, but this leaves a dead space at the backs of the blocks, either swamped by dirty water or used as storage for railway material, however one backto-back zone is actually used very regularly; it being the most direct path to get from the open space common ground (therefore the slum settlements) to the continuing path which crosses the railway tracks; to get to the other side; a journey made by many twice daily coming and going from work or school or visiting the near-by market.

GENERIC RAILWAY HOUSING BLOCKS

22

The Hindu Temple based in a central position on the site is used infrequently, but it remains an important part of the community and can be opened and used when someone requires it.

ON-SITE HINDU TEMPE

23

This existing building is abandoned. It was a water well which was later built over with this building. Now neither the building nor the well are being used

ABANDONED AND BUILT OVER OLD WELL

24

This is an abandoned building. It was the origanal railway office control centre. This building is situated in on a concrete island in a no-man’s land in the middle of the railway tracks. Since this building the railway control workers have moved twice from one building to another. As technology develops the control centres get abandoned and they move into a new one.

OLD / ABANDONED RAILWAY OFFICE

25

The new water tower is owned by the railway company. It supplies water to the railway office and the the generic blocks (owned by the railway company for railway workers). For the blocks water is only supplied from 7am -10am

NEW WATER TOWER

26

The new water tower is owned by the railway company. It supplies water to the railway office and the the generic blocks (owned by the railway company for railway workers). For the blocks water is only supplied from 7am -10am The old water tower (like the new) is owned by the railway company. This tower is not in use and abandoned. When I was there on the last two days there were people on top demolishing it part by part (and then just throwing each part/panel from the top to the ground. Quite dangerous. Also children sometimes were using the rusty base as a climbing frame.

OLD WATER TOWER

27

This railway control centre is over looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site

NEW RAILWAY OFFICE

28

During our meeting with a superior railway controller in his first-floor railway control centre, over looking the tracks, situated adjacent to our site said that the generic railway workers accommodation blocks will be demolished in 3 years times; to be replaced by a nation-wide training centre or institute for the railway company. Many residents of the area said the same. These centres or institutes are large in size and are usually uncompromising in urban design strategy and awareness; whether this will actually go ahead or not, especially in India, is uncertain.

VIEWS FROM AND INSIDE THE NEW RAILWAY OFFICE

29

INITIAL MASTERPLAN SKETCHES SHOWING ACCESS, CONNECTION AND FLOW, POTENTIAL BUILDING MASSING, IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURE

32

INITIAL MASTERPLAN SKETCHES SHOWING ACCESS, CONNECTION AND FLOW, POTENTIAL BUILDING MASSING, IRRIGATION AND AGRICULTURE

33

Muslim Tomb

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #DrgID #LayID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500
100 .500

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Office

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

100.000
99.500
04 02

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

8

= 9'-10"

7

1/2"

6

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

Dilapidated Building
15

General Store

05 19
7 6

x

6

1/4"

=

9'-10"

100

1

.000

Old Water Tower
15

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

101.000 100.500
99.500

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

5

4

3

2

99.500

100.500

School

14

1

13

2

12

3

11

4

10

5

9 8 7 6

9

5

10

4 3 2 1

14

97.500

14

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

LAND USE STUDY
General Store School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store Hair Dressers

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Office
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500

Waste Pickers

Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks
Cooked Food

105.000
Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Games Arcade Room Temple
Games Arcade Room

103.500
105 .500

Hair Dressers

Electrical Store

Generic Housing Blocks
Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Office Railway Buildings (Private)
General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

103.500 103.000

N

100.000

102.000 102.500 101.500
General Store

#DrgID #LayID

1:1000

101.000 100.500
School

104.500 100.000 103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

34

96.000

General Store

98.000
96.000
Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Offices

98.000
Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings Muslim Tomb
96.500

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500
100 .50 0

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Office

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

Food Stall Electrical Building Materials Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

DIRECTION OF NALA FLOW

Abandoned
18
1 2
14 x8 1/2" = 9'-10"

18

15

100.000
500
04

3 4

5 6

1 2 3

14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10"

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

8

= 9'-10"

7

1/2"

6

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

99.

Dilapidated Building
15

02

General Store

x6

1/4"

=

9'-10"

100

1

.00

05 19
7 6

5

4

3

2

0

Old Water Tower
15

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

101.000 100.500
500 99.

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

99.

500

100.500

School

FLOW & MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 14 14 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

97.500

14

LAND USE STUDY
General Store School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store Hair Dressers

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Office
1

14'-9

1/4"

2 3 4 5

22

x

8"

=
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID #DrgID #LayID

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm

#DrgID #LayID

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500

Waste Pickers

Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks
Cooked Food

105.000
Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Games Arcade Room Temple
Games Arcade Room

103.500
105. 500

Hair Dressers

Electrical Store

Generic Housing Blocks
Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Office Railway Buildings (Private)
General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

103.500 103.000

104.500 102.000 102.500 101.500
General Store

103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000

100.000

101.000 100.500
School

100.000

N

1:2000

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

35

General Store

98.000
96.000
Yamuna Bridge Railway Station; Platform, Tickets, & Offices

98.000
Abandonded and Dilapidated Railway Buildings Muslim Tomb
96.500

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

Wastepickers Buffalo Farm on Street x4

Building Materials For Sale on Street Bricks For Sale

Parked Trucks x4

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

99.500 98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500
100 .500

Handicraft on Street

Tyre Shops

Parked Truck Cement Office

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

DIRECTION OF NALA FLOW

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

100.000
99.500
04 02

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

8

= 9'-10"

7

1/2"

6

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

Dilapidated Building
15

General Store

05 19
7 6

x

6

1/4"

=

9'-10"

100

1

.000

Old Water Tower
15

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

101.000 100.500
99.500

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

5

4

3

2

99.500

100.500

School

FLOW & MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

14

1

13

2

12

3

11

4

10

5

9 8 7 6

9

5

10

4 3 2 1

14

97.500

14

LAND USE STUDY
General Store School Factory Clothes Shop Electrical Store Hair Dressers

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Office
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID #DrgID #LayID

Building Materials Bike Shop Tyre Shop Buffalo Farm

#DrgID #LayID

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000 103.500 104.000 104.500

Waste Pickers

Waste Pickers Food Stall Handicraft Parked Rickshaws
Veg Shop

General Store

General Store

Parked Trucks
Cooked Food

105.000
Clothes Washing Egg Shop

Games Arcade Room Temple
Games Arcade Room

103.500
105 .500

Hair Dressers

Electrical Store

Generic Housing Blocks
Cement Shop Hay

Railway Control Office Railway Buildings (Private)
General Store

General Store

Cement Shop

Yamuna Bridge Railway Station New Water Tower Old Water Tower Abandoned Building Waste Land / Toilet Foliage Over-Grown

103.500 103.000

104.500 102.000 102.500 101.500
General Store

103.000 101.500 100.000 98.500 97.000

100.000

101.000 100.500
School

100.000

N

MASTERPLAN 1:5000

1:2000

36

MASTERPLAN 1:5000

37

N

FIGURE GROUND OF PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

1:2000

38

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

39

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

40

644 LIVING CONTAINERS. WITH A NEW AVERAGE OCCUPANCY OF 3.2 PEOPLE PER UNIT - THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE.

41

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

42

MASTERPLAN: ‘AREAS OF DENISTY’ CREATING ENCLAVES, STREETS & SQUARES

43

PHASE 3: BRIDGE

PHASE 4b: ‘UNDER THE BRIDGE’ MARKET

PHASE 5: UNZONED TRADING MARKET

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING

PHASE 4a: CONTAINER WALL

PHASE 1: DEWAT

PHASES 1-5

44

PHASE 6b

PHASE 6a

PHASE 7b

PHASE 7a

PHASE 8a

PHASE 8b

PHASES 6-8

45

PHASE 1: DEWAT (DECENTRALISED WATER TREATMENT)

48

Personal Experience Just as our fourth day on site was coming to an end our auto-rickshaw driver was there and waiting for us and we were all heading towards the ‘tuc-tuc’ car to go to home to the hotel, when we all, at the same moment, looked over at once, and there was a girl of probably one and a half to two years of age standing in a large puddle of very dirty sewage water, and then we witnessed her bending down and drinking the water using her hands to scoop the it up to her mouth. She was standing there alone she was thirsty and she did not know not to drink it. She must of drank at least half a dozen handfuls of this brown water. We did not see this girl again for our remaining 6 days on site. For sure she got very ill from this.

Waterborne Diseases
Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden pollution. In many areas, the problem is exacerbated by falling levels of groundwater, mainly caused by increasing extraction for irrigation. In some parts of the country, Several million more su er from multiple episodes of diarrhea Access to protected sources of excessive arsenic and uoride in and still others fall ill on account drinking water has improved drinking water also pose a major of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, dramatically over the years. health threat. intestinal worms and eye and skin Most rural water supply systems, The lack of toilets also a ects infections caused by poor hygiene especially the hand-pumps girls’ school attendance. Of India’s and unsafe drinking water. generally used by the poor, 700,000 rural primary and upper are using groundwater. But primary schools, only one in six Unhygienic practices and unsafe inadequate maintenance and have toilets, deterring children drinking water are some of its neglect of the environment - especially girls - from going to main causes. More than 122 around water sources has led to school. million households in the country increasing levels of groundwater is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries. are without toilets. Even though toilets are built in about 3 million households every year, the annual rate of increase has been a low 1 per cent in the past decade.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. HEALTH & WATERBORN DISEASES

49

BENEFITS OF DECENTRALISED SANITATION MANAGEMENT Benefits of decentralised wastewater management such as with DEWATS include cost efficient investments as only locally available materials and only simplified sewers are required, low running costs and energy savings as no electrical devices are needed, minimal O&M needs and costs, high variety of local water reuse options (irrigation, toilet flushing, cooling, groundwater recharge), easy and effective local energy recovery (biogas for lighting and cooking), local reuse for nutrients (natural fertiliser), reduced groundwater pollution through leaking UGSS, efficient user involvement and participation, high user acceptance, easy and quick applicability in so far unconnected areas, applicability as bridge-solution until a centralised system is provided, as well as applicability on cluster and community level as well as for individual users. 

AREAS FOR DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT Appropriate areas for decentralised sanitation management such as with DEWATS are settlements in the periphery, new settlements, villages on the outskirts, areas with low population density, provisional settlements (temporary solution), schools, training centres, hospitals, hostels, and all areas which are not connected or which are not scheduled to be connected to a centralised system. Hence, the coexistence of conventional centralised treatment systems for core areas, combined with decentralised systems for omitted locations is the most beneficial solution. Centralised and decentralised management strategies need to go handin-hand (hybrid solution).

DEWATS, by CURE & London Metropolitan in Kachpura. 10 minute walk south from the site..

DEWATS and septic tank process section

DEWAT (DECENTRALISED WATER TREATMENT) PRESCEDENTS

50

Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination Society, Bangalore (DEWATS picture Pondicherry).

DEWATS and septic tank process section

LARGE DEWAT PROPOSED WITHIN THE MASTERPLAN

51

Reused sleepers used to channel the nala water to stop it overflowing and seeping into and contaminating the soil. The sleepers are also used to channel the irrigation water after it is proccessed by the DEWATT (above).

LARGE DEWAT PROPOSED WITHIN THE MASTERPLAN. REUSE OF CONCRETE RAILWAY SLEEPERS FOR CHANNELLING THE NEW IRRIGATION WATER

52

India’s Agriculture
Agriculture and allied sectors are considered to be the mainstay of the Indian economy. They are the important source of raw material and demand for many industrial products, particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods. They contribute nearly 22 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India. About 65-70 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. ‘Agriculture and allied’ industry is further divided into several segments, namely:- horticulture and its allied sectors (including fruits and vegetables, owers, plantation crops, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants); sheries sector; animal husbandry and livestock; and sericulture. India’s varied agro-climatic conditions are highly favourable for the growth of large number of horticultural crops, which occupy around 10 per cent of gross cropped area of the country producing 160.75 million tonnes. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. It is also second largest producer of owers after China. It is also leading producer, consumer and exporter for spices and plantation crops like tea, co ee, etc. While, sericulture is an agro-based cottage industry. India is ranked as the second major raw silk producer in the world. Fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socioeconomic development of the country. It is a big source of employment opportunities for the large number of people in the country, especially rural population. It has a huge export potential. Similarly, India has vast resource of livestock and poultry, which play a vital role in promoting the welfare of rural masses. The Indian Dairy Industry has acquired substantial growth momentum from 9th Plan onwards. India’s milk output during the year 2006-2007 reached the level of 100.9 million tonnes (provisional), which has placed the country on top in the world in this eld. The Ministry of Agriculture is the main authority in India for regulation and development of activities relating to agriculture, horticulture, shing, animal husbandry, etc. It is implementing various schemes and policies for the sector through its divisions like ‘Department of Agriculture and Cooperation’ and ‘Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries’. Further, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries is actively engaged in promotion of entrepreneurial activities in the segments of sh processing as well as fruits and vegetables processing. Besides, commodity boards, like tea board, co ee board, rubber board, medicinal plants board, etc. have been set up to boost the growth of the sectors like tea, co ee, rubber, medicinal plants, respectively. Hence, there exists innumerable business opportunities in the agriculture and allied sectors. Investors from all over the world are making more and more investments into the sector for unleashing its existing potentialities as well as for exploring the untapped areas.

India’s Agriculture

42

INDIA’S AGRICULTURE & COMPOSTING PROCESS

53

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING

56

This existing building is abandoned. It was a water well which was later built over with this building. Now neither the building nor the well are being used I will use the buildings existing structure as a start for a proposal for a central community building. The Central Building is part of Phase 1. A community building in the centre of the site, where the residents come together meet up, have food in the cafe, school on top floor then in the evening the school becomes a centre for activities and workshops. The cafe is run as a cooperative. Local farmers cook there in return for subsidised land rates; they have the opportunity to sell their produce on a weekly baisis. When we were surveying on site we never had lunch. There was nowhere to get cooked food. Food plays an important part in a community: bring people together. Aslo there is a huge importance for good nutrition especially for children.

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION

57

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. PLAN, SECTIONS & ELEVATIONS 1:200

58

ELEVATION 3

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 1

SECTION 1

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. SECTIONS 1:100. KEY 1:200

6

- TT

11

00

(5

01 1

litr

es

)

SECTION 1

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 2

59

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. ELEVATION & PLAN 1:100.

6 - TT1100 (5011 litres)

60

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION. ELEVATIONS 1:50

61

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION WITH SARI SILK RIBBON SHADDING. ELEVATIONS 1:50

62

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION WITH SARI SILK RIBBON SHADDING. ELEVATION 1:50

63

Rain water harvesting: 168m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 134,400 litres / 20 (5%) = 6,700 litre tank

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: RAIN WATER HARVESTING 1:100

64

CENTRAL BUILDING REUSE / EXTENTION CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: SARI SILK SOLAR SHADING 1:50

65

1:1 PROTOTYPE OF BAMBOO & SARI SILK SHADING WALL. SECTIONS 1:100

66

CENTRAL BUILDING: CAFE / RESTURANT DOWNSTAIRS. SLUM SCHOOL / COMMUNITY ROOM UPSTAIRS

67

Nutrition - UNICEF

Malnutrition is more common in India than in Sub-Saharan Africa. One in every three malnourished children in the world lives in India. Malnutrition limits development and the capacity to learn. It also costs lives: about 50 per cent of all childhood deaths are attributed to malnutrition. In India, around 46 per cent of all children below the age of three are too small for their age, 47 per cent are underweight and at least 16 per cent are wasted. Many of these children are severely malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition varies across states, with Madhya

Pradesh recording the highest rate (55 per cent) and Kerala among the lowest (27 per cent). Malnutrition in children is not a ected by food intake alone; it is also in uenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Girls are more at risk of malnutrition than boys because of their lower social status. 1 in 3 of the world’s malnourished children lives in India Malnutrition in early childhood has serious, long-term consequences because it impedes motor, sensory,

cognitive, social and emotional development. Malnourished children are less likely to perform well in school and more likely to grow into malnourished adults, at greater risk of disease and early death. Around one-third of all adult women are underweight. Inadequate care of women and girls, especially during pregnancy, results in low- birthweight babies. Nearly 30 per cent of all newborns have a low birthweight, making them vulnerable to further malnutrition and disease. Vitamin and mineral de ciencies also a ect children’s survival and

development. Anaemia a ects 74 per cent of children under the age of three, more than 90 per cent of adolescent girls and 50 per cent of women. Iodine de ciency, which reduces learning capacity by up to 13 per cent, is widespread because fewer than half of all households use iodised salt. Vitamin A de ciency, which causes blindness and increases morbidity and mortality among pre-schoolers, also remains a public-health problem.

Health

53

NUTRITION - UNICEF

68

CENTRAL BUILDING DOWNSTAIRS: CAFE / RESTURANT

69

Education

Despite a major improvement in literacy rates during the 1990s, the number of children who are not in school remains high. Gender disparities in education persist: far more girls than boys fail to complete primary school. The literacy rate jumped from 52 per cent in 1991 to 65 per cent in 2001. The absolute number of non-literates dropped for the rst time and gross enrolment in Government-run primary schools increased from over 19 million in the 1950s to 114 million by 2001. 90 million females in India are nonliterate But 20 per cent of children aged 6 to14 are still not in school and millions of women remain nonliterate despite the spurt in female literacy in the 1990s. Several problems persist: issues of ‘social’ distance – arising out of caste, class and gender di erences – deny children equal opportunities. Child labour in some parts of the country and resistance to sending girls to school remain real concerns.

School attendance is improving: more children than ever between the ages of 6 and 14 are attending school across the country. The education system faces a shortage of resources, schools, classrooms and teachers. There are also concerns relating to teacher training, the quality of the curriculum, assessment of learning achievements and the e cacy of school management. Given the scarcity of quality schools, many children drop out before completing ve years of primary education; many of those who stay on learn little. Girls belonging to marginalised social and economic groups are more likely to drop out of school at an early age. With one upper primary school for every three primary schools, there are simply not enough upper primary centres even for those children who complete primary school. For girls, especially, access

to upper primary centres becomes doubly hard. Campaigners will hand over a charter of education demands to the President as well as to state governors. In India, UNICEF’s strategy in support of the Government’s Quality Education for All goals is built around three inter-linked themes: access, quality and equity in primary education: (with emphasis on gender parity) through a holistic and gender sensitive understanding of good quality education and demonstration of a scaleable quality package. strategies to reach out to girls, especially from socially disadvantaged groups - urban poor, tribal, scheduled caste, and working children - in order to eliminate gender and social disparity in access as well as achievement.

ensure e ective analysis, action and advocacy at all levels.Improving quality is a critical long-term strategy to signi cantly reduce the number of out-of-school children as well as to improve overall levels of retention and achievement. At the policy level, the Education programme endeavours to netune policies and strategies to increase the enrolment, retention, achievement and completion rates in elementary education. Success is contingent on strong linkages between families/ communities and school. Educational research and analysis is the cementing factor and provides critical inputs for e ective planning and implementation. In particular, the programme seeks to improve learning outcomes, completion rates and literacy levels amongst disadvantaged groups.

Primary School

Education

children especially girls from going to school, and if enrolled, in remaining there. In addition are cultural factors: continuing discrimination against the girl child plays a crucial role in The number of children attending creating resistance around sending school has gone up many-fold since girls to school. the time of India’s Independence – The persistence of class and caste increasing from around 19.2 million di erences and the prevalence of in 1950-51 to 113.8 million in 2000- child labour further complicate 01. this scenario, obstructing both But several problems persist. girls and boys from having equal The environment in which India’s opportunities to education. children live, learn and grow frustrates their attempts to have Even though the rate of school attendance is better than ever equal access to education. Among the many contributing before with more and more children factors is the quality of the physical between the ages of 6 and 14 enrolling at schools, the education space that children inhabit. Of India’s 700,000 rural schools, system is inadequately developed only one in six have toilets deterring wracked by a shortage of resources, Among one of the leading priorities for the UNICEF worldwide is its commitment to ensure that every girl and every boy completes a quality, primary-school education.

schools, classrooms and teachers. Often, due to the resulting, poor quality of teaching, many children drop out before completing ve years of primary school and many of those who stay on, learn little. The government of India is constitutionally committed to ensuring the right of every child to basic education. Government e orts have been intensi ed in recent years following the launch of various programmes including the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) in 1992, the Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) initiative and more recently the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (or the National Programme for Universal Elementary Education). UNICEF is an active partner in the Sarva Shiksha

Abhiyan supporting its objective to ensure all children complete ve years of school and have access to 55 good quality education. UNICEF strategy is woven around three inter-linked themes: access, quality and equity in basic education. It supports initiatives that help provide equal opportunities for children from disadvantaged communities including the urban poor and working children. It implements a ‘quality package’ across 14 states that aims at improving the quality of curricula and classroom environment. And, it supports alternative learning strategies including bridging courses for adolescent girls, who are out of school.

INDIAN EDUCATION - UNICHEF

70

CENTRAL BUILDING UPSTAIRS: SLUM SCHOOL BY DAY / COMMUNITY ROOM IN THE EVENING

71

PHASE 3: THE BRIDGE

74

India's 40,000 miles (64,000 kilometres) of railway track cut through some of the most densely populated cities, flanked by shanty towns, in the nation of 1.2 billion people. Railway experts say stopping pedestrians from crossing the tracks in congested areas would be virtually impossible.

15,000 INDIAN’S DIE EVERY YEAR FROM CROSSING THE RAILWAY TRACKS

75

India's 40,000 miles (64,000 kilometres) of railway track cut through some of the most densely populated cities, flanked by shanty towns, in the nation of 1.2 billion people. Railway experts say stopping pedestrians from crossing the tracks in congested areas would be virtually impossible.

DANGER ON THE TRACKS

76

INITIAL SKETCHES OF THE IDEA FOR A PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE TO CROSS THE RAILWAY TRACKS

77

INITIAL BRIDGE CONCEPT SKETCHES

78

INITIAL BRIDGE SKETCHES

79

Gandi did not like the speed of the railways. He said that materials should be sourced locally and that communites should be self sustainable. For him the railways were an imposition of globalization or modernisation which threatened the ancient traditions of India. The intentions of the railway construction, by the British chief engineer, was to unite India. Paradoxically on a local scale, the railways segrigated and isolated communities. The Indian railways, intially built by the British, is the largest rail network in Asia.

GANDI & THE RAILWAYS

80

868 concrete sleepers are used 1,384 wooden sleepers used on the throughout this masterplan as bridge for floor planks and railings. foundations for the containers and also for channelling clean and dirty water. The sleepers are thinned - decreasing their weight. 1860 halfs are used.

248 tracks are used on the bridge grouped in four for columns. Totalling 1,984 metres.

62 I Beams of are used on the bridge. I Beams at 9.5m (x 62)

62 OHE columns are used on the bridge as banister posts. One column is cut in 5 to make the posts. (5 x 62 = 310 parts)

186 OHE beams are used on the bridge as beams.

On location, there was an abundance of ‘railway material’ lying around not being used. Sleepers, railway tracks, OHE’s, I-beams, etc, etc. I measured these materials with the intention to build with them. The theme of the project is ‘Architecture of Rapid Change

& Scarce Resources’, so therefore whatever materials which are readily avaliable must be utilized in the project. There were thousands of materials all over the place on the site, so not only is it wise to utilize them, they are already part of the site’s aesthetic.

QUANTITY SURVEY: RE-USING THE ABANDONED RAILWAY ELEMENTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE

81

INITIAL STRUCTURAL DIAGRAMS FOR THE BRIDGE

82

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

83

Pedestrian bridge only crossing one track. The community we got to know well over the two weeks on site

Rail and pedestrian bridge 750m long.

There is a big difference between the quality of living on the market side, campared to the side of the slum settlements.

Ramp leading onto the centre of the site

RECONNECTING COMMUNITIES: THE BRIDGE WILL LINK THE SLUM SETTLEMENTS WITH THE MORE DEVELOPED MARKET SIDE

84

N

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN FIGURE GROUND 1:5000

1:2000

85

INITIAL RENDERS SHOWING THE CONTINUATION OF ACCESS FROM THE MARKET ACROSS THE TRACKS AND TO THE SITE

86

Railway Maintanance Building & Storage

Outdoor Muslim Temple

Buffalo Farm Inside Dilapidated Building

d Trucks

Parked Rickshaws x 5
#DrgID #LayID

General Store Parked Rickshaws x 10 General Stall Wood Factory Parked Trucks Bricks Bike Shop Building Materials

Wastepickers

Abandoned Tunnel / Old Railway Station

Handicraft on Street

98.500 99.000 99.500 100.000 100.500
100. 500

Parked Rickshaws

Industrial Materials Clothes Washing Clothes Shop

Clothes Shop

General Store Building Materials

Food Stall Electrical Store Hair Dressers Waste Land

General Store

Abandoned / Outdate Railway Control Centre; part used for storage

Abandoned
18
1 2 14 x8 1/2" 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 = 9'-10" 4 5 3

18

15

100. 100.500
04 02

1 2 3 14 x 8 1/2" = 9'-10" 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

8

= 9'-10"

7

1/2"

6

14

x8

11

13

14

x8

12

1/2"

= 9'-10"

New Water Tower

School

14

1

13

2

12

3

11

4

10

5

9 8 7 6

9

5

10

4 3 2 1

Dilapidated Building
15

14

General Store

Old Water Tower
15

05 19
7 6

x

6

1/4"

=

9'-10"

14

100.000
01

100.000 99.500

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8

5 4 3 2

14

School Railway Building / Generator Railway Control Center

1

Railway Maintainance / Warehouse

100.000
Abandoned / Dilapidated Old Railway Office
1 1/4" 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 x 8" = 14'-9

Hindu Temple
#DrgID #LayID #DrgID #LayID

#DrgID #LayID

101.500 102.000 102.500 103.000

Waste Pickers

General Store

105.000 103.500 104.000 MASTERPLAN 1:2000 SHOWING THE CONTINUATION OF ACCESS FROM THE MARKET ACROSS THE TRACKS AND TO THE SITE 104.500

103.500

87

INITIAL BRIDGE RENDER & SECTIONS 1:1000 & 1:2000

88

ON-SITE SECTIONS THROUGH THE ROUTE TAKEN BY LOCALS CROSSING THE TRACKS & NEW SECTION THROUGH THE BRIDGE 1:1000

89

THE WRONG SIDE OF THE TRACKS; Slum settlements segregated / cut off by the railway tracks. With a busy market on one side of the railway tracks, and a collection of slum settlements on the other; the two sides are separated. The slums, somewhat isolated from main-land Agra; exist as ‘Edge-Lands’ and they have a rural /urban-rural feel to them. MARKET SIDE As soon as we crossed the railway lines, from our site, to the side of the market, we noticed a sudden change in the infrastructure; where everything is paved, the sewers are concreted and they are working very well; the quality of living is evidently higher on the market side, where the proximity to the centre of Agra (across the near-by Yamuna bridge) is much more accessible. The market sells most things and has a general industrial feel to it; selling all types of building materials with various factories and workshops in the area; here, business is relatively booming. There is a big difference between the quality of living on the market side, campared to the side of the slum settlements. Here, on the market side, there are many things being sold, there is business and activity. Also, importantly the nala’s are cemented - they are still open air sewers, but opposed to the slum settlements, where the waste water get discharged into the soil, which then spreads and pollutes the ground., here many things have developed much more rapidly. It appears that the railway tracks have secluded or divided a community.

THE MARKET SIDE

90

(Top left). This pedestrian bridge is 5 minutes walk from our site by the actual Yamuna Bridge train station/stop. The only thing is is that this bridge only crosses two out six tracks; it is to get to the other side of the platform for when there is a train already parked in the way (like in the photograph). This bridge does not tackle the saftey issue for the other four tracks. As these railways get more and more busy in the years to come crossing the tracks will become more and more difficult and dangerous. (Top right). This bridge is for trains and pedestrians. It is a 20 minute walk from the site. It crosses the Yamuna river connecting to main-land Agra. The pedestrian walkway is 2 metres from the tracks! The bridge is 750 metres long and also a long way down. In places the pedestrain banister has come away completey and also the metal sheet floor plates are erroding, in some places there quite large holes. This pedestrian route is rather busy. with people going in both directions, sometimes on bycycle. The walkway is no more than one metre wide!

Proposed pedestrian, motor-rickshaw and motorbike bridge. As India’s railways develop even further and they are upgraded, more and more of this railway material will become avaliable to reuse for the construction of these types of bridges all over India. Making crossing the railway tracks safe therefore saving many lives.

EXAMPLES OF EXISTING BRIDGES WITHIN A WALKABLE PROXIMITY TO THE SITE

91

CROSSING THE TRACKS SAFELY. SAVING 15,000 LIVES PER YEAR. AN EXAMPLAR / PROTOTYPE CONSTRUCTION FOR ALL RAILWAY CROSSINGS IN INDIA

92

THE JOURNEY FROM THE SLUM SETTLEMENTS TO THE MARKET IS MADE BY MANY TWICE DAILY. NOW PEOPLE CAN CROSS THE TRACKS IN A SAFE AND COMMUNAL WAY

93

BECAUSE THE BRIDGE IS MADE UP OF THE VERY FABRIC OF THE RAILWAYS IT EXISTS AS CAMOUFLAGE; LIKE IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN THERE

94

Due to the heavy work loads, with deadlines drawing closer and the sheer complexity of the contruction of the bridge; An executive decision was made to outsource the physical modelling for the proposed bridge. The best candidate for this job was Leonardo Socrates (aged 14 months young). The model here really emphasises the joy and exuberance this symbolic construction will bring to the Yamuna Bridge area.

MAKING THE BRIDGE MODEL

95

STAIR ACCESS PLAN AND RENDER FROM THE TRACKS (VIEW FROM THE TRAIN)

96

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS / PLAN KEY

97

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS / ISOMETRIC KEY

98

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS / CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS

99

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS / CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS: OHE

100

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS

101

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS

102

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS

103

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS

104

BRIDGE ASSEMBLY DETAILS

105

THE JOURNEY FROM THE SLUM SETTLEMENTS TO THE MARKET IS MADE BY MANY TWICE DAILY. NOW PEOPLE CAN CROSS THE TRACKS IN A SAFE AND COMMUNAL WAY

106

BECAUSE THE BRIDGE IS MADE UP OF THE VERY FABRIC OF THE RAILWAYS IT EXISTS AS CAMOUFLAGE; LIKE IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN THERE

107

PHASE 4: ‘UNDER THE BRIDGE’ MARKET

110

Bridge & ‘Under the Bridge’ Market elevation 1:500

‘UNDER THE BRIDGE’ MARKET: CREATING TRADING OPPORTUNITIES. INCLUDING A MEDICAL CENTRE AS A PLUGIN HOSPITAL FOR THE ‘SMILE ON WHEELS’ TRAVELLING HOSPITAL.

111

The Containers are sourced from a very close proximity to the site. (See Map). They will be delivered to the site by truck (picture above), and any surplus containers will be delivered by train as the stop can not be any closer to the site!

The theme of the studio is ‘Architecture of Rapid Change & Scarce Resources’, so therefore whatever materials which are readily avaliable must be utilized in the project. There were hundreds of containers in close proximity to the site (see map) so not only is it wise to utilize them, they are already part of the aesthetic of the site.

CONTAINERS IN SITE PROXIMITY

112

Hospitals in Agra

Closest Hospital to Yamuna Bridge Railway Station, North of River Yamuna; (Carewell Hospital Agra - 20 Doctors). Carewell Hospital is rede ning the healthcare delivery system in Agra. Its motto ‘Caring about you and your family’, is the guiding principal for the hospital. Located in Trans Yamuna Colony, Agra(U.P.), the Carewell Hospital is run by Dr. Dharmendra Sharma and Dr. Rinju Sharma. Special attention has been given to the design and aesthetics of di erent categories of rooms for the patient. “The objective is to provide health care services of high quality at an a ordable cost to the people and to achieve patients satisfaction through e ective services with trained man power and continued medical education programs” pathology, u/s, x-ray, in house round the clock doctors. The hospital is designed to provide highest level of professional expertise and world class care in all major medical disciplines and support specialties. OTs & ICUs :The operation theaters use state of the art technology such as charm and blood gas analyzers while the 15 bed specialty ICU, 6 bad NICU is designed to save the lives of critically ill patients well equipped with ventilator. Super specialty in health care:- Care Well Hospital has in its ambit, super specialty and tertiary healthcare facilities. We bring you the best from the world over - in terms of integrated services, medical facility.

Personal Experience Several events, over the 10 days we were on site, took me back to the reality of what it could be like to live in this area in this way. On our first day as we were departing the site with 30 children following us, asking for photo’s and pens and shaking our hands continuously - we were overwhelmed: it was our first day and unaccustomed to it - we thought it was time to leave as the intensity grew stronger and louder. The children stopped following us as we moved away from the area in which they lived in and we all said good-bye. At this point we all decided to sit down on an old bench and rest, slightly discombobulated from our first days experience. At this point of stillness we saw a man walking very slowly holding on to his wife who had a single crutch, which was too big. She was hobbling along with her husband and a crutch as support. The lady sat down at the same bench as us and she was in great pain. We asked her husband what was wrong and it was either her hip or her leg, which was broken. She was in a lot of pain and moving made it hurt even more. Someone from our group asked, ‘Are you going to a hospital?’ but for sure the answer was no. The second experience, which happened on site was when I was on my own. A boy was really insisting me to give him some money, I replied by saying that money was not a good idea and that he should continue to help me measure the water-tower, which he did, but was quite persistent asking me for money several times every twenty seconds or so, whilst holding the end of the tape. After a few minutes of this he got very annoyed at me, stopped helping with the measuring and started demanding money quite seriously. This was quite disturbing, and he was very loud. I told him ‘no’ and I continued to

measure on my own, which isn’t that easy for long distance measuring. The boy went away. One minute later he was back. This time holding his little sister of maybe only 6 months of age. He continued demanding and demanding, but I was busy measuring. I finally looked up and he was actually asking for money whilst showing me his little sisters wrist, which had a severe open wound on it. The baby’s wound was the size of a packet ten of cigarettes. It looked very bad, not that recent, and it was not being treated in any way. The third experience was the most sobering of all. Just as our fourth day on site was coming to an end our auto-rickshaw driver was there and waiting for us and we were all heading towards the ‘tuc-tuc’ car to go to home to the hotel, when we all , at the same moment, looked over at once, and there was a girl of probably one and a half to two years of age standing in a large puddle of very dirty sewage water, and then we witnessed her bending down and drinking the water using her hands to scoop the it up to her mouth. She was standing there alone she was thirsty and she did not know not to drink it. She must of drank at least half a dozen handfuls of this brown water. We did not see this girl again for our remaining 6 days on site. For sure she got very ill from this. There is no first aid or medical centre anywhere close to the site. Because hospitals are costly and far away to travel, especially when not well, locals who get ill or women who are pregnant deal with what they have by themselves, this may result in extended illness, continued disease or unnecessary death.

There is only one hospital situated North of the river Yamuna. This hospital is still a relativey long distance from our site and other poor settlements in this area. This hospital (Carewel) is private and too expensive for the majority of all slum dwellers.

Hospitals in Agra

Waterborne Diseases
Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries. are without toilets. Even though toilets are built in about 3 million households every year, the annual rate of increase has been a low 1 per cent in the past decade.

54
pollution. In many areas, the problem is exacerbated by falling levels of groundwater, mainly caused by increasing extraction for irrigation. In some parts of the country, Several million more su er from multiple episodes of diarrhea Access to protected sources of excessive arsenic and uoride in and still others fall ill on account drinking water has improved drinking water also pose a major of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, dramatically over the years. health threat. intestinal worms and eye and skin Most rural water supply systems, The lack of toilets also a ects infections caused by poor hygiene especially the hand-pumps girls’ school attendance. Of India’s and unsafe drinking water. generally used by the poor, 700,000 rural primary and upper are using groundwater. But primary schools, only one in six Unhygienic practices and unsafe inadequate maintenance and have toilets, deterring children drinking water are some of its neglect of the environment - especially girls - from going to main causes. More than 122 around water sources has led to school. million households in the country increasing levels of groundwater

HEALTH ISSUES, PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OF HEALTH & THE LACK OF AFFORDABLE HOSPITALS

113

Mobile Medical Clinic Project. Case study: Mumbai.
More than half of Mumbai’s 19 million people live in urban slums, facing overcrowding, inadequate housing, poor hygiene, and lack of safe drinking water and sanitation. Their daily living conditions often lead to widespread infection, disease, dehydration and high levels of malnutrition in children under ve. To reach these desperate families who struggle everyday with extreme poverty and lack of basic health care, AmeriCares India has launched a pilot project to provide critical on-site medical services and free medicines to the people of Mumbai’s Andheri East slums through a mobile medical van. Working with local stakeholders, community leaders and area healthcare providers, AmeriCares is providing mobile medical vans to bring doctors and free medical assistance on a regular basis (6 days a week) to a dozen locations within the slum communities. The pilot mobile clinic program was formally inaugurated on January 9, 2011 by Mr. Suresh Shetty, Hon. Health Minister of Maharashtra in conjunction with an introductory health care camp in Andheri East, providing free examinations and medicines to approximately 200 patients in its rst day. A team from Sai Deep Pratisthan, an AmeriCares India partner and aid organization that works with the needy, mobilized the local community by creating awareness for the program, helping to organize volunteers conducting a door-to-door campaign to register patients for the program. “With India’s slum-dwelling population rising each year, the threat of disease transmission in such overcrowded and unsanitary conditions becomes urgent. Diseases like tuberculosis and measles can emerge as major public health threats,” said Christoph Gorder, AmeriCares senior vice president of global programs. “Taking health care directly to this vulnerable population lls a critical need— we saw 700 patients in just the rst week of our mobile clinic program.” Patients arrive on rst day of mobile clinic program. Each fully-equipped mobile medical van is sta ed with a doctor, pharmacy assistant and driver so that the immediate health care needs of the slum dwellers can be assessed and treated, and proper referrals can be made when necessary. Another focus of the mobile medical unit is to identify and care for patients with chronic diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure, and to provide them with a continuous supply of free medicines. Electronic health records for all patients will be maintained to monitor the program and to facilitate followup treatments. AmeriCares India Foundation is registered in India as a nonpro t disaster relief and humanitarian aid organization providing immediate response to emergency medical needs and long-term humanitarian assistance programs. AmeriCares India currently serves 21 states across India and has reached more than 10 million people through 55 a liate partner organizations. Since 1991, AmeriCares has delivered more than $48 million worth of life-saving medicines and medical supplies to India in response to disaster situations including the oods in Bihar, the cyclone in West Bengal and the 2004 tsunami. Access to health care and equitable distribution of health services are the fundamental requirements for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Slum dwellers in cities of India and people residing in the remote rural villages su er from adverse health conditions owing to unhygienic living environment, low awareness and poor access to health services. Among the urban poor, child & maternal mortality and diseases like Malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS are considerably higher as compared to their rural counterparts. And the reach of essential preventive health services and their utilization is abysmally low. Given the poor situation of the primary health infrastructure in the urban slums, alternative methods of service delivery came forward as dire a need. Thus, the innovative approach of mobile hospitals called Smile on Wheels (SOW) was initiated by Smile Foundation in the year 2006. The objective of the programme is to ensure improved health services reaching the door steps of people residing in un-served or underserved remote areas.

Health

44

MOBILE MEDICAL CLINIC PROJECT: ‘SMILE ON WHEELS’

114

3D CUTOUT THROUGH A PLUGIN MEDICAL CLINIC CONTAINER UNIT

115

Mobile Medical Clinic Project. Case study: Mumbai.

Health - UNICEF Health
Despite health improvements over the last thirty years, lives continue to be lost to early childhood diseases, inadequate newborn care and childbirth-related causes. More than two million children die every year from preventable infections. Infant mortality in India is as high as 63 deaths per 1,000 live births. Most infant deaths occur in the rst month of life; up to 47 per cent in the rst week itself. While the Infant Mortality Rate showed a rapid decline during the 1980s, the decrease has slowed during the past decade. Maternal deaths are similarly high. The reasons for this high mortality are that few women have access to skilled birth attendants and fewer still to quality emergency obstetric care. In addition, only 15 per cent of mothers receive complete antenatal care and only 58 per cent receive iron or folate tablets or syrup. Children in India continue to lose their life to vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, which remains the biggest killer. Tetanus in newborns remains a problem in at least ve states: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, and Assam. The number of polio cases in India declined from 1,934 in 1998 to 268 in 2001. There was a setback in 2002 as 1,600 cases were con rmed at the end of the year. But with only 225 cases of polio reported in 2003, India is well on its way to interrupting transmission and eradicating the disease. However, the proportion of children who receive vaccination against measles has dropped considerably, from 72% in 1995 to a low of 50% in 1999. It now stands at 61%. Government of India Action on Health by increasing the number of health workers home-based medical visits immunisation

45

MOBILE MEDICAL CLINIC PROJECT: ‘SMILE ON WHEELS’ & UNICEF HEALTH REPORT

116

PROPOSAL FOR THE MARKET ALSO INCLUDES A MOBILE MEDICAL CLINIC WHICH HAS USE OF A PLUGIN PERMINANT MEDICAL CLINIC AS A CONTAINER UNIT

117

1:100 SECTION THROUGH THE BRIDGE & THE ‘UNDER THE BRIDGE’ MARKET

118

PROPOSAL FOR THE MARKET ALSO INCLUDES A MOBILE MEDICAL CLINIC WHICH HAS USE OF A PLUGIN PERMINANT MEDICAL CLINIC AS A CONTAINER UNIT (YELLOW)

119

Doc-in-a-Box: Micro-Franchising Model: A New Way Forward

1. To create a reliable supply of high quality, low cost, essential drugs and to make them available to the people who need them when and where they are needed. 2. To treat childhood infectious diseases in the communities where children live, thus reducing congestion in the healthcare system so that scarce resources can be applied to others not so easily treated; 3. To reduce under age 5 mortality rates thus encouraging family planning and lower population growth rates; 4. To discourage the development of drug resistant microbes by the provision and A short-list of inexpensive generic appropriate use of adequate drugs can e ectively treat 70- supplies of e ective drugs; and To improve community 90% of the children su ering and 5. dying from infectious diseases in health through educational and the developing world. Too often, prevention activities. people do not have access to these The mico-franchise business model drugs. HealthStore seeks to improve engages the forces and participants access to these essential drugs using in the marketplace to incent health its micro-franchise business model. care providers to follow good practices for the handling and The major goals of the CFWshops distribution of essential drugs. project are: Franchisees enjoy the bene ts of owning a valuable pro t-making The HealthStore Foundation® has combined established microenterprise principles with proven franchise business practices to create a micro-franchise business model called CFWshops. Franchisees operate small drug shops or clinics strategically located to improve access to essential drugs. HealthStore clinics and shops enable trained health workers to operate their own businesses treating the diseases that cause 70-90% of illness and death in their communities while following HealthStore drug handling and distribution regulations calculated to ensure good practice.

business but may retain it only by compliance with CFWshops drug handling and administration regulations. It is in their own selfinterest for franchisees to follow the regulations. HealthStore believes that franchisees acting in their own self-interest will achieve more than a centralized command-and-control bureaucracies can. The franchise model has delivered a wide variety of high quality, low cost goods and services throughout the world—including medicine— and has proven to be an e ective method of mass distribution across a wide diversity of economic and cultural conditions. The CFWshops franchise operating system includes an operating manual complete with policies, procedures and forms constituting a turn-key management system which, if followed, enables franchisees to conduct business and provide necessary compliance reports to The HealthStore Foundation®. Franchisees are entitle to receive a supply of high quality, low cost

drugs, management support, training and other valuable bene ts from HealthStore. But, if the franchisee fails to comply with rules and reporting requirements, the franchise may be revoked. The system is designed to make the long term bene ts of retaining the franchise worth too much to risk losing by breaking the rules. The rules are calculated to assure good drug handing and administration practices. The system includes, among other things: 1. Proper procedures for the handling of drugs and the diagnosis and treatment of patients; 2. Regular reports along with routine and surprise inspections and investigations to test and maintain compliance with franchise regulations; 3. Management and clinical training in the use of the franchise system; and 4. Development of professional culture by promotion of inter-disciplinary contact, continuing education, and continuing education.

Health

49

MICRO

120

Health Situation in Agra
Community mobilization SNBS has promoted 24 Mahila Arogya Samities (MAS) and also opened 19 bank accounts in the Rakabganj area. The capacities (Institutional, Program, Linkage and Financial) of MAS have also been strengthened. Capacity building sessions including exposure visits were also conducted both for MAS and CLVs to develop their knowledge on the di erent components of RCH and health fund management. BCC and IEC activities are regularly carried out in the slums to improve health and hygienic practices among the slum community improved, and generate demand for services. In Bundukatra area CLVs were selected and trained for providing community mobilization support. 79,186 population and 15 slums in Bundukatra under Approach III covering 46,695 population. At Yamuna Par , SNBS is demonstrating two approaches under the Agra Urban Health Program (AUHP), since February 2009. One of them demonstrates how community mobilization for demand generation of health services and community linkages with Govt. health facility coupled with continued gentle persuasion with Govt. health service providers in order to increase reach of services and lead to overall improvements in health coverage. Through, this approach SNBS is mobilizing approximately 27000 population in 9 slums and facilitating outreach camps through linkage with D-Type Health Centre. Under the other approach, SNBS has set up and Linkages with Govt. D-Type managing Urban Health Centre Health Centre (Rakabganj North) at Naraich, Yamuna Par for for health service provision providing regular OPD services to Demand generation activities approximately 55000 population were undertaken in all 35 slums. Coverage Area of SNBS under residing in 35 slums in Trans Services were strengthened in AUHP: Yamuna area in order to increase 20 slums from DTHC Rakabganj SNBS is implementing the Agra reach of services and lead to which is a government run Urban Health Program to ful ll overall improvements in health rst tier facility. List of eligible the aforementioned objectives, coverage. bene ciaries updated regularly, in 20 slum neighborhoods (or planned outreach clinics were bastis) in Rakabganj North area Problems of slum population: organized and follow-up activities under Approach II, covering an Poor access to safe drinking carried out especially in case of approximate slum population of water, hygiene, health care and left outs and resistant households. 40,250, 44 slums in Yamuna Par sanitation facilities, Illiteracy and SNBS coordinated with CMO/ under Approach I & II covering poor access to education, poor ACMO and facilitated visit by these Govt. o cials successfully. SNBS developed linkages with the other stakeholders and local elected persons by facilitating Coordination committee meeting. Services were also strengthened from the Bundukatra DTHC to the 15 slums in the area. This was all achieved with support and mobilization of the government. Capacity building of the program sta Capacity building sessions for MAS, CLVS, Community Organizers and ANMs were conducted to enhance their skills on counseling and RCH components. Ongoing review meetings at various levels were conducted to assess program progress, address program issues and concerns. Review feedback and inputs from SNBS management, other stakeholders visiting the program and UHRC helped strengthen the program. economic status, sub-optimal health behaviors, poor demand and utilization of services among slum communities. Keeping in view the fact that more than a quarter of India’s population has been living as downtrodden and marginalized for centuries, Shri Nirotilal Buddha Sansthan (SNBS) came in to existence in 1994 as an non government organization of marginalized people and has undertaken the task to promote the welfare of this section of the society, lead to their upliftment and development for integration with the total society by improvement in their economic, educational, social, cultural and health standards. Shri Nirotilal Buddha Sansthan was registered under Society Act in 1994 and has been primarily working in the areas of health and its determinants, safe drinking water, hygiene, sanitation, HIV/ AIDS awareness, family planning & welfare, child labor & literacy, education, livelihood, plantation, community awareness and development, with especial focus on marginalized sections of the societies, slum dweller women and children through various development programs for over 15 years.

Total Population (Census, 2001): 1.33 million Decadal growth rate (1991-2001): 42% Total No. of slums: 393 Estimated slum population: 0.8 million (approx. half of city’s population)

Health

47

HEALTH SITUATION IN AGRA

121

Health Situation in Agra
Goal and Objectives of Agra Urban Health program The goal of the Agra Urban Health Program is to carry out demonstration and learning activities and develop new interventions in urban slums that lead to synergistic participation of di erent government o cials in urban slums to improve water supply, sanitation and hygiene services to urban poor. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF AGRA URBAN HEALTH PROGRAM SNBS is implementing the Agra Urban Health Program activities to reach out to underserved urban poor population in Rakabganj North, Yamuna Par and Bundukatra area covering approximately 1,70,000 population. SNBS was selected as a partner NGO by a Screening Committee under the chairpersonship of the Chief Medical O cer, Agra for implementation of the Agra Urban Health Program. The program implementation activities were initiated in November 2005 with 14 slums (approximate population 29,000) and gradually scaled up to cover 20 slums (40,250 population) in Rakabganj North area,15 slums with 46,700 population in Bundukatra area and 44 slums with 79,000 population in Yamuna Par area. SNBS has conducted Mapping and Assessment of Agra slums as key resource organization, jointly facilitated by Department of Health and Family Welfare, Agra and USAID-EHP during FebruaryApril 2004. During this process, SNBS has conducted qualitative health vulnerability assessment in slums of Agra and helped USAID-EHP and Department of Health and Family Welfare, Agra in plotting of slums and existing health facilities on the map of Agra and gap identi cation. This analysis, along with other relevant data has been utilized for development of Urban RCH proposal for Agra city and its implementation from time to time. Subsequently, the Agra Urban Health Program (AUHP) has been implemented as response to request of Government of Uttar Pradesh, suggesting UHRC, formally known as EHP, to initiate PPP models in Agra. UHRC initiated public-private partnership (PPP) process in consultation with the through linkage with Rakabganj Department of Medical, Health North D-Type Health Centre. and Family Welfare, Agra. Apart from this, since March Based on its experience in 2006 SNBS has been facilitating the area of reproductive and a multi-stakeholder approach for child health, the exceptional optimizing local resources and contribution rendered in improving reach of services to proposal development phase and approximately 46700 underserved its credibility in the district, the urban poor populations residing Screening Committee constituted in 15 slums under Bundukatra under the chairpersonship of Chief D-Type Health Centre catchment Medical O cer, DMHFW, Agra has area. Since February 2009, SNBS recommended SNBS as potential has been demonstrating two NGO for implementation of Agra approaches at Yamuna Par. Urban Health Program and for Under one, SNBS has set up and partnership with UHRC operation. managing Urban Health Centre at Naraich, Yamuna Par for providing Under this partnership, SNBS regular OPD and outreach has been demonstrating services to approximately 55000 community mobilization for population residing in 35 slums demand generation of health in Trans Yamuna area. The other community services and community linkages demonstrates for demand with government health facility mobilization coupled with continued gentle generation of health services and persuasion with government community linkages with Govt. health service providers in order health facility and mobilizing to increase reach of services approximately 27000 population leading to overall improvements in 9 slums and facilitating in health services delivery outreach camps through linkage coverage since November, 2005. with government D-Type Health Through this approach, SNBS has Centre, Yamuna. been mobilizing approximately 40,250 population in 20 slums and facilitating outreach camps

Health

46

HEALTH SITUATION IN AGRA

122

Agra - Health Problems

Untill recently, India has been a predominantly rural country. Rapid urbanization and increase in urban poverty in recent decades is changing the demographic and social landscape of the nation. However, development policies and programs have been slow to respond to this changing scenario and still focused heavily on rural areas while urban areas continue to receive low priority. The rhetoric of an urban bias in development also contributed to this low priority to urban areas. This lack of focus resulted in limited government and non-governmental programming experience and capacity in improving health of urban poor in India. There is also lack of adequate data on health situation of the urban poor, documentation of best practices and program experiences for improving access of health services in slum communities. To bridge these gaps and to facilitate more e ective and accessible health programs for the urban poor, UHRC adopted certain principles of programming. Scienti c evidence and approaches form the edi ce of all of UHRC’s activities. From program conception to planning and implementation

- all stages are based on scienti c evidence and approaches. From a scienti c situation analysis which guides urban health program designs to operations research which provide evidence on the e ectiveness of strategies, scienti c methods and principles guide every aspect of UHRC’s activities. It is UHRC’s rm belief that no stakeholder can match the scale, reach and resources of the government in managing health and other development programs. In order to achieve impact on the largest number of needy people, UHRC endeavors to provide technical support to make government policies and programs more pro-poor and inclusive and also strengthen the capacity of its city level o cers who manage the implementation of programs. UHRC has been instrumental in facilitating the design of urban health programs in di erent cities and conducting training workshops for city level government functionaries responsible for urban health. In order to convincingly advocate for speci c approaches and strategies it is necessary to demonstrate the strategies and test and validate these in di erent

situations. The city demonstration programs of UHRC in di erent cities have adopted di erent context responsive strategies for improving health of slum communities. The learnings provided from these sites have been instrumental in guiding policy directions and shaping governmental and non-governmental programs in other cities. For instance, the city demonstration programs of UHRC have provided valuable knowledge on the operational aspects of training and utilizing services of health volunteers in slums, involving NGO partners in health services and social mobilization, training women’s groups to manage health funds. One of UHRC’s core principles is the use of participatory methods and involving all stakeholders in order to meet the challenge of urban health e ectively. The demonstration programs have been designed in consultation with the local health department, municipal bodies, NGOs, slum community organizations which bring in better understanding of local needs and options into the planning and implementing process. UHRC also works closely with the media and

professional and research bodies to enhance attention to urban health. A key programming principle is to bridge the knowledge gaps with respect to health of the urban poor. A number of eld based research studies and secondary data analyses have better informed policymaking and programming strategies of the government and other stakeholders. Last and de nitely not the least, it has been UHRC’s rm belief that slum communities possess vast knowledge and the potential to acquire skills to take charge of their health improvements and destinies. Health and slum development activities can utilize this inherent strength in creating sustainable improvements in their communities. All aspects of UHRC’s work have tried to facilitate and build slum based community groups and develop their capacity to spread awareness in their communities about health and also negotiate with service providers to improve regularity and reach of services in their communities.

Health

51

HEALTH PROBLEMS IN AGRA

123

PHASE 5: UNZONED TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION: CREATING TRADING OPPORTUNITIES

126

TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION: CREATING TRADING OPPORTUNITIES & MID-SITE MASTERPLAN SECTION 1:500

127

ELEVATION SHOWING GENERIC RAILWAY HOUSING BLOCKS AND THE PROPOSED TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION 1:200

128

RENDERED ELEVATION SHOWING GENERIC RAILWAY HOUSING BLOCKS AND THE PROPOSED TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION

129

ELEVATION SHOWING GENERIC RAILWAY HOUSING BLOCKS AND THE PROPOSED TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION 1:100

130

RENDERED ELEVATION SHOWING GENERIC RAILWAY HOUSING BLOCKS AND THE PROPOSED TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION

131

TO ZONE OR NOT TO ZONE
All activities claim space, put pressure on other activities and then later allow others to take over space again. This ow in the use of space is most e cient when it is not hindered by physical markers such as curbs, fences, boulders, or even walls. Moreover, such street furniture items can be counterproductive in densely used areas, as they mainly split the evermoving zones of activities rather than limit them to the intended space. In Rahul Mehrotra’s terms, the static city is at odds with the kinetic city here. The static city is the physical city as it is built; the kinetic city is made by the events that take place in a city. Ideally, the static and the kinetic city are in harmony. Especially fences on curbs along the sidewalks show how informal forces override the intentions of planners and urban designers. Such fences are designed to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk and to reserve the road for motor vehicle tra c. The sidewalk however is the realm of shopkeepers, street vendors, and their customers and can be so crowded that non-customers prefer to walk on the other side of the fence. Once there, it is hard to return to the sidewalk, making the whole scene less safe than without the fence. In addition, this parallel ow of pedestrians is seen by street vendors as potential clientele, so the vendors pick a spot on the road side of the fence. Moreover, the fence provides a nice backing. Thus a second lane of vending activities is created, reinstalling the informal multipurpose use of space, squeezing the vehicle tra c space even further than would have been the case without the fence. In an attempt to make the fence (i.e. zoning) e ective, authorities have declared street vending illegal. Policemen have a tough job enforcing this ban as they are highly outnumbered by their targets. As soon as a raid starts, the news spreads like wild re. Vendors pick up their merchandise quickly and hide it behind a tree, a lamppost, in the subway or even in the shop of a friend legal shopkeeper. After ten minutes, when the police have left the unlikely empty street, vendors put up their business again and continue as usual. The issue here is the incredible density of people. Of course zoning and planning do work, as long as capacities meet the numbers. When congestion occurs, people start looking for shortcuts and challenge the planned zoning and formality as a whole. Shortly the cure (zoning) becomes worse than the disease, especially when zoning is embedded in physical objects. As we have seen, physically manifested zoning of use is space consuming and for that reason a problem when dealing with hyper densities. The kinetic city is very much an alive thing, as it is capable of permanently adapting itself to the context. This ongoing adaptation marks the e ciency of user-generated zoning in informal settlement. In fact the di erence between formal zoning and user generated zoning is the use of time, the use of the fourth dimension. It is what allows space to be used 24/7. New strategies should give a signi cant role to informality. It is time to overcome the limitations of 20th century urban planning and enter the realm of PostCartesianism. A clear invitation to come and see the wonders of informal urbanism was sent by Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner in the documentary

Why o cial planning doesn’t work in hyper dense areas
Caracas, The Informal City. Klumpner says about Caracas: “But why do I feel as a European that this city is a total chaos? I think it is a typical response. There is a myth that the city is ordered and that myth exists in city halls around the world. The reality is however, that the city has always been chaotic. In Caracas all these forces stream freely and have produced new forms of city that are not known to us.”

Informality at its best: user generated zoning.

Urban Design / Planning in India

66

USER GENERATED ZONING

132

TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION: CREATING SHADE & THEREFORE TRADING OPPORTUNITIES

133

TO ZONE OR NOT TO ZONE
The applicability of contemporary strategies of urban planning is under increasing scrutiny when it comes to dealing with equitable housing in swelling cities. There is a growing awareness of the limitations of urban planning, as we know it. A rst step towards new strategies is recognising that the chaotic urbanism of informal settlement holds lessons of how cities can be built without zoning or regulation. Studying such areas o ers a tabula rasa in thinking city planning. A useful case to study user generated urbanism is in informal settlement area. It shows both the power of informality and the counterproductive e ects of zoning in hyper dense areas. To get a sense of what density means in informal settlements, we need some gures. In developed countries, well known dense cities are New York City (10,500 p/km2) and Tokyo (14,000) . Estimations of the density in informal settlements show gures that reach from 300,000 to over 400,000 p/km2, which is more than ten times that of Cairo (31,600), world’s densest city. Considering that in swelling cities often over 50% of urban population lives in informal settlements, while occupying only 5% of the land, it is clear that overwhelming densities are found widely and that as a result, the pressure on open space is enormous. The presence of wide open public space is probably not the rst that comes to mind when imagining the e ects of high population densities. Miraculously, wide open spaces do exist in informal urbanism. They serve many purposes, such as cricket ground, community gathering and playground for all. Obviously, there is the everlasting threat of newcomers who seek a place to put up a shelter. However, somehow against that incoming tide of squatters, communities manage to keep space open. One of the secrets behind surviving in such very high densities lies in the multipurpose use of both public and private space. The recipe for successful multipurpose use is to rely on the power of informality. It is typical that most westerners who visit extreme dense areas for their rst time, point at the lack of zoning in the streets. They claim that sidewalks are needed to make tra c safer, that curbs would help, as would separate lanes for hand carts. It is the planner’s mind that, in the name of ‘order’, introduces all kinds of obstacles in public space, forcefully introducing formality. What they apparently do not see is that zoning itself is space consuming. By allotting space to speci c activities, that space is rendered useless for other activities that take place at di erent moments in time. Only non-designated space can be used all day long, meeting needs exactly when they occur. There is an interesting parallel between urban design and the design of rooms in housing. In western housing design, rooms are designed for a speci c use. Rooms get a function and are named after it. Bed room, study, kitchen, living room, etcetera. This segregation leaves many rooms unused for most of the time, much unlike the traditional Japanese house in which the function of the room changes during the day. By changing futons and furniture, the room is adapted to what is needed. The key to traditional Japanese design is the creation of an open plan. Everything can change as no elements are xed, even walls can move by means of sliding partitions. When everything is moved to the side, a smooth, obstacle free oor is all that remains.

Why o cial planning doesn’t work in hyper dense areas

On a more detailed scale, furniture is a similar institutionalisation of use. The introduction of chairs and a table reduces the use of a room to sitting around a table. The absence of furniture makes it possible to use a room for whatever comes up. Especially chairs are indicative for this phenomenon. In smaller homes, chairs are often the rst item no longer to be found. Sitting can be done on the oor or on a bed doubling as a sofa. It is exactly this concept of a smooth obstacle free oor that is the most successful formula for multipurpose use of public space. Activities and the number of people involved in them change throughout the day, as do the areas occupied by them. By leaving the boundaries between activities unmarked, these boundaries can freely move to an optimum. The daily routine on an average main road could look like this. In early morning, the street is relatively empty. Commuters walk to the railway station, buying a take away drink from early vendors. Waste collection is present as always. Busses and cars drive by. By ten o’clock, shopkeepers start opening their business. Some street vendors start exhibiting

their merchandise. Around 11 am, road tra c is increasing. Pedestrian presence slows the trucks and busses down. Noon. As the tropical heat is increasing, pedestrians and vendors leave the scene. Car tra c becomes predominant. Between 3 and 4 pm, vendors take over the street again, this time en masse and hold their ground till 10 pm or later. Meanwhile Muslims do their prayers, thus creating a temporary open air mosque. Taxis drive by all day and continue all night.

Big open public space found in informal settlement area, hosting a cricket match.

Urban Design / Planning in India

65

USER GENERATED ZONING

134

TRADING ROUTE: ROOF CONSTRUCTION/EXTENSION: CREATING SHADE & THEREFORE TRADING OPPORTUNITIES

135

PHASE 6 - 8: AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

138

MASTERPLAN: ‘AREAS OF DENISTY’ CREATING ENCLAVES, STREETS & SQUARES. CASE STUDY: RESIDENCE BUFFALO (PARIS) BY FERNAND POULLION

139

The Containers are sourced from a very close proximity to the site. (See Map). They will be delivered to the site by truck (picture above), and any surplus containers will be delivered by train as the stop can not be any closer to the site!

The theme of the studio is ‘Architecture of Rapid Change & Scarce Resources’, so therefore whatever materials which are readily avaliable must be utilized in the project. There were hundreds of containers in close proximity to the site (see map) so not only is it wise to utilize them, they are already part of the aesthetic of the site.

CONTAINERS IN SITE PROXIMITY

140

SHIPPING CONTAINER RESEARCH

141

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK: MAKING THE 1:100 MODEL

142

1:1 PROTOTYPE FOR THE BAMBOO & SARI SILK SHADING WALL AND SINGLE WINDOW INVENTION

143

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CONTAINER CONSTRUCTION & MODIFICATIONS

144

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. 3D CUTOUT THROUGH CONTAINER LIVING UNITS

145

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK WIREFRAME MODELS (NTS) & MID-SITE MASTERPLAN SECTION 1:500

146

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. PLAN & ELEVATIONS 1:100

147

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATION 1:50

148

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATIONS 1:50

149

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. PLAN 1:50

150

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 2

SECTION 3

ELEVATION 1

ELEVATION 3 SECTION 2

SECTION 3

SECTION 1

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. SECTIONS 1:100. KEY 1:200

3

- TT5

60

(254

2

litre

s)

3

- TT5

60

(254

2

litre

s)

SECTION 1

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

151

‘POUR FLUSH TOILETS’ (COMPOSTING LATRINE). PLAN 1:50

3

-T

T5

60

(2

54

2

litr

es

)

3

-T

T5

60

(2 5

42

litr

es

)

POUR FLUSH TOILET A Pour Flush Toilet is like a regular Flush Toilet except that instead of the water coming from the cistern above, it is poured in by the user. When the water supply is not continuous, any cistern Flush Toilet can become a Pour Flush Toilet. Just like a traditional Flush Toilet, there is a water seal that prevents odours and flies from coming back up the pipe. ADVANTAGES - The water seal effectively prevents odours - The excreta of one user are flushed away before the next user arrives - Suitable for all types of users (sitters, squatters, wipers and washers) - Low capital costs; operating costs depend on the price of water. MAINTENANCE It is easy to construct, operate, and maintain: Operation consists of regular water cleansing of the slab (with soap or detergent, if available) to remove any excreta and urine, and daily cleansing of the floor, squatting pan, door handles and other parts of the superstructure. Maintenance consists of monthly inspections to check for cracks in the floor slab and damage to the vent pipe and fly screen, and digging out of part of the feces at the end of the dry season. These feces should be handled with care and buried in a pit covered with soil. After at least a year, when the contents of the pit have decomposed into harmless humus, the humus can be can be used as fertilizer. It is relatively inexpensive to construct, operate, and maintain.

152

CALCULATING POO Rain water harvesting section 1:200 Harvested and stored rainwater is utilized for the bathroom taps, which is used for washing and manually flushing (pouring). 180m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 143,856 litres / 20 (5%) = 7,193 litre tank (2 tanks at 3,600 litres). 1 poo = 50 - 100 grams, Therefore an average 2kg of poo / per month, So that is 25kg of poo per person per year. So for a housing block of 120 people; 120 people x 25kg = 3000kg of poo per year The estimated density of poo is the same as water. So therefore the volume of poo = 1 litre/ 1kg. Therefore, 3000kg of poo = 3000 litres of poo. Therefore, the volume is 3m3 (per year). The size of an individual container/pit is; 2m (long), 1m (wide), 2.5 (deep) 2 x 1 x 2.5 = 5m3 There are 6 pits, but only 3 are being used at one time, so therefore; 3 pits x 5m3 = 15m3 120 people will use up 3m2 per year so therefore the pits need to be switched/ changed every 5 years.

‘POUR FLUSH TOILETS’ (COMPOSTING LATRINE). ELEVATION 1:50

153

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

SECTION 2

ELEVATION 2

SECTION 3

ELEVATION 1

ELEVATION 3 SECTION 2

SECTION 3

SECTION 1

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. KEY 1:200. ELEVATION 1:00

3

- TT5

60

(254

2

litres

)

3

- TT5

60

(254

2

litres

)

SECTION 1

SECTION 5 SECTION 4

154

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATIONS 1:00

155

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATION 1:50

156

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. ELEVATIONS 1:50

157

Rain water harvesting section 1:50 Harvested and stored rainwater is utilized for the bathroom taps, which is used for washing and manually flushing (pouring). 180m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 143,856 litres / 20 (5%) = 7,193 litre tank (2 tanks at 3,600 litres).

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: RAIN WATER HARVESTING 1:50

158

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CLIMATE DIAGRAMS: SARI SILK SOLAR SHADING 1:50

159

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. CLIMATE DIAGRAMS 1:100

160

Harvested and stored rainwater is utilized for the bathroom taps, which is used for washing and manually flushing (pouring). 180m2 (roof area) X 800mm (annual rainfall) = 143,856 litres / 20 (5%) = 7,193 litre tank (2 tanks at 3,600 litres).

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. 3D CUTOUT THROUGH WATER TANKS & TOILET AREA

161

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

E

E

F

F

G

G

DO NOT SCALE DRAWING

REVISION

TITLE:

H

DWG NO.

Assem3
SHEET 1 OF 1

A3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

SCALE:1:200

ISOMETRIC & ELEVATIONS

162

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

A

A

B

B

C

C

Stairs

Bannister

D

D

E

E

F

F

G

G

Non Load Bearing Bamboo Structure

Rain Water Harvesting

DO NOT SCALE DRAWING

REVISION

TITLE:

H

ISO VIEWS
DWG NO.

A3
SHEET 1 OF 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

SCALE:1:50

ISOMETRIC ELEMENTS

163

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 1

164

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 2

165

ASSEMBLY DETAILS

166

ASSEMBLY DETAILS

167

3D ASSEMBLAGE DRAWINGS

168

3D ASSEMBLAGE DRAWING

169

AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK. 3D CUTOUT THROUGH CONTAINER LIVING UNITS

170

644 LIVING CONTAINERS. WITH A NEW AVERAGE OCCUPANCY OF 3.2 PEOPLE PER UNIT - THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE.

171

India’s Agriculture
Agriculture and allied sectors are considered to be the mainstay of the Indian economy. They are the important source of raw material and demand for many industrial products, particularly fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and a variety of consumer goods. They contribute nearly 22 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India. About 65-70 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. ‘Agriculture and allied’ industry is further divided into several segments, namely:- horticulture and its allied sectors (including fruits and vegetables, owers, plantation crops, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants); sheries sector; animal husbandry and livestock; and sericulture. India’s varied agro-climatic conditions are highly favourable for the growth of large number of horticultural crops, which occupy around 10 per cent of gross cropped area of the country producing 160.75 million tonnes. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. It is also second largest producer of owers after China. It is also leading producer, consumer and exporter for spices and plantation crops like tea, co ee, etc. While, sericulture is an agro-based cottage industry. India is ranked as the second major raw silk producer in the world. Fisheries sector occupies a very important place in the socioeconomic development of the country. It is a big source of employment opportunities for the large number of people in the country, especially rural population. It has a huge export potential. Similarly, India has vast resource of livestock and poultry, which play a vital role in promoting the welfare of rural masses. The Indian Dairy Industry has acquired substantial growth momentum from 9th Plan onwards. India’s milk output during the year 2006-2007 reached the level of 100.9 million tonnes (provisional), which has placed the country on top in the world in this eld. The Ministry of Agriculture is the main authority in India for regulation and development of activities relating to agriculture, horticulture, shing, animal husbandry, etc. It is implementing various schemes and policies for the sector through its divisions like ‘Department of Agriculture and Cooperation’ and ‘Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries’. Further, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries is actively engaged in promotion of entrepreneurial activities in the segments of sh processing as well as fruits and vegetables processing. Besides, commodity boards, like tea board, co ee board, rubber board, medicinal plants board, etc. have been set up to boost the growth of the sectors like tea, co ee, rubber, medicinal plants, respectively. Hence, there exists innumerable business opportunities in the agriculture and allied sectors. Investors from all over the world are making more and more investments into the sector for unleashing its existing potentialities as well as for exploring the untapped areas.

India’s Agriculture

42

INDIA’S AGRICULTURE & COMPOSTING PROCESS

172

THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE. THE MASTERPLAN INTERGRATES IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE PLOTS FOR SELF SUSTAINABILITY

173

PHASE 6-7 (b): VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWERS (x4)

176

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWERS & AFFORDABLE HOUSING / CONTAINER BLOCK & MID-SITE MASTERPLAN SECTION 1:500

177

SECTION 1

6

-T

T1 10

0

(5

01 1

litr

es

)

ELEVATION 1 ELEVATION 2 SECTION 1

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER ELEVATION 1:200. KEY 1:100

178

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER ELEVATION 1:200

179

WIREFRAME MODEL OF THE VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER

180

WIREFRAME MODEL OF THE VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER

181

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 1

182

ASSEMBLY DETAILS 2

183

6 - TT1100 (5011 litres)

VERTICAL SLUM / CONTAINER TOWER PLAN 1:50

184

3D ASSEMBLY DETAILS

185

PROJECT SUMMARY: PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:2000

188

PROPOSED MASTERPLAN 1:5000

189

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

190

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

191

MASTERPLAN: ‘AREAS OF DENISTY’ CREATING ENCLAVES, STREETS & SQUARES

192

644 LIVING CONTAINERS. WITH A NEW AVERAGE OCCUPANCY OF 3.2 PEOPLE PER UNIT - THIS MASTERPLAN PROVIDES NEW HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2,000 PEOPLE.

193

PHASE 3: BRIDGE

PHASE 4b: ‘UNDER THE BRIDGE’ MARKET

PHASE 5: UNZONED TRADING MARKET

PHASE 2: CENTRAL BUILDING

PHASE 4a: CONTAINER WALL

PHASE 1: DEWAT

PHASES 1-5

194

PHASE 6b

PHASE 6a

PHASE 7b

PHASE 7a

PHASE 8a

PHASE 8b

PHASES 6-8

195

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

196

ONLY IN INDIA * SLUM UPGRADED MASTERPLAN.

RAILWAY LANDS, NORTH KACHPURA, AGRA.

ARCHITECTURE OF RAPID CHANGE AND SCARCE RESOURCES

197

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful