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Anna Freud .
Helena Yeung IB Psychology Y1
The Freud Family:
Born on December 3, 1895. Parents: Martha and Sigmund Freud. She was the youngest of 6 children. 2 sisters: Mathilde and Sophie. 3 brothers: Oliver, Ernst, Jean Martin. She did not really get along with anyone in her family except for her father, Sigmund Freud.
the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna, but got most of what she learned from her father or visitors to their home. 17. in 1912 at
she passed an exam allowing her to become an apprentice in elementary school teaching. She went to England to improve her English and where
http://www.jpg .uk/blogs/ni/el-profesor-freud.freud.” http://www. C.Dr.org.co.jpg “…She became at very least her father's symbolic successor.uk/anna 3. George Boeree .bbc.
It is used to treat mental illness and emotional disorders. it is the study of mental processes and behavior of human beings. other words. was created by Anna’s father In It .+ Psychoanalysis: Defined Psychoanalysis is a method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating emotional disorders that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams.
childhood memories greatly affect a person as an adult.Sigmund Freud’s Theories: According to Sigmund Freud. this can lead to mental illness during adulthood. which is basically applying normal psychoanalysis to children and making use of some of her own theories. She created child psychoanalysis. If these stages are somehow interrupted. Anna was very much influenced by her father’s work. sometimes causing emotional disorders. .
Anna’s Theories: Anna believed that children go through several normal stages of psychological development. These stages can be seen through direct observation of a child. psychoanalysts must be aware of these stages and able to understand them. To . treat children for certain mental illnesses and emotional problems.
“Beating Fantasies and Daydreams” to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society gaining her admission to it. 1923: she began her own child psychoanalysis practice and seminars on the subject at the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training . In 1922 she presented her first paper. Both she and her father attended the International Psychoanalytical Congress at The Hague in 1920.Anna and Psychoanalysis: She was first seriously introduced to it in 1918 when her father began psychoanalyzing her.
1935: she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year her book. This was a study of “ways and means by which the ego wards off displeasure and anxiety.” . 1927-1934: she fulfilled her duties as the General Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association. Introduction to the Techniques of Child Analysis. continuing with her practice and seminars.+ Anna and Psychoanalysis (cont. a collection of lectures.): 1927: Anna published her first book. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense was published. and taking care of her father who had developed cancer in 1923.
+ Anna Freud and the Ego Her father focused more on the unconscious id. but Anna put more emphasis on the Ego. .
http://www.flickr.com/photos/thereisnocat/447795262/in/photostream/ + -Rose Edgcumbe .
-Anna Freud .Signal Anxiety and Types of + Anxiety "not directly a conflicted instinctual tension but a signal occurring in the ego of an anticipated instinctual tension".
Repression Displacement Denial Projection Introduced by Anna FreudWhen you identify with the person that is causing you anxiety Reaction Formation Intellectualization Rationalization Sublimation Identification with the Aggressor Altruism Doing good deeds so you feel good about yourself. but Anna systematically organized them. • • • • • • • • • • Defense mechanismsFreud mentioned them. .+ 1.
+ Level One Defense Mechanisms .
+ Level Three Defense Mechanisms .
+ All structures of personality (The Id. Superego) are present by the end of the phallic stage. A typical person establishes balance by the age of 5. . the person’s ego can defend from anxiety. so by the latency stage. Ego.
Richard M.” .+ Until…Adolescence WHY ? “Anna Freud claimed that all people will have their balance destroyed in adolescence. Lerner .
that is. and therefore the balance is disrupted. his parents. sisters’” . therefore. M. he lives and functions still as a member of his family unit. Lerner. . brothers. • Called developmental disturbance because it in universal and inevitable.+ Alteration in Drives • you grow adult genital drives. “The adolescent is necessarily involved ‘in dangers which did not exist before and with what he is not accustomed to deal. a defense against this must be formed. causing a personality change.Richard Incest is unacceptable in most cultures. Since at this stage. he runs the risk of allowing the new genital urges to connect his old love objects.
Using intellectual reasons to justify one’s behavior to unpredictable behavior because the person tries all formerly useful defenses against the new urges •Puts strain on the person because these formerly useful defenses are not as effective •Develops defense mechanismINTELLETUALIZATION .+ •The Alteration in Ego Organization- newfound drive causes the person much disturbance •Leads Intellectualization = talking back to your parents.
+ Alterations in Object Relation “Nothing helps here except a complete discarding of the people who were important love objects of the child.” . that is. the parents. that… .Anna Freud The chance of accidentally acting on the newfound genital drives is so large.
alteration in ideals and social relations Once having broken ties with parents.friends. and the newfound genital drive (which is the cause for all the alterations) can possibly be dealt with in a way • • • .the adolescent is left without ideals or social ties. Therefore.+ • And therefore causes…. the adolescent has also changed all former ideals and views. This causes the adolescent to find substitutes. Can be justified.
the outbreak of the war in September of 1939 around the same time as the death of her father.Anna’s Establishments: 1938: Austria was taken over by the Nazis in 1938 forcing Anna and her family to leave for London. After . Anna founded the Hampstead War Nursery that provided shelter for 80 children of single-parent families.
Anna and a close friend.” After the experience of running the nursery. 1947 she and Kate Friedlaender opened the Hampstead Child Therapy Courses. this helped to quickly spread In . Because she was training both English people and Americans.+ Anna’s Establishments (cont. training English and American child therapists. Dorothy Burlingham. published Young Children in Wartime and Infants without Families about their studies of children under stress.) Her main objective for this nursery was for the children to “form attachments by providing continuity of relationships with the helpers and by encouraging mothers to visit as often as possible. A children’s clinic followed it fives years later.
Two years after she was given her honorary doctorate from Harvard.B.Anna’s Awards: Honorary Doctorate Examples: 1950: Clark University (where her father had lectured before. In 1967: she was given a C.E. by Queen Elizabeth II. on - - .) 1972: A medical honorary doctorate given by Vienna University 1980: Harvard University. In 1973 she was made honorary president the International Psychoanalytic Association.
therefore.from childhood to adolescence. has first hand observational experience with children Natural Experiments Long term study of patients. She encouraged pooling of information from all analysts .+ Research Methods She based her research on her father’s work. She worked as a teacher.
it’s clear that a too simple approach is inadequate. Doctors prefer a simpler approach. Her view on adolescents is very stereotypical! Not all of them are like that. her work cannot be falsified.” . “Her work is an extensive theory and doctors regard clinical work over extensive theory therefore Anna Freud’s work isn’t that popular. but as we look into her theory.+ Limitations of her work• Like her father.
(2000). from http://galenet. R.org/wiki/Ego_defenses Edgcumbe.galegroup. Anna Freud: A View of Development. Farmington Hills. In Encyclopedia of World biography Supplement. P (2006). C. from Freud Museum London Web site: http://www. Retrieved November 21 1008.wikipedia. Concepts and Theories of Human Developement. (2002). Vol. Lerner. (1998). In Wikipedia [Web]. Routledge.com/servlet/history Anna Freud.wikipedia.edu/cgboer/annafreud. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. from http://en. Media Wiki. from http://en. Melton.htm Whetham. from Personality Theories Web site: http://webspace. 2008. Anna Freud 1895-1982.org. Australia: IBID. Life and Work of Anna Freud. Gale Research [Web]. 2008. Retrieved November 20 2008.Works Cited Anna Freud Biographical Essay. MI: Gale. . Psychology. In Wikipedia [Web].org/wiki/Anna_Freud Boeree. (1998).ship. Retrieved November 19. Retrieved November 20 2008. Anna Freud. M.freud.html Defense Mechanism.uk/fmanna. G. R. Disturbance and Therapeutic Techniques. Retrieved November 23. 18.
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