Intermolecular Forces

Chemistry Mrs. Coyle

Intermolecular Forces • The forces with which molecules attract each other. .

liquid or gas). • Intermolecular forces are responsible for the physical state of a compound (solid. .Intermolecular Forces • Intermolecular forces are weaker than ionic or covalent bonds.

Intermolecular Forces • Van der Waals Forces – Dipole Interactions – Dispersion Forces • Hydrogen Bonds .

.Van der Waals Forces • They are the weakest attractions between molecules.

.Dipole • A polar molecule that has two poles.

.Van der Waals-Dipole Interactions • Electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged regions of polar molecules (dipoles).

Which Molecules have Dipole Interactions? Polar Non-polar .

Which of the following molecules have dipole interactions? A) F2 B) CH4 C) H2O D) CH3Cl E) NH3 .

Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid .

– Weakest of all intermolecular forces. .Van der Waals Forces-Dispersion Forces • Dispersion Forces – Caused by the motion of electrons. – Increase as the number of electrons increases.

Question • Why are fluorine and chlorine gases at room temperature. whereas bromine is a liquid and iodine is a solid? .

Hydrogen Bonding • Hydrogen bonding is the attraction between a hydrogen atom of a molecule to an unshared pair of electrons in another molecule. F. • Hydrogen bonding occurs in molecules containing N. O. • Hydrogen bonding occurs in molecules where hydrogen is covalently bonded to a very electronegative element. .

• Hydrogen bonds are possible because in hydrogen atoms there is no shielding of the nucleus. • Hydrogen bonds are responsible for the physical properties of many biological substances and. .Hydrogen Bonding. Continued • Hydrogen bonds are the strongest of all intermolecular forces. more importantly. water.

Which of the following molecules can have hydrogen bonding? A) F2 B) CH4 C) H2O D) CH3Cl E) NH3 .

Dipole Interactions .

Why does ice have a lower density than liquid water? .