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Unity of Religions Qur'an does not bring a whole new religion and conception system; it defines itself as a reminder of forgotten, corrector of what is falsified and attester of what is remained from past's realities and unchanged actual books. Even though the creation, the nature of the mankind tends to make amendments, novelties and to adopt new – comer system, the attester and reminder role of Qur'an, which it attaches to itself, show that it is the revelation of the “sole and unchangeable” religion which is not written by tendencies and ambitions of mankind and which is supported by historical facts. To comply with given statements, indications of Islamic elements and various important worships and practices, like the holiness of Kaaba, facing Kaaba as the direction of prayer and worship, cleaning oneself before facing Kaaba and fasting shall be found within the systematical doctrines and histories of all revelation – based (monotheist) religions (especially within those of Christianity and Judaism). Hence, repetition of same orders and doctrine by tens of thousands of messengers shall mark a chain of great signs that affect all cultures of world. Let us have a look at on those signs..
REFERENCES TO WORSHIPS TOWARDS KAABA IN OLD TESTAMENT AND IN THE BIBLE “After the boy had gone, David got up from the south side [of the stone] and bowed down before Jonathan three times, with his face to the ground. Then they kissed each other and wept together--but David wept the most.” 1 As described here, Prophet David got up from the south side of the stone, thus towards south and then bowed down. Why towards south? Prophet David had been living at lands at that time, where is currently known as Jerusalem. The only direction of worship at the south of Jerusalem could only be Kaaba in the Mecca. Could it be al – Masjid – al – Aqsa which constitutes a direction of worship at the south of the rock in the field? No, because the Masjid – al – Aqsa was yet to be constructed at the time of Prophet David. The construction of the masjid was his bequeath to his son, Solomon, at his death and it was his son who built the masjid. “Seek help in patience and prayer; and truly it is hard save for the humble-minded”2 “20 – 21: Whenever they enter the Tent of Meeting, they shall wash with water... Also, when
Torah, 1 Samuel, 20:41 Qur'an, 2:45
they approach the altar to minister by presenting an offering made to the Lord...they shall wash their hands and feet... This is to be a lasting ordinance for Aaron and his descendants for the generations to come”3 “30: He placed the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar and put water in it for washing, and 31: Moses and Aaron and his sons used it to wash their hands and feet. 32: They washed whenever they entered the Tent of Meeting or approached the altar, as the Lord commanded Moses.”4 “I will praise you as long as I live and in your name I will lift up my hands”5 “All kings will bow down to him and all nations will serve him”6 “5: The Sea is his, for he made it, and his hands formed the dry land
Torah, Exodus 30: 20 – 21 Torah, Exodus, 40: 30 - 32 5 Psalms 63: 4 6 Psalms, 72:11
6: Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the LORD our Maker”7 “Moses and Aaron went from the assembly to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting and fell facedown, and the glory of the LORD appeared to them”8 “Ezra praised the Lord, the great God; and all the people lifted their hands and responded, "Amen! Amen!" Then they bowed down and worshipped the Lord with their faces to the ground”9 “11: All the angels were standing around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures. They fell down on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, 12: saying: "Amen! Praise and glory and wisdom and thanks and honor and power and strength be to our God for ever and ever. Amen!"10 “ When Abraham's servant heard what they said, he bowed down to the ground before the LORD.”11
7 8 9
Psalms, 95: 5-6
Torah, Numbers 20:6
Torah Nehemiah 8:6 Bible, Book of Revelation 7:11 11 Torah, Genesis, 24:52
“25: He sat in his customary place by the wall, opposite Jonathan, and Abner sat next to Saul, but David's place was empty.” “26: Saul said nothing that day, for he thought, "Something must have happened to David to make him ceremonially unclean--surely he is unclean."12 “These are they unto whom Allah showed favour from among the prophets, of the seed of Adam and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Noah, and of the seed of Abraham and Israel, and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the revelations of the Beneficent were recited unto them, they fell down, adoring and weeping. (58) Now there hath succeeded them a later generation whom have ruined worship and have followed lusts. But they will meet deception.”13 In this verse it is clearly underlined that prophets of the past were bowed and practiced prayer14 “Then David got up from the ground. After he had washed, put on lotions and changed his clothes, he went into the house of the LORD and worshiped.
Torah, 1 Samuel 20: 25 - 26 Qur'an, Maryam; 58th Verse. 14 Author refers the Islamic meanings of the both terms: “Kotow” and “namaz”. Both terms defines certain rituals of worship in Islam. – t.n.
Then he went to his own house, and at his request they served him food, and he ate.”15 “30: He placed the basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar and put water in it for washing, 31: and Moses and Aaron and his sons used it to wash their hands and feet. 32: They washed whenever they entered the Tent of Meeting or approached the altar, as the LORD commanded Moses.”16 “I will praise you as long as I live and in your name I will lift up my hands”17 In these old books in which Islamic worships can be clearly seen, there were signs pointing Kaaba: “They made me jealous by what is no god and angered me with their worthless idols. I will make them envious by those who are not a people; I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding.”18
Torah, 2 Samuel 12: 20 Torah, Exodus, 40: 30 - 32 17 Psalms, 63: 4 18 Deuteronomy 32: 21
It is indicated that Ismail will be the father of a fruitful, great nation: “because more are the children of the desolate woman than of her who has a husband," says the LORD.19 As stated before, at the beginning of the section, according to Qur'an, the religion of Islam is a religion “that is engraved into the creation, into the nature of mankind”. But this unchangeable sole religion had to be refreshed and reminded by messengers in time just because it had been falsified by men. For this reason, there are great similarities in between almost all revelation – based religions of the world. So set you, your face towards the religion (of pure Islamic Monotheism) Hanif (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah's Fitrah (i.e. Allah's Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Allah's creation, that is the straight religion, but most of men know not. (Al ROOM Surah / 30) That is the religion which is engraved to our DNAs and to our souls. The religion to which each human being becomes a member, by birth and by health only. Unchanged religion of Allah. No doubt that
His Almighty and the idea of praising Him was engraved to the human soul by birth. Just like being draw towards to the owner of universe, men wanted to adjust itself to this frame and carried the endless power and the knowledge of endless life within. For the frame that men birth from, was a frame which hold endless, magnificent power (According to Qur'an, Allah created the human soul by blowing His own soul to it). What was changed is nothing more than the shariah and commands to test or to punish the nations. Everyone examining the human history could easily figure out that, rituals that are unchangeable parts of Islam, like namaz (worship), kotow, al-wudu and full ritual ablution remained same throughout the whole history. Such similarities prove that all religions which seemed like to be different, are in fact different fountains fed by the very same resource. According to Qur'an, beginning from Prophet Adam, only the same religion was commanded to all Prophets. The fact that the other religions show differences is a result of their falsification in time. The worship techniques, the ways of awakening and finding the true and rightful God, nearly all of them through out the world are identical. The way is the worship, patience, goodness and submission to God who is sole and in everywhere.
DIVINE PROPORTION AND SACRED GEOGRAPHY
WHAT IS THE GOLDEN RATIO? Before revealing the miraculous connections between the Golden Ratio and Islamic Religious values, it would be beneficial to provide some information about the Golden Ratio. Golden Ratio is a mathematical concept which shall be analyzed from the mathematical perspective. However, it is also a classification method for art and aesthetic as it serves as a concord (harmony) and beauty measure. The Golden Ratio is a biological reality that exists in the nature without being a human design. Mankind wanted to transform the nature into culture, especially in visual designs. For this purpose, mankind referred to the Golden Ratio of the nature20. Despite the fact that the Golden Ratio has existed from all eternity in mathematics and physics, there is no information on the time of its discovery by mankind. It is highly possible that the Golden Ratio had been repeatedly re-discovered during the history.
Doğada, Sanatta, Mimaride Altın Oran ve Fibonacci Sayıları (Golden Ratio in Nature, Arts and Architecture and Fibonacci Numbers), Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, Nobel Kitabevi, 2007, p. 4.
As far as we know, the first mathematical knowledge on the Golden Ratio was recorded in the Euclid's book named “Stoikheia / Elements” with the name “Extreme and Mean Ratio”. The available data show that the history of this knowledge goes back as far as 3rd Millennium B.C. in Ancient Egypt. It is also claimed that the knowledge on the Golden Ratio had been used by Pythagoras and Pythagoreans (his followers) in Greco – world21. In his thesis named “Elements”, Euclid (365 B.C. – 300 B.C.) mentioned about dividing a beam from its 0.6180399 … point and called this action as cutting a beam in an extreme and mean ratio. Egyptians used both “pi” and “phi” ratio in the design of Cheops Pyramid. Greeks based the whole design of Parthenon on the Golden Ratio. This ratio was also used by the famous Greek sculptor Phidias. An Italian mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci, discovered extraordinary properties of a numeric series to which he gave his own name; however, it is unknown whether he discovered the relationship between the Golden Ratio and his sequence.
Doğada / Bilimde / Sanatta Altın Oran (Golden Ratio in the Nature / Science / Art), Mehmet Suat Bergil, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, 2009, p. 13.
Leonardo da Vinci gave drawings to Luca Pacioli to be used in his work named “De Divina Proportione” (the Divine Proportion) which he published in 1509. In this book, drawings of Leonardo da Vinci named “Five Platonic Solids” are illustrated. These are drawings of a cube, a Tetrahedron, a Dodecahedron, an Octahedron and an Icosahedron. The person who used the Latin corresponding term of Golden Ratio for the first time was probably Leonardo da Vinci. Artists of Renaissance era frequently used the Golden Ratio in their paintings and sculptures to obtain balance and beauty. Leonardo da Vinci, for instance, in his famous painting “The Last Supper” he applied the Golden Ratio every where from the dimensions of the table that Jesus Christ and apostles sit, to the background wall and windows. Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630), who discovered the elliptic form of the orbits of planets in the solar system, defined the Golden Ratio as: “Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras, and the other the division of a line into the Golden Ratio”. An American Mathematician, Mark Barr, suggested using the phi letter of Greek alphabet (the first letter of Greek sculptor Phidias, who was the architect of Parthenon and who was known as the first person used the Golden Ratio) to indicate this ratio. Moreover, the
“F” letter corresponding the “Phi” of Greek Alphabet, is the first letter of Fibonacci. The Golden Ratio is the magnificent role that a number played in the history of science, art and the mankind. Phi continues to open new ways for us to understand the universe and the life. In 1970s, by using the Golden Ratio, Roger Penrose discovered “the pentagonal symmetrical tiling of surfaces” which was thought to be impossible until the date22. Who is Leonardo Pisano or with his pseudonym “Fibonacci”? Fibonacci, who is considered as one of the most talented mathematicians of the middle age, was born in Italy, in the city of Pisa, on 1170, which is an uncertain date. His father, Guilielmo Bonacci, was the Minister of Foreign Affairs fort he Republic of Pisa. He was also a Customs Authority in Bugia, a city in North Africa (present Bejaia in Algeria). Bonacci brought his son to Bugia in 1192 as he wanted his son to learn the calculation techniques, especially including
the Hindu – Arabic numeral system, which was not known in the Europe. Bonacci wanted his son to be educated so as to become a merchant23. His first education on mathematics was given by Muslim scientist24 in Algeria and he examined and studied the books of Islamic civilization. He wrote a book on mathematics named “Liber Abacci / The Book of Algebra” and along with Arabic numbers, he introduced the numeral system that is currently used to the Europe. By giving examples, he explained the basic mathematics rules (addition, multiplication, subtraction and division) that we learn at primary school. While this ancient knowledge was not known in Europe for that period, it can be stated that this information triggered a huge explosion in mathematics. Thanks to Fibonacci, Europe finally remembered the forgotten knowledge… The sequence created by Fibonacci is named after him. In this sequence; starting with 1 each number is added the previous number to combine a new one. As the sequence continues, the proportion of
Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p. 15. In that period, Muslims were more advanced in science and arts regarding the other societies. However, they quit learning, mediation and research, which are ordered in more than seven hundred sections in Qur'an. Finally Qur'an was deserted, stroke out of the practice and become a decorative ornament on shelves.
numbers surprisingly gets closer to the Golden Ratio constant and finally locked on this constant, gives the same number for eternity. 1.6180339887 … When a number of Fibonacci is divided by the previous number, the result numbers would be noticeably similar to each other. This number is fixed after the 13th number of the sequence (233). Fibonacci sequence continues as 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, … 0 + 1 = 1 (2nd number of the sequence) 1 + 1 = 2 (3rd number of the sequence) 2 + 1 = 3 (4th number of the sequence) As given in above examples, each number of the sequence is added to the previous one to create a new number and this sequencegoes for eternity. Division of greater to the smaller: 377 / 233 = 1.618 … 144 / 89 = 1.618 … Interestingly, when the smaller of any consecutive pairs of the sequence is divided to the greater one, the result produces; 0.618 … 233 / 377 = 0.618 …
89 / 144 = 0.618 … This number which is expressed by formula goes for eternity in an unpredictable structure without any single repetition in its sequence. GOLDEN RATIO = 1,618 233 / 144 = 1,618 377 / 233 = 1,618 610 / 377 = 1,618 987 / 610 = 1,618 The Golden Ratio (The golden section which is also known as golden and divine proportion) is a feature belonging to the Fibonacci numbers. This interesting ratio which can be seen in arts, in the nature and even in living organisms is considered as prove of the existence of an almighty Creator. The well – known “p” Pi number is equal to the Golden Ratio 1.6180339887989 … which is fixed after a certain sequence, i.e. the 13th sequence. It is symbolized with “F”, “Phi” of Greek alphabet. Phi Beginning from the century, the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet, Φ Phi, which is the first letter of the name of a Famous Greek Sculptor, Phidias (5th
Century B.C.) started to be used to refer to the Golden Ratio. To sum up with Φ symbol; Φ = 1,618 … 1 / Φ or Φ-1 = 0,618 Φ – 1 = Φ-1 Φ2 = 2,618 Φ + 1 = Φ2 2Φ = 3,236… 2Φ – 1 = √5 = 2,236… As it can be seen from its relation with √5, Phi is an irrational number. Also, it shows the quality of algebraic number since it is the root of the x 2 – x – 1 = 0 equity. It would not be a mistake to associate the position of Phi among irrational / algebraic numbers to those of π among irrational / transcendental numbers. Φ does not solely emerges with various unique properties within the objective reality of mathematics but it emerges in various unexpected phenomena; from the phyllotaxis phenomenon in the plants to the shells of various shellfishes, from the pedigree relating the reproduction of male bees to the branching of bronchial tree in lungs.25
Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 17 – 18.
Views of Scientists on the Golden Ratio Numerous famous scientists and geniuses of the history, like Leonardo Da Vinci, were passionate and attached to the Golden Ratio number and from artistic works they produce to their studies; they used the number in nearly everything. Leonardo Da Vinci “Thee, who seeks values, do not satisfy with familiarizing with, adopting the forms as shaped by the nature; seek for the root of the forms as they emerge.” Johannes Kepler “Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras, and the other the golden ratio; the first we may compare to a measure of gold, the second we may name a precious jewel.” Norman Gowar “The fact that a certain independent number has an attraction over both mathematics and aesthetics is an extremely interesting issue. Moreover, the Golden Ratio does exist in the creation of the nature”. Ag. Tyong “It is certain that, in results of a study on the natural forms, we will encounter various examples proportioning them to Fibonacci or Phi sequences.
This fact indicates the significance of all forms of Golden Ratio as a factor of the spatial arrangement in the development of the nature”. American Scientist “Now we know that, the pentagonal symmetry phenomenon, which was observed in an alloy in 1984, is caused by an organization created by the quasi-periodical intersection of a series of parallel atomic level whose original interspaces are evaluated in a Golden Ratio oriented, Fibonacci – type consecutiveness”. R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz “It is not possible to encounter with the Golden Ratio number in every where. However, we can find the Golden Ratio number every where when a pleasing and very balanced form is achieved. The golden number is not a creation of mathematical imagination but a production of natural principle related to the rules of balance.” J. Boronowski Coleridge was always stuck on the same reflection when he tried to define the beauty. “The beauty” he said, “is the unity of variety”. Science a quest focused on the discovery of the unity which is hidden in the endless variety in the nature or rather in the diversity of our experiences. Poetry, painting
and all other arts are nothing but this quest on “the unity in diversity”, itself”. F. Hutcheson “The descriptions that trigger the beauty considerations within our minds are, apparently, the examples that have the unity at the very center of variety”. Roger Scruton “It has always been expressed that the rectangular of the Golden Raito has a unique harmony. Infact, this rectangular has a visual stability like a “square”. Certain properties bring a square - like mathematical similarity to the Golden Ratio rectangular. This similarity is of a kind that explains the visual harmony of the Golden Ratio rectangular… We can combine many of this kind of rectangular in a way that will provide appropriate right angles and that enables the created parts to accumulate together”. Peter Smith “The fact that the spiral is such a popular form does not result from its existence in the nature but result from its rational balance and its explicitness… Another interesting property of the spiral is that this form is directly related to the Golden Ratio which is the most famous ratio of mathematics”.
“The Golden Ratio and the pentagonal ratio relating to it had played a significant role in art and architecture from Greek temples to the Modulor of Le Corbusier”. V. E. Hoggatt, Jr. And Bicknell – Johnson “When two layers of glass, contacting each other, are exposed to light, a certain part of the light pass through the glass, a certain part is absorbed and the remaining part is reflected. This event is called as “multiple reflection”. The number of ways through which the ray passes before re–appearing, depends on the number of the reflections that the ray is exposed to. In conclusion, when we calculate the number of re-appearing rays, it will be seen that this number gives the exact Fibonacci numbers, i.e. the Golden Ratio”. The Golden Rectangular In Stoikhea, Euclid both explained how to determine the golden section of a straight line and focused on another problem related to the Golden Ratio: Such a rectangular shall be invented that when a square is removed from this rectangular, the “long edge : short edge” proportion of the small remaining rectangular shall be the same of its proportion. When we begin with a rectangular whose longer edge is “x” and short edge is “1” and remove a
square from this with a “1” edge, the edges of the small remaining rectangular will be (x – 1) and 1. Thus, when we equalize the edge proportions of the original rectangular and small rectangular;
Equity will be obtained. So, since the equity whose positive root provides Phi is x = Φ, the equity we know, the answer of the Euclid's problem is a rectangular whose edges are proportioned according to the Golden Ratio. This rectangular that provides 1 : Φ ratio is called as the “Golden Rectangular” or Phi Rectangular26. What dimensions could be regarded as best pleasing dimensions for a television screen or swimming pool design? The answer of this question can be obtained via a poll. As the result of practice, it has been accepted that the golden rectangular is the most aesthetical among all other rectangular forms. For this reason, the Golden Ratio and the golden rectangular have been widely used in art and architecture for centuries27.
Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 21 Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p. 14
The Golden Triangle and Fibonacci Numbers The isosceles triangles with an apical angle of 36O and with base angles of 72O are called as golden triangle. Let us define a golden triangle with BC = Φ base length. The vertex of the triangle be A and corner points on the base line be B and C. In this triangle,
It will be; AC / BC = Φ and AC = BC. Φ = Φ2. Since the base angles are 72o, a ∟ABD = 36o will be obtained and the apical angle of ADB will be 108o. It can be written as AD = BD = Φ, CD = 1 = AC – AD = Φ2 – Φ. Spirals of equal angles pass through
the corners of the ever - decreasing golden triangles which are drawn in a golden triangle. We would obtain a logarithmic spiral (equiangular spiral) passing through the corner points of the triangles when we divide the golden triangles by consecutive points into golden triangles. Golden Ratio in Polygons28 In Stoikheia, Euclid proved the Phi relation between the edge length of a 10 edged right polygon and the radius of the circle encircling this decagon. AB / BC = Φ At the same time, the proportion of the diagonals of the decagon to the radius of the circle encircling the decagon is Phi: BD / AB = Φ When we take BC as 1, we will obtain the sequences of : BC = 1, AB = Φ, BD = Φ2 Since the BAC angle of the figure is 360o / 10, the AB / BC proportion exists between the long edge and short edge in an isosceles triangle which has an
Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p. 23 – 24.
apical angle of 36o. This triangle, whose base angles are exactly twice of its apical angle, (72o = 2 x 36o) can be named as the golden triangle. We can prove that the very same triangle exists within a right pentagon: the angle between two diagonals which we draw down from any of the corners of the pentagon to the opposite edge would be 36 degrees. Thus, these diagonals and the edge they connect will again form a golden triangle. Result: the proportion of any diagonal of the pentagon to its edge is Phi.
This is not the sole form of Phi relations within a right pentagon, which was a polygon regarded as highly important by Pythagoreans. The points where diagonals intercept each other provides the golden section of diagonals: AB / AE = AE / BE = CD / CE = CE / DE = ... = Φ
When we intersect the edges of a pentagon by extending them, a pentagonal star will appear. Like a pentagon, a pentagonal star is a reach source of Golden Ratio.29
The Golden Spiral / Logarithmic Spiral
The golden spiral, o logarithmic spiral, is a curve defined by r = keθ cot α general polar equation. This spiral, since any angle (α) of it, which a beam vector
Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 37 – 38.
(r) divides the curve on any point is constant, is named as equiangular spiral by Descartes. According to the r = keθ cot α general polar equation, the beam vector (r), increases by an independent variable angle θ; but while the beam vector increases by a geometrical sequence, the θ angle increases by arithmetical sequence. Therefore θ angle values, except k constant value, produce the logarithms of the beam vectors equal to them. On the other hand, the beam vector makes a fixed angle (α) with the curve. The ultimate form of the curve does not depend on the k's constant value but on the constant value of α.30 The Golden Pyramid When we divide a golden rectangular from its diagonal and combine two right triangles collaterally by their long edges, we would form an isosceles triangle which has a Φ height and whose two long edge and the short edge are of a value of 2. When we place 4 triangles of this type on the edges of a 2 x 2 square and knit them, we would form a “pyrmid” and the height of this pyramid will be of a value of …. This pyramid, in which there are three different Phi values exist, is called as the Golden Pyramid. 31
Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 29 Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 59
The Fibonacci Sequence and Rabbits The original problem that Fibonacci investigated (in the year 1202) was about how fast rabbits could breed in ideal circumstances. It is possible that, when the added this original problem into his book named, he just wanted to make the addition to be held with the Hindo – Arabic numerals, which were widely introduced to the West first time in this book, more interesting for readers. Only, Fibonacci, who was the most famous mathematician of the era, owes his increasing reputation in 19th – 20th Centuries to this problem. The reason behind this is that the solution of this problem provides an extremely interesting sequence of numbers. He was not aware of the relation between the Golden Ratio and the solution of this problem; or simply did not declare this relation. Hence the existence of the sequence was discovered in the 17th Century while the
relation between the sequence and the Golden Ratio was found in the 18th Century. The problem is; “Suppose that we put a pair of rabbits in a farm which is completely covered by walls. Suppose each pair of rabbits reproduce another pair each month, beginning from the second month. How many pairs of rabbit will there be in one year?”32 The solution can be explained as: Rabbits are able to mate at the age of 1 month. Suppose that the female rabbit produce another pair at the end of the second month. Further suppose that the rabbits never die and that, beginning from the second month, female rabbits always produce one new pair (a male and a female) of rabbits every month. The puzzle that Fibonacci posed was: How many pairs of rabbits will there be at the end of one year? Let us follow the answers step by step. Let us put a certain pair of rabbits in a certain room. Rabbits mate at the end of the first month and at the end of the first moth there is still 1 pair of rabbits. At the end of the second month, the female rabbit produces a new pair of rabbits (one male and one
Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 65
female). Now we have two pairs of rabbits within a certain area. At the end of the third month the original female rabbit produces a second pair of rabbits. Now we have three pairs of rabbits within the area. At the end of the fourth month, the original female rabbit produces another pair of rabbits while the other female rabbit (which was born two months ago) produced her first pair. Thus we have 5 pairs of rabbits in the area.33 When the monthly increase of the rabbit pairs is analyzed, it will be seen that, the addition of numbers identified for two consecutive months will give the number to be obtained for the next month: Month = 5, Month = 8, Month = 5 + 8 = 13, Month = 8 + 13 = 21, etc. So the number of the rabbit pairs in a certain area for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and following months will be given as (starting from 1) 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, … .
Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p. 45.
The Golden Ration in the Nature The Golden Ratio is widely found in the nature. The Fibonacci sequence emerges both in the petals of flowers, cones of pines and in the formation of scales of pineapple. The Golden Ratio plays a significant role in the development of numerous biological systems. As we mentioned above, this situation depends on the mathematical properties of the Golden Ratio. Let's begin with botany and elaborate the subject via exemplification. In botany, the sequence of the leaves on the stem is examined under phyllotaxy title, which explains this phenomenon. There are four types of phyllotaxy: Alternate: Each leaf grows at a single node, Opposite: A couple of leaves growing at a single node, Whorled: There are several leaves at each node. The leave pairs at adjacent nodes make right angles to each other. The arrangement of alternate leaves is defined by fraction in phyllotaxy. For instance, a phyllotaxis identified as 2 / 5 fraction means that there are five right alignments and the leave at the sixth node is at the same alignment with the leave at the first node. It
further means that the leaves on consecutive nodes make an angle of 144 degrees to each other and following from first to the sixth leave, the leaves entwine two complete turns around the stem. Thus the denominator (d) of this fraction defines on what sequence (the number of leaves) the nodes are placed at the same alignment and the numerator (p) defines how many times the leaves entwine complete turns around the stem before them are placed at the same alignment. When we list the most common p / d phyllotaxis, we would have seen that the “p” and “d” values are consist of Fibonacci numbers: 1/2, 1/3, 2/5, 3/8, 5/13, 8/21, … p / d fractions constitute convergent of the following continued fraction:
In this endless continued fraction, the limit goes to the inverse value of Φ2: to Φ-2; Φ-2 = 0,38197… Usually, we can list the p / d phyllotaxis of various plants as follows:
(a)1 Witch Elm 1 / 2 Beech 1 / 3 Oak 2 / 5 Poplar 3 / 8 Almond Tree 5 / 13 (b)2 Common Grass 1 / 2 Sedge 1 / 3 Apple Tree 2 / 5 Musa Paradisiaca 3 / 8 Leek 5 / 13. We can add plants and herbs like daisy and helianthus (sun flower) on the foregoing list. For a specific example, let's look at the sun flower. The spiral numbers of the sun flower are those representing the 34 / 55 or 55 / 89 ratios. We can find 21 / 34 and 13 / 21 ratios in smaller sun flowers which grow in end season and which represent a defective alignment. In very huge samples, this ratio can increase up to 89 / 144. Petals of numerous flowers reflect this sequence. Lilies, for example, are 6-petalous plants which are composed of 2 – 3 sets. Pink cloves are 5-petalous flowers. China rose represents quintet symmetry in
its grains and petals. Octal-petalous flowers are not as common as quintet-petalous flowers, yet there are well – known types of octal-petalous flowers. 21 or 34 petals- flowers are very common. The numbers of outer – ring petals in a daisy family explains the Fibonacci sequence very well. Daisies are extremely common with 13, 21, 34, 55 or 89 petals. 3 petals (tripetalous): lily, tulip and iris 5 petals: buttercup, wild rose, pink clove, delphinium, columbine, euphorbia 8 petals: Delphinium, golden ragwort. 3 petals: Groundsel, some types of daisies. 21 petals: dahlia, chamomile, dandelion. 34 petals: A certain type of banana, pyrethrum. 55, 89 petals: Certain colored daisies. Fibonacci numbers are found in vegetables and fruits. The number of the spaces where the seeds of an apple are found is 5. Additionally, there are 3 spaces within the long red – pepper.
There are 2 spaces in bell pepper and green pepper and lemons has 8 circle sections34. Now, let's have a look at the Golden Ratio in the world of animals. Golden spirals are very common in animals' world. The way of incrimination of Alaskan mountain goats' antler provides the equiangular spiral reality. It is proved by the science world that various golden spiral types can be found in goats, rams and other horn – animals. Tendrils, ivies, DNA, which is the hereditary molecule of living beings; these are all in conformity with the spiral form. Finger prints, trunk of elephants, webs of certain types of spiders, galaxies in the universe, nautilus, head of the sun flower … ; these are all typical examples of this type of spirals.
Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p – 85. Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p 33.
In the inner section and the shell of nautilus, a shellfish, there are spiral curves. It adds these together and thus develops by using the chambers in it. The fish in the shell enlarges its home by constituting a twisty tube.
The honey combs, that the bees construct to put honey in it, are a type of hexagonal pattern that can be found in space. Examples of curves based on the logarithmic spiral can be seen in the tusks of elephants and the now-extinct mammoth, lions' claws and parrots' beaks. The eperia spider always weaves its webs in a logarithmic spiral.
Among the micro-organisms known as plankton, the bodies of globigerinae, planorbis, vortex, terebra, turitellae and trochida are all constructed on equiangular spirals. Among Echinodermata, starfishes, sand dollars or asterina starfishes have a quintet symmetrical order. The Golden Ratio is present in crystal structures. Most of these are too small to be seen by human eye. Yet, you can see the Golden Ratio on a single snow crystal by yourself. In short – long branching structure that constitute the snow crystal, the proportion of various extensions always provide the Golden Ratio.35
Emre Becer, “Biçimsel Uyumun Matematik Kuralı Olarak Altın Oran”. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi, Ocak 1991, (The Golden Ratio as the Mathematical Rule of the Formal Harmony. Science and Technique Magazine, January, 1991) p. 16.
The Golden Ratio in Human Anatomy Pythagoras, who lived in 500s B.C. and who was one of the most talented mathematicians of all times, expressed his opinion on the Golden Ratio and stated that: “The proportion of the full height of a human body to the height up to its umbilicus, the proportions of short and long edges of a pentagram, the proportions of the short and long edges of a rectangular; these are all the same. What is the reason behind that? Because, the proportion of the whole to the bigger part, is equal to the proportion of the bigger part to the smaller.” (If we compare the pentagram, to be drawn within AB edges of a normal pentagon with AC longitude, we would obtain…
Ø = (1 + ) / 2 = 2cos(p / 5) = 1.61803… i.e. Golden Ratio number. There are numerous Golden Ratios in the human face. Because this proportion is valid for an ideal human face as accepted by scientist and artists.
It can not be expected that every face have this ratio. These ratios can only be found on ideal faces. Golden Ratio examples on a face with ideal measurements: Mouth length / nose width = Φ Distance between eye pupils / distance between eye brows = Φ Nose width / distance between nose nostrils = Φ (Face height) / (Face width) = Φ
A face pertinent to the Golden Ratio (Bottom nose – chin) / (mouth – chin) = Φ (Eye pupils – chin) / (Bottom nose – chin) = Φ Lower lip width / upper lid width = Φ Width of lips as closed / distance between bottom of the nose and the upper lip = Φ
Here is what happens when the golden ratio is depraved in human face Distance between the center of closed mouth to the chin / distance between nose nostrils to the center of closed mouth = Φ There are 5 distinct parts connected to the human body. These are two arms, two legs and one head. Also, there are 5 fingers connected to each of the hands and feet. Moreover, there are 5 points in our faces opened to the outer world. These are two nose nostrils, two eyes and one mouth. There is an interesting relationship between the number 5 and phi. All those 5s here bring us to the phi number via the following way: 50.5 * .5 + .5 = Ø
Have a look at the index finger of your hand. You can find the golden ratio in your finger if there is no extracanonical deviation.
In human face, the distance between two ears, between eye and upper lip, the distance between the bottoms of nose and chin; these all contain the Golden Ratio.
You can figure out more of Golden Ratio when you examine carefully. For example, the proportion of the addition of upper jaw's two fore teeth's width to their height provides the Golden Ratio. The proportion of the width of first tooth to the second from the center is also based to the Golden Ratio. These are the most ideal proportions that a dentist could consider. An American physician, B. J. West and medical doctor A. L. Goldberger, proved the existence of the Golden Ration within the structure of the lung in their study conducted in between 1985 – 1987. One of the properties of the bronchial tree, which forms the lung, is that it is asymmetric. For example, the trachea is divided into two main branches as one longer (at left) and one shorter (at right) braches. This asymmetric division continues in the consecutive embranchment of branches. It is confirmed that the proportion of the long bronchus to the shorter one approximately gives the 1 / 1,618 value in every division.
The Golden Engineering
The Golden Ratio is found in architecture. In classical and modern architecture, there is a noteworthy property that the front view of any construction to be built is always fixed in a golden rectangular. Additionally, in all norms used for building designs, the key criterion is, again, the Golden Ratio.36 The Parthenon Temple, in Athens, Greece, is the most famous. The Temple was built by architects Ictinus, Callicrates and Phidias in between 477 – 438 B.C. The Golden Ratio emerges within various parts of this building. Numerous researches made consistency analyzes on Parthenon with barely different approaches. The point that all researchers agree is the fact that the use of the Golden Ratio in various different parts of Parthenon, added balance and harmony properties to the beauty of the Temple.
Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p. 71 – 72.
Parthenon Temple For this reason, its architectural structure and image is exclusive. We already know that the details and the whole are designed as a harmonious process in Greek structures. Moreover, the design of Ionian capitals (column heads) is based on the logarithmic spiral. The volutes of ionion – style capitals were obtained from various spirals that contain radial increase ratios, especially the one that has s = ratio. Aeolians preferred equiangular spiral obtained from 1: 2Φ (2Φ - 1) rectangular, in their column
heads belonging the late 7th c. B.C. and early 6th century. Also the churches of Roman and gothic eras were designed through the right polygons placed in one or more (one within the other) circles of front or cross sections, and triangles derived from them.
Notre Dame Cathedral
The design of the Notre Dame Cathedral, in Paris, is also based on the Golden Ratio measurements. The main portal (entrance door) of Chartes Cathedral, again in France, reflects Golden Rectangular property. During the renaissance period, on the other hand, Alberti (Leon Battista Alberti – t.n.) who was stating that “pieces shall completely serve the whole”, was encouraging the use of the Golden Ratio. Beginning from 1550s, the “Divine Ratio” dominated the inner and outer architectural compositions of buildings. The implementation of a Golden Rectangular – based proportion in upper side of Chancellery Palace
(Plazzo della Cancelleria) in Rome (which is one of the classical examples of renaissance architecture) attracts attention. Turkish architecture and art, either, gave place to the Golden Ratio. The Golden Ratio can be found in various works of Sinan the Architect.37 The architecture of Suleiman and Selimiye Mosques, for instance, reflect this ratio. The Golden Ratio can be found in general plans and in certain details of Crown door of the Ince Minareli Medrese (Qur'an School with Thin Minaret) in Konya, which was built by Seljuks, the Davut Pasha Mosque in Istanbul and the Divriği Külliyesi (social complex) which is located in Sivas and which was inherited from Mengüçoğulları.38 The Golden Ratio can also be found in Ulucami (Grand Mosque) of Bursa. In contemporary Turkish Architecture, it is stated that, Prof. Emin Onat designed some locations of Ataturk's Tomb (Mausoleum) to give the various functions of the Golden Ratio.39
Koca Mimar Sinan Ağa was the chief architect and civil engineer for more then 50 years in Otoman Empire. More than three hundred structures are credited to his name, exclusive of his more modest projects, such as his Qur'an schools – t.n. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinan_the_Architect) 38 A Turkish tribe lived in 13th C. in Asia Minor. They were conquered by Mongols. 39 Mehmet Suat Bergil, ibid, p. 154, 161, 166..
The Ancient Egypt and Phi or the Golden Ratio The History of Phi in the art goes as back as the Ancient Egypt. Of course, what we are referring is the Giza Pyramids. These amazing structures, especially the Cheops pyramid, which are centers of attraction, were examined and studied in various aspects from their functions to the question that what kind of knowledge on mathematics, geometry, physics, etc could enable ancient Egyptians to build such structures. To stick on the subject, we will look from a mathematical perspective and mention about the angles between the basement and sides of pyramids. A pyramid, the angle of which is exactly 50o 50', provides the Golden Pyramid which we have mentioned above. And there are more than one pyramid, in Egypt, angles of which is measured around 52o. The Cheops pyramid is also acknowledged with the name of King Khufu. In fact, Golden Ratio emerged in Ancient Egypt, 2000 before the construction of Parthenon Temple by Ancient Greeks. Pyramids are very first examples of the use of the Golden Ratio in architecture. The edge length of this pyramid is 230,38 meters and it has a square base. The height of the pyramid is 146,5 meters. The edge length of each of pyramid's side surfaces is equal to the area surface of the square, which is equal to the height of the pyramid.
Let the length of the basement be “2b” and the height of the triangles constituted by side surfaces be “a” and the height of the pyramid be h. So; Ab = h2 = 2(ab). ½ can be written. Let the peak of the pyramid be A, the point which the perpendicular from the A crosses the base, be C, the base central point of the side surface triangle, be B. When we apply Pythagoras theorem to the ACB right triangle we could write as follows: h2 + b2 = a2 ab = a2 – b2 is obtained from (1) and (2). When accepted a / b = x, it would be obtained as x2 – x – 1 = 0. The solution of this equitation provides the Golden Ratio. The foremen of the Cheops pyramid's construction site were too close to this number. (a / b = 1,61780…) After all these explanations the measurements are calculated as: AC = 146,5 m, CB = 115,19 m. Since AC2 + CB2 = AB2 is provided by Pythagoras theorem; AB = = 186,3625 is obtained. The area surface for any side surface is: 186,3625 x 115,19 = 21467,09783. This value is equal to the square of the height. Moreover, when ABC cosine is calculated for ACB triangle
115,19 / 186,3625 = 0,6180964 = -1 = cos (51o 50') is obtained. As measured by British Colonel G. Vaise in 1837 and repeated and corrected in 1840, the inclination of the side surfaces of the pyramid is α = 51o 50'. As result, tan α = (51o 50') which is equal to =. When CB, AB and AC of the figure is accepted as CB = y, AB = z and AC = u, y2 + u2 = z2 can be stated as pursuant to the Pythagoras theorem. So 1 + = equity is obtained which (as we already know) provides the Golden Ratio.40
Prof. Dr. Fikri Akdeniz, ibid, p. 75 – 76 – 77.
The Golden Ratio in the Art The artist used the Golden Ratio not as a rule of conduct but for the purpose of forming in the composition. As it can be seen through the history, artists, as well, used the Golden Ratio and created pleasing works. The proportion of the height of Mona Lisa table to its width is Golden Ratio. When one draws a rectangular around the face of Mona Lisa, he or she will see that the drawn tetragon is a Golden Rectangular. When he or she divides this rectangular with a line drawn on the eye level, he or she will again obtain the Golden Ratio. Size of the painting, again, constitutes the Golden Ratio. Sandro Boticelli, a Florentine painter lived in between 15th and 16th centuries, painted his famous “The Birth of Venus” for Medici family between dates 1482 – 84. Golden Rectangular is used in this painting. Rafael, lived in 15th century again, formed his famous work “Mond Crucifixion” as pursuant to the Golden Triangle and Golden Star. Giovanni Agostino da Lodi, lived in the 15th Century, applied Golden Rectangular in his painting, “Adoration of the Shepherds”.
Georges Seurat, who lived in 19th Century's France stated that “The beauty and balance can only be obtained by using the Golden Ratio” and carried his idea to all of his works. In “Band / Parade”, for instance, there are many golden rectangular. This painting is based on the Φ based proportion principle. Along with above given names, many other painters used the Golden Ratio to compose their works: Pierro della Frencesca; The Baptism of Christ Ghirlandajo; “Prestige of Priests” Michelange; “Sacred Family” Nicolas Poussin; “Child Jesus Saved from Waters” Tziano Vecellio; “Presentation of Virgin in the Temple” and “Burial of Christ” Leonardo Da Vinci; “Annunciation” “Leda” and “The Last Supper”, Rembrandt; “The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp” Gauguin; “Two Tahitian Women”, “Where We Come From”, Rubens; “Portrait of Mari Medici” Velasquez; “Adoration to Child Christ” Paul Cézanne; “Card Players” “Bathers” Piet Mondrian; “Composition with Yellow and Blue”, Rouault; “Mercy”
Golden Ratio was also used in abstract paintings of surrealism, which were called as Miro. In this painting style, an effort to underline the superiorities of forms by combining the Golden Ratio section is observed. The Golden Ratio combinations were skillfully provided in between forms and by frames21. In addition to the painting, the Golden Ratio was used in miniature craft as well. When the painting “Salaman in Island of Paradise and Absal” (painted for Persian Sultan Ibrahim Mirza in 1560) is examined, an extraordinarily different geometrical structure can be seen in its design. The scene in the painting is designed to express the emotions and thoughts of unlucky lovers as they reach the island of paradise.41 The “Vitruvian Man” of Leonardo Da Vinci, which is a sketch work found in one of his notebooks, is important with regards its role in explaining the Da Vinci's theory. According to Leonardo, man is the measurement of everything. The detailed calculation of Da Vinci proves that, each section of the human body (in this drawing) is a proportioned percent of the whole body. Three different set of Golden Rectangular is found within this drawing: A set for empty space, another for body and the last for legs.
Sadettin Çağlarca, Altın Oran, Altın Kesit (The Golden Ratio, The Golden Section) İnkılap Kitabevi, 1997. 22
To find the head – rectangular, a rectangular, whose base crosses the neck of the man and goes from one shoulder to the other shoulder is drawn. The upper edge of the rectangular would be the upper part of the man's head. This will give the first rectangular. When a square is drawn to the inner part of the rectangular on left, a smaller square is obtained at the right side of the man's head. When the same is done with the right side of the rectangular and continued to the process, a thin rectangular directly passes through the center of the man's head. Thus smaller rectangulars cross over each other at eyes which are focus points of the head. The second set of rectangulars is found by a similar way. This time, all lines are indicated in the drawing by Leonardo. When a rectangular is drawn from elbow to elbow and from neck to the waist, a Golden Rectangular appears.
It is thought that the “Vitruvius Man” of Leonardo Da Vinci, which was found within one of his diaries and which is accepted as a milestone in the efforts to harmonize – relate human and nature and which shows the proportions in the human body, was drawn in 1492.
The Last Supper of Leonardo Da Vinci
When a square, similar to the first one, is drawn on each side of the rectangular two more golden rectangular are obtained. This time, smaller golden rectangulars cross with the innermost part of the man's body. For the third set, a rectangular is drawn. Two lower peaks of this rectangular, are at the point where the extremities of man's feet cross with the outmost circle. The rectangular is vertically extended to the waist of man so the other golden rectangular is provided. Similar to the last time, two smaller rectangulars are found when a square is drawn. This is the posture when two legs of man are not closed.
THE GOLDEN RATIO POINT OF THE EARTH In this section you are going to witness the big secrets that have remained hidden in the Holy City, Mecca for ages come into light accompanied by all the scientific proofs. Mecca has been ordered to billions of Muslims as the direction of prostrating themselves, the spot to gather in and the holy center of Islam. It has been assigned as a religious duty to each Muslim who can afford to set out on a journey encompassing Kaaba, Muzdalifah and the Mount Arafat and arrive at the sacred city. Let us unveil the miracles one by one: The proportion of the distance between the Mecca city and northern polar cap to its distance from the southern polar cap is exactly 1,618, in other words, the golden ratio. Also the ratio of the distance between the Mecca city and southern polar cab and the distance between the two poles is again 1,618. Yet, there is more to the miracles; The Golden Mean Point of the Earth, according to greaticule map which has become common location language of the mankind is in Mecca city.
The proportion of eastern elongation to the western elongation, which is determined as solstice line from Mecca, is again 1,618.
Moreover, the proportion of western elongation of Mecca (to the solstice line) to the perimeter of the Earth on this very latitude is surprisingly the golden mean, 1,618.
The Golden Mean Point of the Earth, for all mapping systems, even though they vary for a few kilometers, is always within the city borders of Mecca, within the Holy Region that includes Kaaba.42 You can measure very sensitively the distance between any two points with the help of Google Earth or Nasa Earth's ruler feature at your home. If you wish, you can verify the correctness of the given ratios even at your home by calculating latitude and longitude with a simple calculator.
With respect to positive longitude and latitude values and being on the lands not the sea, the only Golden Ratio Point of the Earth is Mecca.
The fact that the golden ratio point in Mecca is located at upper right is extremely meaningful since, according to religious terminology, the right means auspicious and up means excellence.
Phi matrix program is an American program that is used to show golden ratio of pictures and paintings. If we accept the greaticule map of the Earth as a living painting whose depth never ends and open it in this program, we will find out that the Golden Ratio Point of the Earth is the City of Mecca.43 A newer discovery on the relation between Golden Ratio, Mecca, Kaaba and Qur'an is revealed in each single day. In the figure, it is shown that, the measurements with golden ratio compass, also known as Leonardo compass, indicate that Mecca city is located on the Golden Mean of Arabia while Kaaba is located on the Golden Ratio of the City. The probability calculations indicate that all these facts can not be coincidence.
Despite the fact that the location of the solstice line was determined in the 18th century, with political purposes, the fact that the distance proportions of the line to Mecca always provide the Golden Ratio proves that societies, as well as humans and all other things, are subjected to a divine direction and to a faith.
CIRCUMAMBULATION (TAWAF) MOVEMENT AT THE GOLDEN RATIO POINT OF THE EARTH (CHADLER MOVEMENT)
The spiral circumambulation movement in Mecca triggered by the Chandler Movement.
The polar cab moves permanently in small circles just like a whirligig and this results in the golden ratio point move in circles. This is called the Chandler Movement. However this spiral movement from the left to right which resembles a circumambulation inside the borders of Mecca again and continues its tour in the sacred city in orbicular cycles. Even the drift movement of the continents which dates back to billions of years has continued throughout the history in a way to help Mecca have the golden ratio point on it.
The spiral movement at the polar cab (Chandler Movement)
PROVING AND THE APPROVAL OF THE DISCOVERY BY THE SCIENTISTS Mahmut Kartal, a professor at the Department of Mathematics and Statistics had uttered the following at the end of the research he made for the Divine Secrets Documentary to detect and prove the relation between Mecca-Holy Region and Golden ratio: “Such a great balance and such a glorious perfection exist in the universe that it proves the existence of an intention and power, leaving no room for coincidences. The famous scientist Einstein points out that there are no coincidences in the universe in his following concise statement: “God does not cast dice.”
The other interesting issue is the similarities and uniformities that take place in the universe. This makes you consider that each of the beings and each incidence is manipulated by a central entity, in other words a single power rules the whole universe. Similarly, one of the renowned scientists Galileo says that “the great book of the nature, namely book of the universe can be read solely by those who know the language it is written in." This language is mathematics. The Golden ratio; or 1,618 known and
accepted by many scientists now can show up in numerous beings ranging from sunflowers to pinecones and marine crustaceans as well as seen on the human faces. Now that there is an evident order and system in the body of all beings from the smallest one to the biggest one, the possibility that the coordinates of the point millions of people direct themselves at can also reflect a specific ratio is no implausible. In this very context, it was thought that there could be a relation between the coordinates of Kaaba and the Golden Ratio and subsequently, it was found the numbers really reflected the Golden Ratio. Namely, a ratio found on human face was also seen on the face of the earth.
THE MIRACLE OF GOLDEN RATIO IN THE VERSE ABOUT MECCA The relation between the Mecca city and Golden Ratio is overtly seen in the verse 96 of the Surah Ali İmran where the word Mecca is mentioned. The total number of the letters in this verse is 47. When we calculate the Golden Ratio of the number of letters, we see it points to the word Mecca. 47/1,618=29,0.
The single verse in Qur'an where the word 'Mecca' and the faith-inspiring miracles are mentioned; 3:96 Inspires faith to all the societies. That first sanctuary built on the center of Holy MECCA. The verse is comprised of 47 letters. The length of the verse until the word Mecca is 29 letters. 47/1,618=29,0…
There are exactly 29 letters from the start of the verse to the word Mecca. Just as in the world map. If there were only one extra or missing word, then this ratio would not occur ever. We followed the same procedures as we did on Earth and witnessed the perfect match of number of letters that pointed out to Mecca and the Golden Ratio.44
While counting the letters, as the shaddas cause the letters to be read twice, the letters that it is attached to is counted as two letters.
THE GOLDEN RATIO FOUNDATIONS OF KAABA
I had always wondered why the very Kaaba many details pertaining to which reflect the Golden Ratio was built in the shape of a cube and had no connections with the Golden Ratio. There must have been a mistake somewhere. I understood that I was right in my suspicions when I found out that the region called Hatim was not included in the last reconstruction of the Kaaba building. As is stated in Qur'an Abraham raised the foundations of the Kaaba together with his son Ishmael. That is to say, this situation provides proof to the existence of Kaaba long before Abraham. It is not known how high the Kaaba measured previously.
The 1,5 meter thick semicircular wall 1 meter high above the floor in the opposite of North west wall of Kaaba (between Rukn-alIraqi and Rukn-al Shami) is called “Hatim”. The area between this wall and Beytullah is called “Hijr Kaaba, Hijr Ishmael or Hatira”. This part was also included in the Kaaba building constructed by Abraham. Five years prior to the Mohammed's becoming prophet, this part was excluded from the building due to lack of materials while the Quraysh tribe repaired the Kaaba. It was deemed necessary to circumambulate the Kaba outside this wall, as it also was part of the Kaaba45 This being the case, we come to the conclusion that the building of the Kaaba constructed by the angels or Adam upon the command of God is different from the current building and had a rectangular shape. If we draw a rectangle around the foundations of Kaaba including also the Hatim region (semicircular region) as it is meant to be; we will obtain a width of 13,1m and a length of 21,2m and the proportion of these two to each other is 1,618. In other words, it was inspired by God that the Kaaba be built according to the Golden Ratio.
see, Ibid: ez-Zebidi, VI, 17-20.
Moreover, 13 and 21 are the two consecutive numbers in the Fibonacci sequence.46 Rumour of Ezraki has it that the walls of the building constructed by Abraham and his son Ishmael were bonded by piling mortarless stones and its tall wall was 32 zira high47 while the short one 20 zira high. Based on this rumor the proportion of 32 zira to 20 zira (the tallest wall to shortest one) is equal to Golden Ratio.
while measuring take into consideration that the Hatim region is larger than the Kaaba. In that case, Kaaba is supposed to be a little larger at the first construction than it is today. Its construction in the paganism period was probably not the product of a laborious work and the width of 13,1m was shortened in one side to lower the costs and thinking that the materials would not be enough; some parts were built sloping and some were shortened. 47 Zira: a linear measure unit which spans from elbow to tip of the middle finger (75-90 cm).
THE GOLDEN RATIO IN THE WHOLE BODY OF QUR'AN Qur'an describes itself as a book “which has repetitions” in it. “Allah brought the most beautiful word as a repeating book” (Enbiya 47) Even though this miraculous and unique symmetrical structure which includes the numbers of key words and verses expresses this situation, it also indicates another aspect which reveals the Golden Ratio as a seal of excellence. If verses were divided into two as repeating and non – repeating verses according to the sum of their numerical values, it would be seen that the proportion between these two would be 1,618 of the golden ratio. Each surah in Qur'an has two mathematical values, one being serial number and the other verse number. For instance, Bakara Surah's serial number is 2 and verse number is 286. 286 + 2 = 288 could be stated to be the total numerical value of the Bakara surah.
You see the total numerical values of the all surahs in Qur'an. Some of these numbers are repeated while some are not repeated. The numerical value of the surah Al-Insan and Surah Al-Burooj is 107. Therefore, they fall into group of which the numerical values are repeated. Surah Al-Fatehah has the numerical value of 8 and as no other surah has this same value, it is in the set of surahs whose numerical value is not repeated.
The addition of values of the surahs the numerical values of which are repetitive (like the surah AlInsan and Al-Brooj) is = 7906. 125 + 83 + 119 + 114 + 128 + 128 + 133 + 100 + 88 + 102 + 120 + 116 + 106 + 88 + 80 + 119 + 114 + 125 +95+ 95 + 103 + 82 + 77 + 95 + 111 + 101 + 115 + 109 + 133 + 80 + 83 + 73 + 73 + 82 + 77 + 120 + 114 + 100 + 115 + 107+ 118 + 125 + 110 + 101 + 119 + 109 + 107 + 103 + 106+ 107 + 111 + 110 + 106 + 113 + 110 + 110 + 114 + 111 +115 + 113 + 116 + 116 + 118 + 120 = 7906 The addition of values of the surahs the numerical values of which are specific to themselves and by no means repetitive (like the surah Al-Insan and AlBrooj) is = 4885. 8 + 288+ 203 + 180 + 171 + 213 + 138 + 134 + 123 + 56 + 66 + 144 + 117 + 155 + 141 + 253 + 98 + 90 + 65 + 62 + 219 + 126 + 132 + 81 + 85 + 67 + 152 + 86 + 75 + 74 + 78 + 97 + 121 + 99 + 93 + 130 + 127 + 122 + 104 + 112 = 4885 7906 / 4885 = 1,618…48
That is to say, the proportion of the repetitive surah values in Qur'an to unique surah values is equal exactly to the Golden Ratio. The total value of all the surahs in Qur'an is = 12791 The proportion of addition of all surahs in Qur'an to total value of repetitive surahs gives us the Golden Ratio again. It has a value that can be defined as 12791 / 7906 = 1,618. This mathematical perfectness in Qur'an puts forward that Golden Ratio seal is affixed on it and its structure that leaves no room for manipulation. As we will describe in the upcoming books, a mathematical symmetry that can not be human-made is at stake in Qur'an.
THE GOLDEN RATIO IN THE SURAH ATTIN (BEST STATURE)
It is stated in the 4th verse of the Surah At-Tin that the measure applied to human is the best stature ever. No doubt the two measures applied to human are symmetry and Golden Ratio. Similarly, in the relation between this verse and surah, you will witness these connections which are not the products of pretention and coincidence. Surah At-Tin is comprised of 8 verses. The verse telling the story of human creation is the 4th verse. In other words, this verse divides the verse symmetrically into two. The total number of the words is 171 and there are 105 letters from the verse of best stature to the end of the surah (highlighted in blue). 171 / 1,618 = 105,… The total number of the words coming before the verse of best stature is 13 while there are 21 words
after this verse until the end of the surah. These are the two basic consecutive numbers in Fibonacci sequence on which the Golden Ratio is based. There are many more signs in the surah At-Tin that can be construed as the Golden Ratio. Tin means olive. The Golden Ratio also exists in the leaves of the olive tree which symbolizes beauty and well-being due to phylotaxy. There will be those who claim that some parts of this abjad and numerical section are made-up and coincidental. Though, one who peers at the universe through an eye in search of lessons pays attention to subtleties in the tiny and seemingly coincidental details and tries to unravel their mystery. Some things that appear casual to people are very special to those who appreciate them.
THE MESSAGE OF THE NUMBERS TO HUMANITY
I was wondering what message would be revealed if we transform the Golden Ratio numbers into letters. It would be awkward for the humanity and the World to find out the message to be in the shape of a crucifix that encompasses Mecca and Kaaba, or both, would not it?
I deciphered an interesting message when I took the first 7 numbers of the Golden Ratio and read them according to the Arabic Alphabet order used in the period of Mohammed. 1,618033 Alif, wow, alif, haa, jeem, jeem,
۱ ۱ﻮthe first three letters are the symmetry of first three numbers of the Golden Ratio. The following four letters are spelled as “Hajj”. The possibility of the numbers coming together in such an erudite way and conveying the only foreseeable message (Hajj; pilgrim) is so slight a possibility, almost impossible with a ratio of 28 to 7th power. What is more interesting here is this word is a universal one pronounced the same way and bearing the same meaning both in Arabic and Sami languages, in Turkish and English, and in many other languages that I can not list. 1,6180339 Alif, wow, ha, jeem, jeem, tı. ا اﻮthe first three letters are the symmetry of first three numbers of the Golden Ratio. The following four letters are spelled as “Hujjet” (when you pronounce the tı thinking it sounds same as te). Hujjet Hujjet means the evidence that is put forth in order to prove that a sentence is true and to defeat the opponent and make people believe. It is a noun that is derived from the base word 'hajj' and means 'evidence proving the well-directed orientation'.
In Qur'an, Hujjetis reiterated seven times as noun and fourteen times as verb.49 In Qur'an, Hujjet comes to mean sometimes ihtijaj, namely “to present evidence”50, as is seen in the example “so that there is no evidence left for humans to bring against the existence of God after the prophets…”51and it means muhajje which denotes “To argue in order to refute the evidences of the opponent and defeat him” 52as in the example “There is no need to argue with each other.”53 As it is understood from the related verses, “hujjetu'l baligha / the true evidence that reaches the target” pertains to God and the hujjets that are brought against this is futile and no discussion must be made about Him. It is by chance that the word “Hujjet” that is frequently referred to in Qur'an is cited with Abraham very often and the tomb of Abraham is inside Kaaba. “Superior evidence (hujjetu'l baligha)is the evidence of God. If He wills, He would guide us His path.”54
49 50 51 52 53 54
See, M. F. Abdulbaki, al-Mujem “hajj” md Ibnu'l-Cevzi, II, 256; III, 78 an-Nisa 4:165 ash-Shuara 42:15 Shewkani, IV, 531 al-En'aam, 6:149
“This is our hujjet that we have revealed unto Abraham against his folk. We dignify whom we will to great extents. Indeed, Your Lord is the AllMighty, All-Wise.”55
GOLDEN LINE Istanbul, Jerusalem and Kaaba are located on a single line. If you open a map before you and unite Kaaba and Istanbul, you will notice that the central point of this line is exactly on Jerusalem. The distance between Kaaba and Jerusalem is precisely 1200km. And the distance between Kaaba and Istanbul is 2400km. This line that starts from Kaaba and reaches Turkey can be drawn in three different ways. Furthermore, the distance between Mecca and Equator Line and the distance between Istanbul and Mecca are equal based on the image of the world seen from the Space with its axial tilt of 23 degrees. In that case Istanbul and its surroundings will be situated on both the Golden Ratio point that pertains to the Northern Hemisphere in the new map to be drawn according to the World's orbit and Equator of Northern Hemisphere. That is to say it will stand on a location at equal distance to both the Pole and World's Equator. In the first method to draw the line, if the line originating from Kaaba crosses tangent to the southernmost border of Jerusalem city, it will end up in the western side of Istanbul.
If the line that originates from Kaaba, crosses exactly on Jerusalem, it will end up in the eastern side of Istanbul. And if the line that starts from Kaaba crosses tangent to the northernmost border of Jerusalem city then it will reach Ankara. Jerusalem which was taken over by Omar a short while after the decease of Mohammad stayed under the rule of Muslims for almost 1200 years. Similarly, Istanbul has been under the rule of Muslims for the last 600 years. As it is clear, a proportion of ½ is at stake here between the two figures. Just like the ½ proportion between the distance of Jerusalem -.Mecca and the distance between Istanbul and Mecca. “The life span of my ummah (community) will not be much longer than 1500 years.”56
Suyuti, al-Qashfu an Mucavazati Hazih'il Ummati al-Alfu, al-havi lil Fatavi, Suyuti. 2/248, tafsiri Ruhu'l Bayan. Bursevi. (Arabic) 4/262, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Kitâbu'l-İlel, p. 89..
This situation will be valid up to 2053 (as per the hadiths) for almost 70 years at least left behind from the life of his ummah. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF JERUSALEM The oldest document known in which the name of Quddus (Jerusalem in Islamic tradition) which has a deeply rooted history is mentioned is the Egyptian scripts dating back to XIX. and XVIII. centuries B.C. Its name is Urusalim in Tell Amarna letters which belong to XIV. Century B.C. It is called Urusilimmu or Urusalimmu in the Late Assyrian texts. It is written as Yruşum, or Yruşlym at times in the Hebrew Masoretik text57 and is spelled as Yeruşalayim and Yeruşalem in the Aramaic texts of the Old Testament. The Greek name for it, Hierosolyma reflects the sacred nature of the city (hieros/sacred). It was transferred to Latin as Jerusalem and Jerosolyma. The name of the Quddus city in the Western languages happens to be Jerusalem. The Arabs call the city Al-Quds. The city is also referred to as “Beyt-al-Maqdis”, “Beyt-al Muqaddes” in the ancient sources. This name comes
The manuscripts that are written in Hebrew and belong to the ysear 1000 A.D. are called Masoretic texts. Dead Sea Scrolls found in Qumran are the examples to these texts.
to mean “Bethammikdaş” the Hebrew word which means temple (Temple of Solomon).58 The Hebrew name of the Quddus city, namely the Yeruşalayim is made up of two separate words. The meaning and the origin of the word yeru that constitute the first part are controversial. It has been argued that the word is derived from 'yâre' in the meaning of 'to fear' or from 'râ'ah' which means 'to see' or, even from 'yârâş' that comes to mean 'to have, own'. However, it is more likely that it is derived from 'yârâh' in the meaning of 'to found, to establish'. That the original name of the city is Iruşalem and it is made up of the word Iru derived from the word 'yârâh' that means 'to found, establish' and the word Şulmanu or Şalim who is a figure that lived in the first half of the II. Millenium B.C. and a god in the Western Sami coming together seem more likely. “ur” or “uru” in the cuneiform scripts and 'ir' in the Hebrew language mean city. In that case Iruşalem means “city of Şalim”. The possibility that the word means 'city of Şalim' becomes stronger due to the fact that Quddus was the worshipping center of Şulmanu or Şalim in the first periods and there was a tradition of naming a city after the person or the divine figure who founded it in the old Sami tradition, on the other hand. It is claimed that the typical interpretations of 'city of peace' are
Meydan Larousse, Meydan Publishing House, 1990, Publishers: Safa Kılıçoğlu, Nezihe Araz, Hakkı Devrim, Volume 7, s. 611
inaccurate both on etymologic and historical grounds. The city is referred to as Bet-Şalem (Şalem's house) in Tell Amarna letters. Jerusalem has a pretty long history. The potteries pertaining to the IV. century B.C. and excavated from the city prove that a people lived in south eastern part of the city in the last period of this millennium and the findings belonging to the early and middle Bronze age show that there were people living in this region before and during the time of the Hiksos and in the III. Millenium and in the first years of the II. Millenium.
According to the Islam historians, the Jerusalem city the first founders of which were the Amalikas took to the stage of the history for the first time in the Early Bronze Age together with some other ancient Kanaa'n cities. The Jerusalem is mentioned
as a Kanaa'n city state in the Egyptian documents that belong to XIX. and XVII. centuries B.C.59 The name of Jerusalem is never mentioned in Torah. If the traditional assumption that the Salem city mentioned in Torah is Quddus is accurate, then the city is mentioned in the Old Testament for the first time by virtue of King Melkisedek who lived at the same period as Abraham and negotiated with him.60 According to the Torah, on the other hand, it is acknowledged by the Jewish and Christian doctrine that the mountain in the Moria land on which Prophet Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son Ishak is the Moria hill on which Prophet Solomon built the Temple.61 However this is controversial both in terms of the etymology and meaning of the word Moriah, and the place that it indicates.62 The importance of the Jerusalem in the spiritual life is sourced from the belief that the Jewish State will be founded on this land by the Christ. The reconstruction of Jerusalem and construction of the Temple are signs for this. According to the Jewish tradition, there is another Jerusalem in heavens as well as the one on Earth. It is recited in Talmud that Adonay (God) announced that those who have not
Franken, p. 17-30 Book of Genesis, p. 14/18 61 II. Tarihler (II. Dates), 3/1. 62 Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı, İslam Ansiklopedisi (Association of Religious Affairs of Turkey, Islamic Encyclopedia), Volume 26, p.324.
been to the Jerusalem on Earth shall not be let in the Jerusalem of heavens. In some part of the Jewish religious literature, it is stated that the Jerusalem of heavens shall descend down on the doomsday to replace the Jerusalem on Earth. Jews wish to be buried on the Har haZeitim to gain time and reduce the inconvenience on the day when the Jerusalem is re-constructed and the deceased are awakened as it is near the hill the Temple is built on. The Jewish Passover Seder and Yom Kippur prayer services are ended with the wish of "In Yeruşalayim next year".63 Jerusalem has a vital place in the Bibles. According to the Marcos Bible, Jesus Christ starts the announcements in Calile district and upon receiving their attitudes of disapproval, directs his activities at Jerusalem, enters the city and tidies the temple up. When he receives the adverse reactions of the Jewish authorities, he announces that the city shall be cursed and the temple shall be tarnished. When he is crucified outside the city, the veil of the temple is torn apart. The other Bibles add some details to the information regarding Jerusalem. The Johanna Bible reports that the Jesus had been to Jerusalem for a couple of times. According to the Bibles, the mundane life of Prophet Jesus ends in Jerusalem and there receive the Apostles the 'Holy Spirit'.
Dictionnaire Encyclopedique di Judaisme (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Judaism), p. 573.
Though the name Jerusalem is not directly mentioned in Qur'an, this city is referred to as the sacred surroundings of the Al-Masjid al-Aqsa64 and furthermore, the area it is situated on is depicted as “enshrined territory”65, 'a good, beautiful place'66 It is stated in the hadiths that al-Masjid al-Aqsa is one of the three mosques that are worth taking a journey to visit together with Masjid Al-Haram and Masjid Al-Resul and the second mosque ever built on Earth after the Masjid Al-Haram.67 Moreover, it is recited in some rumors that Prophet Mohammad advised his community to perform salawat in Beyt-al-Maqdis. According to the legends except from the ones in the Kuttub al-Sittah, after his decent, Prophet Jesus shall be buried next to the tomb of Prophet Mohammad or in Jerusalem when he is deceased. It is accepted that Prophet Mohammad performed his salawats directing his face at Jerusalem, taking Kaaba before him for two or three years prior to Hijrah and in spite of the existence of different legends, this practice was maintained for sixteen or seventeen months in the Medina period and then the direction of qiblah was pointed at Kaaba. That the Prophet preferred Jerusalem as qiblah for a short while in his lifetime has constituted one of the
Al-Isra, 17/1. Al-Maede, 5/21. 66 Yunus, 10/93. 67 Bukhari 'Fazlush salat fi masjidi Mecca va'l Medina, 6, Hajj, 26, Al-Anbiya, 8-40,Muslim, Hajj, 288, Masajid, 2, An-Nasai, Masajid 3.
reasons why the Muslims consider this city to be a religious hub. Furthermore, that he went to AlMasjid al-Aqsa during the Isra miracle which was realized through taking him off Masjid Al-Haram to Al-Masjid al-Aqsa the surroundings of which were enshrined at night and subsequently, the miracle of Miraj added to the significance of this city for the Muslims. Except from these all, Jerusalem secured a vital place in the tradition of monotheistic faiths on account of the fact that it is located on a region also depicted to be enshrined and where several prophets lived, it harbors the Beyt-al-Maqdis constructed by Prophet Solomon and it was the scene of the struggles of Israelites and prophets sent to them.68 ISTANBUL The oldest name of the first settlement known on the historical peninsula Istanbul is located on is Buzantion / Bizantion. It is stated to have been derived from Buzas / Vizas which is a Thracian personal name. According to the ancient rumors, this settlement was founded by son of semi-divine figure Semestra's King Bizas who was raised by Thracian Buzie. It was called Antonia, attributed to Bassianus when the city was taken under the Roman rule, was
Dictionnaire Encyclopedique di Judaisme (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Judaism), p. 573. Muslim, Hajj, 288, Masajid, 2, An-Nasai, Masajid 3.
called Secunda Roma (Second Rome) when the imperial capital was shifted to the city in the year 330, and called Nova Roma (New Rome) as of the V. century and the townsfolk were called “Romaio”. However, the name Constantinopolis which became popular among the townsfolk acquired an official character becoming a common name among all people, the Arabs and the Iranians embraced it's version of Kustantiniyye, and the Ottomans used the name frequently on their coins and in the correspondences. The Bizantion of Thracian origin was mentioned in the Ottoman documents as the prior name of the city in Arabic and Armenian versions. (Byzantia, Byzandia, Buzantiye. Puzanta. Buzantis). On the other hand, such names as Rumiyyetu'lkubra, That-ı Rum are derived from Nova Roma.
The name Constantinopolis was often shortened and uttered as Polis among the public. This name that became widespread later on was expressed as 'Bulin', 'Stabulin' in the X. century, according to AlMas'udi.69 The name of the city is mentioned to be Istinbol, Istanbol or Istanbul in some sources belonging to the Anatolian Seljuks and the first period of the Ottomans, it is referred to as 'Stambol' in an Armenian sources belonging to XII. Century. J. Schiltberger defends that 'Istimboli' expression was used at the close of the XIV. Century. The Greek townsfolk called the city Stimboli, while the Turkish folk preferred to call it Stambol. The Ottoman poets on the other hand used the pronunciation 'Stinbol, Stanbol' most of the time for purposes of prosody. It is all out clear that the Turkish versions such as Stinbol/Stanbul-İsti(m)bol/Ista(m)bul were derived from the Greek İstin Bolin.70 I am going to convey you the founding legends of Istanbul concisely here - with a view to highlight its historical importance. According to an ancient and local legend; the Thracian King Byzas, son of the nymph Semestra married Phidaleia, daughter of the King of the region near Istanbul and this woman founded the Byzantion. Another legend has it that while İo, the lover of Zeus was running from the God whom Hera
al-Tanbih p. 136 Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı, İslam Ansiklopedisi (Association of Religious Affairs of Turkey, Islamic Encyvlopedia), Volume 23, p.220.
imposed on her after she was turned into a cow delivered her daughter named Keroessa in Keras (Golden Horn) and Byzas, who was the son of Keroessa raised by the nymph Semestra and Posedion, and was raised by naiad Byzia grew to be the founder of the city. A more recent legend says that the city was founded on the course of the renowned expedition of the Argo ship. And according to a much more popular legend that was heard in the I.Century A.D. Byzas is the leader of the immigrants who set out from Megara, Greece to search a new homeland. They laid the core grounds of the city, deeming the folk of Kalkhedon (Kadıköy folk) which was founded 17 years (19 and 20 years according to some sources) previously to be blinded as they were not capable of comprehending the advantages of where Istanbul was located, upon the Delphi oracle's advising them to found their new homelands before the blinded'. Herodotus tells a similar story and indicates that the person who deemed the Kalkhedon folk to be blinded is Megabyzos, the General in the service of Persian King Dara. It is believed by those who inquire the margin of truth in the legends; the city was founded around the year 660 B.C. during the great era of founding Greek Colonies between the years 750-550 B.C. The searches (1937) in the second backyard of the
Topkapı Palace and the findings obtained proved that the founding date of the colony was 660-659 B.C. However, not only is the likeliness of connection of culture and faith between Byzantion and Megara minimized by the fact that such a connection is almost non-existing (only the moon figure and Artemis Orthosio cult on the coins are common), but also it is unbelievable that a place that could make so proper and livable settlement was not settled by anyone until the arrival of Megarian immigrants. Though, they might have settled on another location they believed to be proper, either and founded a polis.71 The history of Istanbul dates 300 thousand years back, according to the researchers. The first traces of the human culture were found during the first excavations in the Yarımburgaz cave located on the shores of Lake Küçükçekmece. People of Neolithic and Calcolithic Age are believed to have settled around this lake. The foundations of the Istanbul as we know it today were laid down in the 7. Century B.C. It was reconstructed by the Emperor Constantine in 4. Century A.D. and declared the capital city; it maintained this status for approximately 16 centuries from then onwards during the reign of Roman, Byzantium and Ottoman Empires. At the same time, Istanbul which was made one of the hubs of
Meydan Larousse, Meydan Publishing House, Purblishers: Sofa Kılıçlıoğlu, Nezihe Araz, Hakkı Devrim, Volume 6, p. 486-487.
Christianity by the Emperor Constantine was respected as one of the most significant cities of Muslims after it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453. We can not convey the full account of Istanbul's history as it is pretty long and comprehensive. IMPORTANCE OF ISTANBUL If we divide the Islamic history into two, there will be the seal of Istanbul on the second part. Istanbul which was the center of Christianity before its conquest by the Ottomans became the military, political, economic and spiritual center of Islam following the conquest. The banner of Islam maintained its journey starting in Mecca in an upward trend towards Jerusalem and then Istanbul throughout the history. Prophet Mohammad attached great importance to this city and heralded the coming of the conquest of Istanbul in the future and praised those commanders and soldiers to conquer it. "Surely, İstanbul (Konstanniyye) will be conquered (by my community); how blessed the commander who will conquer it, and how blessed his army."72 Prophet Mohammad attached to this city more importance than any other one with this hadith and he set this conquest of Istanbul as a target for the
Meydan Larousse, Meydan Publishing House, Purblishers: Sofa Kılıçlıoğlu, Nezihe Araz, Hakkı Devrim, Volume 6, p. 486-487.
future of the Muslims, so to speak. Actually springs of the commanders and the soldiers who conquered this city attained the role of the protectors and custodians of Islam in the II. Half of Islamic history and the banner of Islam stayed here until the World War I. Authenticity of a hadith is determined and confirmed against the character of the person who recites it not against which book it is written in. Among the Sahabah generation, only the version recited by Bshir Al-Gavi is almost identical with particularly the sanad in the sources of classification period. The outcome of the respective verification of the narrators is that the sanad is uninterrupted and the narrators are credible. While Hakim says that the hadith “Its isnad is authentic”, the famous Alim alRijal Ez-Zehebi agrees with Hakim's conviction and reports that the hadith is authentic. That renowned hadith regarding the conquest is involved in the sources which were classified in the Kuttub al-Sittah period and even before that period. We can list the following examples: “al-Musnad” by –Ahmad ibn Hanbal, “al-Tarikh al-Kebir” and “alTarikh al-Saghir” written by Bukhari to verify the hadith narrators, “al-Kitab al-Tarikh” by Ibn Abu Hayseme, “al-Musnad” by al-Bezzar constitute our sources that belong to the classification of our hadith concerning the conquest. We could list some of the sources from the subsequent periods: “al-Mujeim al-Kebir” by al-
Tabarani, “al-Mujem al-sahaba” by Ibn Qayyim, “alMustadrak” by al-Hakim al-Nishaburi are the important sources for aforementioned hadith. Our famous hadith regarding the conquest has also been cited in more recent works which range from al-Talhis by Hatib Bagdadi to al-Cami al-Saghir. Furthermore, the conquest hadith is referred to in the sources on the biographies of the sahabah such as “al-Istiab”, “Ust-ul-Gabe”, “Al-Isaba” in the narration by Bishr al-Gonavi. The relics which are accepted as the symbol of the caliphate are kept in Istanbul for the last five hundred years. It is announced that Mehdi who is cited to show up on the doomsday and reported to rule all over the world will come to Istanbul to take over the caliphate. Istanbul occupies a significant place in the world history, either. The fact that the seat of this favorite city of Istanbul which was the capital of great empires throughout the history was passed over to Muslims from Christians resulted in the closure of an era while opening another. IMPORTANCE OF ANKARA The history of Ankara and its surroundings date back to the Hattian Civilization in the Bronze Age. In the II. Millennium B.C. the Hittites became the ruling power of the region and were succeeded by Phrygians, Lydians and Persians. Galatians who are
a Celtic people made Ankara their capital in III. Millenium B.C. Its historical name is “Ankyra”. The Galatians are the first people to make a capital city out of Ankara. Though it is known that it is a small city in the Hittite Empire, no artifacts pertaining to their period have been found in the region up to now. The city went under the rule of the Persian, Alexander the Great and the Galatians respectively subsequent to the Phrygian period. The Emperor Augustus annexed the city to Roman Empire together with the Kingdom of Galatia in the year 25 B.C. The city was subject to Persian and Arab raids in the VII. and VIII. Centuries after the birth of Islam. The city changed hands a couple of times between the dates 871-893. It was taken over by the Turks totally in 1127 and given the name “Engüriye”. It stayed under Mongol rule for a short period during the Ankara War between Bayezid the Thunderbolt and Tamerlane in 1402.
However, it came under the rule of Ottomans conclusively in 1414. The spiritual aspect and grounds for the Conquest of Istanbul were actually prepared in Ankara. Hacı Bayram Veli was born and died in Ankara. He has a temple in Ulus, the Altındağ district of Ankara and performed his religious guidance work here. Additionally, many Sufis and scholars who enlightened the world in the modern age were raised in Ankara and its surroundings (Yunus Emre, Mevlana, Akşemseddin). Sultan Murat II, father of The Conqueror invited Hacı Bayram Veli to Edirne and paid exceptional tribute to him upon seeing how admirable his scientific and spiritual capacity and got him to preach in the Old Mosque and bid him farewell to Ankara. He heralded Murat II in this visit that his son would conquer Istanbul. Sultan Murat who noticed his extreme ability of interpretation and undeniable place in Islamic world entreated him as: “My Lord, you have honored us with your visit, you have such a powerful faith, please be so kind as to help us finish with Istanbul.” It is also amazingly providential that Mehmet Hacı Bayram VeliII (he was not given the name Conqueror yet) who happened to be in the room at the moment was sick. He had been writhing
in pains for days, and the doctors had not been able to heal him. Valide Sultan, informed that there was a veli inside, entered the room holding Mehmet II in her arms. At the very moment, Sultan Murat was entreating him for the conquest of Istanbul. The event that the Conqueror was in pains at the moment and carried into the room in the arms of Valide Sultan is one of the most important incidents that display how elaborately the conquest of Istanbul was prepared. After this entreats of Sultan Murat, Hacı Bayram Veli turned his face to Sultan Murat to say: “Do not ask me to make any futile prayers, because the conquest of Istanbul will be vouchsafed to this swaddled baby.” Thus, he left his throne to Mehmet II who was at the age of 12 at that time, though he was healthy and powerful. However, people think he left his throne as he felt tired and fed up, for they have not heard this secret. Actually, Sultan Murat was in his fifties at the time and he was cherishing the golden days of his power and reign. Though, he endeavored to accustom him to the throne simply to contribute to the mission of Hacı Bayram Veli. When Hacı Bayram Veli came back to Ankara after accomplishing his mission in Istanbul, neither the Conqueror nor Akşemddin existed, though, he started to publicize the mission. Because, the conquest of Istanbul took effect as of the very day the Conqueror was born. As Hacı Bayram Veli knew
this very well, he was supposed to educate a team of people who were going to train and inspire him spiritual and material strength. Hacı Bayram Veli educated Akşemseddin and Murat II raised the Conqueror. Afterwards, the caliphate of Hacı Bayram, Akşemseddin, and the spiritual Conqueror came to Ankara and started to guide the Conqueror spiritually, obeying the order of his father. He was equipping The Conqueror who was yet to complete the childhood period not only in religious aspects but also in scientific and political aspects and who was preparing himself for the conquest of Istanbul since he was 12 with the spiritual treasures he brought from Ankara. He secured a place among the prominent figures of the time in the fields of medicine, astronomy, biology and mathematics as well as the Islamic sciences in particular. He served in the Ottoman Madrasahs for long years and educated many students. He made important studies in the field of medicine, contagious diseases in particular. His Turkish book on medicine he wrote as on the conclusion of his studies, namely "Maddet-ül Hayat" and his Arabic sufi books "Hall-i Müşkilat" and “Risalat'un Nuriyye” are the most popular works of him. He put forth one of the first germ theories known with his argument in his "Maddet-ül Hayat” which follows: “It is wrong to assume that the diseases show up individually. The diseases are passed from one person to another through the seeds
that are so little to see by bare eye". He is the first person in history to mention the existence of the microorganisms and he is deemed to be the father of Microbiology. Life of fame for Akşemseddin actually started after he met Hacı Bayram Veli. He proved his competency in the religious affairs after considerable accomplishments in the field of science, and then he was appointed to be the mentor of Mehmet the Conqueror upon the order and demand of Murat II. He provided precious services during the conquest of Istanbul and contributed to the victory by encouraging the young sultan. He discovered the tomb of Abu Ayyub-al Ansari during the most crucial days of the conquest and raised the spirits of the troops high. Mehmet the Conqueror had geared great respect and compassion toward Akşemseddin who had no interest in the possessions. Their entry into Istanbul together with Mehmet the Conqueror turned into a story that would be famous later on.
When the Golden Cities located on the Golden Line are added together, you will see they form a human silhouette.
When you look closely at the map, you will see the silhouette that appears when Istanbul, Jerusalem and Mecca are connected to each other.
FAULT MOTIONS AND DIRECTION OF PROSTRATION
As it is seen in the figures it bows its head on Turkey and draws closer to Egypt and Egypt moves closer to Turkey. The Kaaba tends to whirl and rise where a body in the kowtow position sits. Can this situation ever be a coincidence? Considering the possibility of fault lines moving in all directions without any restrictions, you will understand how little a chance it is for a position representing kowtow to appear in this silhouette.
You see in the map the directions that fault lines move.
AXIAL TILT OF 23 DEGREES It is an extremely interesting fact that both Golden Line and the human silhouette are located on the very same line. When viewed from space (taking the axial tilt on the account) the Golden Ratio Line constitutes a perfect right but also the human silhouette seems perfect just like it is located on a line. (When viewed from space, its knee and heel are placed on an even line just like a sitting real human). EGYPT / THE AREA OF PYRAMIDS Surely, it was not a coincidence that Prophet Moses was born in this area and figured out a similar connection here as well. The distance between the Pyramids area, where Egyptian Dynasty was established, and the City of Mecca is approximately 1200 km. The Pyramids Area makes an angle to Kaaba which is equal to the angle between the geographical pole of the Earth and the Golden Line. THE STATION DIRECTION OF ABRAHAM'S
When viewed from sky, Kaaba is seen as a square form and also the Station of Abraham constitutes a string before it. This form seems like a shape, looking towards a certain direction. The direction it looks points Jerusalem and Istanbul, as appropriate
to the Golden Line. As it can be seen, from any point of view, everything in Kaaba and Mecca point out a perfect, divine wisdom and a miracle.
THE GOLDEN RATIO PHILOSOPHY AND SECRET OF UNIVERSE The sequence that is comprised of the numbers starting from 0 and 1 and addition of all to each other; 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584… Who could have possibly known that may be the genesis and intelligent design in the universe was hidden inside this extremely plain and simple sequence of numbers that make up the golden ratio? What you are going to read is a way of thinking called “Golden Ratio Philosophy” and is revealed for the first time. In this sequence the addition of the numbers starting with 0 and 1 to the numbers right behind them made a new number. 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 .... The proportion of the numbers in the sequence to each other starts with 1 and converges to the golden ratio constant 1,618 and is finally locked on this ratio. This number sequence and the discoveries pertaining to its mystical dimensions brought about the birth of a new philosophy concerning genesis, which is uttered for the first time in our era; Golden Ratio philosophy... In the first run there was absolute absence = 0. And the absolute and one being that grasped the absence with its hands and surrounded it, namely
God = 1. IT could not be divided into anything but ITSELF. “Your God is One God; there is no God save Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful.” (Surah al-Baqara, 163) When the God displayed IT's power in the absence, the 'universe' which is ITs reflection and face appeared in its primitive form = 1. “Unto Allah belong the East and the West, and whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah's Countenance. Lo! Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. ” (Surah al -Baqara, 115) The universe was “a single point” which contained the knowledge and information of anything in the immense intensity, with this form of it. “Symmetry” came into existence when 1 stood aside 1, which is its reflection and symmetry became the seal and measure for each being inside the universe = 2. (Symmetry; the proportion of the part to the whole 1/2, coupling of 1 and 2). When 2 and 1, the number coming before it came together to make 3, a ratio akin to 0,6 appeared between them (2/3). Hence, the basis for the Golden Ratio was provided. The proportion of the numbers followed it on the right hand happened to stand for a proportion finally, which is the description of the perfect genesis. 1,618. 1 is enough to make all the other numbers. 1 hides all the numbers (countless dots) in its body. Thus it
can make any number and any value possible. 1 is capable of anything. Your God is One God, the Beneficent, the Merciful. (Surah al-Baqara 163) IT comes before everything and is inside every value. There is not a value that exists without 1. Everything and every value is made up of the reflections of One. "Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all!" ( Surah al-Ikhlas1-2 ) There are endless 0s to the left of 1. 1 which is capable of creating the universe and 0 are not isolated from each other in fact. The existence of 1 gave way to the existence of 0. If it were not for 1, then 0 would never be known. Because then there would not be 1 eye and 1 conscious was necessitated in the 0 which could see it so that we could be aware of 0. The absence attained a meaning with the introduction of presence. The fellowship of absence and presence got to become the first seal affixed on the most abstract dimension of the universe. 1 brought into existence the light and darkness, good and evil, compassion and hatred, hope and fear… as the couples which feed on each other. "He Who created all the pairs... " ( Surah Az-Zukhruf, 113. verse ) 1 brought along as much 0s as it wishes. So did the 1 create the two poles and symmetry afterwards and cater for the Golden Ratio.
The alternative Golden Ratio formulas: Formula – 1
Formula – 2
Formula – 3
It is obvious from the expressions of Golden Ratio in different formulas that the Golden Ratio can be obtained putting the 1s together and it symbolizes the one which has one and only origin.
COMMENTS OF THE SCIENTISTS RELATING TO THE QUR'AN
… (In Quran) there are many precise details and just like Dr. Moore I do not have difficulty in believing that these explanations were inspired by a divine power. (Prof. T. V. N Persaud, professor studying anatomy, pediatrics and children health , obstetrics and gynecology at Manitoba University)271 … I believe that there is no contradiction between genetics and religion, to the contrary the religions can insert inspiration to some traditional scientific approaches, which are also the statements included in Quran, it has been proved centuries later that they are valid and the information provided in Quran is sourced from Allah. (Prof. Joe Leigh Simpson, professor studying obstetrics, gynecology, molecular and human genetics) 272 As a scientist only the things that I can see for sure interest me. I can understand the embryology and developmental biology. And I can understand the words translated from Quran for me, either. As is the case in the example I provided before, I could find a way to go back to those times, relying on all I know and can explain today I would fail to define all the things defined then. So, I cannot see any proof to contradict the belief that everything written there (In Quran) is subjected to divine intervention. (Prof. E. Marshall Johnson, studying anatomy and
developmental biology at the University of Thomas Jefferson)273 Some verses (in Quran) depict the human development comprehensively, ranging from the cellular structure to formation of the organs. Such a detailed and complete record of the human development including all the phases, terminology and explanation had no existed before. Generally, tough not in all cases, this explanation informs about many phases of the development of human embryo and fetus which is recorded in the conventional scientific literature form hundreds of years ago. (Gerald C. Goeringer, associate professor studying medical embryology at Georgetown University)274 It is such a pleasure for me to help explaining the statements included in Quran on the human development. I definitely can say that those statements were inspired to Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him) by Allah, because a large sum of those details could only be discovered after several centuries. For me this proves that Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him) is the messenger of Allah (Prof. Keith L. Moore, professor of anatomy and cellular biology at the University of Toronto, a prominent embryologist and author of several medical text books.) 275
... As the phases the human embryo goes through are complex in nature –which is sourced from the permanent evolution it experiences while developing – a new classification system was proposed to be formed using the statements of Quran and sunnah (the words of Prophet Muhammad). The concerning system is a simple one, is all – inclusive and totally coherent with contemporary embryological information. (Prof. Keith L. Moore, professor of anatomy and cellular science at Toronto University)276 With the conclusion of intensive studies conducted on the Quran and hadiths in the last four years, a new system dividing the human embryo into sections has been found and it is too surprising that this system was quoted in the 7th century AD…(Prof. Keith L. Moore, professor of anatomy and cellular biology at Toronto University)277 I believe that it is impossible for him (Prophet Muhammad) to know such details as the common origin of the universe, because the scientist could discover such details on the course of the last couple of years with the use of extremely complicated and developed technological methods… some person who knows nothing about the nuclear physics 1400 years ago cannot discover by himself for example, that earth and the heavens are originated from the same source or answers to the questions that we
discuss here. (Prof. Alfred Kroner, Germany, professor of geosciences at the Mainz University, one of the most famous gynecologists around the world)278 If you combine all of these and the subjects in Quran relating to the Earth and its formation and all the statements generally concerning the science, you could tell all of them are a hundred percent true and that currently all of them have been confirmed by the scientific findings. Several of the statements in Quran had not been proved yet, for that time being, though currently the science stands at point where the statements of Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him) uttered 1400 years ago have been demonstrated wit the muse of the scientific methods. (Prof. Alfred Kroner, Germany, professor of geosciences at the Mainz University)279 I can say I am deeply impressed as I found correct astronomic information in the Quran and especially on part of the contemporary astronomers who study even the tiniest particles of the universe. We intensify our efforts so as to be able to interpret even the smallest formation. Because, using the telescopes we can only see the very little sections of the universe disregarding the whole. So, I believe that reading and asking my answers to the Quran I can determine the future paths to follow for my
studies. (Prof. Yushidi Kusan, Japan, Director of Tokyo Observatory)280 I would like to say that what we have witnessed is definitely wonderful. No matter whether it can be explained by science or not, there has to be something else other than what we can understand based on our ordinary human experiences; we need to take this into account while examining these statements. (Prof. Armstrong, professor of astronomy at NASA)281 It is extremely hard to imagine that such information was available during that period, I mean 1400 years ago. Maybe, some of them could be available as simple ideas but it is really challenging to describe them in detail. So, this definitely is not information produced by a human. An ordinary human cannot explain all of them so elaborately. Hence, I believe this is originated from an extraordinary source. (Prof. Dorja Rao, Saudi Arabia, Jeddah, professor marine geology at the University of King Abdulaziz University)282 … I believe that everything in Quran which were stated 1400 years ago are all correct and they can be confirmed by the scientific facts… this is the inspiration of Allah who has the knowledge of all the sciences. Therefore it is time we said the following, "there is no Illah other than Allah and
Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him) is His messenger." (Prof. Tejatat Tejasen, Thailand, Head of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology at the Chiang Mai University)283 Quran was send couple of centuries ago and confirmed all that we have discovered. This comes to mean that Quran is the statement of Allah. (Prof. Joly Sumson, professor of gynecology and obstetrics)284 This book (Quran) refers to past, current times and the future. I do not know how improved were the people in terms of culture during the period when Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him) lived and I have no idea about their scientific development level. If this is the period when scientific studies and occupation are scarce and there is no technology as we think of that period to be, no doubt that all we read from the Quran is the splendor of Allah. And He inspired them to Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him). I made research on the date when the civilization starts in the Middle East to find out whether there exists such perfect information. This research in turn consolidated the belief inside me that Prophet Muhammad (be peace rest upon him) is the messenger of Allah. He gave him only a small piece from His endless information which we have discovered only recently. We hope that Quran and
science stay in contact with each other regarding the field of geology. (Prof. Palmar, one of the most significant scientists studying geology in the United States of America)285 During a conversation started to discuss the function of the mountains to fortify the earth’s crust as described in Quran: I believe that this (statement in Quran) so much interesting and is almost impossible to obtain. I believe wholeheartedly that you are a hundred percent right and therefore it is of utmost importance to publicize this book (Quran), I agree. (Prof. Syawda, the world famous Japan scientist studying the oceanic geology)286